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Middle English names of merchants: etymology and aspects of usage.

1. Introduction

In the XI-XII centuries in England there was a rapid growth of commerce, which led to its separation from the production and during the XII-XV centuries--to the gradual formation of the class of merchants, who did not manufactured, but only exchanged the products (Lipson 1956: 266). The accelerated development of trade, crafts and cities in England was one of the consequences of the Norman Conquest. As in Celtic times, lead and tin were exported from England, but cattle and wool soon took a leading place among export items. Sheep-farming received a new impetus and English wool has won the first rank in the European market. Skilled artisans of Flanders have made it into excellent fine cloth, part of which then was imported to England. Merchants began to prosper and soon became a significant force in the state, representing the most powerful element of the elite urban population (Kertman 1968: 19-20). Large merchants of that time often financed the private craft, providing the direct producers with the raw materials and tools (Thrupp 1948: 10-12). Thus, they gradually captured the leadership in the production and economically subjugated the producers.

At the time of the Norman invasion London and several smaller cities have already received the right of self-governing communities, the so-called municipal liberties. In the XI century in the cities there lived approximately 5% of the population of the country, in the XIII century this amount was already 15%. The urban population was cut at a time from agriculture, but the main occupation of the residents was the craft of weaving, the production of cloth, weaponry, jewellery, etc. (Kertman 1968: 20). At the end of the XII-at the beginning of the XIII centuries in the English cities there were formed the so called gilda mercatoria, having the trading monopoly and embracing not only merchants, but also artisans as well (Lipson 1956: 266). Gradually there developed a typical medieval town social hierarchy. The urban privileges purchased from feudal would give the merchants and the elite of artisans, organized in trade guilds, the ability to control the entire life of the city and to keep in check the urban poor--the hired workers, apprentices, under-masters and even some masters (Kertman 1968: 20). Initially, the craftsmen were engaged in the sale of their manufactured goods. But social and economic differentiations within the guilds resulted in the individual craftsmen leading position, gradually turning them into capitalist merchants, who supervised the work of other craftsmen and marketed the finished products. In the Medieval documents there were frequent cases where such tradespeople are recorded as engaged in the wholesale and overseas trade of their goods (Thrupp 1948: 5-6). At the end of the XIV century the merchant guilds strengthened their position as the guilds of tradespeople, not involving the artisans (Morton 1974: 91).

The urban growth contributed to the increased domestic trade and the development of the internal market. Artisans bought raw materials (wool) from the monasteries, secular feudal lords, the owners of freehold property; even villains could sell wool and livestock products, which later gave the opportunity to some of them to redeem at will. Many small and large trade transactions were conducted at the fairs, which have become common since the end of the XI century. The communication between different parts of the country had increased, and local dialects gradually began to converge: the English language began to take shape on the basis of the London dialect. The descendants of feudal lords who arrived together with William the Conqueror, in the interests of trade and communication with the local population had to learn to speak their language; at the same time the Anglo-Saxons took a lot of French words and expressions which gradually entered the evolving English language (Kertman 1968: 20).

Deep political reaction of the XV century hindered the development of the British economy, but was unable to stop the progress of productive forces, which had been prepared by the previous evolution of the economy and social relations. The elimination of serfdom had created favourable conditions for the development of agriculture. In the economy of the village there also occurred major shifts associated with the transference of the most important industry--the manufacture of cloth--into the rural districts. There appeared the type of employer-clothier, who exploited the masses of rural artisans. The clothiers usually bought land in the sheep areas to be closer to the sources of raw materials, married daughters of squires and became the part of the new nobility. At the same time, the rural manufacture of cloth had brought some additional income to the peasant family and expanded the ties with the outside world (Kertman 1968: 46). The growth of cloth manufacture led to the development of the elements of the territorial division of labour. In the XV century clothiers would choose areas where there were fewer cities, and hence fewer Guild regulations (Kertman 1968: 47).

The external trade played the most important role in the business activities of British merchants of that period of time. In the XIII-XIV centuries, England had firmly occupied the leading position among other countries as an exporter of wool, and later, in the XV century, of woollen fabrics as well. Besides the large wholesale, the retail-sale was very important

Cloth manufacture reached excellence in England, in the XV century there was a continuously increased demand for the English cloth in the European markets and soon England occupied the first place in the export of cloth. It had led to an increase in foreign trade not only with France, Flanders, Italy, and the ports of the North and Baltic seas; English cloth would reach even remote Novgorod. The overseas trade was led by the companies of "enterprising merchants", who received a Charter from the government. The first company of this type was founded in 1406. The system of trading companies would satisfy the King, because it was easy for him to levy taxes; in addition, the companies had paid considerable sums for the Charter, i.e. for the monopoly, to the King. The large quantities of goods bought from the clothiers were sent by the "enterprising merchants" to their trading bases in Antwerp and other places where merchants would flock from other countries. The growth of trade promoted the development of the English merchant fleet and shipbuilding. In the middle of the XIV century there was published the first Navigation act the law under which the English merchants were obliged to transport their goods only on British ships (Kertman 1968: 47).

The processes that took place in the British economy undermined the domination of the feudal nobility (both secular and spiritual); the new nobility became the leading force in the organization of production in the village, and wealthy merchant class in the cities. Wide development of the internal and external markets, the use of hired labour and the subordination of the broad strata of the artisans to the enterpriser (i.e. the occurrence of scattered manufactories) created the preconditions for the development of new capitalist relations (Kertman 1968: 47).

The significant development of the internal trade intensified contacts between the various parts of the country. When cloth manufacture began to leave the cities, this has led to the significant relocation of the population. Weavers would rush to the areas of the proliferation of the production of cloth, thus many small towns were depopulated. As a result, the dialectal differences in language began to wane, and the English national language had increasingly been forming (Kertman 1968: 48).

In the linguistic paper devoted to the study of the Middle English names of occupation in the aspect of the theory of nomination there are 176 words denoting merchants (44 of them denoting tradespeople in the most general sense and 132 words denoting the names of merchants specializing in the trade of certain goods; 13 loan-words of French origin among them) (Solonovich 1986: 144-145).

The focus of our paper lays on the lexical-thematic classification, functional differentiation, variability, chronological stratification of words belonging to the lexical-thematic group of occupational names, in particular of the names of merchants, taken from the MED and OED. We have studied 2417 Middle English occupational terms--2013 of them are reflected in 7429 phonographic variants, used 10205 times as family names in the nominating formulas; 404 occupational terms are used only as common nouns. Middle English names of merchants are 280 in number, which constitute 12% of the total number of occupational terms under study.

In our paper Middle English occupational names are distributed into two classes--common nouns (in their nominating function) and proper names, especially family names (in the function of identification of the person as the component additional to the personal name in the personal nomination formula). Middle English period is peculiar for its variability due to the dialectal diversities of the feudal epoch intensified by the foreign influences in the different geographical and social areas, therefore on the bases of the analysis of dictionary definitions of occupational names, both common nouns and proper names (esp. family names, or Medieval surnames) are distributed within the thematic groups and sub-groups with the representation of their lexical-semantic and phonographic variation in chronological order.

Middle English surname is a complex sociolinguistic and historical category of personal names of the period of active formation of the English system of surnames. The problem of nominative, identification and social functions of the medieval surname is very urgent in the aspect of study of Middle English vocabulary. Surnames must be regarded as the linguistic material of investigation of Middle English vocabulary.

The social category of the family names is indicated by the following salient traits: (1) they are functioning in the human society; they came into existence as the constant, hereditary names, which identify the human body and meet the requirements of the society and its members; (2) the development and functioning of the family names depends from the social, economic and cultural level of the society; family names first come into existence in the economically and culturally developed, as a rule, centralized societies; (3) in the societies with class differentiation in different social layers the family names appear very irregularly.

Family name may be treated as the historic category according to the following peculiar features: (1) all the categories of personal names are influenced by the history of nation. As the official hereditary name family name come into existence in the very definite historical period on the definite stage of its development; (2) the process of the family names formation lasted for centuries in several stages. Until the formation of family names haven't finished in the language there co-existed the nominations of different types: the most productive in the language of that period of time, obsolete ones, those which only come into appearance, and many transitional forms; (3) family names serve as the 'reservation for language rarities'--they shelter the words and word-building models, which disappeared or became non-productive in the process of the historical development.

We strengthen the point of view that the social-linguistic and linguistic value_of the Medieval surnames as well as three aspects of the surnames--linguistic, social and historical--made it necessary to include the Medieval surnames, especially the names of occupation and office, into the essential list of material for further linguistic investigation the Middle English vocabulary, which will obligatorily give the valuable quantitative and qualitative increase in the results of such a study.

The study of etymology of the vocabulary under investigation is based on the analysis of the word stems. Lexical borrowings are studied according to the nearest etymology, id est according to the language which is a source of penetration of the word into the English language. Within each etymological group of vocabulary we distribute the lexical material according to the functional principle and distinguish three groups of occupational names:

(1) those functioning as common nouns as well as the proper names;

(2) those functioning exclusively as the proper names in the personal nomination formulas;

(3) those functioning exclusively as common nouns.

According to this functional principle of the distribution of the vocabulary we draw the conclusions about the sustainability of the usage of the occupational names:

(1) We consider English words, derivatives with English word-stems, loan-blends as well as the assimilated borrowings that functioned as the common nouns and proper names to be the words with the established usage.

(2) We consider English words, derivatives with English word-stems, loan-blends as well as the assimilated borrowings that existed only as the personal name in the nomination formula to be the words with the unsettled usage.

(3) We consider English words, derivatives with English word-stems, loan-blends as well as the assimilated borrowings that existed exclusively as common nouns to be the words with the restricted usage.

2. Occupational names with the settled usage

Here we present the nomination formula in the restricted form without the personal names (only surnames), aiming at the focusing our attention at the very object of the study--family names, reflecting occupational terms (the use of capital/small letters is given according to the written document of that time, when there were no strict orthographic rules). The existence of the occupational term as the common noun is proved by the lexical-semantic variant of the word, given in the dictionaries under study, with the obligatory precise dating, belonging to the Middle English period.

2.1 Occupational names with English derivational bases and derivational affixes

Barlyman 1332 (barliman 'one who owes a feudal debt in barley or grows barley for the market' 1325 MED); Berestere 1303 (ber(e)ster 'a bearer [orig. female bearer]; esp., one who carries goods about in order to sell them, a peddler' 1377 MED); Chapman 1197, 1206, 1266, Chepman 1200, 1207, Chipman 1320, Chapman 1327, Chappeman 1327, chipman 1344 (chap-man [OE ceap-man] 'a merchant, trader, dealer; also, peddler, hawker' 1200 MED); Clother 1286, Clothere 1344, clother 1286 (clother 'a maker or seller of cloth' 1390 MED, 'one engaged in the cloth trade: d) a seller of cloth and men's clothes' 1362 NED); Clatseller 1301, Clothseller 1357 (cloth~seller 'a cloth merchant' 1439 MED); Coc 950, 1086, Kuc 1260, Cok 1269, Coke 1279, Cook 1296, Cokes 1296, Conk 1327, Kokes 1332 (cok [OE coc] 'one who prepares and sells cooked articles of food' 1387-95 MED, 1000 NED); corneman 1414 (corn~man 'a municipal officer charged with supervision of dealings in grain, or one who deals in grain' 1376 MED); Coleman 1066, Coleman 1166, 1176, 1300 (col~man 'one who makes and/or sells charcoal' 1415 MED, 'a charcoal-burner' Reaney); collere 1276, colier 1408-9, Coli er 1419, Colyer 1419 (colier 'one who makes and sells charcoal, collier' 1375 MED); Colymakyere 1313 (col~maker 'one who makes and/or sells charcoal' 1464 MED); Cornmangere 1177, 1200, Cornmonger 1279, cornmongere 1363-4 (corn-mongere 'one who deals in grain'1400 MED); Drouere 1287-93, 1294, Drovere 1327, 1384, Drouer 1436, drover 1463 (drover(e 'one who drives livestock to market, a dealer in livestock' 1393-4 MED); Felmongere 1310, Felmonger 1332, fellmonger 1352, 1432 (fel-mongere 'one who sells skins' 1225 MED, 'a dealer in skins or hides of animals, esp. shep-skins' 1530 NED); ffisshman 1360, Fissheman 1474 (fish-man 1466-7 MED, 'fisherman, or seller of fish' Reaney); Fisher 1212, Visser 1239, Fischer 1263, fychere 1296-6 (fisher(e [OE fiscere] 'one who sells fish, fish monger' 1400 MED, 893 NED); Fleshewere 1268, Flessehewere 1293, Flesshewere 1311, Flesseure 1374, Flesshewer 1374-5, fleschewer 1407, flesshewer 1447, Flesshour 1453, Flesshuer 1455 (flesh-heuer(e 'one who butchers or sells meat, a butcher' 1300 MED, 'a butcher' 1335 NED); Flesmongere 1279, Fleysmonger 1305, Fleschmangere 1327 (flesh-monger(e 'one who butchers or sells the flesh of animals' 1130-35 MED); hardewareman 1419, 1459, Hardwareman 1457, Hardewareman 1473 (hard-ware~man 'a dealer in hardware' 1449 MED); Hattere 1212, 1240, 1262, 1268, 1296, 1316, 1332, 1354, hattere 1225, Heitere 1280, 1296, Hatter 1281, 1465-6 (hatter(e 'a maker or seller of hats; usually as surname' MED, 'a maker of or dealer in hats' 1389 NED); Hors-mongere 1264, Horsmanger 1273 (hors-mongere 'a horse dealer' 1425 MED); Husier 1180, Hosero 1185, hosier 1195, 1434, Hoser 1204, 1236, \219, Hosyer 1329, 1384, 1469, Osyere 1329, Hosyere 1332, 1381, Hoyser 1332, Hosier 1402, hosior 1440, hosyer 1464 (hosier 'a maker or seller of hose, hosier' 1415 MED); Huckere 1297, Hukker 1307, 1327, Hockar 1327, Hucker 1333 (hukker [OE] 'a pety merchant, peddler, male huckster; ?also, an auctioneer' 1450 MED, 'a petty dealer; one who bargains or haggles' 14.. NED); Hokester 1281, Hokestere 1285, Hokkestre 1299, Hoestare 1305, Hukkestere 1311, Holkestere 1313, Hogester 1327, huckster 1374-5, Huxtere 1380, huxster 1423-4 (hukster 'a petty merchant, a peddler; often used contemptuously' 1200 MED); Letherseller 1372, lethersiller 1457 (lether-sellere 'a dealer in leather; esp. a member of the Leathersellers' company in London' 1372 MED); lymeman 1365, lyman 1413 (lim~man 'a man who calcines, carries, or sells lime' 1452-4 MED); Maultman 1294, Maltman 1310, 1408, Maltmon 1332, maltman 1351, 1417, 1429, 1437, Malteman 1380, 1471 (malt-man 'a maker or seller of malt' MED, 'a maltster' 1408 NED); Melkere 1250, 1296, Milker 1254, 1327, Milkar 1255, 1279, Melkare 1327, Melker 1332 (milker(e 'milk vendor' 1500 MED); Manger 1255, 1275, Mongere 1274, Mongur 1211, Mangar 1279, Mangier 1332, Monger 1316, 1346 (mongere [OE mangere] 'a merchant, tradesman, dealer' 1225 MED, 'dealer, trader, trafficker' 975 NED); pykemonger 1472, pikemonger 1483 (pik(e~mongere 'a fishmonger who sells pike' 1464 MED); potter 1172, 1443, 1471, Poter 1196, 1253, Potier \\91, pottere 1198, 1296-7, Pottur 1214, Potyr 1285, Potyare 1306, Pottar 1307, Potyere 1327, Pottare 1333, potlour 1355, Potter 1396, 1462-3 (potter(e 'a vendor or hawker of earthenware' 1500 NED); Paper 1219, 1268, 1425-6, 1430, 1448-9, Ropere 1220, 1249, 1313, raper 1297, ropere 1376, Roper 1390, 1462-3, rapar 1422, Rooper 1450 (ropere 'a maker of ropes, cables, cord, or string; also, a rope seller' 1321 MED, 'one who makes ropes; a rope-maker' 1226 NED); Saddler 1287, Sadelere 1288, 1308, Sadelare 1296, Sadeler 1300, 1316, 1325, 1346-7, 1350-1, 1422-3, Sadiller 1332, Sadlere 1332, Sadelar 1332, sadler 1401, 1425, sadiler 1452, Sadyler 1458, Sadler 1473 (sadeler(e 'a maker or seller of saddles or saddlery' 1300 MED, 1389 NED); Salter 1220, 1262, 1297, 1340, 1402, Saltere 1243, 1264, 1300, 1359, salters 1296-7, 1363-4, Seltere 1250, Selter' 1296, 1327, Saltare 1332, salter 1392, 1396, saltere 1408 (salter(e 'one who makes or sells salt' MED, 'a manufacturer of or dealer in salt' 1000 NED); Sellere 1086, leseller 1115, Suller 1313, Sullare 1327 (seller 'one who sells' 1200 NED, seller(e 'one who sells something, a merchant, vendor, peddler' 1200 MED; 'also, ?a seller in the slave trade' 1384 MED); Teperesune 1095, Tapper 1279, 1332, Tappere 1373 (tapper(e [OE taeppere] 'a retailer' 1478-9 NED); Tappistere 1317, Tapestere 1332, Tappester 1357, Tappestere 1378, 1380, Tapester 1379, Tapster 1380, Tapstere 1384, 1390 (tappester(e [OE taeppestre] 'one who sells by retail or in small quantities' 1402 NED); Tymberman 1327 (timberman 'a man who supplies or deales in timber' 1429 NED); Thimbermangere 1280 (timber-mongere 'a seller of timber' 1423 MED); Huphelder 1258-9, Upholdere 1289, 1306, Hupholdere 1295, Upholder 1309-10, Ophelder 1317, Huphelder 1325, uphelder 1332, Opholder 1333, upheldere 1356, Vpholder 1380, Hupholder 1394, uphalder 1413 (upholder(e 'a vendor of secondhand goods; a maker or vendor of small goods' 1376 MED); Hopheldestere 1326, Opheldestere 1317, Upholdestere 1366, upholdester 1411, uphaldester 1411, hupholdster 1445, upholdyster 1458 (upholdester 'a vendor of small goods' 1425 MED); Wader 1197, Welder 1197, 1227-37, Waider 1202, Wodier 1206, Wander 1248, Wader 1290, Weyder 1293, Wadere 1296, Wadder 1332, 1338, Wodier 1206, Wodere 1275, Wodere 1275, 1280, 1303-4, Woder 1276, Waddare 1327 (wodere 'a purveyor of woad' 1415 MED); Waterman 1196, 1215, 1249, 1279, 1313, 1333, 1392, 1411, 1431, Watermon 1362 (wlter-man 'purveyor of water, member of the guild of water merchants' 1449 MED); Vdeman, Odeman 1066, Wudemann 1066-75, Wudeman 1166, 1226, Wodeman 1213, 1294, 1296, 1301, 1377, 1392, Wdman 1269, 1296, Wodemon 1275, 1294, 1296, Woodman 1275, wodman 1438 (wode-man 'a purveyor of firewood' 1430 MED); Wulchapman 1379 (wol~chapman 'a dealer in wool or woolen goods' 1453 MED); Wolman 1316, 1415-16, Wolleman 1351, 1390, wolleman 1390, woleman 1424 (cp. Woolman 1674) (wol~man 'a dealer in wool or woolen goods' 1450 MED, 'a dealer in wool, a wool-merchant' 1390 NED); Wolmonger 1250, Wollemonger 1278-9, Wollemongere 1300-1, Wlmoggere 1319, Wollemonger 1340, Wolmonger 1428 (wol~monger 'a dealer in wool, wol merchant' 1300 MED).

2.2 Loan-blends

2.2.1 Occupational names with Latin assimilated borrowings as the derivational bases

Caper 1200-50, 1327, Capere 1260, Capper 1265, 1314, 1356, 1359, 1381, 1457, Capyare 1275, Kapiare 1275, Cappere 1276, 1279, Copier 1285 (capper 'a maker or seller of caps' 1425 MED, cappe [OE caeppa & ML cappa]); Dissher 1263, 1273, Disser 1273, Dissare 1275, Dysser 1301, Disshere 1304-47, 1332, Discer 1388, disschere 1390, dyscher 1416-9 (disher(e 'a maker or seller of dishes' 1304 NED, 1389 MED, dish [OE disc (< L) & L discus] 'plate, bowl, platter' 700 NED); Keveman 1327 (kive~man 'a maker or seller of tubs or vats' 1225 MED, klve [OE cyf < L, also cp. OF cuve, cueve]); soppier 1138-60, Sopere 1195-6, 1263, Sapere 1243, 1301, Soper 1243, 1443-6, Soppere 1260, sopere 1296-7, Sopare 1315, Sapiere 1324, Sopper' 1327, Sapier 1327, Sapiar 1332 (sopere 'a maker or seller of soap' 1200 MED, 'one who sells soap; a soap-boiler, soap-maker' 1225 NED; soap (sape, soppe) [OE sape; L sapo] 1000 NED).

2.2.2 Occupational names with Central French assimilated borrowings as the derivational bases

aresman 1454 (arr!s~man 'one who makes or sells tapestry' 1471 MED; arris 'a kind of figured tapestry [orig. made at Arras in Artois]'; cf. arraser 'a maker of, or dealer in, tapestry' MED); Lynnedraper 1305, lynnen-draper 1475 (linen -draper 'one who makes or sells linen' 1470 MED, linen [OE linen], draper [OF drap(i)er] 1350 MED); Pavilluner 1303, Pavilloner 1305, pavilloner 1322-3, 1364, Pavylioner 1342, pavyloner 1384 (pavilouner [from paviloun] 'one who makes or sells pavilions or tents' 1437 MED; paviloun [OF paveillon, paveillun, pavillo(u)n, pavilun, pavel(l)on, pauvillon, pavelion] 'a tent, especially a large or elaborate one used for military encampments, tournaments, hunting parties, etc.; also, a large tent or booth for the display of merchandise' 1225 MED); taloughchaundler 1307, Talughchaundeler 1376, Talughchaundelers 1382, talowchaundeler 1420, Talvchaundeler 1434 (talou(e~chaundeler 'one who makes or sells tallow candles' 1474 MED, taloue [OE *tealg(-*talg(-, MLG, MDu, older Dan & G & ML], chaundeler [OF chandelier (< L candelarium)] 'one who makes candles or deals in materials for making candles; a chandler' 1389 MED).

2.2.3 Occupational names with Scandinavian assimilated borrowings as the derivational bases

Bagger 1246, Baggere 1297, Bagere 1308, Baghiar 1313, Badger 1324, 1346, Baghar' 1329, Badgare 1332, Baggare 1333, Baghere 1348 (bagger, bagger 'a retailer or hawker in grain, a badger' 1467-8 MED, 'one who buys corn and other commodities and carries them elsewhere to sell; an itinerant dealer who acts as a middleman between producer (farmer, fisherman, etc.) and consumer; a cadger, hawker, or hukster' 1500 NED, bagge [ON, cp. OI baggi; cp. also OF bague (from Gmc.) & AL bag(g)a.] 'a bag or sack, traveling bag, wallet, satchel, pouch'); Hattere 1212, 1240, 1262, 1268, 1296, 1316, 1332, 1354, hattere 1225, Hettere 1280, 1296, Hatter 1281, 1465-6 (hatter(e 'a maker or seller of hats; usually as surname' MED, 'a maker of or dealer in hats' 1389 NED; hat [OE hxt & ON; cp. Ol hottr] 'an outer head covering (often worn over a hood or a cap), a hat'); Ismangere 1164-5, 1165-72, 1249, iremongere 1200, Hyrnmangere 1213, Ironmongere 1221, Iremangere 1247, Ismongere 1248, 1310, Yernmonger 1255, Irmongere 1255, Hyrmonger 1279, Irinmongere 1279, Irnemongere 1279, 1339, jernmogare 1293-4, Ironmongere 1294, Hismongere 1296, hirnmonger 1298, Irremonger 1305, Irenmonger 1305, yremongere 1327, Yerenmanger 1327, Ernmongere 1327, Yernemanger 1332, Ismongar 1332, Irmonger 1340, 1404-5, ismongere 1349, irenmanger 1379, irenmonger 1415, yremongere 1432, iremonger 1434-5, Iremonger 1442 (Tren-mongere'a dealer or merchant in ironware' 1363-4 MED, 'a dealer in ironware; a hardware merchant' 1343 NED, Tren (is) [OE Tren & Tsern, Tsen], monger(e [OE mangere] 'a merchant, tradesman, dealer'); Ripier 1279, ripiere 1384, rypier 1438, Ripper 1430, repyer 1450, rypyer 1450, Riper 1451 (ripier(e 'one who carries fish inland for sale' 1384 MED, 1513 NED, rip(pe [ON: cp. OI hrip] 'a basket for fish'); Selkwimman 1334, Silkwoman 1368, silkwoman 1428 (silk(e~womman 'a woman who spins or sews silk, a seamstress' 1440 MED, 'a woman engaged in the manufacture, use or sale of silk' 1440 NED) (silk(e [OE seoluc, seolc, sioloc; also cp. ON: cp. OI silki] 'silken cloth, silk; silken clothing; also, a silken garment; silk fiber or thread; silk embroidery' MED).

2.2.4 Occupational names with Low German assimilated borrowings as the derivational bases

stokkere 1222, Stocker' 1232, Stockere 1259-60, Stoker 1287, Stocker 1301, 1332, Stokkere 1310, 1370, Stokker 1392, 1434, 1460 (stokker [from stok n.] 'one who prepares or sells stockfish' 1419 MED; stok n.(shortened form of stok-fish n.] 'a fish dried in the air without salt, stockfish' 1328 MED, stok-fish [MDu. stocvisch, stock-, MLG stokvisch] 'a fish dried in the air without salt, a stockfish' 1282 MED); stocfismongere 1275-6, Stockfysmongere 1293, stockfismoggere 1305, Stokfisshmongere 1310, Stokfishmongr 1332, stokfisshmonger 1373, stokfisshemonger 1409, stokfisshmongere 1423-4, Stokkefyschmonger 1447, Stokfiysshmoger 1476 (stok-fish~mongere 'a seller of dried fish' 1299 MED; stok-fish [MDu. stocvisch, stock-, MLG stokvisch] 'a fish dried in the air without salt, a stockfish' 1282 MED).

2.3 Assimilated borrowings

2.3.1 Borrowings of Central French origin

Shaundeler 1332, Chaundler 1428, Chaundeler 1468 (chaundeler [OF chandelier (< L candelarium)] 'one who makes candles or deals in materials for making candles; a chandler' 1389 MED); Feutrier 1198, Feutrer 1203, Feltrier 1225, feutrar 1258-9, Feutrer 1275, Feutreer 1297 (feutrer, -ier [OF feutrier] 'a maker or seller of felt, a worker in felt' [early quots. may be French. All quots. difficult to distinguish from feuterer] 1500 MED); mercer 1168, 1238-9, 1327-8, 1363-4, 1391, 1431, 1450, 1463, 1475, Mercer 1168, 1187, 1297, 1298, 1329, mercier 1196, Merchier 1204, Mer cher 1298, mersier 131 1-12, Mercere 1376, mer ser 1463-4 (mercer [OF mercier] 'a merchant' 1230 MED; 'a dealer in textiles, member of the Mercers' Guild' 1400 MED; 'a seller of sundry small items' 1475 MED; mercer (mercere, meercere, merser, marsar) [F mercier (from 13th c.)] ' one who deals in textile fabrics, esp. a dealer in silks, velvets, and other costly materials (in full silk-mercer)' 1223 NED).

2.3.2. Borrowings of Norman origin

Achatour 1240, Akatur 1288, Accatour 1318 (achatour [AF acatour, CF achateur] 'a buyer of provisions, esp. for the household of the king or a lord; a purveyor' 1387-95 MED); Haperdasser 1280, haberdassher 1321, 1383, 1385, haberdasshere 1378, haberdascher 1491 (haberdasher [AF; cp. AF hapertas 'a kind of fabric'] 'a seller of various small articles of trade; also, a member of a company of such tradesmen' 1311 MED, cf. haberdasher(es ware 'caps, purses, points, beads, spurs, inkhorns, thread, stationery, etc.' MED); Mercand 1198, Marcand 1202, Marchand 1202, 1240, Marchaunt 1219, Merchant 1219, Marchant 1220, 1332, 1247, Markant 1225, Markaunt 1255, Marschaunt 1268, Markaund 1274, 1297, Marschand 1275, Markand 1327, Merchaunt 1332 (marchaunt [OF marcheant, -eand, markeant, mercheant & AF marchaunt, merchaunt] 'a wholesale businessman; a factor, broker; a peddler, retailer; a shopkeeper' MED; merchant (a. marchaund, marchand, merchaund, merchand; b. marchaunt(e, marchant, marchont, marchaunt, marchaunt, merchaunt, merchant [OF marchand, earlier marcheant (mod. F. marchand)] 'one whose occupation is the purchase and sale of marketable commodities for profit' 1290 NED;'a shopkeeper' 1362 NED); Pessuner 1208, Pesoner 1252, Pessoner 1265, 1281, 1303, 1332, Pessouner 1275, pessoner 1292, 1397, Peysuner 1292, pesshoner 1310, Pesshoner 1332 (pessoner [AF pessonner; cp. CF poissonier, pessonnier] 'a fishmonger' 1383 MED); Skyuein 1277, Schyuein 1277, Skeuyn 1301 (skeuayne, skeuyn [OFr eschevin] 'steward of a guild' 1389 NED); skevein [AF eskevin, eskive(i)n, vars. of OF eschevin.] 'a guild officer next in rank below an alderman, a steward' 1389 MED); triacler 1412, treacler 1419 (trfacler [OF triaclier, triadeur 'seller of remedies' & OF triaclier, AF triacler 'salve-box'] 'one who makes and sells remedies' 1450 MED); teller 1193, Teller 1198, 1250, Teler 1224, 1254-5, 1281, 1296-7, 1296-7, 1297, 1311, 1332, Teller 1243, Telere 1258, Tellare 1327 (teler [OF telier, telleir, AF teler(e 'weaver'] 'one who makes or sells cloth' 1400 MED); uineter 1170, Vineter 1221, vynter 1327, uintner 1179, Vyntener 1327 (vinter, forms: a) viniter, vineter b) vintere, vynter, vinter [AF viniter, vineter, vyn-, vinter, OF and early mod. F vinet(t)ier 'wine-seller, from L vlnum 'wine] 'a vintner' 1297 NED); vintner, a) vyntener (1430); 2) vintner (1460) [alteration of vinter] 'one who deals in or sells wine; a winemerchant; an innkeeper selling wine' 1430 NED); (vintner, forms: a) vyntener 1430 NED; 2) vintner 1460 NED [alteration of vinter [AF viniter, vineter, vyn-, vinter] 'one who deals in or sells wine; a wine-merchant; an innkeeper selling wine' 1430 NED).

2.3.3 Borrowings of double (Latin and French origin)

Apotecarius, Ypotecarius 1283-5, Ipotecar 1297 (apotecarie [ML apot(h)ecarius; cp. also OF apotecaire, apotic-.] 'a pharmacist or druggist who stores, compounds, and sells medicaments of all sorts' 1387-95 MED; cp. spicer); storekeeper' 1386 NED. Originally one who kept a store for spices, drugs and preserves, later one who prepared and sold drugs for medical purposes); pothecary (potticary) (aphetic for of apothecary, formerly in common use) 1386 NED); Brokur 1260, Brokere 1296, Brocour 1297, Brokour 1303, Broker' 1319, brogour 1334 (brokour [AF brocour & broggour; cp. AL brocator] 'a commercial agent, factor, broker, purveyor; also, one who serves as an agent in sordid business' 1355 MED; 'one who buys and sells public offices' 1386 MED); Regrater 1219, 1288, regrator 1439 (regrater [AF regrater, regratour (vars. of OF regrateor, regratier) & ML regrator, -oris] 'a retail merchant, retailer' 1390 MED; 'one who buys up goods before they come to market, a monopolist' 1400 MED); Tapicer 1275, 1282, 1306, tapicer 1305, 1361, tapcer 1428 (tapicer [OF tapicier, tapissier & ML tapicerius, tapecerius; also cp. OF (14th cent.) tapisseor,-eur] 'a maker or seller of upholstery-cloth furnishings and tapestries; a weaver of tapestry or figured cloth' 1387-95 MED; tapisser (tapicer) [AF tapicer = OF tapicier (13th c.), mod. F tapissier] 'a maker or weaver of figured cloth or tapestry' 1386 NED); Traueterius 1148, Trenter 1221, Traveter 1306, Traunter 1332 (tranter 'a man who does his jobs with his horse and cart; a carrier; a hawker or cadger with horse and cart; a huckster; one who buys up things to sell them elsewhere; in 14-15th c. a tapster' NED; traventour [AL, AF] MED; (trauetarius 1233 NED, traunter 1500 NED, tranter 1681 NED; traventour [AL traventarius, travetarius, traventor; some or all exx. In -er could also be construed as AF] 'a peddler, seller; also, a person who rents out his cart' 1350 MED; tranter (traventer, trauntor, trawnter, traunter) [tranter, traunter, trawnter known from 1500, esp. syncopated from traventer, in med. (AngloL. traventarius, of uncertain origin. A word having various local uses: chiefly denoting a man who does jobs with his horse and cart; a carrier; a hawker or cadger with horse and cart; a huckster; also, one who buys up things to sell them elsewhere; in 14-15th c. a tapster'] trauetarius 1233 NED, traunter 1500 NED, tranter 1681 NED).

2.4 Motivated borrowings

Here we present assimilated borrowings, which may be motivated in the English language by the borrowed nouns and verbs, and therefore may be treated as borrowings and loan-blendsas well.

2.4.1 Central French motivated borrowings

Buriller 1252, Hurler 1256, bureler 1305, 1310, burler 1332, 1337, 1371, Burlere 1369 (bureler 'a maker or seller of burel; one who dresses cloth by removing buries, i.e. knots and flaws' 1475 MED, 'one who dresses cloth by removing knots and extraneous particles' 1483 NED, burel n. [OF burel] 'a kind of coarse wolen cloth; also, a piece or a garment of burel' 1267-8 MED, burle [OF bourle 'tuft of wool', OD burl] 'a knot or flaw (in cloth)' 1440 MED,'a small knot or lump in wool or cloth' 1440 NED, burl v. 'to dress (cloth), esp. by removing knots and lumps; to dress cloth as fuller do' 1483 NED); Flecher 1203, 1207, flecher 1222, flechier 1227, Fleccher 1251, Flecchiere 1362 (fleccher,-ier,-our [OF flecher, -ier] 'a maker or seller of arrows' 1330 MED); fletcher [OF flecher, flechier 'arrow-maker', f. fleche 'arrow'] 'one who makes or deals in arrows, occasionally, one who makes bows and arrows' 1400 NED; 'an archer, a bowman' 1529 NED)/

2.4.2 Norman motivated borrowings

Cussere 1294, Kosser' 1299, cossur 1300, cosour 1393, Coser 1422 (cosser, cosser [AF; cp. OF cocon] 'a dealer; esp., a horse-dealer' 1483 MED; cosser 'a dealer; a broker; a "horse-corser" 14.. NED, coss v. 'to barter, exchange' 1470 NED); Draper 1148, 1223, 1259, 1296, 1467, Drapier 1148, 1181-2, Drapour 1314, Drapur' 1327, drapier 1148, draper 1148, 1407, 1437-8, drapoure 1437-8 (draper [OF drap(i)er] 'one who weaves and/or sells cloth; clothier' 1350-51 MED; draper [a. AF draper = F. drapier (13th c.), from drap 'cloth'] 'origin., one who made (woollen) cloth. Subsequently, a dealer in cloth, and now by extension, in other articles of textile manufacture: often qualified as woollen, linen draper' 1362 NED; draper (drapere, -ure, -ar) [AF draper = F. drapier (13th c. in the Hatz.-Darm.), from drap 'cloth'] 'origin., one who made (woollen) cloth; subsequently, a dealer in cloth, and now by extension, in other articles of textile manufacture: often qualified as woollen, linen draper' 1362 NED); Fruter 1203, 1237, Fryter 1296, frutour 1402, fruter 1353 (fruiter, -our [AF; CF fruitier] 'a fruit seller, a dealer in fruit' 1465 MED); furrere 1296 (furrer(e [AF; nop. MnE furrier] 'one who makes or sells furs or furred garments, a furrier' 1475 MED); mustarder 1200, 1296-7, Mustarder 1253, 1272, 1276, 1301-2, 1311, 1327, 1341, 1391, 1392, Mostardere 1327 (mustarder [OF mostardiere] 'a maker or seller of mustard' 1399 MED; 'a dealer in mustard' Reaney; mustarder [AF mustarder (common in 14th c.) = F moutardier: see mustard + -er] 'a maker of or a dealer in mustard'1805, 1866 NED; cf. comb.: mustard-breaker 1410 NED, -maker 1483 NED); mustard [OF moustarde, mostarde] 1289 NED).

2.4.3 Motivated borrowings of double origin (Latin and French)

Candeler 1274, Chandeler 1285 (candellr [OF chandelier (from L candelarium] 'a maker or seller of candles' 1400 MED, 'one whose trade it is to make or sell candles' 1389 NED; 'in extended sense: a retail dealer in provisions, groceries, etc.: often somewhat contemptuous' 1583 NED, 'one who makes candles or deals in materials for making candles; a chandler' (1425 MED); Espicier 1184, Spicer 1195, 1201, 1350-51, Specier 1200, Speciar 1207, Especer 1214, Specer 1261, spicer 1300, 1311, Spysser 1306, Spisier 1311-12, Spisour 1332, Spiser 1366, Spicer 1392-3, Spycer 1428 (spicer [from OF especier, espic(i)er, espissier, AF especer, spicer; cp. ML speciarius, AL spesarius, spicerius] 'a dealer in spices, an apothecary' 1398 MED; spicer (spiser, spyser; spycier, spycer) [OF espicier (mod. F espicier), from espice sb.] 'a dealer in spices; an apothecary or druggist' 1297 NED); Grocere 1255, Grocer 1350, grocer 1423-4, Groser 1437-8, grosor 1458 (grocer [AF grosser; cp. CF grosseor, grossour] 'a wholesale dealer in merchandise, such as wine, spices, pharmaceutic items, foods, etc.; ?also, a retailer' 1363 MED; grocer [OF grossier--ML grossarius, from grossus] 'one who buys and sells in the gross, i.e. in large quantities, a wholesale dealer or merchant' 1321 NED; 'a trader who deals in spices, dried fruits, sugar, and, in general, all articles of domestic consumption except those that are considered the distinctive wares of some other class of tradesmen' 1465 NED); Peiure 1198, Paiuer 1219, Peyforer 1293, peverer 1294, 1389, Peyfrer 1301, Peyfore 1324, Peuerer (Reaney), Peuerier (Reaney) (peverer [AF; cp. CF pevrier & ML peverarius] 'a seller of pepper' MED, pepperer 'a dealer in pepper and spices; a grocer' 1180 NED; pepper [OE pipor -L. piper gave Pr. pebre, OF. and AF. peivre, F. poivre] NED); plumarius 1176, Plumer 1185, (plumator 1230), Plumer 1246, Plomer 1280, plumer 1282 (John de Cestrehunte, fethermongere 1280 LLB A, is called plumer in 1281 ib) Reaney; plumer [from plum(e] 'a dealer in plumes or feathers' MED; plum(e [OF plume & L pluma] 'a feather; decorative plume' MED; plumer [ME, prob. AF, corresp. to an AF or OF * plumier, L. plumarius, f. pluma PLUME] 'a dealer in plumes or feathers' 1282 NED; plume (plome) [OF plume:--L pluma] 'a feather' 1399 NED); Staciner 1293-4, stacioner 1311, Stacionere 1327, stationer 1337, Stacyneres 1382, Stacioner 1432-3, 1466-7, Stacyoner 1433, stacyoner 1448-9 (stacioner(e [from stacioun n. or OF estacioon, stacioon and ML stationarius] 'a bookdealer, esp. one licensed by a university; an appraiser of books and other valuables' 1393-4 MED; '?also, a publisher, promulgator' 1450 MED); Tapiter 1274, tapetter 1366-7, tapiter 1379, tapeter 1393, tapyter 1440 (taplter(e [ML tapetarius, tapitarius] 'one who makes or sells tapestry hangings, carpets, and coverlets; also, a member of the tapestry-makers' guild' 1450 MED, tapet(e .[OF tapit (var. of tapiz) & L tapete, tapetum, ML tapitum; nop. OE topped, -et, a Taxo[??] MDu. tapete, tapeet & tapijt] 'a piece of decorative fabric bearing a painted, embroidered, or woven pattern or figures and used variously as a carpet, coverlet, bed or wall hanging, or the like, a tapestry' 1380 MED, 'a hanging screen of tapestry, an arras' 1425 MED); veteler 1380, vytheler 1390, viteller 1443, vitaller 1450 (vitailer [OF vitaillier, vitallier, AF vitailler, vitaillour, vitel(l)er; also cp. ME vitailen v. & AL vitallarius, vitellarius, vitularius] 'a seller of food or food and drink; a trader in foodstuffs; one who supplies or tries to supply an armed force or expedition with food and drink or other necessary provisions; one who outfits a naval vessel with supplies of food and drink or other provisions' 1384 MED); Wafrer 1212, 1255, 1301, Waverer 1227, Wafrur 1250, Wajror 1255, Waffrour 1316, Wafrour 1336, Waferer 1340, Wafenour 1426 (waferer [AF waferer, waf(f)rer, ONF wauf(f)rier; also cp. AL wafrarius, waferarius & ME wafer] 'a maker or purveyor of wafers; also, a household official responsible for the making or obtaining of wafers' 1390 MED).

2.4.4 Scandinavian motivated borrowings

Scynnere 1255, Sckinir 1257, Skynnere 1263, Skenner 1264, Skinnere 1269, Scinner 1279, Skinere 1285, Schinnere 1296, Schinner 1305, Skynnersone 1332, Skynnar 1332, skinner 1351-2, Skynere 1382, Schynnere 1406, Skynner 1429 (skinnere [from skin n.; cp. OI skinnari, OSwed. Skinnare, & MLG schinner (var.of schinder)] 'one who prepares or sells animal skins, a furrier, skinner' 1325 MED, skin n. [ON (cp. OI skinn) & OE scinn (from ON)] the prepared skin of an animal, leather; also, a piece of leather; also, a garment made of leather' 1200 MED; skinner (scynner(e, schynnere, skynnar(e, skynar, skynner, skinner) [f. skin sb. or v. + -er], cf. ON skinnari, MSw. skinnare, Norw. skinnar] 'one whose work or business is concerned with the preparation of skins for commercial purposes' 1398 NED; 'one who removes the skin; a flayer' 1699 NED; skin, sb. [ON skinn] 1200 NED).

3. Occupational names with the unsettled usage

In this part of the paper we present the nominating formula (in the restricted variant--without personal names) with the family names, denoting occupation. The given terms of occupation were not used as common nouns, their meaning is only reconstructed by the lexicographers on the basis of their usage as the family names, they are given in the dictionaries in the form of phonographic invariants.

3.1 Occupational names with English derivational bases and derivational affixes

Bermer 1269 (bermer '?one who sells yeast' MED); Blacchere 1305, Blaccher 1305 (blaccher '?a maker or seller of ink' MED); Blacchester' 1305, Blachester 1443 (blacchestere '?a maker orseller of ink' MED); Bredleder 1327 (bred-leder 'one who carts bread for sale' MED); Bredmongestere 1310-11 (bred-mongestere 'bred-seller' MED); Bredseller 1385 (bred-seller MED); Bredsellestre 1280 (bred-sellestere 'bread-seller' MED); Bromere 1285, 1327, Bromer 1466 (bromer '?a maker or seller of brooms' MED); Bucmanger 1221, Bucmonger 1275, Bukemonger 1314, Bugmongger 1332, Bukmonger 1346 (bukke-monger 'venison dealer' MED); Boterer 1280, Buterar 1327, Buterar 1332 (buterer 'a maker or seller of butter' MED, 'a maker or seller of butter' Reaney); Butercharl 1192 (OE ceorl 'a freeman of the lowest rank', ME 'a tenant in pure villeinage, serf, bondman', 'countryman, peasant'); buttermon 1296-7, Butterman 1301, 1302, 1327, Botreman 1327 (buter(e~man 'a maker or seller of butter' MED); Buttermonggere 1306, Buttermangger 1329 (buter(e~monger 'a seller of butter' MED; cf. William Dixon ... *Buttermonger 1720 Lond. Gaz. No5879/4 NED); Kallere 1242, 1352, Caliere 1281, Kellerer 1285, Kellere 1290, Keller 1315, 1327, Caller 1327, 1337 (caller(e 'a maker or seller of headdresses' MED); chapwoman 1419, 1425 (chap-woman 'a female trader or peddler' MED); Chaper 1200, Chappere 1327 ('harterer, trader'Reaney); Clothman 1416 (cloth~man 'a maker or seller of cloth' MED, 'a maker or seller of woolen cloth; a clothier' NED); Clothmongere 1272-3, Clotmonger 1277-8, Clothmongere 1296, Clodmongere 1311, Clothmangere 1327 (cloth-moger 'a cloth merchant' MED, 'a maker or seller of cloth' Reaney, cloth [OE claf)] MED); Coleman 1066, 1166, 1176, 1300 (col-man: as surnames--MED, 'a maker or seller of charcoal' Reaney); Cornebeyer 1461 (corn~beier 'a garain merchant' MED); cornechapman 1474 (corn~chapman 'grain merchant' MED); Cornseller 1433 (corn-seller MED); Feperbycger 1304 (fether-bigger 'a dealer in feathers or down' MED); fetherman 1275, Fetherman 1305 (fether~man 'a dealer in feathers or down' MED; 1621 NED); fethermongere 1280, Fethermongere 1282 (fether-monger 'a dealer in feathers or down' MED); Fisshwyf 1381, Fysshewyfe 1413 (fish-wife 'a woman who sells fish' MED); fysshmongere 1307, 1313, Fisshemongere 1382 (fish~monger 'fish seller' MED); Flexere 1316, 1317, 1326, Flaxer 1329 (flexer 'one who dresses or sells flax' MED; 'dresser or seller of flax' Reaney); flexmongere 1294, Flaxmongere 1297, Flaxmonger 1305, Flexmangre 1307 (flex-monger 'a seller of flax' MED); Flaxman 1266, 1294, Flexman 1279, 1381, flexman 1311 (flex-man 'a dresser or seller of flax' MED); Flexweuman 1324 (flex-womman 'a woman who dresses or sells flax' MED); Flexwyf 1378 (flex-wif 'a woman who dresses or sells flax' MED); Flosmonger 1314 (flos-monger '?a seller of down' MED); Fresshfisshmongere 1349 (in surname--MED, cf. fish~monger 'fish seller' MED); Garleker 1387-8, Garlyker 1400 (garleker 'a dealer in garlic' MED, 'used of a seller of garlick' Reaney); garlicman 1355, Garlekman 1411 (glr-lek-man 'one who raises or sells garlic' MED); garlecmongere 12756, Garlekmongare 1280, Garlecmongger 1292, Garlikmonger 1319, Garlekmongere 1347, garlek-mongere 1387 (glr-lek-mongere 'a seller of garlic' MED); Glasmon 1319, 1327, Glasemon 1332, 1342, Glasman 1419 (glas-man 'a dealer in glassware' MED, 1597-8 NED); Gozer 1327, Gosiar 1327, Gosere 1333 (goser 'a dealer in geese' MED); Gosmanger 1344 (gos~monger 'a dealer in geese' MED); Gruttere 1362 (gruttere '?a maker or seller of bran' MED); Hermonger 1281 (her(e~mongere 'a seller of haircloth' MED); Hardewarewoman 1468 (hard-ware~womman MED); Hatermongere 1250-1, Hattermonger 1280 (hatere~monger 'a seller of clothing', in surnames--MED; 'a dealer in clothing' Reaney); Haterchurl 1249 (in surnames--MED, chlrl [OE ceorl] 'a man, fellow, chap' 1325 MED); Haringer 1229-31, her enger 1296-7, Harenger 1412, Herynger 1438-9 (heringer 'one who catches or sells herring' MED); Heringman 1327 (in surnames--MED); Heringmongere 1212, Haringmo[n]ger 1279, Haringmongere 1294, Heryngmongere 1316 (hering-mongere 'a seller of herring' (in surnames) MED); Hidebyer 1325 (hide-biere '?a dealer in hides' MED); Huniman 1199, 1235, Honiman 1279, Honyman 1296 (in surnames- MED, honeyman 'a man who sells honey or has charge of bees' 1552 NED); Honymanger 1382 ('seller of honey' Reaney); Uckermon 1323 (in surnames--MED); Jager 1379, Jagher 1379, Jeggar 1480 (jagger 'a pedlar, a hawker' 1514 NED); Kiver 1224, Keuere 1292, 1296, Keuer 1324 (kiver 'a maker or seller of tubs or vats' MED); Lehman 1292, 1319, 1390, lecman 1311, Lecman 1355 (lek~man 'a dealer in potherbs' MED, 'a seller of leeks' Reaney); lekere 1279, Leker 1293 ('a seller of leeks' Reaney); Letherman 1338 (lether~man 'lether-kervere (one who cuts, carves or shapes leather) or lether-sellere (a dealer in leather)' MED); Lynman 1296 (lin~man 'a man who dresses or sells flax' MED); Maltmongere 1199, maltmongere 1408 (malt-mongere 'a buyer or seller of malt' MED); Melemongere 1296, Melmanger 1428 (in surnames--MED); Melkberere 1285 (in surnames--MED); melkmakiere 1285 ('a seller of milk' Reaney, comb.: milk-making 1656 Glossogr. 'Lactifical, milk-breeding, milkmaking, milk-yeelding' NED); Milkster 1246 ('a seller of milk' Reaney); Mangester 1284, Mongastre 1332 (mongestere 'a seller, dealer [prob, orig.: female dealer', only in surnames--MED); Noteman 1275, Nuteman 1275 ('dealer in nuts' Reaney, nop. comb.: nut-seller 1648 NED); Otmongere 1300, Otemangere 1327, Otemonger 1356 (ote~mongere 'a dealer in oats' MED); Piryman 1296, Pyrman 1296, Perman 1376 (in surnames--MED; 'a grower or seller of pears' Reaney); Pullchare 1214, Pihhere 1271, 1275, 1301, 13 17, Pilkere 1279, Pylechere 1296, Pilcher 1303, Pilker 1305, Pulchere 1310, Pilicher 1327, Pulcher 1332, Pylchere 1392 (pilcher(e 'a maker or seller of pilches; only in surnames' MED); Rusmangor 1210 ('a seller of rushes' Reaney); sadeler man 1464 (sadeler(e~man MED); Saltman 1306; Saltman 1311, 1327, 1329 (in surnames--MED, 'maker or seller of salt' Reaney); Sideman 974, 1334, Sydeman 931, Sedeman 1219, 1248, 1301, Sedemon 1260, Sedman 1332 (seedman 'a dealer in seed' 1652 NED); sellestere 1430 (sellestere 'a female seller or vendor' MED); Scepgrom 1327, Schipgrom 1341(in surnames--MED, 'a shepherd or a dealer in sheep' Reaney); Shepmongere 1227 ('a dealer in sheep' Reaney, shepemongers 1560 NED); Shobeggere 1279, Shoubiggere 1333 (in surnames--MED); Slopere 1279, 1286 (slop 'an outer garment, as a loose jacket, tunic, cassock, mantle, gown, or smock-frock' 1386 NED; 'some kind of foot-wear' 1480 NED, slop(pe 'a kind of shoe' MED, 'a maker or seller of these' Reaney); Sclopmongere 1317 (in surname- MED); Smeremongere 1286 (in surnames- MED); Smereman 1255 (in surnames--MED); Straumongere 1280, Strumonger 1285, straumongere 1294, Straumonger 1346-7 (in surnames--MED, 'dealer in straw' Reaney); Talghmongere 1294, Talmonghere 1329 (in surnames--MED, taloue 'rendered animal fat, suet, tallow; tallow used in waterproofing, soapmaking, etc., or sold as a commodity' MED; nop. talou(e~chaundeler 'one who makes or sells tallow candles' 1474 MED); thred womman 1349-50 (thred(e~ womman 'a dealer in thread or yarn' MED); Waremanni 1208, Wareman 1214, 1263, Warman 1338 ('a chapman' Reaney); Welmongher 1332 (in surnames--MED); Vdeman 1066, Odeman 1066, Wudemann 1066, 1075, Wudeman 1166, Wodeman 1213, 1296, 1294, Wademan 1296, Wadmon 1327, waddeman 1375, Wadman 1417, wadman 14245 (wode~man '?a purveyor of woad; ?a dyer' MED, 'a dyer with woad' Reaney); Wudesman 1209 (in surname--MED; cf. wode-man [OE wudu-mann] 'one who provides or purveys wood' 1426 NED); wodemogger 1305, Wodemongere 1372, woodmonger 1425-6 (wode-mongere 'sellere 'a purveyor of firewood' MED); wodseller 1340-41 (wode-sellere 'a purveyor of firewood' MED); Wollebyer 1318 (in surnames--MED); Woller 1319, Woller 1327, Wollore 1430, Wulloure 1187 ('a dresser, weaver or seller of wool' Reaney); Woollestere 1297 ('a dresser, weaver or seller of wool', the feminine form, Reaney; woolster (Se) 'a wool-stapler' 1577 NED; cf. wool-stapler 'a merchant who buys wool from the producer, grades it, and sells it to the manufacturer' 1709 NED); wortesellere 1365 (wort-sellere 'one who sells vegetables or herbs' MED); Wurtman 1297 (in surnames--MED, 'seller of vegetables' Reaney);

3.2 Loan-blends

3.2.1 Occupational names with Latin assimilated borrowings as the derivational bases Candelman 1263, 1332, Candleman 1268 (candel~man 'a maker of candles, a chandler' MED); chesemangere 1186, schesemongere 1288, chesmonger 1319, chesemonger 1437 (chesemonger(e 'one who makes and/or sells cheese' MED, chese [A cese, WS ciese, cyse (ult. L caseus)] 1000 NED, 1131 MED); Cupper es 1311, Cuper es 1327 (couperesse 'a woman engaged in the occupation of a cooper' MED; nop. couper(e [ML cuparius] 'one engaged in the trade of barreling wine; a wine-cooper' 1419 MED, 'one engaged in the trade of sampling, bottling, or retailing wine; a wine-cooper' 1465 NED, cupper [OE cuppe & OF cope, L. cuppa] 'a cupmaker' 1450 MED, cf. cuppe-maker 'a cup-maker' 1475 MED); Mulemangere 1305 (in surnames--MED, mule~mongere 'one who trades in mules' MED, mule [OE mul (from L), OF mul(e, ML moulus]); muskylman 1459 (muscle-man '?one who gathers or sells mussels' MED, muscle[OE muscle, muscelle (from L); also cp. L musculus & OF mosle] 'an edible bivalve mollusc, mussel' 1298-9 MED); Pethermon 1317 (in surnames--MED, pedder(e [ML pedarius 'one who goes on foot' & pedare ' to walk'] 'a peddler' 1200 MED); pesemongere 1198 (pese [OE < L] 'the edible seed of the pea plant' 1150 MED); Pyman 1301, 1524 (pi(e~man 'a baker or seller of pies' MED, pi(e [ML pica, pia] 'a baked dish of pastry filled with meat, spices, etc' 1303 MED; 'maker or seller of pies' Reaney; pie-man 'a man who makes pies for sale; a vendor of pies' 1820 NED; cf. pie-woman 'a woman who sells pies' 1817 NED); Shopper 1353 ('shopkeeper' Reaney, shop(pe [OE scoppa, sceoppa; cp. OF escope, essope, choppe, AF shope & ML shopa, sopa, scupa, choppa] MED, cf. shopkeeper 'one who carries on business in a shop' 1530 NED; shopholder 14.. NED); Shopman 1434, 1456 (in surnames--MED).

3.2.2 Occupational names with Central French assimilated borrowings as the derivational bases

araser 1414 (arraser 'a maker of, or dealer in, tapestry' MED, arris 'a kind of figured tapestry [orig. made at Arras in Artois]', nop. arris- man 'one who makes or sells tapestry' 1471 MED); Burelman 1311, Burrelman 1318 (burel-man 'a maker or seller of burel' MED, burel [OF burel] 'a kind of coarse wolen cloth; also, a piece or a garment of burel' 1267-8; nop. bureler [OF burelier; cp. ME burel 'cloth' & burle 'tuft'] 'a maker or seller of burel'; 'one who dresses cloth by removing buries, i.e. knots and flaws' 1475 MED); Cheverelmongere 1310 (cheverel(le~monger 'a kidskin dealer' MED, cheverel(le [OF chevrele 'a kid'] 'kid leather; made of kid leather' 1388 MED; cf. Chevereller 1291-2); Floureman 1308, Flourman 1338, 1376 (flour-man 'miller or flour merchant' MED); Flurmongester 1281 (flour-mongester 'a woman who sells flowers MED, flour [OF flour, flor, flur] 'the blossom of a plant, flower; also, a flowering plant' 1200 MED; flour (floure) 1250 NED); Furmonger 1490 (1508) (fur, v. [OF forrer] 'to line; trim, or cover (a garment) with fur' 13.. NED; 'to clothe or adorn (a person) with fur' 1370 NED; 'to coat or cover with fur or morbid matter' 1593 NED; fur, sb. [from v.] 'a trimming or lining for a garment, made of the dressed coat of certain animals' 1366 NED; 'the short, fine, soft hair of certain animals. Formerly also, the wool of sheep' 1430 NED; 'skins of animals with the fur on them' 1555 NED; comb.: fur trade 1837 NED),--trader 1848 NED); Goriurer 1219, Gorgerer [vr. Gorgurer] 1219, 1220, Gorgeur 1221, Goriurer 1230, gorgerer 1293 (gorgerer [from gorger] 'an armorer who makes or sells gorgets' MED, gorglr [OF gorgiere] '(a) piece of armor covering the front of the neck, a gorget' 1312 MED); Gravayler 1393 (graveler [from gravel] '?a dealer in gravel or sand, ?a workman who spreads gravel' MED, gravel [OF gravel(e] 'sand' 1225 MED); Graysman 1297, Gresman 1319 ('a seller of grease' Reaney; grease (gres, greis, greys) [OF graisse, greisse, gresse mod.F. graisse] 'l.the fat part of the body of an animal; also, corpulence, fatness' 1340 NED; '2. the melted or rendered fat of animals, esp. when it is a soft state' 1290 NED); gresmangor 1379; Greyneman 1301 (in surnames--MED; grain n. [OF grain, grein] 'a crop of cereal plants' 1390 MED; 'a species of cereal plant or crop; ?also, peas' 1399 MED; 'seed of plants or flowers' 1325 MED, 'the fruit of a non-cereal plant; a berry, legume, nut, date, etc.;' 1395 MED; 'spice' 1313 MED); Hurer 1267, 1278, 1332, Hurrer 1281, 1289, hurer 1375, 1411, 1421, 1430, 1447, 1484 (hurer [from hure n.] 'one who makes or sells caps' MED, hure [OF] 'a covering for the head, a cap' 1300 MED); lingedraper 1460 (linge-draper 'a maker or seller of linen [only as surname]' MED, linge [OF] 'linen' MED); Lusmanger 1293 (luce~mongere 'seller of pike' MED, luce [OF luce, lus] 'the pike (Esox lucius)'1323 MED); Mirurer 1218-22, Mirorer 1275, mirourer 1309, Mirorer 1320, Mirourer 1337, Mirourer 1354 (mirourer [from mirour n.] 'one who makes or deals in mirrors' MED, mirour [OF mireor, mireour, miror, merur] 'a mirror made of metal, glass, etc.' 1250 MED); Mustardman 1275, 1327, 1329 (in surnames MED, 'a dealer in mustard'Reaney, mustard [OF mostarde, mustarde] 'mustard seed; also, prepared mustard, the finely ground seed of the mustard plant mixed with vinegar, water, or honey to form a paste' 1289 MED); Oylere 1248, 1286, 1332 oyler 1278, Oyller 1281, Oyellere 1281 (oilere [from oil(e n.] 'a maker or seller of oil' MED, oiler [from oil, sb. or v. + -er; cf. F huilier 'oil-manufacturer, oil-merchant'] 'a manufacturer of, or dealer in, oil; an oil-man' 1552 NED; 'one who oils or lubricates with oil' 1846 NED; oil, sb. [ME oli, olie, oyle, oile] a. ONF olie, OF 12th c. oile, oille, 13th c. oele, uille, 15th c. oyle, huille, 16th c. huile] 1175 NED; oil v. 'to apply oil to; to anoist' 1440 NED; nop. oil(e~man 'one who makes or sells oil' 1440 MED).

3.2.3 Occupational names with Norman assimilated borrowings as the derivational bases WasteImonger 1317 (wastel [AF wastel, var. of OF gastei] 'a variety of white wheaten bread or cake of superior quality, generally considered second only to simenel in fineness' 1283 MED; 'an individual loaf or cake of this variety' 1300 MED; 'a ceremonial loaf or cake offered as a sacrifice' 1425 MED; 'maker or seller of wastels' Reaney; wastel [OF wastel, north-eastern var. of guastel, gastei (mod. F gateau)]'bread made of the finest flour; a cake or loaf of this bread' 1194 NED).

3.2.4 Occupational names with the borrowings of double (Latin and French origin) as the derivational bases

Lardeman 1316, Lardman 1346 (llrd- man '?a purveyor of salt pork, bacon, etc.' MED, llrd [OF larde & L laridum, lardum] 'fat pork cured in brine or by smoking; salt pork, bacon' 1399 MED; 'the rendered fat of swine, lard' 1475 MED); Maulmanger 1205 (mal(le~mongere 'a seller of hammers or mauls' MED, mal(le [OF mail, mal. Also cp. L malleus] (a) A hammer; usually, a heavy iron hammer used for driving posts, breaking rocks, etc.; a sledge hammer, a maul' 1200 MED); Ostreman 1305, Oystreman 1309 (in surnames--MED, nop. oistre- mongere, oistre-sellere 'a seller of oysters' 1425 MED; oistre [OF uistre, oistre & L ostrea] 'an oyster (Ostrea edulis); also, the so-called pearl oyster (Meleagrina margaritifera); also, a similar kind of shellfish, a mussel' 1290 MED); Oystermonger 1321 (oistre-mongere 'a seller of oysters' MED, cf. oistre-sellere 'a seller of oysters' 1425 MED, oistre [OF uistre, oistre & L ostrea] 'an oyster (Ostrea edulis); also, the so-called pearl oyster (Meleagrina margaritifera); also, a similar kind of shellfish, a mussel' 1290 MED); Paynerman 1301, panyerman 1419, Pannyerman 1469, panyarman 1473 (panier(e~man 'a basket-carrier' MED, pannierman 'a man in charge of a pannier or panniers; esp. a hawker of fish, etc., who conveys his goods to market in panniers' 1583 NED; panier(e [OF panier, paniere, panniere] 'a basket, usually large; a hamper' 1290 MED; pannier [ME panier, a. F. panier (in 15th c. rarely pannier):--L. panari-um 'bread-basket'] 'a basket; esp. one of considerable size for carrying provisions, fish, or other commodities; in later use mostly restricted to those carried by a beast of burden (usually in pairs, one on each side, slung across the back), or on the shoulders of a man or woman' 1300 NED); Pasteman 1290-1 (plste~man 'one who makes or sells pastry' MED, piste [OF paste & L pasta] 'dough for the making of bread or pastry; also, dough for making horse feed' 1381 MED); Rollere 1274, Rolour 1296, Roller 1297, Rollere 1309, Roulour 1327, Rouller 1337 (roller(e 'from rolle n.] '?a maker or seller of parchment rolls' MED; rolle n. [OF rolle, role, roule; also cp. ML rollus, rolla, AL roella, ruella; some forms perh. influenced by ME rouel n.] 'a scroll; a scroll with its contained text; a roll of prayers [quot.: 1454]) 1325 MED); 'a maker or seller of rolls of parchment' Reaney; roll, sb (rolle, rol, rowle, rowl, roule (roull), roui, role, roole (roale), row, roll) [OF roolle, roulle, rolle, role] 'a piece of parchment, paper, or the like, which is written upon or intended to contain writing, etc., and is rolled up for convenience of handling or carrying; a scroll' 1225 NED); 'probably a maker or seller of rolls of parchment' Reaney; roll sb. (rolle, rol, rowle, rowl, roule (roull), roul, role, roole (roale), row, roll) [OF roolle, roulle, rolle, role] 'a piece of parchment, paper, etc., inscribed with some formal or official record; a document or instrument in this form' 1377 NED; 'a register, list, or catalogue (of names, deeds, etc.)' 1386 NED; roll, v. (rolle) [f. roll sb.] 'ro enrol; to write (a name, etc.) upon a roll, list, or register; to record (a statement or fact)' 1377 NED); Sklatemanger 1332 (in surnames MED; sclate n. [from OF escalate 'a wand, chip of wood'; cp. AL sclata, sklata] 'a slate for roofing; roofing slate or tile in bulk;'the stone, slate; incense containing ground slate as an ingredient; a writing slate' 1340 MED).

3.2.5 Occupational names with Scandinavian assimilated borrowings as the derivational bases

Bothman 1279, Bouthman 1287, Botheman 1403 (both~man 'keeper of a stall, shopkeeper' MED, both [ON; cp. ODan. both (Dan. bod) & Ol buo] 'a stall at a market or fair, a merchant's shop'); Hayman 1312, Heyman 1332 (*hayman 'a man who sells hay, a haysalesman' NED, hei [OE; & cp. OI hey] 'grass cut or mowed and cured (usually as feed for livestock), hay; also, growing grass; a crop or cutting of hay; a tithe of hay); Heimongere 1230, heymongere 1295, heymonger 1475 (*hei-monger 'seller of hay' MED; 'seller of hay' Reaney); madermanger 1230 (in surnames--MED, mader(e [OE maed(e)re, & ON (cp. OI maora)] 'the dye-stuff made from the roots of the plant Rubia tinctorum; a name given to dyes or dyestuffs other than Rubia tinctorum'); Ketmongere 1275 (ket~mongere 'a seller of meat' MED, cf. Chetmangeregate 1175 MED, Ketmangeregate 1194 MED, ket [ON; cp. OI kjot, from *ketwa] 'flesh', monger(e [OE mangere] 'a merchant, tradesman, dealer'); Silkman 1371, 1374-5, 1397 (*silk(e~man 'one who works with silk' MED, silk(e [OE seoluc, seolc, sioloc; also cp. ON: cp. OI silki] 'silken cloth, silk; silken clothing; also, a silken garment; silk fiber or thread; silk embroidery'); Selkwyf 1348 (*silk(e~wif 'a woman who spins or sews silk, a seamstress' MED, wlf [OE] 'a human biological female, a woman', nop. silk(e~womman 'a woman who spins or sews silk, a seamstress' 1440 MED, 'a woman engaged in the manufacture, use or sale of silk' 1440 NED); Waxmongere 1310 (in surnames--MED, wax [OE weax, wsex, wex; cp. OI vax] 'beeswax as a valuable commodity or medium of exchange, generally implying eventual use in candles').

3.3 Assimilated borrowings

3.3.1 Central Freeh borrowings

Aguiller 1296, 1301, Agoyler 1258, Agullier 1287-8 (aguler (agullier, aguiller, agoyler) [OF aguillier] 'one who makes or sells needles;--only in names MED); Chapeler 1214, 1230, 1249, 1303, capei(l)er 1216-20, 1291, 1311, Chapelier 1290 (chapeler [OF] 'a maker or seller of hats' MED; OFr chapelier 'maker or seller of hats' (1601 NED). The name is also found in the AFr form capelier); Fener 1271, 1282, 1327, Feyner 1299, 1303, Fenyr 1325 (feiner [OF fenier] 'a seller of hay' MED); Keu 1208, 1270, Kew 1246, Kou 1275, Ceu 1285, Ku 1303, Prioureskeu 1320, Co 1327, Keue 1327, Koo 1332, keu 1340, ewe 1335-6 (keu [OF queu, keu, eu, cou] 'a cook; one who prepares and sells cooked food' MED); Leyner 1275, 1292, Layner 1279, 1285, leyner 1292, lainer 1305, Laner 1312 (lainer [OF lanier] 'a wool worker, wool merchant' MED; OFr lainier, lanier 'woolmonger' Reaney).

3.3.2 Norman borrowings

Curlevache 1224, Curlevache 1224, cur levage 1299-1300, curlevacher 1312-13, curlevache 1346 (curlevacher [AF cur-levage,--levache &--levacher; ?cp. OF levage 'droit de sortie percu sur les merchandises' (Godefroy) & cur--as in cour-lieu 'messenger'] 'a licensed trader who is not a citizen or a member of a merchant guild' MED) Ta [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]: Treur 1255, Trehur 1259, Traeur 1263, Treere 1281, Treyur 1283, Treyour 1298-9, Treyhere 1300, Traiere 1303, Treour 1327, Treyre 1415, trayer 1473, Treyer 1485, Trayhour 1485 (traier [OF traieor, traieur, traier, traiheur, AF treour] 'one who performs the duties of a tapster' MED).

3.3.3 Scandinavian borrowings

Copeman 1256, Copman 1205, Coupman 1230 (ON kaupmaor 'chapman, merchant' Reaney; (copesman) [orig. copesman, f. cope sb. + man (in possess, cope's), cf. craftsman, tradesman, etc. The later copeman may have been influenced by Du. koopman in same sense] 'a chapman, merchant, dealer' 1566 NED; cope, sb. [from cope v.] 'a bargain' 1562 NED; cope, v. 'to buy' 1430 NED; 'to exchange, barter' 1570 NED; 'to make an exchange, make a bargain' 1575 NED).

3.4 Motivated borrowings

3.4.1 Central French motivated borrowings

fusteinnier 1200 (fusteinnier [OF] 'maker or seller of fustian' MED, fustian n. [OF fustai(g)ne] 'a kind of cloth [apparently made from cotton, flax, or wool; not necessarily coarse or of poor quality]; (b) a piece of fustian to be spread over a bed or mattress; a coverlet of fustian' 1200 MED); Galocher 1306 (galocher [OF galochier] 'a maker or seller of galoches' MED, galoche [OF] 'a kind of footwear, consisting of a wooden sole fastened onto the foot with leather thongs'1363-4 MED); Hanaper 1279, 1332, Haneper 1319, Hanyper 1327, Henepere 1327, Henyper 1327, Heniper 1327, Hamper 1348-9 (hanaper [OF hanepier & hanap, henap] 'a maker or seller of hanaps or goblets' MED); Lacir 1278, Lacer 1298, lacer 1311, Lasur 1327, Lasser 1346 (laser [OF laceor]) 'a maker or seller of strings or laces' MED; las [OF laz, las, lace, lais] 'cord made of braided or interwoven strands of silk, threads of gold, etc.; a cord used to suspend a hanging object; a cord upon which beads are strung; a fishline; a cord or band bound around something; a headband or fillet; a cord used as a bond or fetter; a buckle, clasp, or brooch; a girdle, a belt; a crossbeam in a ceiling used to tie rafters together or to provide ornamental paneling; a net, noose, or snare' 1230 MED); Oylere 1248, 1286, 1332 oyler 1278, Oyller 1281, Oyellere 1281 (oilere [from oil(e n.] 'a maker or seller of oil' MED, oiler [from oil, sb. or v. + -er; cf. F. huilier 'oil-manufacturer, oil-merchant'] 'a manufacturer of, or dealer in, oil; an oil-man' 1552 NED; '2. one who oils or lubricates with oil' 1846 NED; oil, sb. [ME oli, olie, oyle, oile] a. ONF olie, OF 12th c. oile, oille, 13th c. oele, uille, 15th c. oyle, huille, 16th c. huile] 1175 NED; oil v. 'to apply oil to; to anoist' 1440 NED).

3.4.2 Norman motivated borrowings

Kanevacer 1275, Canauacer 1325, Caneuaser 1333, Caneuacer 1340 (canevaser [AF; cp. CF chanevacier] 'a maker or seller of canvas' MED; canevls [AF canevaz, cp. CF chanevaz) & ML canvasium, canebacium] 'a fabric made from flax or hemp, canvas' 1362 MED; 'a piece of canvas; a canvas covering, a strainer of canvas' 1310 MED; 'a bed covering' 1354 MED; 'some kind of garment' 1438 MED); Herber 1227, Harbur 1313, herbare 1475 (herber [OF h)erbier 'an herbalist. Early quots. may be AF] 'a collector and/or seller of herbs, an herbalist' MED); Vendier 1206, Vendur (vendor [a. late AF vendor, earlier vendour (F. vendur), agent-noun form vendre. Cf. vender] 'one who disposes of a thing by sale; a seller' 1594 NED; vender [f. vend v. + -er] cf. VENDOR 'one who sells; a seller; s/t in restricted sense, a street-seller' 1596 NED; vend, v. [ad. F. vendre (=It. vendere, Sp. and Pg. vender) or L. vendere 'to sell'] 'to be disposed of by sale; to find a market or purchaser' 1622 NED; 'to sell; to dispose of by sale; to trade in as a seller' 1651 NED); Wader 1197, Weider 1227-37, wayder 1276, weyder 1276, 1293, Waider 1202, Wayder 1230, 1250, 1273, 1297, 1327, Weyder 1250 (waider (weider) [ONF waideur, waidier, wedderes, vars. of OF guaideor & guaidier; many quots. prob. AF] 'a dyer with or purveyor of woad' MED; waid(e [AF weide, voide, AF/ONF waide (vars. of OF guaide) & AL waida, weida; most quots. prob. AF or AL.] 'the dyestuff made from the plant Isatis tinctoria, woad; also in designations for woad of specific geographical origin' 1359 MED); Waisdier 1185, Wesdier, Waisder, Weisdier, Waisdier 1191-8 (OF wesdier, quesdier, waisdier 'dyer or seller of woad' Reaney; 'a derivative of OE wad 'woad', 'woad-merchant' (1415 NED). This English form is more common today, but rarer in ME than the French Waider--Reaney; woader (wider): a) a dyer with woad; 2) a cultivator of woad (1415); woad [OE wad = Ofris. wed < AF. waisde, OF. quesde, F. guede] 'l.a blue dye-stuff prepared from the leaves of Isatis tinctoria' 1000 NED; '2. the plant Isatis tinctoria' 1000 NED; cf. woader (woder) [woad v. or sbl] 'a) a dyer with woad; b) a cultivator of woad' 1415 NED).

3.4.3 Motivated borrowings of double (Latin and French) origin

Cressetter 1316, Cresseter 1341 (cresseter [from cresset; cp. ML cressetarius.] 'a maker or seller of cressets' MED, cresset [OF craisset, crasset] 'a metal vessel containing oil or fat used as a lamp or torch' 1370 MED); Poteler 1265 (potel(l)er (potil(l)er, potier, potteler) [from potel(le; also cp. ML potellare] 'a maker or seller of pottles' MED, potel(le (pottel) [OF potel &ML potellus] 'a vessel; vessel of half the capacity of the associated gallon measure; a pottle; also, a vessel for dry measure observing similar proportions' MED.

4. Occupational names with the restricted usage

Here we present the occupational terms that existed exclusively as common nouns, which is proved by the precise meaning, etymology and Medieval dating in the dictionaries under study.

4.1 Occupational names with English derivational bases and derivational affixes

biere [From bien, biggen [OE bycgan] 'buy; redeem'] 'a buyer or purchaser' (1200 MED); 'a purchasing agent (as of the King, a guild)' (1422 MED); birlester [?cp. birlen [OE byrlian]) 'peddler, hawker (offish)' (1361 MED); bok~sellere 'book seller' [OE boc] (1475 MED); cloth~bier 'an officer of a guild in charge of buying cloth' [OE clap)] (1450 MED); fish-sellere (fish [OE fisc]) (1440 MED); for(e-staller,-ar,-our [from for(e-stallen v.] 'one who intercepts provisions on their way to market and buys them in order to re-sell at a higher price; also, one who buys in a public market before the legal hour of opening' (1267 MED); drover~for(e-staller 'a cattle buyer who goes out on the highway to buy up animals coming to market' (1439 MED); gar-lek-sellere 'a seller of garlic' [WS gar-leac, A gar-lec.] (1483 MED); handler [< hondlen [OE handlian]] 'a handler' (1398 MED); milk-wif'a female milk vendor; moneter' (1444 MED); sellestere [from sellen v.] 'a female seller or vendor' (1430 MED) ([OE sellan]); wode-biere 'a dealer in firewood' ([OE wudu, widu]) (1473 MED); wol~gaderere '?one who collects wool from the keepers of sheep; wolle-webster' (wol [OE wul(l, wulle & wyll]) (1482 MED); wol~marchaunt 'a dealer in wool or woolen goods' wol [OE wul(l, wulle & wyll] (1500 MED); yarn~chopper 'a retailer of thread or yarn' (yarn [OE gearn, -gern]) (1325 MED).

4.2 Loan-blends

4.2.1 Occupational names with Old French assimilated borrowings as the derivational bases bargainer [from bargainen v.] 'a vender, an unscrupulous bargainer' 1460 MED, bargainen [OF bargai(g)ner] 'to engage in a business transaction; discuss or arrange the terms of such a transaction, make a deal; buy or sell on terms agreed upon', 'to vend or sell'); fruitestere [cp. fruit-ere.] 'a female fruit vender, a fruit girl' 1390 MED, cp. fruiter,-our [AF; CF fruitier] 'a fruit seller, a dealer in fruit'; 'a household official in charge of fruit'); woman-chaundeler (chaundeler [OF chandelier (from L candelarium)]) 'one who makes candles or deals in materials for making candles; a chandler' 1425 MED); wax~chaundeler 'one who makes wax candles, a wax chandler; also, a member of the guild of candle makers' (wax [OE weax, wsex, wex; cp.OI vax.] 1363 MED, chaundeler [OF chandelier (from L candelarium)]) 'one who makes candles or deals in materials for making candles; a chandler' 1425 MED).

4.2.2 Occupational names with the borrowings of double (Latin and French origin) as the derivational bases

col-seller 'greengrocer' (col OE cal (beside clwel, from L caulis)] 'cabbage, kale, colewort, rape, mustard, or some other plant of the genus Brassica; also, any cultivated leafy vegetable, garden greens, pot-herbs' 1475 MED; oinyon~sellere 'one who sells onions.oistre-seller' 1475 MED, [OF oignon, oingnon, ongnon, ognon & L unio]; oistre-sellere 'a seller of oysters' 1425 MED, oistre [OF uistre, oistre L ostrea] 'an oyster' 1290 MED; salster 'a female salt dealer' 1500 MED, sal [L sal & OF sal, salle, sau(l, vars. of sel] 'salt, sodium chloride; also, a mineral salt'; shop(pe~holdere 'one who manages a shop' 1449 MED, shop(pe [OE scoppa, sceoppa; cp. OF escope, essope, choppe, AF shope & ML shopa, sopa, scupa, choppa] 'a room or building used as a place of business by a victualer, craftsman, etc.'; sope~seller 1475 MED, nop. sopere 'a maker or seller of soap' 1200 MED, 'one who sells soap; a soap-boiler, soap-maker' 1225 NED; soap (sape, soppe) [OE sape; L sapo] 1000 NED; spicer~wif'a female apothecary' (spicer 'a dealer in spices, an apothecary' [from OF especier, espic(i)er, espissier, AF especer, spicer; cp. ML speciarius, AL spesarius, spicerius] 1500 MED; tapistere [from tapicer with substitution of-estre suf., or perh. with influence from tapestn(e n.] 'a maker or seller of tapestries, tapestry weaver' 1440 MED.

4.2.3 Occupational names with Scandinavian assimilated borrowings as the derivational bases

snarler [?from snarlen v.] 'a hawker of goods, esp. of stolen goods' 1398 MED (snare n [OE snearu & ON: cp.OI snara.] 'a snare for catching birds; also, a trap for other animals'; snarl(e n. [?from snare n. & -el suf.(l); also cp. snarlen v.] 'a snare or trap'; snarlen v. [from snarl(e n. or snaren v. & -el- suf.] 'to trap (sb. or sth.), entangle').

4.3 Motivated borrowings

4.3.1 Latin motivated borrowings

purpuresse 1384 [< L. purpuraria] (purpuresse 'a woman who deals in purple cloth' 1425 MED.

4.3.2 Old French motivated borrowings

chafferer 'a trader, merchant' 1382 MED.

4.3.3 Low German motivated borrowings

hauker [MDu hac & hoeker, MLG hake & hoker 'retail dealer, huckster, etc.'] 'a peddler, huckster' (1409 MED).

5. Conclusion and perspectives

The study of the Middle English names of farmers in the etymological and functional aspects revealed the following quantitative data--280 names of merchants, which constitute 12% of the total number of Middle English occupational terms. The ratio of English names of merchants as to the loan-words is 5:1. The ratio of the words of English origin as to the loan-blends is 10:3. The loan-words of French origin constitute 13% of the total number of Middle English occupational terms.

The quantitative characteristics of the functional distribution and etymological composition of the Middle English occupational names are given in the following Table 1.

In our paper it was found out that the functional differentiation of the vocabulary is different in the English and borrowed occupational terms. The prevailing majority are the words with the unsettled usage-56%, they are registered in the Middle English period only as family names, only having the identifying function as the proper names. Then come the words with the settled usage--33%, they are registered in the Middle English period as common nouns and personal names (family names), having both nominating and identifying functions. Words with the restricted usage constitute 11% of the vocabulary under study, and are registered in the Middle English period only as common nouns, having the nominating function.

Data obtained in this paper, aiming at the reconstruction of the Middle English occupational terms etymology and functional variability, are valuable as the constituent part of the comprehensive study of the etymology and usage of the Mddle English vocabulary.

The data obtained serve as a confirmation of the scarcity of lexical borrowings, especially in the lexical-thematic group of Middle English occupational terms.

We studied the common nouns and personal names, especially Middle English family names, within one of their historical layers, which gives us the possibility to disclose lingual means and ways of identification of people, interrelation of funds of proper names of neighboring territories in the process of formation of national language. The linguistic analysis of common and proper nouns is still an inexhaustible source of the study of historical and cultural heritage of people, its social and political structure, especially its production, everyday life, religion, customs, traditions and so on. It helps in its turn to trace the salient traits of individuality of the peoples against the background of its neighbors in space and time.


Middle English Compendium. University of Michigan Digital Library Production Service, 2001 2013.--15000 p.--[online version],--Mode of access: http: //www. (Accessed 2016-8-08.)

Oxford English Dictionary. A corrected re-issue with an introduction, supplement, and bibliography of a New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. Oxford at the Clarendon Press, (1933). 1966. V. I-XII.

Reaney, P. H. 1966. A Dictionary of British Surnames. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.


AF- Anglo-French, AL--Anglo-Latin, AN--Anglo-Norman, CF--Central French, E -English, F--French, L--Latin, LG--Low German, MDu--Middle Dutch, ME--Middle English, MED--Middle English Compendium., MLG--Middle Low German, NED--Oxford English Dictionary, NF--North French, OE--Old English, OF--Old French, OI--Old Icelandic, ON--Old Norse, ONF--Old North French, Sc--Scandinavian


Kertman, L. E. 1968. Geografiia, istoriia i kid'tara Anglii [Geography, history and culture of England], Moscow: Vysshaya shkola. (In Russian).

Lipson, Ephraim. 1956. The Economic History of England. London: Adam & Charles Black.

Morton, A. L. 1974. A People 's History of England. Berlin: Seven Seas Publishers.

Solonovich, T. F. 1986. Razvitie tematicheskoy gruppy naimenovaniy lits po professii v angliyskom yazyke (Cand. Thesis) [The development of the thematic group of occupational names in the English language], Minsk. (In Russian).

Thrupp, Sylvia L. 1948. The merchant class of Medieval London (1300-1500). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Oxana Dobrovolska, Kiev National Linguistic University

Oxana Dobrovolska

Department of German and Finno-Ugrian Philology

Kiev National Linguistic University

Table 1: Functional distribution and etymological composition
of Middle English names of merchants

Usage/        E           Loan-blends
                   L    L     C    NF   Sc   LG
                        / F   F

Settled      46    4          4         5    2
Unsettled    92    10    8    16   1    8
Restricted   15          8    4    1    1
Total        153   14   16    24   1    14   2
%            55    26

Usage/        E       Loan-words
                   L     CF   NF   Sc
                   / F

Settled      46     5    3    8
Unsettled    92          5    2    1
Restricted   15
Total        153    5    8    10   1
%            55     9

Usage/        E        Motivated loan-words       Total    %
                   L    L     CF   NF   Sc   LG
                        / F

Settled      46          9    2    5    1          94     33
Unsettled    92          2    5    5               155    56
Restricted   15    1          1              1     31     11
Total        153   1    11    8    10   1    1     280    100
%            55    11                              100

Legend: CF--Central French, E -English, F--French, L--Latin,
LG--Low German, NF--North French, Sc--Scandinavian
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Author:Dobrovolska, Oxana
Publication:SKASE Journal of Theoretical Linguistics
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:4EUUK
Date:Sep 1, 2016
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