# Mile-high migraine: it may take more than circling the wagons and a dose of tylenol to ease your headache as you solve this killer quiz.

Well, it took two years of cajoling but you finally talked your in-laws into leaving the peaceful flats of eastern Colorado for a long weekend at a Laramie, Wyo., dude ranch. Although you usually identify with visions of John Wayne clad in leather flying helmet and white, flowing scarf, this weekend conjures images of the Duke slugging it out with cattle rustlers complete with 10-gallon hat and trusty steed.

The trip will take you into some high terrain, but your trusty Cessna 182 has always performed well up high and has been a bear for hauling Texas-sized loads wherever you've asked it to go.

Little did you know that your in laws snuck some cast-iron, cowboy cookware into their luggage. (You never should have trusted them to load it in themselevs.) They also neglected to share info regarding a recent trip to the family doctor. It's hard enough doing the mental math in thin air while weaving in and out of the tops. You didn't need one of your passengers to throw their wrench in the works.

You may find that you feel less like the Duke and more like the Lone Ranger before this one is over. Answers on page 20.

1. Whereintheheck are you?

a. Holding at TOMSN on V85

b. Paralleling V220 to RLG

c. V85 north of HYGEN

d. V85 south of HYGEN

2. The flagged-X at HYGEN indicates that this point is a:

a. Minimum Reception Altitude.

b. Minimum Crossing Altitude.

c. Minimum Crossing Airway.

d. Maximum Crossing Airway.

3. The required altitude for crossing HYGEN is --, continuing along V85 is --, and crossing ALLAN is

a. 8000, 12,600, 13,500

b. 8000, 13,500, 16,000

c. 11,300, 12,600, 16,000

d. 11,300, 13,500, 15,400

4. Pitfalls for crossing ALLAN below 16,000 feet include inadequate:

a. Terrain clearance.

b. Climb performance.

c. NAVAID performance.

d. All of the above

5. Assuming you can maintain 300 feet per minute through 16,000 feet, will you meet the minimum altitudes along your segment of V85?

a. Yes, no sweat.

b. Yes, but we'll miss the MRA at ALLAN.

c. No, we can't make anything at ALLAN.

d. Holy bat dung, we can't even meet MEA.

6. If you could lock in a constant vertical speed and indicated airspeed, the trend of your overall climb performance will:

a. Stay the same.

b. Increase with altitude.

c. Decrease with altitude.

d. Not sure, the VSI is less accurate in thinner air.

7. Given the pictured performance, what should you do?

a. Use the hold at TOMSN to climb.

b. Request present-position holding for a climb.

c. Declare your own terrain separation.

d. Game Over, abort!

8. What climb rate passing HYGEN would give a warm fuzzy?

a. 300

b. 375

c. 440

d. 1000

9. BONUS: What climb gradients (feet/mile) does TERPS assume for Minimum En Route Altitude (MEA) changes along an airway? Below 5000 MSL --, 5000-10000 MSL -- Above 10000 MSL --

a. 500, 400, 300

b. 400, 200, 152

c. 200, 150, 100

d. 150, 120, 100

10. An airway segment capped with a "T" indicates a MEA or Minimum Obstacle Clearance Altitude (MOCA) change. Assuming a higher number, when must you start climbing for the new altitude?

a. Climb passing the point.

b. Climb prior to the next leg.

c. Wait for ATC to direct the climb.

d. Whatever works for your airplane.

11. Regarding centerline control, you are:

a. Well within tolerance.

b. Four degrees right but within tolerance.

c. Four degrees right and off the airway.

d. Getting ready to copy a phone number.

12. A passenger begins complaining of intense chest pains. You should:

a. Reverse course on the airway.

b. Call ATC and ask to divert.

c. Request a lower altitude for oxygen levels.

d. Offer some Tylenol.

13. If ATC is unable to vector a slam dunk into Longmont/Vance Brand, Colo., (KLMO), you should:

a. Request diversion to another field.

b. Descend along V220 east until MEA.

c. Descend along V85 south until MEA.

d. Steep spiral like a runaway elevator.

14. What note would you normally expect to see on a plate like this?

15. If vectors are unavailable, aircraft arriving from the north should:

a. Proceed to BJC and reverse course.

b. Proceed to ALFIE and reverse course.

c. Use the depicted hold at BJC to maneuver.

d. Punt.

16. If you don't spot the runway until 14.8 DME, you should:

a. Go around.

b. Notify ATC.

d. Resume the steep spiral.

17. The oxygen requirements in Part 91 dictate:

a. Pilots use oxygen above 12,500.

b. Everyone have oxygen available above 12,500.

c. Pilots use oxygen above 14,000.

QUIZ ANSWERS (questions on page 72)

1. d. You are on V85, 3.2 miles from HYGEN.

2. b. Minimum Crossing Altitude (MCA).

3. d. These are the HYGEN MCA, the MEA, and ALLAN MCA.

4. c. 15,400 is the MCA. The Minimum Reception Altitude of 16,000 was flight checked to provide NAVAID reception.

5. c. An indicated airspeed (IAS) of 95 knots is roughly 116 knots true (TAS). With no wind, this is 1.9 miles per minute, 158 feet per mile, and a 1.51-degree slope. You must gain 4100 feet past HYGEN just to meet the ALLAN MCA 22 miles ahead (4100/163 = 25.9 miles). You're behind the performance line by almost four miles. Slowing to Vy might help.

6. c. TAS normally increases for a given IAS during a climb. Keeping the same VSI would actually result in a reduced gradient, hence poorer performance. The faster you fly (true) the faster you must climb to meet restrictions ahead.

7. b or d. If you're slightly behind the required gradient, but confident that you can eventually make 16,000, notify ATC. An impromptu hold or some short vectors might buy you some room to complete the climb. Just remember, turning compromises climb performance. If it's apparent that you have reached your ceiling, notify ATC. Aborting the route may be the wisest choice.

8. b. Although d would be nice, climbing from HYGEN to ALLAN only requires 186 feet/mile. If your TAS averages two miles/minute up to ALLAN, that's 372 fpm. Climb ability is likely to continue to degrade as altitude increases, as well.

9. d. Although those are very reasonable numbers, remember to check any downtrack MCAs. A flag is a big clue that standard performance may not cut it. (Instrument Procedures Handbook 3-13)

10. a. Assuming you meet the minimums in 9, start when passing the point. Again, ensure that an MCA or MRA doesn't apply; they will likely require a greater rate.

11. b. At 60 miles, there is one radial per mile. At 30 miles there would be two per mile. You are at 34 DME and because an airway is good up to 4 miles either side, your 4 degrees of deflection has you legal, but close to the border.

12. b. It's OK to have your own game plan, but working with ATC should yield quick results. They should be able to recommend an airport near a hospital and possibly request an ambulance. Vectors clear of terrain could come in handy as well.

13. c or d. Reversing course on V85 would take you towards lower terrain and keep an MEA of 8000. Switching navaids to BJC and spiraling down in the 7700 MSA sector is also fair game for an emergency procedure. A steep spiral with flaps extended, flown with some positive G, near flap-limiting airspeed, is probably the quickest way to descend; however, it could be disorienting if you are not well-practiced. Much rests on the reported/AWOS weather.

14. RADAR required. Although BJC is an IAF, there are no feeder fixes nor provisions for course reversal. These types of approaches are typically radar only. Radar isn't required when the IAF is part of the en route structure. BJC is on V81.

15. d. This is the legal answer because no procedure turn is depicted and the turn off the airway is more than the legal limit of 120 degrees. A teardrop jink to the east with a right turn inbound to rejoin final should work in an emergency. A NOTAM says the approach is NA from the north on V81. A charted hold-in-lieu of PT at BJC is in the works to fix this.

16. c. Although you may have briefed a circle on the south side of the runway, a late acquisition can lead to maneuvering on the north side of the field, which will require some lateral offset. Regardless, attempt to keep the runway in sight and do not descend below MDA until in a safe position to land.

17. c and d. FAR 91.211 paraphrased says that pilots will use oxygen for periods greater than 30 minutes between 12,500 and 14,000 and use it continuously above 14,000. Above 15,000, all occupants must be offered oxygen.
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