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MilESTONES in MODERN ARCITECTuRE.

Summary: Four buildings in the United States namely The Woolworth Building, The Flatiron Building, The Empire State Building and The Fulton Centre stand out as the modern buildings that initiated revolutionary changes in the construction sector there

Buildings are not just protected The Woolworth Building was designed in the Given its resemblance to European Gothic

neo-Gothic style by the architect Cass Gilbert, whom Frank Woolworth commissioned in 1910 to design a 20-story office building as the F.W. Woolworth Company's new corporate headquarters on Broadway, between Park Place and Barclay Street in Lower Manhattan, opposite City Hall. Originally designed to

be 420 feet (130 m) high, the building was eventually elevated to 792 feet (241 m). At its opening, the Woolworth Building was 60 stories tall and had over 5,000 windows. The construction cost was US$13.5 million. With Irving National Exchange Bank Woolworth set up the Broadway-Park Place Company to finance the building, but by May 1914, had purchased all of the shares from the bank, thus owning the building outright. On completion, the Woolworth building topped the record set by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower as the world's tallest building.

The building opened on April 24, 1913. President Woodrow Wilson turned the lights on by way of a button in Washington D.C. that evening.

spaces where we live, work or do business safely. Well-constructed buildings are expressions of creativity which also reflect the progress of human civilization. Such

architectural marvels inspire human intellect to strive for greater excellence in construction.

Here we try to feature some of the skyscrapers in the US considered as trendsetters in modern architecture. We have limited to a few because of space concerns.

wOOLwORTh BuILDING

The Woolworth Building, at 233 Broadway, Manhattan, New York City, designed by architect Cass Gilbert and completed in 1913, is an early US skyscraper. The original site for the building was purchased by F.W. Woolworth and his real estate agent Edward J. Hogan by April 15, 1910, from the Trenor Luther Park Estate

and other owners for $1.65 million. By January 18, 1911, Woolworth and Hogan had acquired the final site for the project, totaling $4.5 million. More than a century after the start of its construction, it remains, at 241.4 meters (792 ft), one of the 100 tallest buildings in the United States as well as one of the 30 tallest buildings in New York City. It has been a National Historic Landmark since 1966, and a New York City landmark since 1983

Cathedrals, the structure was called "The Cathedral of Commerce" by the Reverend S. Parkes Cadman in a booklet of the same title published in 1916. It remained the tallest building in the world until the construction of 40 Wall Street and the Chrysler Building , also in New York City, in 1930; an observation deck on the 57th floor attracted visitors until 1941.

fLATIRON BuILDING

The Flatiron Building, originally the Fuller Building, is a triangular 22-story steel-framed landmarked building located at 175 Fifth Avenue in the borough of Manhattan, New York City 175 and is considered to be a groundbreaking skyscraper . Upon completion in 1902, it was one of the tallest buildings in the city at 20 floors high, and one of only two skyscrapers north of 14 th Street, the other being the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower one block east. The building sits on

a triangular block formed by Fifth Avenue, Broadway and East 22nd Street with 23rd Street grazing the triangleC[bar]s northern (uptown) peak. As with numerous other wedge-shaped buildings, the name 'Flatiron' derives from its resemblance to a cast-iron clothes iron.

The building, which has been called one of the world's most iconic skyscrapers and a quintessential symbol of New York City anchors the south (downtown) end of Madison Square and the north (uptown) end of the Ladies Mile Historic District. The neighborhood around it is called the Flatiron District after its signature building, which has become an icon of New York City.

The Flatiron Building was designated a New York City landmark in 1966, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1979, and designated a National Historic Landmark in 1989.

EMpIRE STATE BuILDING

The Empire State Building is a 102-story skyscraper located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, on Fifth Avenue between West 33 rd and 34 th Streets. It has a roof height of 1,250 feet (381 m), and with its antenna spire included, it stands a total of 1,454 feet (443 m) high. Its name is derived from the nickname for New York, the Empire State. It stood as the world's tallest building for nearly 40 years, from its completion in early 1931 until the topping out of the original World Trade Center's North

Tower in late 1970. Following the September 11 attacks in 2001, the Empire State Building was again the tallest building in New York, until One World Trade Center reached a greater height in April 2012. The Empire State Building is currently the fifth tallest completed skyscraper in the United States and the 29 th tallest in the world. It is also the fifth-tallest free standing structure in the Americas. When measured by pinnacle height, it is the fourth-tallest building in the United States.

The Empire State Building is an American cultural icon. It is designed in the distinctive Art Deco style and has been named as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World. by the American Society of Civil Engineers. The building and its street floor interior are designated landmarks of the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission , and confirmed by the New York City Board of Estimate. It was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1986. In 2007, it was ranked number one on the AIA's List of America's Favourite Architecture.

fuLTON CENTER IN NEw yORK

The Fulton Centre is considered as a futuristic building by architects in different parts of the world. The Fulton Center is a transit center and retail complex centered at the intersection of Fulton Street and Broadway in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The complex is part of a $1.4 billion project by the Metropolitan Transport Authority. (MTA), a public agency of the state of New York to rehabilitate the Fulton Street New York City Subway station, and construct new underground passageways and access points into the complex. The complex officially opened on November 10, 2014, along with the Dey Street Passageway.

The main building for the Fulton Center project, referred to as the Fulton Building by the MTA. It is a three-story building clad in glass, with an oculus atop that draws natural light into the main building and the uptown platform of the 4 5station. It is designed by Grimshaw and James Carpenter Design Associates.

Sky Reflector-Net which was commissioned by the MTA Arts & Design (the art program of the MTA) was installed in the Fulton Center transit hub in 2014. Located at the center of the oculus, the Sky Reflector-Net uses hundreds of aluminum mirrors to provide natural sunlight from a 53 ft (16 m) skylight to an underground area as much as four stories deep. This is the first intentional skylight in the New York City Subway system since the 1945 closure of the original City Hall Station.

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Publication:OER Dossier
Geographic Code:1U2NY
Date:Jun 29, 2016
Words:1236
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