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Milestones of human security in the European Union at the beginning of the XXI century.

MOTTO: "No one really accomplishes something by his/ her own. For almost everything you achieve in life it is essential to make connections with other people"[1]


The "human security" concept is recent in the security field--1994--and it was coined by the Human Development Report part of the United Nations Program for Human Development. As the Report outlines, human security includes seven components: economic security, food security, health security, environmental security, political security, personal security and collective security.

The ideas promoted by this concept are not new. The International Committee for Red Cross, through the humanitarian aid provided to the people harmed in armed conflicts and by promoting laws on war victims' statute, is a first example in the brief history of promoting individuals' security. Also, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights on December 10, 1948, Article 3 provisions that: "Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person" and Article 22 that: "Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security; she is entitled to, through national effort and international cooperation, taking into account the organization and resources of each State, to obtain realization of economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality".[2]

On the security agenda of state and non-state actors, human development takes an importance place. In this regard, we bring to the attention the 1998 Canadian initiative shaped as "Human Security Network", a platform for changing ideas and information meant to disseminate the human security concept all around the world. Austria, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Greece, Ireland, Jordan, Mali, Netherland, Norway, Slovenia, Switzerland, Thailand, and South Africa (as an observer) are part of this network. Another example is the "Human Security Collective (HSC)" Foundation supported by Cordaid, the Global Partnership for the Prevention of Armed Conflict (GPPAC) and Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, foundation that became a core element connecting local human security with global security, engaging civil society with important security agendas on conflict prevention, counter terrorism and de-radicalization [3].

Resolution no.66/290 of the UN General Assembly dated September 12, 2012 [4] reaffirmsthat all three pillars of the United Nations Organization development, human rights and peace and security--are interdependent and mutually strengthening. As stated in this document, the concept of "human security" involves interconnections between peace, development and human rights and also appreciates the interconnections between civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. Human security does not involve threat, the use of force or coercive measures, nor does it replace state security. Political, economic, social, cultural conditions related to human security significantly vary inside one country or among countries and in different time sequences; therefore, the employment of the concept of human security aims to strengthen national solutions that are compatible to local realities.

The UN Strategic Plan on human security for 2014-2017 defines human security as the complete framework to approach wide spread and transversal threats and prescribes the human security vision for this period of time--to integrate the national and international efforts of today in order to guarantee and protect people exposed to multiple and wide spread threats regarding their survival, means to secure their existence and dignity [5].

The first Human Development Report dated 1990 included the following mention: "people are the real wealth of a nation" and had a deep impact over worldwide policies [6]. The human development approach is not a fixed set of principles; it is relevant and looks for means to improve humans' wellbeing in a continuous changing world. Mary Kaldor defines human security as follows: "human security combines human rights and human development" [7]; it comes out from the definition that human development and human rights protection form an overall goal of human security.

The human development concept introduced in 1990 refers to the extension of human being's options in a continuous changing environment. Essentially, human development is a process of extending humans' possibilities to live a healthy and creative life, to aim goals they consider important and to be part of a process of sustainable and equitable development on a planet of all human beings [8]. Simultaneously, human development is an intrinsic component of sustainable development.

Although human security and human development are interconnected, they are not identical. Human development is a process of extending humans' freedoms and opportunities and of improving their wellbeing and security goals. Human security focuses on aspects such as: the human being as a whole, comprehensive approach, solutions specific to the context, orientation toward prevention.

In order to assess the human security/ insecurity and human development ratio items like: Human Development Index--HDI and Human Security Index --his were formulated and adopted at international level.

The Human Development Index was created in order to emphasize that humans and their capacities, along with economic growth, must be the final criteria of assessment for a country. Higher level of economic growth does not necessarily mean more accelerated human development. This is an item showing accurately the structure and direction of progress (or regress of human capital) along the economic growth, as well as the problems accompanying this progress [9]. The Human Development Index was called by Professor Amartya Sen as "the emblem of World Report on Human Development" [10], and is built upon three elements:

* endurance--measured by life expectancy at birth that synthetically reflects average life span as influenced by some diverse factors (such as nutrition, health, housing, etc.);

* education level which reflects the ratio of training and access to quality education, which is essential to the training process for a productive life in contemporary society; its measurement is based on combining data on adult literacy and ratio of enrolment in education institutions;

* life expectancy measured by the Gross Domestic Product per capita calculated as purchasing power parity in RON.

The Human Security Index aims at assessing individual or group security in their houses, whether in the urban or rural area, as well as planet security. According to David A. Hastings, this index is designed on a trinity or triad [11]:

* the economic framework assessing financial resources and including protection against possible financial disasters;

* the social framework related to diversity, education, food security, health, governing, peaceful conditions;

* the environmental framework concerning the risk of ecological disasters, healthy living conditions, environmental sustainability, government sustainability.

Kanti Bajpai considers that this index of human security produces guidelines on human security for all the societies through: the development of an early warning social system, focusing attention on areas with problems, redefining national and international political priorities, settling national and international standards, generating new social scientific knowledge [12].

Besides the both indexes, there are also the UN Human Security Reports and Human Development Reports providing information and analyses on global and regional trends on human security in different situations (such as armed conflicts or other forms of organized violence).


The beginning of the XXI century is marked by profound transformations. Therefore, humankind development cannot be conceived in the absence of human security, or of human rights protection and human development.

The human development concept is based on: equity, namely on the equitable access to opportunities; sustainability, that is the responsibility for the present and future generations; productivity concerning the investments in human resources and creation of a macroeconomic environment allowing people to reach their maximum potential; sense of decision as people must reach a level of individual development to allow them to exercise options based on their own will, from a wider framework of existent opportunities.

At the core of the European Union development policy, human development is based on equality, sustainability, productivity and sense of decision and occupies an important role as an "an intrinsic component of sustainable development, the latter defining its goal and final result t" [13].

Human development assessment is undertaken with the support of the Human Development Index that initially (in 1990) was calculated for 130 countries, afterwards for 182 countries and has values in-between 0-1.

The Human Development Index calculated for 187 countries of the world was publicized in 2013. According to this, the values for the 28 European Union member states are as shown in Table 1 [14]:

Worth noting in this table are the differences related to the place of EuropeanUnion member states in the hierarchy of the 182 countries of the world: Holland and Germany rank top 10 (i.e. the 4th and 6th positions, respectively), while Bulgaria and Romania are in the middle of the hierarchy (54th and 58th positions).


In approaching some of the major dimensions underlying the concept of "human security" and its coverage within the European Union in the XXI century, the article is to focus on some aspects appreciated as significant.

Economic security refers to guaranteeing basic revenues, namely access to workplaces and resources.

Since 1st of January 2014, the EU citizens can work in any of the 28 member states the public sector included (i.e. state enterprises, government institutions, public authorities, etc.). However, there are states (Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Holland, Slovenia, Spain, United Kingdom) applying temporary restrictions on the free access onto their labour market for the Croatian citizens these restrictions are in effect until 30 May 2020).

With regard to the minimum wages of employees from the EU member countries, a great difference is revealed by the Eurostat figures published in January 2013 [15], as follows: 1. Luxembourg--1,874 Euros; 2. Belgium --1,502 Euros; 3. Netherlands--1,469 Euros; 4. Ireland--1,462 Euros; 5. France--1,430 Euros; 6. The United Kingdom--1,264 Euros; 7. Slovenia --784 Euros; 8. Spain--753 Euros; 9. Malta--697 Euros; 10. Greece--684 Euros; 11. Portugal--566 Euros; 12. Poland--393 Euros; 13. Croatia--372 Euros; 14. Slovakia--338 Euros; 15. Hungary--335 Euros; 16. Estonia--320 Euros; 17. Czech Republic--312 Euros; 18. Lithuania--290 Euros; 19. Latvia 287 Euros; 20. Bulgaria--158.50 Euros; 21. Romania--158.50 Euros. The other 7 EU member states (Denmark, Germany, Italy, Cyprus, Austria, Finland and Sweden) have not regulated a minimum wage per economy.

According to the yearly report of the European Commission [16], one of the most tangible consequences of the economic crisis is the increase in the poverty among the population able to work. In this respect, European leaders view the increase in the employment rate in the labour market as the solution helping them to escape from poverty. Statistics on people suffering from poverty within the European Union are worrying: 24% of all European Union population (over 120 million persons) is exposed to the risk of poverty or social exclusion [17]; top three poorest states of the Union, are Bulgaria with a poverty rate of 49.3%, Romania with 41.7% and Latvia with 36.2% [18].

Food security concerns the physical and economic access to food of all people at any moment.

In order to meet diverse challenges against food security (soil and water quality deterioration, growth of population, an increase in demands, etc.), the 2013 reforms of the EU framework on agricultural policies are focused on the following issues [19]: environmentally friendly agricultural practices for supporting the farmers, innovation, research and knowledge dissemination, a more equitable support system for farmers. In July 2013, following the scandal of horse meat, it was established the EU Network for combating fraud in the food sector comprising the 28 national points of contact (NPCs) for fraud in the food sector [20] and also the EU non-member states--Island, Norway and Switzerland, including also Europol and the European Commission (the General Directorate for Health and Consumers) allowing rapid and efficient cooperation in situations of law trans-border infringements. In order to combat frauds in the food sector the European Parliament Resolution on food crisis, frauds in the food supply chain and their control came into force on January 14, 2014[21].

The decreasing wages of citizens and the increase of expenses can be seen as a serious threat against food security. For example, according to statistics [22], Romanians spend almost 90% of their income paying for food and bills (utilities, gas, and taxes to the state).

Health security concerns equal access to medical treatment and better sanitation.

In the health field, EU policy focuses on the improvement of public health, the prevention of diseases and threats against health, including things related to the lifestyle of European citizens, combating the epidemics by promoting research. All the EU community actions come to complete national policies and the Union European supports and encourages cooperation between the member states in the field of health. The third EU Program on the public health field for 2014-2010 contains four main goals [23]: to promote health, to prevent diseases and to favour the development of proper environments for a healthy life style taking into account the principle on which the matters related to health must be integrated in all policies; to protect Union's citizens against serious trans-border threats against health; to contribute to the development of some innovative, efficient and sustainable health systems; to facilitate European citizens' access to better and safer medical assistance.

Life style, along with genetic, food and hormonal risks, contributed to the multiplication of diseases in the EU. Circulatory system diseases and cancer are in the top of the diseases with great incidence in the Union member states. Christoph Zielinski, the director of the Clinical Division of Medical Oncology at the Medicine University in Vienna General Hospital, attending the second edition of International Summer School of Oncology in Bucharest, emphasized that in Romania, according to the World Health Organization statistics for 2012, the lung cancer was the main reason of decease, and its incidence among the male population was over world average while for women the figures were similar to the aforementioned average (for women there is also a wide spread of cervical cancer).

In order to combat some diseases (such as AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, other diseases associated to poverty), the European Union and Bill&Melinda Gates Foundation engaged in a strategic partnership for research in this field in 2013 [25].

Environmental security concerns the right to a healthy surrounding environment, without desertification, deforestations and the diminution or limitation of environmental threats endangering the health and survival of the peoples.

According to Article 191 of the Treaty establishing the European Union areas of activity, the aforementioned Union, by its policies in the field of environment, , aims at a high ratio of protection based on a series of principles (the precaution and preventive action principle, the principle of remediation at the source of damage, and "polluter pays" principle). Since 2004, EU has financed a series of projects that helped about 32 million peoples to have access to potable water and around 9.5 million persons to benefit of sanitation installations. As statistics indicate, for the EU citizens, the situation of the surrounding environment has an important role and decisively influences the quality of life [26].

One of the serious threats against environmental security is the atmospheric pollution from different sources mainly from the industry, transportation, production of energy and agriculture. As the European Environment Agency data show, Cluj-Napoca and Edinburgh are the cities with the cleanest air in EU [27].

Political security concerns the guarantee of fundamental human rights and their freedom of expression.

The Charter of Fundamental Rights --a single document reuniting rights which previously were found in a variety of legislative instruments such as national laws and EU laws, as well in the international conventions of the Council of Europe, United Nations Organization and International Labour Organization -recognizes and guarantees a series of personal, civil, political, economic and social rights of the European Union citizens, as well as for the residents on its territory.

In 2010, political control through public and private mass-media was signalled as a threat against the freedom of expression [28]. An example in this respect is provided by Washington Post in August 2014 by presenting to the public opinion the attitude of the Hungarian prime-minister Viktor Orban, who, upon coming topower in 2010,"hit in mass-media independence" [29].

Personal security concerns individual security against violence, a serious threat able to take many forms: threats from the state, foreign states, other groups of persons (ethnical tensions), physical entities or gangs; threats against women or children; threats against oneself (for example, suicide, drug consumption, etc.).

The investigation undergone in the EU framework on violence against women underlined that the needs and rights of many women are not respected in practice [30]. According to Eurostat data, the situation is also worrisome as far as suicide situations are concerned: Lithuania, Hungary, Latvia and Finland are states with great number of suicides while states such as Greece, Cyprus, Italy, Malta, Spain, Portugal and United Kingdom record low rates of suicides [31]. Suicide is an indirect indicator of mental health of a people and means the deterioration of individual existence and also the decay of the social and economic context in which people live and act.

Collective security refers to the fact that the security of community members derives from the quality as a member of a social group (family, community, organization, political group, etc.); many times the tensions inside and in-between social groups because of the competition related to the limited access to opportunities and resources affect group security and individual security.

Cultural diversity within the EU member states is based on the exchange of people, ideas and cultural goods and services. "Creative Europe" Program for 2014-2020 has a budget of 1.46 billion Euros, assigned to cover a series of goals: to protect and promote cultural and linguistic diversity of Europe and its cultural richness; to contribute to the EU goal concerning smart, sustainable growth favouring or inclusion; to support the adaptation of creativity and culture to the digital era and globalization; to facilitate the access to new opportunities, markets and categories of public at international level; to promote economic development [32].


Human security is a political framework to approach different threats people confront with. Threats against human security vary very much from country to country, inside countries and in different moments. Human security provision needs centring on people and an appropriate assessment and focus on diminishing and eliminating threats against individuals' and community security and wellbeing.

According to "A human security doctrine for Europe--The Barcelona Report of the Study Group on Europe's Security Capabilities" dated September 2004 [33], the EU policy in the global security environment must be built on human security. Continuing this idea in the declaration presented at New York on July 18, 2014 in a thematic debate of the General Assembly of United Nations Organization on human security and post-2015 development agenda, Jan Pirouz Poulsen, Minister-Counsellor of the European Union delegation to the United Nations Organization underlined the fact that the EU and its member states continue the efforts to improve the efficiency of foreign policy and actions by paying special attention to on the actions undertaken crisis and conflict situations. All of the above is directed towards ensuring at international level a single capacity to coherently and adequately combine diplomatic, security and defense related policies and instruments in order to finance and support development and human rights [34].

The importance granted to human security at European Union level is also shaped in the education field through research projects and other activities. In this respect, it iw worth mentioning the research project undertaken between September 1, 2013 and August 31, 2014 called "Human security as a new operational framework to improve the protection of human rights in the EU security and migration policies" that integrates elements of the EU foreign actions in the security, development and migration policies area by including the human security paradigm [35]. Education provides the formation framework of modem people and contributes to humankind development.

The aspects concerning the human security component within the EU can be improved by adding other positive and negative issues emerging at different time periods in a particular or in different EU member states. In this respect, this is a research direction worth investigating in future academic and scientific initiatives in the field.


[1] Eleanor Roosevelt (2012) Viata te invata, unsprezece secrete pentru o viata implinita (Romanian for: Life teaches you, eleven secrets for a full life), Meteor Press, Bucurecti, p.103.

[2] The Universal Declaration of Human Rights on December 10, 1948, Article 3.

[3] What is Human Security Collective about?, available online at: http://www., accessed on August 31, 2014.

[4] Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 10 September 2012, available online at: doc/UNDOC/GEN/N11/476/22/PDF/ N1147622.pdf?Open Element, accessed on August 31, 2014.

[5] Human Security Unit STRATEGIC PLAN 2014-2017, available online at: /sites/dms/HSU/ HSU%20Strategic%20Plan%202014-2017%20Web%20Version.pdf, accessed on August 31, 2014.

[6] About Human Development, available online at:, accessed on September 1, 2014.

[7] Mary Kaldor, Securitatea umana (Romanian for: Human Security), Editura C.A. Publishing, Cluj-Napoca, 2010, p.214.

[8] PNUD, Raportul Dezvoltarii Umane 2010, Avutia reala a natiunilor: calea spre dezvoltarea umana (Romanian for: Human Development Report 2010. Real wealth of the nations: way toward the human development), 2010, apud. Raportul National de Dezvoltare Umana 2012, Aspiratiile europene ci dezvoltarea umana a Republicii Moldova (Romanian for: National Report of Human Development 2012, European aspirations and human development of Moldova Republic), p.8, available online at: NHDR/2012%20NHDR% 20Romanian. pdf, accessed on August 31, 2014.

[9] Human Development Index (HDI), available online at: content/human-development-index-hdi, accessed on September 1, 2014.

[10] Petru [section]tefea, Marilen Pirtea, Dezvoltarea umana--o dimensiune calitativa a unei lumi globalizate (Romanian for: Human development--a qualitative dimension of a globalized world), p.83, article available online at: http://store.ectap. ro/articole/116.pdf, accessed on August 29, 2014.

[11] David A. Hastings, The Human Security Index: An Update and a New Release, available online at: http:// viewabstract.php?id=381, accessed on August 29, 2014

[12] Kanti Bajpai, Human Security: Concept and Measurement, august 2000, pp.55-56, available online at: http://www. security_concept_and_measurement.pdf, accessed on 29 August 2014.

[13] Maria Molnar, Repere europene ale dezvoltarii umane ci coeziunii sociale in Romania (Romanian for: European milestones of human development and social cohesion in Romania), available online at:, accessed on August 31, 2014.

[14] Table 1: Human Development Index and its components, available online at: http:// en/content/table-1-human-development-index-and-its-components, accessed on August 31, 2014.

[15] Minimum wages in Europe: Luxembourg on the lead and Romania at the back, available online at:, accessed on September 14, 2014.

[16] Employment and Social Developments: Annual Review highlights need to address risks of in-work poverty, January 31, 2014, accessed online at: http://ec.europa. eu/social/main.jsp?langId=en&catId= 89&newsId=2023&furtherNews=yes, accessed on August 31, 2014.

[17] jsp?catId=751,accessed on August 31, 2014.

[18] Portretul saraciei in Uniunea Europeana a anului 2014 (Romanian for: Poverty portrait in the European Union in 2014), available online at: financiar/ portretul-saraciei-in-uniunea-europeana-aanului-2014-11939622, accessed on August 31, 2014.

[19] Agricultura (Romanian for: Agriculture), available online at: http:// htm, accessed on September 14, 2014.

[20] National Points of Contact are the authorities assigned by each EU member state in order to provide administrative support and trans-border cooperation when is needed to be taken measures in more than a single member state in matters related to infringements of food legislation requirements grounded by economic reasons. Source: Info note of European Commission February 14, 2014, available online at: rapid/press-release_MEMO-14-113_ro.doc, accessed on September 15, 2014.

[21] Available online at: http://www. pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P7-TA-20140011+0+DOC+XML+V0//RO, accessed on September 14, 2014.

[22] KeysFin Financial Focus: Crectere economica? Veniturile romanilor, la minimul ultimilor 3 ani (Romanian for: Keys Fin Financial Focus: Economic growth? Romanian revenues to the minimum in the late 3 years), available online at:!/Pages/Analize_ KeysFin/Veniturile_romanilor_la_minimul _ultimilor_3_ani, accessed on September 14, 2014.

[23] Al treilea program UE in domeniul sanatatii publice (2014-2020) (Romanian for: The third EU program in the public health field (2014-2020), available online at: health/programme/ policy/index_ro.htm, accessed on September 14, 2014.

[24] Cancerul la plaman devine o epidemie din cauza fumatului (Romanian for: Lungs cancer became an epidemics because of smoking), available online at: http:// www. ziare .com/ articole/statistici+cancer, accessed on September 14, 2014.

[25] Cercetare: un nou parteneriat impotriva bolilor asociate saraciei (Romanian for: Research: a new partnership against diseases associated to poverty), available online at: IP-13-517_ro.htm, accessed on September14, 2014.

[26] Attitudes of european citizens towards the environment, available online at: http:// environment/pdf/ebs_365_ en.pdf, accessed on September 14, 2014. In regard to the poll publicized in August 2011, 3 from 4 respondents appreciated the surrounding environment influences life quality.

[27] Capitala europeana a aerului curat e in Romania. UE a descoperit ca un orac de la noi e cel mai putin poluat de pe continent (Romanian for: European capital of the fresh air is in Romania, EU noticed a Romanian city is the least polluted on the continent), available online at: capitala-europeana-a-aerului-curat-este-in-romania-care-este-cel-mai-putin-poluat-oras. html, accessed on September 14, 2014.

[28] Certain examples are emphasized at: libertatea-de-expresie-in-pericol-in.html. The site was accessed on September 15, 2014.

[29] Washington Post avertizeaza UE: Ochiipe Viktor Orban (Romanian for: Washington Post warns EU: Eyes on Viktor Orban), available online at: http://www. washington-post-avertize-azaue-ochii-pe-viktor-orban_450571.html, accessed on September 14, 2014.

[30] Violenta impotriva femeilor: o ancheta la nivelul UE (Romanian for: Violence against women: a case to the EU level), available online at: http://fra.europa. eu/ sites/default/files/fra-2014-vaw-survey-factsheet_ro.pdf, accessed on September 14, 2014.

[31] Statistica alarmanta! Romania depacecte masiv media UE la suicide (Romanian for: Alarming statistics! Romania massively overlaps EU ration in suicides), available online at:, accessed on September 14, 2014.

[32] Cultura in Uniunea Europeana (Romanian for: Culture in the European Union), available online at: index_ro.htmi, accessed on September 15, 2014.

[33] Available online at: http://www.lse. CSHS/humanSecurity/ barcelonaReport. pdf, p. 9, accessed on August 31, 2014.

[34] Eu Statement--United Nations General Assembly: Human security and post2015 development agenda, available online at: enhtm, accessed on September 14, 2014.

[35] Human security as a new operational frameworkforenhancingHumanRights protection in the EU's Security and Migration Policies, available online at: aspx?site_id=26&level1 =14462&level2=14464, accessed on August 31, 2014.

[36] Buzan Barry (2000) Popoarele, statele ci teama (Romanian for: People, states and fear), Cartier, Chicinau, 2000;

[37] Petre Dutu (2008) Societatile militare private ci securitatea umana, (Romanian for Military Private Societies and Human Security), "Carol I" NDU Publishing House "Bucurecti;

[38] Mary Kaldor (2010) Securitatea umana (Romanian for: Human Security), C.A. Publishing, Cluj-Napoca.


This work was possible with the financial support of the Sectoral Operational Programme for Human Resources Development 2007-2013, co-financed by the European Social Fund, under the project number POSDRU/159/1.5/S/138822 with the title " Transnational network of integrated management of intelligent doctoral and postdoctoral research in the fields of Military Science, Security and Intelligence, Public order and National Security--Continuous formation programme for elite researchers "SmartSPODAS".

Filofteia REPEZ

Colonel, Associated Professor PhD, Security and Defence Faculty, "Carol I" National Defence University, Bucharest, Romania
Table 1: Classification of EU states in accordance with the of human
development ratio

table-1-human-development-index-and-its-components, accessed on
August 31, 2014


                        Value      Life        Average
                                expectancy     years of
                                 at birth    school--2012

Very high human development

1.        Austria       0.881      81.1          10.8
2.        Belgium       0.881      80.5          10.9
3.         Cyprus       0.845      79.8          11.6
4         Croatia       0.812      77.0          11.0
5.        Denmark       0.900      79.4          12.1
6.        Estonia       0.840      74.4          12.0
7.        Finland       0.879      80.5          10.3
8.         France       0.884      81.8          11.1
9.        Germany       0.991      80.7          12.9
10.        Greece       0.853      80.8          10.2
11.       Ireland       0.899      80.7          11.6
12.        Italy        0.872      82.4          10.1
13.        Latvia       0.810      72.2          11.5
14.      Lithuania      0.834      72.1          12.4
15.      Luxembourg     0.881      80.5          11.3
16.        Malta        0.829      79.8          9.9
17.       Holland       0.915      81.0          11.9
18.        Poland       0.834      76.4          11.8
19.       Portugal      0.822      79.9          8.2
20.    United Kingdom   0.892      80.5          12.4
21.    Czech Republic   0.861      77.7          12.3
22.       Slovakia      0.830      75.4          11.6
23.       Slovenia      0.874      79.6          11.9
24.        Spain        0.869      82.1          9.6
25.        Sweden       0.898      81.8          11.7
26.       Hungary       0.818      74.6          11.3

High human development

27.       Bulgaria      0.777      73.5          10.6
28.       Romania       0.785      73.8          10.7

                              VALUE of 2013 HUMAN
Seq.       STATE               DEVELOPMENT INDEX        Value of Human
                         Forecasted    Gross Domestic     Index 2012
                         years of       Product per
                        school: 2012       capita

Very high human development

1.        Austria           15.6           42,930           0.880
2.        Belgium           16.2           39,471           0.880
3.         Cyprus           14.0           26,771           0.848
4         Croatia           14.5           19,025           0.812
5.        Denmark           16.0           42,880           0.900
6.        Estonia           16.5           23,387           0.839
7.        Finland           17.0           37,366           0.879
8.         France           16.0           36,629           0.884
9.        Germany           16.3           43,049           0.991
10.        Greece           16.5           24,658           0.854
11.       Ireland           18.6           33,414           0.901
12.        Italy            16.3           32,669           0.872
13.        Latvia           15.5           22,186           0.808
14.      Lithuania          16.7           23,740           0.831
15.      Luxembourg         13.9           58,695           0.880
16.        Malta            14.5           27,022           0.827
17.       Holland           17.9           42,397           0.915
18.        Poland           15.5           21,487           0.833
19.       Portugal          16.3           24,130           0.822
20.    United Kingdom       16.2           35,002           0.890
21.    Czech Republic       16.4           24,535           0.861
22.       Slovakia          15.0           25,336           0.829
23.       Slovenia          18.8           26,809           0.874
24.        Spain            17.1           30,561           0.869
25.        Sweden           15.8           43,201           0.897
26.       Hungary           15.4           21,239           0.817

High human development

27.       Bulgaria          14.3           15,402           0.776
28.       Romania           14.1           17,433           0.782

Seq.       STATE        Place in the

Very high human development

1.        Austria            21
2.        Belgium            21
3.         Cyprus            32
4         Croatia            47
5.        Denmark            10
6.        Estonia            33
7.        Finland            24
8.         France            20
9.        Germany             6
10.        Greece            29
11.       Ireland            11
12.        Italy             26
13.        Latvia            48
14.      Lithuania           35
15.      Luxembourg          21
16.        Malta             39
17.       Holland             4
18.        Poland            35
19.       Portugal           41
20.    United Kingdom        14
21.    Czech Republic        28
22.       Slovakia           37
23.       Slovenia           25
24.        Spain             27
25.        Sweden            12
26.       Hungary            43

High human development

27.       Bulgaria           58
28.       Romania            54
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Author:Repez, Filofteia
Publication:Journal of Defense Resources Management
Geographic Code:4E
Date:Apr 1, 2015
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