Middle school students' expectations about counseling.
Client expectations about counseling have been researched extensively over the past several decades (Barich, 2002). This literature has been tied to the assumption that clients' expectations can affect important aspects of the counseling process, including the clients' decisions to enter or remain in counseling, the type of counseling issues they are willing to present, and the quality of the working alliance they are able to achieve with their counselors. Research on adult clients' expectations was greatly facilitated by the development of the Expectations About Counseling Questionnaire (EAC; Tinsley, Workman, & Kass, 1980) and its brief form (EAC-B; Tinsley, 1982), which sample expectations about client and counselor behaviors and qualifies and counseling outcomes.
The EAC has been studied in relation to client demographic (e.g., gender, age), personality, and clinical status factors; counselor characteristics; and counseling process variables, such as premature termination (Barich, 2002). Findings indicate, for example, that certain types of young adults' expectations may vary as a function of gender, culture, and ethnicity (Abreu, 2000; Aegisdottir & Gerstein, 2000; Aegisdottir, Gerstein, & Gridley, 2000; Kunkel, 1990; Kunkel, Hector, Coronado, & Vales, 1989; Kyong, Fong, & Thomas, 1999; Yuen & Tinsley, 1981); that young adult client expectations may be modified by experience in counseling and by provision of counseling orientation or role induction methods (Tinsley, Bowman, & Ray, 1988); and that expectations measured after (Longo, Lent, & Brown, 1992), rather than before (Hardin, Subich, & Holvey, 1988), the initiation of counseling can predict adults' retention in counseling.
While this literature has illuminated important correlates of client expectations, nearly all studies have focused on late adolescent or adult samples (e.g., Coursol, Lewis, & Garrity, 2001; Craig & Hennessy, 1989; Goldfarb, 2002; Hardin & Subich, 1985; Hardin et al., 1988; Heesacker, Heppner, & Shaw, 1988; Subich & Coursol, 1985; Turton, 2004). As a result, relatively little is known about the counseling expectations of younger people, such as students in middle school. Available findings do suggest, however, that young adolescents tend to underutilize mental health services (Burns et al., 1995). While part of the problem may involve access to services, it is also possible that some adolescents avoid seeking available professional help because of negative or unrealistic expectations about counseling. The current study was, therefore, aimed at extending the study of counseling expectations to younger adolescents, in particular, middle school students. It was assumed that research on this agenda may inform the provision of effective responsive school counseling services via the individual counseling strategy and maintain its viable role in comprehensive school counseling programs (Eschenauer & Chen-Hayes, 2005; Whiston & Sexton, 1998).
Young adolescents' developmental needs mandate uniquely designed comprehensive, developmental, and systemic school counseling programs and services. In particular, school counseling for middle school youngsters must enable students to optimize academic potential and personal growth, acquire prosociai skills and values, and set career goals within an appropriate developmental framework (American School Counselor Association [ASCA], 2005b). While much work in middle school counseling is focused on academic or career issues, the importance of personal/social counseling, its relationship to student achievement, its overall significance for the middle school population, and its relationship to the mission of schools cannot be overlooked. To that end, the ASCA National Model[R] suggests that middle school counselors deliver responsive counseling services that focus on social and emotional concerns involving individual, family, or school-wide problems and/or crises (see ASCA, 2005a).
Responsive counseling services are delivered through a variety of strategies (e.g., individual and small group counseling, peer facilitation, consultation, referral). Individual counseling, however, is a frequently used responsive counseling strategy purposed to help students address concerns (Burnham & Jackson, 2000; Eschenauer & Chert-Hayes, 2005). Furthermore, the School Counselor Performance Standard 4 specifically suggests that professional school counselors provide effective individual counseling services (ASCA, 2005a). Given the importance of dealing with personal and social issues in individual counseling with middle school students, it is imperative that school counselors more fully understand the individual counseling process as it uniquely pertains to young adolescents.
While counselor training programs focusing on youth counseling are generally sensitive to developmental considerations and specific social and personal needs of middle school youngsters, it is possible that this training effort, and the subsequent delivery of services to young adolescents, may be enhanced by a greater understanding of what young adolescents expect from, and how they experience, counseling. It cannot simply be assumed that adolescents view the counseling process, the client role, or the counselor in the same way that adults do.
PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY
Prior studies of the EAC-B's factor structure with late adolescent and adult samples have suggested three of four underlying factors that reflect expectations regarding such considerations as counselor expertise, facilitative counseling conditions, and counselor nurturance (Aegisdottir et al., 2000; Hayes & Tinsley, 1989; Tinsley, Holt, Hinson, & Tinsley, 1991; Tinsley et al., 1980). Important questions remain, however, about the factor structure of the EAC-B with middle school students. Study of this issue could suggest important implications for professional school counselors' delivery of individual counseling services. In particular, in accordance with the fundamental principles of the ASCA National Model, such research could contribute to the design of effective individual counseling interventions based on a population-specific model that effectively meets the unique counseling needs and expectations of middle school students.
This study, therefore, has four specific goals: (a) to examine the latent structure underlying the counseling expectancy items and scales of the EAC-B in a sample of middle school students; (b) to determine whether the EAC-B produces adequate internal consistency reliability estimates with this age group; (c) to assess whether young adolescents display gender or racial/ethnic group differences in counseling expectations, as has sometimes been found in older samples; and (d) to explore the relationship of EAC-B scores to students' prior counseling experience and to their willingness to seek counseling regarding personal and social issues in the future.
Participants were 329 students enrolled in two public middle schools in a suburban county adjacent to a major mid-Atlantic metropolitan area. The students were sixth (n = 138), seventh (n = 25), and eighth (n = 166) graders, ranging in age from 10 to 15 years (M = 12.54, SD = 1.11). Thirty-eight percent of the students were male, and 62% were female. In terms of race/ethnicity, the sample included 17% Asian American, 27% African American, 6% biracial, 42% European American, 5% Hispanic/ Latino, and 2% Native American students. Thirty-five percent of the sample reported that they had seen a school counselor about a social or personal problem in the past year.
The EAC-B was designed to measure the expectations that clients and non-clients have about counseling. Shortened by Tinsley (1982) from the original 203-item version of the EAC (Tinsley et al., 1980), the EAC-B consists of 53 items answered on a 7-point Likert scale, ranging from not true (1) to definitely true (7). Each item is prefaced by one of two stems, "I expect to ..." or "I expect the counselor to....." Sample items include "I expect to talk about my present concerns" and "I expect the counselor to help me to solve my problems." The items are arranged into 17 scales, which, in turn, are assumed to compose four larger types of expectations regarding (a) clients' personal commitment, (b) facilitative conditions, (c) counselor expertise, and (d) counselor nurturance (Tinsley).
In measurement development research involving undergraduates, internal consistency reliability estimates of the 17 scales were found to range from .69 to .82 (median = .76); 2-month test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from .47 to .87 (median = .71); and corresponding scales on the EAC-B and original, full-length EAC were found to intercorrelate highly (mostly above .85) (Tinsley, 1982). However, factor analyses of the 17 scales have not found consistent support for the four higher-order factors that are assumed to characterize the EAC-B (e.g., Aegisdottir et al., 2000; Tinsley et al., 1991).
In addition to the EAC-B, participants were asked to provide demographic data (age, grade, gender, race/ethnicity) and to indicate how many times (0, 1-2, 3-5, more than 5) they had seen a school counselor for a social or personal problem over the past year. Several examples of such problems were offered, including "getting along with friends," "getting along with teachers or parents," and "feeling sad or angry." Finally, students were asked to indicate whether they would be willing to see a school counselor in the future for a social or personal problem (no = 1, maybe = 2, yes = 3).
Two state-certified reading specialists were consulted to ensure that the reading level of the questionnaire packet was appropriate for middle school students. Formal evaluation of the reading level of the questionnaire using the Frye Scale yielded a 7.1 (seventh grade, first month) reading level. This level was deemed acceptable given that the survey was administered to all students at the end of the second semester. To address the possibility that some participants would be reading below the 7.1 level, context clues (e.g., definitions and examples of words appearing in the text) were added to certain items, and students were given the opportunity to ask questions and to have the survey, or portions of it, read to them. Feedback on the survey packet also was solicited from 10 students and three middle school teachers. As a result of their recommendations, slight changes were made to enhance readability and comprehension. In particular, the EAC-B's directions were changed to refer to school counselors rather than psychologists, larger spaces were inserted between items, and the term counseling relationship was changed to counseling meeting.
After Institutional Review Board and school district approval was granted, letters of invitation to participate in this study were sent to the principals of two large, public middle schools. These schools were selected because of their racial/ethnic and socioeconomic diversity (e.g., 21% of students in the school district received a free or reduced-price lunch). The first author subsequently met with the principals to discuss the study's research questions, procedures, possible participant risks, and the manner in which participant anonymity would be assured. She also attended school faculty meetings to explain the study and to solicit the support of two teachers per school, and she visited each volunteer teacher's classes to explain the study to students and to encourage their participation. Permission slips and cover letters explaining the study, procedures, and possible risks also were distributed to parents/guardians. Students were asked to return the permission slips within 1 week to the classroom teacher.
One week after distributing the letters and consent forms, the first author returned to the classrooms to administer the survey to all students who had parental permission to participate in the study. Based on pilot testing, participants were expected to complete the survey in approximately 15-20 minutes. Students who finished more quickly and those who did not have parental permission to participate worked independently on class assignments while others completed the survey. With parental consent, candy incentives were offered to students for each returned permission slip and each completed survey. Complete survey packets were gathered from 329 students, or 53% of those who were eligible to participate.
We first subjected the 53 EAC-B items to a factor analysis, exploring the first-order factor structure that would emerge from the data. To allow us to compare our findings with past studies that have factor analyzed the EAC-B at the scale rather than item level, we also computed scale scores (based on the 17 scales described by Tinsley, 1982) and subjected them to a second-order factor analysis. We then examined the internal consistency reliability of our factor-derived scales, explored the possibility of counseling expectation differences as a function of gender and race/ethnicity, and assessed the relation of these scales to students' prior counseling experience and willingness to see a counselor in the future.
Principal axis factoring procedures with oblimin oblique rotation were used to examine the factor structure of the EAC-B items and scales. Principal axis factoring with oblimin oblique rotation seeks to identify the least number of factors that can account for the common variance (correlation) of a set of variables while allowing the factors to be correlated. These methods have been recommended for use in situations where factors may be correlated (Fabrigar, Wegener, MacCallum, & Strahan, 1999; Gorsuch, 1997), which seemed likely to be the case with the EAC-B (e.g., Aegisdottir et al., 2000). Eigenvalue, scree, percentage of variance, and interpretability criteria were used to determine the appropriate first-and second-order factor structures.
Analysis of the EAC-B's items indicated support for a two-factor solution, which accounted for 50% of the total variance. Although seven factors produced eigenvalues > 1, there seemed to be a clear scree and a drop-off in explained variance after two factors. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was .96. Factor loadings (obtained with the structure matrix of the oblique solution) and communalities are available upon request from the first author.
While there are no absolute criteria for determining factor composition, it is generally deemed preferable that items load highly (e.g., above .40 or .50) on one factor and below that level on other factors (Gorsuch, 1997). However, cross-loadings (i.e., items that load highly on more than one factor) often occur in psychological assessment. Some authors rely on rules of thumb about the degree of separation (e.g., > .10) between highest and next highest loadings to decide to which factor an item should be assigned (e.g., Lent, Hill, & Hoffman, 2003). Most items loaded above .40 on at least one of the factors, with a difference of .10 or more between the factors on which the item loaded most and least highly. However, one item did not load above .40 on either factor and three other items loaded most highly on one factor but were within the .10 margin on the other factor, making their factor assignment somewhat ambiguous.
The first and second factors accounted, respectively, for 43% and 7% of the total variance. The first factor was composed of items describing students' expectations of the counselor (e.g., "I expect the counselor to give me support"); the second factor involved items depicting expectations of the client or of oneself as client (e.g., "I expect to feel safe enough with the counselor to really say how I feel"). We labeled these factors "Counselor Role Expectations" and "Client/Self Role Expectations," respectively. The two factors were highly correlated, r = .66. (Given the number of eigenvalues > 1 and findings of three- and four-factor structures in prior research with older samples, we also examined three-, four-, and seven-factor solutions, but each was problematic, for example, in terms of factor interpretability, numbers of cross-loading items, and/or adequacy of number of retained items per factor.)
We next subjected the 17 EAC-B scales, originally derived through a literature review and item analyses (Tinsley et al., 1980), to a factor analysis using principal axis and oblimin oblique rotation methods. The results were remarkably consistent with those of the item-level factor analysis. In particular, there was a marked scree at two factors and only two eigenvalues > 1, suggesting the plausibility of a two-factor solution. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin index was .96. A two-factor solution explained 71% of the total variance. All scales loaded above .50 on at least one factor and all but one (the responsibility scale as named by Tinsley, 1982) produced a > .10 difference between their highest and second highest loading factors. The scales composing the first factor, accounting for 62% of the variance, were all associated with Counselor Role Expectations; the second factor (9% of the variance) involved Client/ Self Role Expectations. As with the first-order factors, the second-order factors were strongly interrelated, r = .71. (Factor loadings and communalities are available upon request.)
Reliability and Validity Estimates
Given the consistency of the two-factor structure across both the item-level and scale-level factor analyses, we calculated scale scores corresponding to the counselor and client role factors. This was done by summing the items loading most highly on each factor and dividing by the total number of items on the factor (33 for the counselor factor and 20 for the client factor). To maintain consistency with the original construction of the EAC-B, we assigned the four ambiguously loading items in the first-order factor analysis to the client factor.
Table 1 shows the means, standard deviations, and internal consistency reliability values (Cronbach [alpha]) of the EAC-B scale scores, along with the correlation of these scales with prior counseling experience and willingness to see a counselor in the future. The internal reliability estimates were quite satisfactory, .93 for client role and .97 for counselor role (Cronbach a values of .70 or above are generally considered acceptable for research purposes). The EAC-B scales correlated modestly but significantly (p < .05) with a reported number of self-referrals for counseling in the past year; rs ranged from .14 (counselor role) to .22 (client role). Correlations between the EAC-B scales and willingness to seek counseling in the future were in the small (r = .24; counselor role) to medium (r = .37; client role) range of effect size. The number of prior counseling referrals was strongly associated with future receptivity to counseling, r = .57.
Gender and Racial/Ethnic Differences
Because gender and racial/cultural differences have been reported in studies of counseling expectations with older students and adults (Barich, 2002), we subjected the EAC-B client and counselor scale scores to a 2 (gender) x 6 (race/ethnicity) analysis of variance. As shown in Table 2, each analysis yielded significant expectation differences as a function of gender, with girls reporting higher expectations than boys for the client role (girls' M = 4.73; SD = 1.18; boys' M = 4.24; SD = 1.19; d = .42) as well as the counselor role (girls' M = 5.55; SD = 1.17; boys' M = 5.16; SD = 1.27; d = .32). The main effects for race/ethnicity and the race/ethnicity-gender interaction were not significant.
Incremental Validity in Predicting Counseling Receptivity
Finally, to clarify the criterion-related validity of the EAC-B, we performed a hierarchical regression analysis in which receptivity to future counseling was the criterion variable. The predictors, entered into the equation in successive blocks, were (a) prior counseling experience, (b) gender, and (c) client and counselor role expectations. This entry order was designed to explore the unique predictive utility of the EAC-B scales after controlling for prior counseling experience and gender. The findings, summarized in Table 3, revealed that prior experience explained a significant amount of variation in receptivity to future counseling ([R.sup.2] = .32); the addition of gender at the second step of the equation accounted for a small but significant increment in variance (1%); and the EAC-B scales explained an additional 6% of the variance at the third step. Collectively, the predictors accounted for 39% of the variation in willingness to see a counselor. However, with all predictors in the equation, the only significant beta weights were produced by prior experience ([beta] = .50, p < .001) and client role expectations ([beta] = .28, p < .001).
Our findings suggest that middle school students' expectations about counseling, as assessed by the EAC-B, may be structured more simply and in a less differentiated manner than is assumed to be the case with adults and older adolescents. Although the 53 items of the EAC-B were initially thought to fall within five conceptual groupings (Tinsley, 1982), and prior factor analyses with older samples have revealed varying degrees of support for a three- or four-factor structure underlying the 17 scale scores, a two-factor solution appeared to adequately represent the counseling expectations of the middle school students in our sample. The two factors involve expectations associated with, respectively, the counselor's role (i.e., what he or she will do, or offer to the client, in counseling) and the client's role (i.e., what one as a client would be expected to do in, and how one may benefit from, counseling).
What we refer to as a client role expectations factor conforms well to what Tinsley (1982) had labeled a personal commitment factor. The primary difference between his conceptualization and our findings involves expectations of the counselor: The Tinsley model distinguishes three aspects of the counselor role (i.e., provision of facilitative conditions, role-related expertise, and nurturance). In our sample, however, these three counselor functions were subsumed by a single counselor role expectations factor. Thus, middle school students tended to view their own role in counseling in ways similar to that conceptualized and found in prior research with adults (Aegisdottir et al., 2000; Tinsley), though their expectations of the counselor were composed only of a single dimension rather than three distinct dimensions.
That middle school students' expectations of the counselor are structured more simply than are those of older (e.g., college) students may reflect young adolescents' level of cognitive development and relatively limited exposure to counseling via, for example, media portrayals or discussions with parents, guardians, or other significant adults. Because counseling represents an interaction between themselves and an adult figure, young adolescents may be likely to base their expectations about counseling on obvious dimensions that differentiate adult and adolescent responsibilities, in essence, "What will I need to do?" versus "What will the counselor do?" Such distinctions also imply differences in power dynamics to which young adolescents are likely to be quite sensitive. It is possible that, with increasing cognitive development and exposure to counselors, students may develop more complex and nuanced expectations about what counselors do for and with clients.
Although this developmental interpretation of the structure of counseling expectations may be intuitively appealing, it should be noted that the findings could have been affected, at least in part, by measurement artifact. In particular, all of the client role expectation items were prefaced by the stem "I expect to ..." whereas all of the counselor role expectation items were preceded by the stem "I expect the counselor to...." Thus, instructional set differences may have accentuated the salience of client versus counselor roles as distinct rating categories. This methodological artifact would, of course, have been present in prior factor analyses of the EAC-B, which have routinely produced a personal commitment (or client role) factor, albeit differing numbers and types of counselor role factors.
Previous research on the EAC-B with late adolescents and adults has sometimes found gender and racial/cultural differences in counseling expectations (Barich, 2002). We, too, found gender differences, replicating a pattern in which females tend to report higher scores than males on particular EAC-B scales. Such differences may reflect gender role socialization processes that are well articulated by middle school. Girls, for example, may be more likely to be encouraged by socialization agents to solve problems socially and, therefore, to develop higher expectations regarding their own and the counselors' involvement in the counseling process. However, though statistically significant, the mean difference between boys' and girls' client and counselor role expectations was not large in a practical sense. Also, we did not uncover significant differences in counseling expectations as a function of either racial/ethnic group or the interaction of gender and race/ethnicity. Previous research has found significant differences in counseling expectations as a function of racial/ethnic group in late adolescents and adults (e.g., Abreu, 2000; Aegisdottir & Gerstein, 2000).
Client and counselor role expectations both correlated to a small but significant extent with the number of times students reported seeing a school counselor in the past year. Both types of counseling expectations also correlated significantly with students' willingness to see a school counselor in the future, with the relationship between client role expectations and counseling receptivity achieving a medium effect size. When entered into a regression equation predicting counseling receptivity, student expectations also explained unique predictive variance after controlling for past counseling experience and gender. Thus, while prior willingness to see a counselor was the strongest predictor of desire to do so in the future, it was noteworthy that favorable student role expectations also contributed significantly to this prediction.
Implications for Professional School Counselors
The finding of a two-dimensional structure of counseling expectations on the EAC-B underlines the value of educating middle school students about both client and counselor roles in individual counseling. In addition, the predictive utility of the client role scale suggests that such expectations may offer a particularly useful target for cost-effective interventions, such as computer-based orientations to promote realistic yet positive views of what is expected of students. Tinsley et al.'s (1988) review, in fact, suggested that relatively simple audiotaped or videotaped procedures may be sufficient to modify client expectations.
Technology-based counseling orientations could be produced locally, shown during general student orientations to the school (as part of the comprehensive, developmental school counseling program) or just prior to initial counseling sessions, and they could, ideally, introduce the school counselor whom the student is about to see (or the entire counseling staff, depending on how cases are assigned at the school). Such simple orientations also could be done within the context of a school counseling session, but intervening only at that point might sacrifice the opportunity to engage those who would otherwise avoid counseling because of negative expectations. Of course, these comments suggest that expectations about counseling could play a causal role in attracting students to, or retaining them within, school counseling. This assumption requires more empirical scrutiny than it has thus far received if it is to justify wide-scale adoption of school counseling orientation procedures.
Furthermore, our findings suggest that school counselors consider the possibility of gender differences in students' expectations about individual counseling. Specifically, our finding that males tended to report somewhat lower expectations than did females suggests the value of exploring the counseling expectations especially of male clients, taking additional steps to promote positive but realistic expectations in instances where clients lack information about counseling or view counseling in a negative light. Such efforts seem warranted to the extent that students' counseling expectations may affect their decisions to remain in counseling, the type of counseling issues they are willing to present, and the quality of the counseling relationship. Given the absence of differences as a function of race/ethnicity, our findings do not imply the need to approach discussions about the counseling process differently for students of different racial/ethnic groups. However, such a conclusion should be considered only as preliminary, pending additional research on how students of different cultural backgrounds view the counseling process. Ideally, awareness of such issues will allow school counselors to modify traditional counseling approaches to maximize counseling outcomes and school success for all middle school students.
Limitations and Implications for Future Research
Interpretation of the present findings should be mindful of the study's limitations. First, while the sample was fairly diverse in terms of race/ethnicity, generalization of the findings is limited by the fact that it was drawn from a single suburban school district. Second, only about half of the potential participants took the survey, raising questions about the extent to which findings may have been affected by student or parent self-selection. Third, the prior counseling experience variable was substantially positively skewed, reflecting the fact that most participants had not sought counseling in the previous year. Such skew may have attenuated correlations involving this variable. Fourth, all data, including students' prior use of counseling, were based on self-report and were obtained cross-sectionally.
Given these limitations, it would be valuable to replicate and extend these findings, particularly using confirmatory factor analysis with other large, diverse samples of young adolescents, including sufficient numbers of participants who have sought personal-social counseling in the past. It also would be valuable to employ behaviorally based dependent measures of the utilization of counseling services. Investigations taking into account within-group differences in racial and cultural identity also would be welcome. Finally, it would be useful to explore young adolescents' expectations about school counseling focused on academic and career topics, and to augment the current quantitative approach with qualitative research methods.
Despite the study's limitations, the findings did suggest that middle school students' expectations about social and personal counseling may be efficiently represented by a two-factor (client and counselor role expectations) structure. Moreover, the client expectations factor explained unique variation in students' willingness to seek counseling above and beyond gender and prior school counseling experience. These findings support the practice of promoting reasonably accurate expectations about counseling among students and, in particular, clarifying the nature of the client role. Further research on this topic has the potential to inform practical efforts to engage and retain middle school students in counseling. Research-based approaches to school counseling service provision are in accordance with the fundamental principles of data-driven decision making and a hallmark of transformative school counseling programs.
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Cheryl Moore-Thomas is an assistant professor in the Education Department, Loyola College in Maryland, Baltimore. E-mail: email@example.com
Robert W. Lent is a professor in the Department of Counseling & Personnel Services, University of Maryland, College Park.
Table 1. Means, Standard Deviations, and Internal Consistency Estimates of the EAC-B Scales and Correlations with Counselor Experience and Receptivity (N = 329) Variable 1 2 3 4 M SD [alpha] 1. Client role -- 4.54 1.21 .93 expectations 2. Counselor role .72 (a) -- 5.40 1.22 .97 expectations 3. Prior counseling .22 .14 -- 1.50 .82 -- experience 4. Counseling .37 .24 57 -- 2.32 .70 -- receptivity (a) All correlations are significant, p < .01. Table 2. Analysis of Variance of Client Expectation Scales by Gender and Race/Ethnicity Source df F p [[eta].sup.2] Client Role Expectations Gender (G) 1 4.94 * .03 .02 Race/ethnicity (R) 5 2.49 .11 .03 G x R 5 .71 .62 .01 Error 317 (1.37) Counselor Role Expectations Gender (G) 1 5.13 * .02 .02 Race/ethnicity (R) 5 .21 .96 .00 G x R 5 1.78 .12 .03 Error 317 (1.45) Note. Values enclosed in parentheses represent mean square errors. * p < .05. Table 3. Summary of Hierarchical Regression Predicting Receptivity to Future Counseling Step Predictor Set R [DELTA] [DELTA]F [beta] [R.sup.2] 1 Counseling experience .57 .32 155.06 ** .57 ** 2 Counseling experience .58 .33 4.85 * .55 ** Gender .10 * 3 Counseling experience .62 .39 15.27 ** .50 ** Gender .06 Client role .28 ** Counselor role -.04 * p < .05. ** p < .001.
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|Author:||Lent, Robert W.|
|Publication:||Professional School Counseling|
|Date:||Apr 1, 2007|
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