Mineral supplementation and Ovsynch protocol for management of postpartum anestrous and sub-estrous in crossbred cows.
The beneficial dairy farming is predominantly based on two major interrelated factors viz. nutrition and reproduction. For economic dairy farming, cows must calve regularly at every 12 to 14 months interval. Prolonged interval between calving and onset of ovarian function is regarded as major gynaecological problems responsible for failure to maintain optimum reproductive efficiency, which in turn causes economic loss to dairy farmers (Shamsuddin et al., 2006; Bhoraniya et al., 2012). Crossbred cows are known for prolonged postpartum subestrous/ anestrous conditions in some parts of Kashmir, rather India. Because suckling as well as lack of balanced feeding enhances such infertility problems in dairy animals. To set up sustainability in dairy industry, fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols such as Ovsynch have been developed to decrease reliance on detection of estrus in reproductive management programmes (Bhoraniya et al., 2012). The present need based study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of mineral supplementation followed by induction of estrous using Ovsynh protocol in crossbred cows.
Materials and methods
The postpartum suckled crossbred cows (n = 14) of different villages of Ganderbal, Kashmir were used for the study. The animals had not expressed behavioural signs of estrous from more than 7 months postpartum. The reproductive/ ovarian status of these animals was assessed by gynaeco-clinical examinations per-rectum at least twice at 10 days interval and revealed slightly thin uterine horns with smooth small inactive ovaries (anestrous). The animals were categorized as anestrous/ subestrous, owing to fact that without estimation of blood progesterone level, animals cannot be considered as true anestrous. They were fed mineral mixture (Minfa (a)) mixed with concentrate feed @ 30g OD for a period of 30 days. A standard estrous induction/ synchronization using Ovsynch protocol with FTAI using good quality frozen thawed semen was finally adopted. The cows not returned to estrus post-AI were palpated per rectum for confirmation of pregnancy on day 60 post-breeding. The cows returned to estrus were followed and inseminated on very next cycle. The Ovsynch protocol incorporated an intramuscular (IM) injection of 5.0 ml (20 [micro]g) of Gynarich (a) (Buserelin) on day zero, irrespective of the stage of estrous cycle, IM injection of 2.0 ml (500 [micro]g) of Pragmaa (Cloprostenol) on day 7 and finally IM injection of 2.5 ml of Gynarich (a) on day 9, followed by FTAI using good quality frozen semen on day 10.
Results and Discussion
The onset of ovarian activity during postpartum period is a complex phenomenon, which constitutes uterine involution, regression of pregnancy CL and resumption of ovarian follicular activity. A delay in resumption of ovarian activity postpartum is one of the important factors contributing to prolonged calving to conception interval in dairy animals. The reproductive pace and fertility advancement through various managemental, breeding and therapeutic means has been the prime goal of economically viable dairy entrepreneur. The Ovsynch protocol was developed by reproductive physiologists at the University of Wisconsin in mid 1990's as a reproductive tool to synchronize follicular growth and maturation with luteolysis and inducing ovulation before a timed AI.
In the present case study, estrous signs exhibited by cows were mostly internal, like mild uterine tonicity and presence of clear cervico-vaginal discharge on massage of vagina. The ovulatory estrus was induced in 71.42 (10/14) percent cows, as confirmed by presence of CL on ovary 12 days later. Almost similar ovulatory response was reported with Ovsynch protocol by Deshmukh et al. (2009) and Mohan Krishna et al. (2010) in cattle. Contrary to this, higher ovulatory response was reported by Khade et al. (2011) and Bhoraniya et al. (2012) in cattle. The conception rates obtained during induced estrous, second consecutive cycle and overall following Ovsynch treatment were 57.14% (8/14 cows) and 33.33% (2/6 cows) and 71.42% (10/14 cows), respectively. Almost similar findings were reported by Vijayarajan et al. (2009) in crossbred cows. Lower conception rates of 50.00% each, were reported by Khade et al. (2011) and Bhoraniya et al. (2012) in Gir heifers and Kankrej cows, respectively. The higher conception rate in present study may be attributed to mineral supplements provided to cows for one month interval before the start of Ovsynch protocol for estrous induction/ synchronization.
Induction of estrus/cyclicity, estrus synchronization and improvement in conception rate is possible in postpartum anestrous/ subestrous suckled crossbred cows with use of different hormone protocols viz. Ovsynch. The supplementation of mineral mixture to cows for a period of one month or more before induction/ synchronization of estrous with Ovsynch protocol attributes to better results in terms of ovulatory response and overall conception rate. The Kashmir region of India is known for less availability of year round quality green fodder production due to prolonged and harsh winter. In addition, improper rather imbalanced feeding of cows especially during last trimester of pregnancy and loss of nutrients in milk postpartum leads to deficiency of certain essential nutrients in suckled crossbred cows. This results in decrease in body weight and body condition score of cows, accompanied by decline of reproductive performance. For maintaining a high degree of breeding efficiency among lactating suckled cattle/herds, advanced feeding schedules (balanced feeding) with ample mineral supplements should be adopted. The suckled animals with postpartum anestrous/subestrous should be provided mineral supplements for a prolonged period followed by adopting reproductive management strategies like estrus induction/ synchronization, since suckling stimulus appeared to be major cause of silent/ weak estrus and anestrous in cows.
Bhoraniya, H.L., Dhami, A.J., Naikoo, M., Parmar, B.C. and Sarvaiya, N.P. (2012). Effect of estrus synchronization protocols on plasma progesterone profile and fertility in postpartum anoestrus Kankrej cows. Trop. Anim. Hlth Prod. 44: 1191-97.
Deshmukh, Y.D., Markandeya, N.M., Patil, M.G., Khandalikar, S.C. and Lakde, M.B. (2009). Studies on induction of estrus with reference to progesterone profile in Red Kandhari cows under Ovsynch protocol, Proc. XXVth Annual Convention of ISSAR and National Symposium, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, 10-12th December, p. 275.
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Shamsuddin, M., Bhuiyan, M.M.U., Chanda, P.K., Alam, M.G.S. and Galloway, D. (2006). Radio immunoassay of milk progesterone as a tool for fertility control in small holder dairy farms. Trop. Anim. Hlth Prod. 38: 85-92.
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Mehrajuddin Naikoo (1), M.A. Rangrez, J.A. Bhat and K.A. Dar
Krishi Vigyan Kendra Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and
Ganderbal--191201 (Jammu and Kashmir)
(1.) Assistant Professor-cum-Junior Scientist, TVCSC, SKUAST, Srinagar and Corresponding author.
(a)--Brand of Intas Animal Health, Ahmedabad
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|Title Annotation:||Clinical Article|
|Author:||Naikoo, Mehrajuddin; Rangrez, M.A.; Bhat, J.A.; Dar, K.A.|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2015|
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