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Microturbellarians (Platyhelminthes and Acoelomorpha) in Brazil: invisible organisms?/Microturbelarios (Platyhelminthes e Acoelomorpha) no Brasil: organismos invisiveis?

1. Introduction

Turbellarians are acoelomate, soft-bodied worms that have a sac-like gut and typically ciliated epidermal cells. Most turbellarians are hermaphrodites with cross fertilization following copulation, showing a complex reproductive system (Cannon, 1986; Rieger et al., 1991). Traditionally, flatworms used to belong to the phylum Platyhelminthes, which can be subdivided into three clades, viz. Acoelomorpha, Catenulida e Rhabditophora (Rieger et al., 1991), since Rhabditophora also includes the parasitic forms. The Acoelomorpha, however, has been removed from the Platyhelminthes into its own phylum (Baguna and Riutort, 2004; Tyler et al., 2014; Littlewood, 2006; Larsson and Jondelius, 2008; Boll et al., 2013). The term turbellarians continues to be used and will be applied here without taxonomic connotation.

There are about 6,500 species of turbellarians worldwide (Schockaert et al., 2008). They are distributed into the following taxa: Acoela, Nemertodermatida, Catenulida, Macrostomida, Polycladida, Prolecithophora, Lecithoepitheliata, Revertospermata, Proseriata, Tricladida, Dalytyphloplanida and Kalyptorhynchia (Schockaert et al., 2008; Van Steenkiste et al., 2013). The later two constitute the rhabdocoels. Turbellarians can be divided into two major groups, with no taxonomical association: the macroturbellarians or large worms, which include triclads and polyclads, and the microturbellarians including the other turbellarian groups, the members of which are smaller.

Turbellarians may occur in a wide variety of environments. They are abundant in freshwater and marine ecosystems and may occur in moist terrestrial habitats. They are, however, mainly marine animals, with only 1/5 of the known species occurring in freshwater (Hyman, 1951; Schockaert et al., 2008). Turbellarians typically belong to the benthos. Triclads and polyclads occur generally on hard bottom, under stones, or associated with macrophytes, algae or gravel (Hyman, 1951; Du-Bois Reymond Marcus and Marcus, 1968). Microturbellarians usually occur on sandy or muddy bottom. Most marine turbellarians are limited to the littoral zone of the ocean (Hyman, 1951). Freshwater forms may occur in temporary or permanent wetlands, such as lakes, natural or artificial ponds, pools, ditches, streams and rivers (Kolasa, 1991; Norena-Janssen, 1995; Young, 2001), as well as in agroecosystems (Bambaradeniya et al., 2004; Vara and Leal-Zanchet, 2013). Some marine flatworms, such as acoels and polyclads, and freshwater rhabdocoels are planctonic (Hyman, 1951; Rocha et al., 1990; Dumont et al., 2014). Some microturbellarians may occur in humid terrestrial environments (Hyman, 1951; Tessens et al., 2014); land triclads may be a species-rich group in tropical and subtropical ecosystems (Carbayo et al., 2009). The temnocephalids, a group of the taxon Dalytyphloplanida, and some members of other taxonomic groups of microturbellarians live in association with other invertebrates or with turtles, usually as ectosymbionts (Hyman, 1951; Jennings, 1997). In addition, some acoels and rhabdocoels are parasites of molluscs, echinoderms and other invertebrates (Hyman, 1951; Bush, 1981).

Microturbellarians in general were studied mainly in Brazil in the years 1940-1950 (Marcus, 1943, 1944, 1945a, b, 1946, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1954; Du-Bois Reymond Marcus, 1951; Marcus and Macnae, 1954), based on samplings in the northern littoral of the state of Sao Paulo and lentic environments of Sao Paulo city and its neighbourhood. Later, Rocha et al. (1990) and Hooge and Rocha (2006) studied, respectively, freshwater rhabdocoels and acoels from the state of Sao Paulo. In addition, a new species of marine rhabocoel was recently described (Reygel et al., 2014). Freshwater turbellarians from southern Brazil were investigated by Gamo and Leal-Zanchet (2004), Vara and Leal-Zanchet (2013) and Braccini and Leal-Zanchet (2013) in natural wetlands and agroecosystems. Temnocephalids from various Brazilian regions were studied by Monticelli (1899), Pereira and Cuocolo (1940, 1941), Amato et al. (2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2010, 2011), Amato and Amato (2005) and Seixas et al. (2010a, b, c, 2011, 2014).

Freshwater and land triclads were studied mainly in the Brazilian states of Sao Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul (Carbayo and Froehlich, 2008; Baptista et al. 2010; Leal-Zanchet et al., 2011; Amaral et al., 2014). Polyclads were mainly known from the coast of the states of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, as well as the northeastern coast of Brazil (Carbayo and Froehlich, 2008; Bahia and Padula, 2009; Bahia et al., 2012; Bulnes and Torres, 2014).

In contrast to triclads and polyclads, which are collected directly, microturbellarians should be sampled with some substratum using a fine-meshed sweep-net (Young, 2001). Material collected by the net should be transferred to plastic vials containing water from the sampling site. The vials should be transported to the laboratory and carefully examined under a stereomicroscope (Braccini and Leal-Zanchet, 2013; Vara and Leal-Zanchet, 2013). For sorting, samples may be treated by the method of reduction of oxygen (Schockaert, 1996) or by examining all sampling water under the stereomicroscope (Brusa et al., 2003). Live turbellarians should be transferred by a pipette to a petri dish and be examined alive for observation of general shape, size and colour pattern. After that, the internal morphology should be examined using a "squeeze preparation" technique (Gamo, 1987; Young, 2001).

Considering that the macroturbellarians are the best known group among turbellarians and that their study in Brazil was summarized by Carbayo and Froehlich (2008), we will focus on Brazilian microturbellarians herein. We intend to summarize the biogeographical distribution and ecological aspects of microturbellarians recorded for Brazil, by pointing out main gaps in the knowledge about them and possible actions to enhance studies on this group.

2. Methods

Original research articles were searched in the databases Thomson Reuters (ISI) and Scielo, between August 2014 and February 2015, and in the bibliographical assets of our laboratory in the Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS). The following key-words were used: Platyhelminthes, Acoela, Nemertodermatida, Catenulida, Prolecithophora, Rhabdocoela, Temnocephalida, Macrostomida, Lecithoepitheliata or Revertospermata and Brazil.

We organized the data thus obtained in order to summarize the following information: species, order or other representative taxonomic group, sampling place (city and state), and type of environment where the occurrence was recorded. Regarding the environment, the following data were considered: type of substratum (sand, mud, algae etc.), type of ecosystem (marine, freshwater or brackish water) and hydric regime (lentic or lotic). In the case of temnocephalids, the associated organism was informed. The classification of marine ecoregions follows Spalding et al. (2007).

3. Geographical Distribution and Ecological Aspects

A total of 44 articles with records of microturbellarians in Brazil was found, 26 of which were available on the online databases Thomson Reuters (ISI) and Scielo. Eighteen other articles were found in the bibliographical assets of our laboratory (UNISINOS).

There are 239 species of microturbellarians registered for Brazil, with records distributed in 12 states. The highest number of species was recorded for the state of Sao Paulo, followed by Rio Grande do Sul and Parana (Table 1). The central, northern and northeastern regions of Brazil have no or just a few records (Figure 1).

Brazilian microturbellarians are distributed among 10 taxonomical groups. Dalytyphloplanida and Catenulida are the most species-rich, with about 28% and 18% of the recorded species, respectively, followed by Acoela (15%), Prolecithophora (11%), Proseriata (10%), Kalyptorhynchia (9%), and Macrostomida (7%). Lecithoepitheliata and Revertospermata are taxons with only few known species (Tables 1 and 2). The taxon Nemertodermatida has no records in Brazil.

Acoels, a group of marine flatworms, are represented by specimens sampled only in the state of Sao Paulo, mainly in sandy beaches, on algae or rock coasts (Tables 1 and 2). A few specimens were found on beach ponds.

Catenulids, which are mainly freshwater inhabitants, were registered in various continental environments, mainly in southeastern and southern Brazil (Table 1). They were frequently found in lentic environments, including rice fields and their canals, or in humid terrestrial environments. Six species were found in lotic environments and two species in water accumulated among leaves of Bromeliaceae (Table 3).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Macrostomids inhabit marine and freshwater environments. They occur associated to the bottom or to the vegetation. In Brazil, 11 species were recorded in marine environments of the north coast of the state of Sao Paulo. Six other species were sampled in lentic continental ecosystems or in brackish water in various regions (Tables 1 and 4).

Rhabdocoels (Dalytyphloplanida and Kalyptorhynchia) inhabit mainly marine and freshwater environments, but some species are terrestrial. In Brazil, marine species were recorded in the north coast of the state of Sao Paulo, on algae, sand or mud. Freshwater species were found in lentic ecosystems, including rice fields and their canals, or lotic environments of southeastern and/or southern Brazil. Temnocephalids occur only in freshwater environments, with most species recorded in Brazil. They were found in the north, center, southeast and south of Brazil, as ectosymbiotes in turtles, decapods, insects and molluscs (Tables 1 and 5).

Lecithopitheliates may occur in freshwater, terrestrial and marine environments, but they are represented in Brazil by only two freshwater species, Prorhynchus stagnalis Schultze, 1851 and Geocentrophora applanata (Kennel, 1888). Prorhynchus stagnalis, considered worldwide distributed, was recorded in various localities in southeastern and southern Brazil, whereas G. applanata was sampled in two localities of central and southeastern Brazil (Tables 1 and 6).

Prolecithophorans inhabit freshwater and marine environments, but they have no records in Brazilian freshwater ecosystems (Vara and Leal-Zanchet, 2013; Braccini and Leal-Zanchet, 2013). The members of this taxon were sampled in marine environments on coastal areas of the state of Sao Paulo (Table 1). They were found on algae (Padina and Ulva) or on sandy and rocky coasts (Tables 1 and 6).

Revertospermats are exclusively marine flatworms. They are represented in Brazil by a single species, Urastoma cyprinae (Graff, 1882), found on the coast of the state of Sao Paulo (Tables 1 and 6). It is a parasite which inhabits the gills of bivalves.

Proseriates may occur in marine and freshwater environments, but almost all Brazilian species were sampled mainly in the north coast of the state of Sao Paulo (Table 1). They were found mainly in small ponds with high organic matter content. Only Bothrioplana semperi Braun, 1881 was sampled in freshwater environments of southeastern and southern Brazil (Table 7).

4. Discussion and Conclusions

Just three Brazilian states, located in southeastern and southern Brazil, concentrate 94% of the microturbellarian species recorded for the country. Two of them, Sao Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul, house research groups on turbellarians, clearly reflecting the scientific activity over many years or decades.

Most marine microturbellarian diversity is known only in a small portion of the Warm Temperate Southwestern Atlantic, since the marine microturbellarian groups were almost exclusively studied in a small part of the northern littoral of the state of Sao Paulo (Marcus, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1952; Hooge and Rocha, 2006). Just scattered records exist for the Tropical Southwestern Atlantic and Northern Brazil Shelf.

From twelve hydrographic regions, only the South Atlantic and Southern Atlantic regions have more than just occasional records of microturbellarians. Such records were mainly distributed among Sao Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul and Parana (Marcus, 1943, 1944, 1945a, 1951, 1954; Gamo and Leal-Zanchet, 2004; Vara and Leal-Zanchet, 2013; Braccini and Leal-Zanchet, 2013). Considering the freshwater groups, the temnocephalids certainly constitute an exception, with species recorded for various regions in Brazil (Monticelli, 1899; Pereira and Cuocolo, 1940, 1941; Ferreira Yuki et al., 1993; Damborenea, 1994; Ernst and Lovich, 1996; Vianna and Melo, 2002; Amato et al., 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2010, 2011; Amato and Amato, 2005; Seixas et al., 2010a, b, c, 2011, 2014). Microturbellarians occurring in terrestrial environments were known only by occasional records in the state of Sao Paulo (Marcus, 1945b). Considering the six Brazilian biomes, only a small part of the Atlantic Forest, mainly the one located in Southern and Southeastern regions, have records of microturbellarians. Scattered or no records were done for the Amazonian, Caatinga, Savanna, Pampa and Pantanal biomes.

In addition to taxonomical studies, freshwater microturbellarian diversity was also investigated through recent inventories and studies on community structure done in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Gamo and Leal-Zanchet, 2004; Braccini and Leal-Zanchet, 2013; Vara and Leal-Zanchet, 2013). In these studies, many unidentified species of catenulids, lecithopitheliates, macrostomids and rhabdocoels, among others, were recorded in agroecosystems and natural lentic environments of southern Brazil (Braccini and Leal-Zanchet, 2013; Vara and Leal-Zanchet, 2013). Thus, it is almost unnecessary to emphasize that the known microturbellarian diversity in Brazil represents only a very small part of the existing biodiversity.

Considering the scant information on the taxonomy and biogeography on Brazilian microturbellarians, which is also the situation of the Neotropical microturbellarians in general, some actions should be proposed. First, it would be necessary to sample in the diverse biomes, as well as in the various river and sea basins, following standardized sampling protocols, as for example, the guidelines of the Rapid Assessment Program, in order to quickly generate data about the local and regional diversity (Alonso et al., 2011). Second, it would be necessary to encourage diverse research groups to include microturbellarians and/or turbellarians in general in biodiversity inventories and studies on community structure of invertebrates. Third, it is necessary to increase the number of research groups on microturbellarians, in order to augment the studies on their morphology, systematic, and ecology.

There are, however, some problems for the inclusion of microturbellarians in ample biodiversity inventories. Microturbellarians should be sorted alive under the stereomicroscope and analyzed under the microscope to study their morphology with identification purposes (Young, 2001; Brusa et al., 2003). Thus, some adjustments in the sampling procedures used for other invertebrates are needed, such as the collection of water for sorting the live microturbellarians at the laboratory. Another problem is concerned with the identification of microturbellarians, because for the same reason mentioned above, it would be difficult to send live specimens for the identification at species level by specialists.

Besides the abundance and species richness of microturbellarians in freshwater and marine ecosystems, these organisms may feed on a wide range of benthic and planctonic invertebrates, such as oligochaetes, rotifers, cladocerans, copepods and nematodes, among other organisms including bacteria, algae and protozoans (Young, 2001). Thus, considering their abundance, species richness and ecological importance in aquatic environments, the challenge to study these organisms and enhance their knowledge in Brazilian ecosystems should be faced.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.21514

Acknowledgements

We thank the Brazilian Research Council (CNPq), the Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES) and Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS) for grants and fellowships in support of this study. Juliana Espindola is acknowlegdeged for her help in summarizing bibliographical information about marine microturbellarians. We thank MSc. Edward Benya and Paulo Firmino for the English review of the manuscript. Dr. Francisco Brusa, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina, is thanked for a critical reading of an early version of the manuscript. An anonymous reviewer is acknowledged for their helpful suggestions.

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J. A. L. Bmccmi (a, b), S. V. Amaral (a, b) and A. M. Leal-Zanchet (a, b) *

(a) Instituto de Pesquisas de Planarias, Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos--UNISINOS, Avenida Unisinos, 950, CEP 93022-000, Sao Leopoldo, RS, Brazil

(b) Programa de Pos-graduacao em Biologia, Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos--UNISINOS, Avenida Unisinos, 950, CEP 93022-000, Sao Leopoldo, RS, Brazil

* e-mail: zanchet@unisinos.br

Received: October 10, 2014--Accepted: March 4, 2015--Distributed: May 31, 2016

(With 1 figure)
Table 1. Brazilian states with records of microturbellarians
and number of species recorded per taxonomical group and state.

                             Northern region       Central region

                                               Mato     Mato Grosso
Taxon                Amapa   Amazonas   Para   Grosso      do Sul

Acoela                --        --       --      --          --
Catenulida            --        --       1       --          --
Dalytyphloplanida      2        1        1       1           1
Kalyptorhynchia       --        --       --      --          --
Lecithoepitheliata    --        --       --      --          --
Macrostomida          --        --       --      --          --
Prolecithophora       --        --       --      --          --
Proseriata            --        --       --      --          --
Revertospermata       --        --       --      --          --
Number of species      2        1        2       1           1

                              Southeastern region

                     Minas    Espirito   Rio de
Taxon                Gerais    Santo     Janeiro   Sao Paulo

Acoela                 --        --        --          36
Catenulida             --        --        --          41
Dalytyphloplanida      7         1          1          45
Kalyptorhynchia        --        --        --          20
Lecithoepitheliata     --        --        --          2
Macrostomida           --        --        --          15
Prolecithophora        --        --        --          27
Proseriata             --        --         2          24
Revertospermata        --        --        --          1
Number of species      7         1          3         211

                                     Southern region

                                 Santa     Rio Grande   Number of
Taxon                 Parana    Catarina     do Sul     species *

Acoela                  --         --                      36
Catenulida              13         --          21          42
Dalytyphloplanida       3          1           24          68
Kalyptorhynchia         --         --          1           21
Lecithoepitheliata      2          --          1            2
Macrostomida            --         --          4           17
Prolecithophora         --         --          --          27
Proseriata              --         --          1           25
Revertospermata         --         --          --           1
Number of species       18         1           52          239

--No data. * Species may occur in more than one locality.

Table 2. Species of Acoela recorded for Brazil, with localities of
occurrence and type of environment and/or substratum
where the microturbellarians were found.

Species                             Locality

Amphiscolops evelinae Marcus,       Santos/SP; Ubatuba/SP
1947

Archaphanostoma marcusi Hooge       Ilhabela/SP
and Rocha, 2006

Avagina marci Dorjes e Karling,     Sao Sebastiao/SP; Ilhabela/SP
1975

Childia etium (Marcus, 1954)        Sao Sebastiao/SP

Childia groenlandica (Levinsen,     Bertioga/SP
1879)

Childia westbladi (Marcus, 1950)    Santos/SP; Sao Sebastiao/SP

Convoluta hensen Bohmig, 1895       Cananeia/SP; Sao Sebastiao/SP

Deuterogonaria thauma (Marcus,      Santos/SP; Sao Sebastiao/SP
1952)

Eumecynostomum evelinae             Guaruja/SP; Santos/SP; Sao
(Marcus, 1948)                      Sebastiao/SP

Faerlea antora Marcus, 1952         Sao Sebastiao/SP

Haplocelis dichona (Marcus,         Sao Sebastiao/SP
1954)

Haplogonaria pellita (Marcus,       Sao Sebastiao/SP
1951)

Haplogonaria sophiae Hooge and      Sao Sebastiao/SP
Rocha, 2006

Haploposthia microphoca Marcus,     Sao Sebastiao/SP
1950

Heterochaerus carvalhoi (Marcus,    Santos/SP
1952)

Heterochaerus sargassi (Hyman,      Sao Sebastiao/SP
1939)

Isodiametra divae (Marcus, 1950)    Sao Sebastiao/SP; Ilhabela/SP

Isodiametra westbladi (Marcus,      Santos/SP; Sao Sebastiao/SP;
1949)                               Ubatuba/SP; Caraguatatuba/SP;
                                    Ilhabela/SP

Isodiametra vexillaria (Marcus,     Santos/SP; Sao Sebastiao/SP;
1948;                               Ilha das Palmas/SP

Kuma albiventer (Marcus, 1954)      Sao Sebastiao/SP

Kuma asilhas Hooge and Rocha,       Sao Sebastiao/SP
2006

Kuma belca Marcus, 1952             Ubatuba/SP

Kuma brevicauda Marcus, 1950        Cananeia/SP

Mecynostomum tenuissimum            Sao Sebastiao/SP
(Westblad, 1946)

Nadina evelinae (Marcus, 1952)      Sao Sebastiao/SP

Otocelis erinae Hooge and Rocha,    Sao Sebastiao/SP; Ilhabela/SP
2006

Paraproporus xanthus Marcus,        Sao Sebastiao/SP
1950

Paratomella rubra Rieger and Ott,   Sao Sebastiao/SP
1971

Philactinoposthia coneyi Hooge      Ilhabela/SP
and Rocha, 2006

Philactinoposthia stylifera         Sao Sebastiao/SP
(Westblad, 1946)

Philocelis robrochai Hooge and      Ilhabela/SP
Rocha, 2006

Pseudactinoposthia daena            Itanhaem/SP
(Marcus, 1954)

Pseudanaperus tinctus (Marcus,      Sao Sebastiao/SP
1952)

Pseudaphanostoma divae Marcus,      Ubatuba/SP; Sao Sebastiao/SP
1952

Pseudaphanostoma herringi           Ilhabela/SP

Hooge and Rocha, 2006

Pseudokuma orphinum (Marcus,        Sao Sebastiao/SP
1950)

Species                             Environment

Amphiscolops evelinae Marcus,       Marine
1947

Archaphanostoma marcusi Hooge       Marine
and Rocha, 2006

Avagina marci Dorjes e Karling,     Marine
1975

Childia etium (Marcus, 1954)        Marine

Childia groenlandica (Levinsen,     Mangrove
1879)

Childia westbladi (Marcus, 1950)    Marine

Convoluta hensen Bohmig, 1895       Marine

Deuterogonaria thauma (Marcus,
1952)

Eumecynostomum evelinae             Marine
(Marcus, 1948)

Faerlea antora Marcus, 1952         Marine

Haplocelis dichona (Marcus,         Marine
1954)

Haplogonaria pellita (Marcus,       Marine
1951)

Haplogonaria sophiae Hooge and      Marine
Rocha, 2006

Haploposthia microphoca Marcus,     Marine
1950

Heterochaerus carvalhoi (Marcus,    Brackish water
1952)

Heterochaerus sargassi (Hyman,      Marine
1939)

Isodiametra divae (Marcus, 1950)    Marine

Isodiametra westbladi (Marcus,      Marine
1949)

Isodiametra vexillaria (Marcus,     Marine
1948;

Kuma albiventer (Marcus, 1954)      Marine

Kuma asilhas Hooge and Rocha,       Marine
2006

Kuma belca Marcus, 1952             Marine

Kuma brevicauda Marcus, 1950        Marine

Mecynostomum tenuissimum            Marine
(Westblad, 1946)

Nadina evelinae (Marcus, 1952)      Marine

Otocelis erinae Hooge and Rocha,    Marine
2006

Paraproporus xanthus Marcus,        Marine
1950

Paratomella rubra Rieger and Ott,   Marine
1971

Philactinoposthia coneyi Hooge      Marine
and Rocha, 2006

Philactinoposthia stylifera         Marine
(Westblad, 1946)

Philocelis robrochai Hooge and      Marine
Rocha, 2006

Pseudactinoposthia daena            Mangrove
(Marcus, 1954)

Pseudanaperus tinctus (Marcus,      Marine
1952)

Pseudaphanostoma divae Marcus,      Marine
1952

Pseudaphanostoma herringi           Marine
Hooge and Rocha, 2006

Pseudokuma orphinum (Marcus,        Marine
1950)

Species                             Substratum

Amphiscolops evelinae Marcus,       Among algae
1947

Archaphanostoma marcusi Hooge       Sand
and Rocha, 2006

Avagina marci Dorjes e Karling,     Sand
1975

Childia etium (Marcus, 1954)        Coarse sand

Childia groenlandica (Levinsen,     Mud
1879)

Childia westbladi (Marcus, 1950)    Among algae

Convoluta hensen Bohmig, 1895       *

Deuterogonaria thauma (Marcus,      Among algae
1952)

Eumecynostomum evelinae             Among Ulva and
(Marcus, 1948)                      Enteromorpha/ mud

Faerlea antora Marcus, 1952         Mud

Haplocelis dichona (Marcus,         Sand
1954)

Haplogonaria pellita (Marcus,       Fine sand
1951)

Haplogonaria sophiae Hooge and      Muddy sand
Rocha, 2006

Haploposthia microphoca Marcus,     Among algae
1950

Heterochaerus carvalhoi (Marcus,    Muddy sand
1952)

Heterochaerus sargassi (Hyman,      Among algae Sargassum
1939)                               sp./ on rock coasts

Isodiametra divae (Marcus, 1950)    Muddy sand/coarse sand

Isodiametra westbladi (Marcus,      Sand
1949)

Isodiametra vexillaria (Marcus,     Sand
1948;

Kuma albiventer (Marcus, 1954)      Muddy sand

Kuma asilhas Hooge and Rocha,       Sand
2006

Kuma belca Marcus, 1952             Sand

Kuma brevicauda Marcus, 1950        Muddy sand

Mecynostomum tenuissimum            Mud
(Westblad, 1946)

Nadina evelinae (Marcus, 1952)      Among algae

Otocelis erinae Hooge and Rocha,    Fine sand
2006

Paraproporus xanthus Marcus,        Mud
1950

Paratomella rubra Rieger and Ott,   Fine sand
1971

Philactinoposthia coneyi Hooge      Sand
and Rocha, 2006

Philactinoposthia stylifera         Sand
(Westblad, 1946)

Philocelis robrochai Hooge and      Sand
Rocha, 2006

Pseudactinoposthia daena            Mud
(Marcus, 1954)

Pseudanaperus tinctus (Marcus,      Among algae
1952)

Pseudaphanostoma divae Marcus,      Sand
1952

Pseudaphanostoma herringi           Sand
Hooge and Rocha, 2006

Pseudokuma orphinum (Marcus,        Among Sargassum
1950)                               stenophyllum on rock
                                    coasts

* Planctonic organism.

Table 3. Species of Catenulida recorded for Brazil, with localities
of occurrence and type of environment and/or substratum where the
microturbellarians were found.

         Species                          Locality
 Catenula alitha Marcus,           Sao Paulo/SP; Parana/PR
           1945

Catenula evelinae (Marcus,              Sao Paulo/SP
          1945)

  Catenula lemnae Duges,        Sao Paulo/SP; Parana/PR; Sao
           1832                 Leopoldo/RS; Santo Antonio da
                               Patrulha/RS; Terra de Areia/RS;
                               Osorio/RS; Capivari do Sul/RS;
                             Balneario Pinhal/RS; Tramandai/RS;
                              Cachoeirinha/RS; Santo Antonio da
                                   Patrulha/RS; Camaqua/RS

  Catenula leuca Marcus,                Sao Paulo/SP
           1945

 Catenula macrura Marcus,               Sao Paulo/SP
           1945

Catenula sawayai (Marcus,          Sao Paulo/SP; Parana/PR
          1945)

     Catenula turgida                   Sao Paulo/SP
    (Zacharias, 1902)

    Chordarium cryptum                  Sao Paulo/SP
       Marcus, 1945

   Chordarium evelinae             Sao Paulo/SP; Parana/PR
       Marcus, 1945

  Chordarium leucanthum        Sao Paulo/SP; Parana/PR; Santo
       Marcus, 1945                Antonio da Patrulha/RS

Chordarium philum Marcus,               Sao Paulo/SP
           1945

Dasyhormus lasius Marcus,          Sao Paulo/SP; Parana/PR
           1945

  Dasyhormus lithophorus       Sao Paulo/SP; Parana/PR; Santo
       Marcus, 1945           Antonio da Patrulha/RS; Camaqua/
                                             RS

 Myostenostomum tauricum       Sao Paulo/SP; Cachoeirinha/RS;
      Nasonov, 1924             Santo Antonio da Patrulha/RS;
                                         Camaqua/RS

  Rhynchoscolex evelinae                Sao Paulo/SP
       Marcus, 1945

   Rhynchoscolex nanus        Sao Paulo/SP; Curitiba/PR; Santo
       Marcus, 1945           Antonio da Patrulha/RS; Camaqua/
                                             RS

  Rhynchoscolex platypus       Sao Paulo/SP; Santo Antonio da
       Marcus, 1945                      Patrulha/RS

  Rhynchoscolex pusillus                Sao Paulo/SP
       Marcus, 1945

  Rhynchoscolex simplex         Sao Paulo/SP; Terra de Areia/
       Leidy, 1851             RS; Osorio/RS; Capivari do Sul/
                               RS; Tramandai/RS; Cachoeirinha/
                              RS; Santo Antonio da Patrulha/RS;
                                         Camaqua/RS

 Stenostomum anatirostrum      Sao Paulo/SP; Santo Antonio da
       Marcus, 1945                Patrulha/RS; Camaqua/RS

   Stenostomum arevaloi        Sao Paulo/SP; Cachoeirinha/RS;
     Gieysztor, 1931            Santo Antonio da Patrulha/RS;
                                         Camaqua/RS

   Stenostomum amphotum       Sao Paulo/SP; Capivari do Sul/RS;
       Marcus, 1945           Cachoeirinha/RS; Santo Antonio da
                                   Patrulha/RS; Camaqua/RS

  Stenostomum bicaudatum         Sao Paulo/SP; Sao Leopoldo/
       Kennel, 1888              RS; Novo Hamburgo/RS; Nova
                               Tramandai/RS; Santo Antonio da
                               Patrulha/RS; Terra de Areia/RS;
                               Osorio/RS; Capivari do Sul/RS;
                              Cachoeirinha/RS; Santo Antonio da
                                   Patrulha/RS; Camaqua/RS

   Stenostomum ciliatum           Sao Paulo/SP; Parana/PR;
 Kepner and Carter, 1931      Cachoeirinha/RS; Santo Antonio da
                                   Patrulha/RS; Camaqua/RS

   Stenostomum corderoi                 Sao Paulo/SP
       Marcus, 1945

   Stenostomum cryptops                 Sao Paulo/SP
  Nuttycombe and Waters,
           1935

 Stenostomum glandulosum                Sao Paulo/SP;
 Kepner and Carter, 1931        Curitiba/PR; Cachoeirinha/RS.

Stenostomum grande Child,      Sao Paulo/SP; Curitiba/PR; Sao
           1902                  Leopoldo/RS; Novo Hamburgo/
                             RS; Terra de Areia/RS; Capivari do
                               Sul/RS; Cachoeirinha/RS; Santo
                              Antonio da Patrulha/RS; Camaqua/
                                             RS

       Stenostomum                        Belem/PA
  hemisphericum Nasonov,
           1924

   Stenostomum leucops           Sao Paulo/SP; Sao Leopoldo/
      (Duges, 1828)              RS; Novo Hamburgo/RS; Nova
                                Tramandai/RS; Terra de Areia/
                                RS; Osorio/RS; Tramandai/RS;
                              Balneario Pinhal/RS; Capivari do
                               Sul/RS; Cachoeirinha/RS; Santo
                              Antonio da Patrulha/RS; Camaqua/
                                             RS

  Stenostomum materazzoi                Sao Paulo/SP
       Marcus, 1949

 Stenostomum membranosum        Sao Paulo/SP; Cachoeirinha/RS
 Kepner and Carter, 1931

 Stenostomum paraguayense      Sao Paulo/SP; Cachoeirinha/RS;
      (Martin, 1908)          Cachoeirinha/RS; Santo Antonio da
                                   Patrulha/RS; Camaqua/RS

  Stenostomum pegephilum                Sao Paulo/SP
 (Nuttycombe and Waters,
          1938)

       Stenostomum             Sao Paulo/SP; Cachoeirinha/RS;
     pseudoacetabulum           Santo Antonio da Patrulha/RS;
  Nuttycombe and Waters,                 Camaqua/RS
           1938

  Stenostomum rosulatum                 Sao Paulo/SP
       Marcus, 1945

   Stenostomum saliens                  Sao Paulo/SP;
 Kepner and Carter, 1931           Curitiba/PR; Caioba/PR
                                 Cachoeirinha/RS; Camaqua/RS

   Stenostomum simplex                  Sao Paulo/SP
 Kepner and Carter, 1931

 Stenostomum tuberculosum               Sao Paulo/SP;
  Nuttycombe and Waters,        Campinas/SP; Cachoeirinha/RS;
           1938                 Santo Antonio da Patrulha/RS;
                                         Camaqua/RS

 Stenostomum uronephrium        Sao Paulo/SP; Cachoeirinha/RS
     Nuttycombe, 1931

       Stenostomum                      Sao Paulo/SP
      ventronephrium
     Nuttycombe, 1932

 Stenostomum virginianum      Sao Paulo/SP; Santa Rita do Passa
     Nuttycombe, 1931               Quatro/SP; Parana/PR

         Species                 Environment            Substratum
 Catenula alitha Marcus,     Freshwater (lentic)
           1945

Catenula evelinae (Marcus,   Freshwater (lentic)            --
          1945)

  Catenula lemnae Duges,     Freshwater (lentic)     Sand and mud/ on
           1832                                      macrophyte roots

  Catenula leuca Marcus,     Freshwater (lentic)            --
           1945

 Catenula macrura Marcus,    Freshwater (lentic)            --
           1945

Catenula sawayai (Marcus,     Freshwater (lentic            --
          1945)                   and lotic)

     Catenula turgida        Freshwater (lentic)            --
    (Zacharias, 1902)

    Chordarium cryptum       Freshwater (lentic)            --
       Marcus, 1945

   Chordarium evelinae       Freshwater (lentic)            --
       Marcus, 1945

  Chordarium leucanthum      Freshwater (lentic)            Mud
       Marcus, 1945

Chordarium philum Marcus,    Freshwater (lentic)            --
           1945

Dasyhormus lasius Marcus,    Freshwater (lentic)            --
           1945

  Dasyhormus lithophorus     Freshwater (lentic)            Mud
       Marcus, 1945

 Myostenostomum tauricum      Humid terrestrial             Mud
      Nasonov, 1924              environment/
                             Freshwater (lentic)

  Rhynchoscolex evelinae      Freshwater (lentic         On humid
       Marcus, 1945               and lotic)         macrophyte leaves
                                                     (Dumortiera sp.)

   Rhynchoscolex nanus       Freshwater (lentic)            Mud
       Marcus, 1945

  Rhynchoscolex platypus     Freshwater (lentic)            Mud
       Marcus, 1945

  Rhynchoscolex pusillus     Freshwater (lentic)            Mud
       Marcus, 1945

  Rhynchoscolex simplex       Humid terrestrial          Sand/ mud
       Leidy, 1851               environment/
                             Freshwater (lentic)

 Stenostomum anatirostrum     Freshwater (lentic            Mud
       Marcus, 1945               and lotic)

   Stenostomum arevaloi       Humid terrestrial             Mud
     Gieysztor, 1931             environment/
                             Freshwater (lentic)

   Stenostomum amphotum       Humid terrestrial             Mud
       Marcus, 1945              environment/
                             Freshwater (lentic)

  Stenostomum bicaudatum      Humid terrestrial      Mud and sand/ on
       Kennel, 1888              environment/        macrophyte roots
                             Freshwater (lentic)

   Stenostomum ciliatum       Humid terrestrial             Mud
 Kepner and Carter, 1931         environment/
                             Freshwater (lentic)

   Stenostomum corderoi      Freshwater (lentic)            --
       Marcus, 1945

   Stenostomum cryptops      Freshwater (lentic)       Bromeliaceae
  Nuttycombe and Waters,
           1935

 Stenostomum glandulosum     Freshwater (lentic)            Mud
 Kepner and Carter, 1931

Stenostomum grande Child,    Freshwater (lentic)     Mud and sand/ on
           1902                                      macrophyte roots

       Stenostomum                 Aquarium                 --
  hemisphericum Nasonov,
           1924

   Stenostomum leucops        Humid terrestrial      Mud and sand/ on
      (Duges, 1828)              environment/        macrophyte roots
                             Freshwater (lentic)

  Stenostomum materazzoi     Freshwater (lentic)         Dry pools
       Marcus, 1949

 Stenostomum membranosum     Freshwater (lentic)            Mud
 Kepner and Carter, 1931

 Stenostomum paraguayense     Humid terrestrial             Mud
      (Martin, 1908)             environment/
                             Freshwater (lentic)

  Stenostomum pegephilum      Freshwater (lotic)            --
 (Nuttycombe and Waters,
          1938)

       Stenostomum           Freshwater (lentic)            Mud
     pseudoacetabulum
  Nuttycombe and Waters,
           1938

  Stenostomum rosulatum      Freshwater (lentic)            Mud
       Marcus, 1945

   Stenostomum saliens       Freshwater (lentic)            Mud
 Kepner and Carter, 1931

   Stenostomum simplex       Freshwater (lentic)            Mud
 Kepner and Carter, 1931

 Stenostomum tuberculosum     Freshwater (lentic            Mud
  Nuttycombe and Waters,          and lotic)
           1938

 Stenostomum uronephrium     Freshwater (lentic)            Mud
     Nuttycombe, 1931

       Stenostomum           Freshwater (lentic)
      ventronephrium
     Nuttycombe, 1932

 Stenostomum virginianum      Humid terrestrial     On humid leaves of
     Nuttycombe, 1931            environment/        Bromeliaceae/sand
                             Freshwater (lentic)

-- No information.

Table 4. Species of Macrostomida recorded for Brazil, with localities
of occurrence and type of environment and/or
substratum where the microturbellarians were found.

           Species                           Locality

       Archimacrostomum          Caraguatatuba/SP; Sao Sebastiao/
 brasiliensis (Marcus, 1952)                    SP

       Archimacrostomum           Santos/SP; Sao Vicente/SP; Ilha
beaufortense (Ferguson, 1937)              das Palmas/SP

      Austromacrostomum                  Sao Sebastiao/SP
  mortenseni (Marcus, 1950)
  Karlingia lutheri (Marcus,           Guaruja/SP; Santos/SP
            1948)

  Macrostomum appendiculatum     Sao Sebastiao/SP; Caraguatatuba/
       Fabricius, 1826                          SP

     Macrostomum delphax          Sao Paulo/SP; Terra de Areia/RS
         Marcus, 1946

     Macrostomum evelinae                Sao Sebastiao/SP
         Marcus, 1946

   Macrostomum johni Young,         Santo Antonio da Patrulha/
             1972                 RS; Osorio/RS; Terra de Areia/
                                      RS; Capivari do Sul/RS;
                                  Cachoeirinha/RS; Santo Antonio
                                          da Patrulha/RS

   Macrostomum tuba Graff,          Sao Paulo/SP; Sao Leopoldo/
             1882                RS; Nova Petropolis/RS; Terra de
                                  Areia/RS; Osorio/RS; Balneario
                                    Pinhal/RS; Cachoeirinha/RS;
                                   Santo Antonio da Patrulha/RS;
                                            Camaqua/RS

     Macrostomum phocurum                Sao Sebastiao/SP;
         Marcus, 1954

    Microstomum gabriellae               Sao Sebastiao/SP
         Marcus, 1950

 Microstomum lineare (Muller        Terra de Areia/RS; Osorio/
          OF, 1773)                 RS; Tramandai/RS; Capivari
                                    do Sul/RS; Cachoeirinha/RS;
                                   Santo Antonio da Patrulha/RS;
                                            Camaqua/RS

    Microstomum trichotum                Sao Sebastiao/SP
         Marcus, 1950

   Microstomum ulum Marcus,              Sao Sebastiao/SP
             1950

    Microstomum breviceps                Sao Sebastiao/SP
         Marcus, 1951

    Microstomum rhabdotum                Sao Sebastiao/SP
         Marcus, 1951

   Myozona evelinae Marcus,              Sao Sebastiao/SP
             1949

           Species                   Environment

       Archimacrostomum                 Marine
 brasiliensis (Marcus, 1952)

       Archimacrostomum                 Marine
beaufortense (Ferguson, 1937)

      Austromacrostomum                 Marine
  mortenseni (Marcus, 1950)
  Karlingia lutheri (Marcus,            Marine
            1948)

  Macrostomum appendiculatum           Mangrove
       Fabricius, 1826

     Macrostomum delphax         Freshwater (lentic)
         Marcus, 1946

     Macrostomum evelinae               Marine
         Marcus, 1946

   Macrostomum johni Young,      Freshwater (lentic)
             1972

   Macrostomum tuba Graff,       Freshwater (lentic)
             1882

     Macrostomum phocurum              Mangrove
         Marcus, 1954

    Microstomum gabriellae              Marine
         Marcus, 1950

 Microstomum lineare (Muller     Freshwater (lentic)
          OF, 1773)

    Microstomum trichotum               Marine
         Marcus, 1950

   Microstomum ulum Marcus,             Marine
             1950

    Microstomum breviceps               Marine
         Marcus, 1951

    Microstomum rhabdotum               Marine
         Marcus, 1951

   Myozona evelinae Marcus,             Marine
             1949

           Species                      Substratum

       Archimacrostomum                 Humid sand
 brasiliensis (Marcus, 1952)

       Archimacrostomum                Among algae
beaufortense (Ferguson, 1937)

      Austromacrostomum          Coarse sand with Padina
  mortenseni (Marcus, 1950)        sp. and other algae
  Karlingia lutheri (Marcus,      Coarse sand with shell
            1948)                       fragments

  Macrostomum appendiculatum               Mud
       Fabricius, 1826

     Macrostomum delphax              On macrophyte
         Marcus, 1946             (Eichhornia crassipes)
                                          roots

     Macrostomum evelinae                  Sand
         Marcus, 1946

   Macrostomum johni Young,          Mud and sand/ on
             1972                    macrophyte roots

   Macrostomum tuba Graff,           Mud and sand/ on
             1882                    macrophyte roots

     Macrostomum phocurum                  Mud
         Marcus, 1954

    Microstomum gabriellae             Among algae
         Marcus, 1950               (Sargassum sp.) on
                                       rocky coast

 Microstomum lineare (Muller         Mud and sand/ on
          OF, 1773)                  macrophyte roots

    Microstomum trichotum         Among calcareous algae
         Marcus, 1950

   Microstomum ulum Marcus,       Coarse sand with algae
             1950                      (Padina sp.)

    Microstomum breviceps              Among algae
         Marcus, 1951               (Sargassum sp.) on
                                       rocky coast

    Microstomum rhabdotum              Among algae
         Marcus, 1951               (Sargassum sp.) on
                                       rocky coast

   Myozona evelinae Marcus,        Fine and coarse snad
             1949

Table 5. Species of Rhabdocoela recorded for Brazil, with localities
of occurrence and type of environment and/or substratum where the
microturbellarians were found.

           Species                         Locality

Dalytyphloplanida

Anoplodium evelinae               Santos/SP; Sao Sebastiao/SP
Marcus, 1949

Artinga evelinae                     Santos/SP; Guaruja/SP
Marcus, 1948

Baicalellia evelinae              Sao Paulo/SP; Umuarama/SP;
Marcus, 1946                          Campos do Jordao/SP

Brinkmanniella augusti                 Sao Sebastiao/SP
Marcus, 1951

Bothromesostoma evelinae        Sao Paulo/SP; Osorio/RS; Terra
Marcus, 1946                             de Areia/RS.

Bothromesostoma personatum      Cachoeirinha/RS; Santo Antonio
(Schmidt, 1848)                   da Patrulha/RS; Camaqua/RS

Byrsophlebs lutheri             Cananeia/SP; Sao Sebastiao/SP;
(Marcus, 1952)                          Sao Vicente/SP

Daelja secuta Marcus,                     Cananeia/SP
1951

Gieysztoria acariaia                     Sao Paulo/SP
(Marcus, 1946)

Gieysztoria bellis                       Sao Paulo/SP
(Marcus, 1946)

Gieysztoria complicata                    Curitiba/PR
(Fuhrmann,1912)

Gieysztoria cypris                       Sao Paulo/SP
(Marcus, 1946)

Gieysztoria evelinae                     Sao Paulo/SP
(Marcus, 1946)

Gieysztoria hymanae                      Sao Paulo/SP
(Marcus, 1946)

Gieysztoria intricata                    Sao Paulo/SP
(Marcus, 1946)

Gieysztoria ornata                Sao Paulo/SP; Tramandai/RS;
(Hofsten N, 1907)               Osorio/RS; Capivari do Sul/RS;
                                        Cachoeirinha/RS

Gieysztoria rubra                       Cachoeirinha/RS
(Fuhrmann, 1894)

Gieysztoria therapaina                Campos do Jordao/SP
(Marcus, 1946)

Gieysztoria thymara                      Sao Paulo/SP
(Marcus, 1946)

Gieysztoria tridesma               Sao Paulo/SP; Tremembe/SP
(Marcus, 1946)

Gieysztoria triquetra                  Terra de Areia/RS
(Fuhrmann, 1894)

Gieysztoria trisolena            Sao Paulo/SP; Cachoeirinha/RS
(Marcus, 1946)

Gieysztoria uncia                        Sao Paulo/SP
(Marcus, 1946)

Gyratrix hermaphroditus           Sao Paulo/SP; Curitiba/PR;
Ehrenberg, 1831                  Terra de Areia/RS; Balneario
                                Pinhal/RS; Capivari do Sul/RS;
                                Cachoeirinha/RS; Santo Antonio
                                  da Patrulha/RS; Camaqua/RS
Haloplanella ibla                      Sao Sebastiao/SP
Marcus, 1952

Kalyla gabriellae                 Sao Vicente/SP; Guaruja/SP
Marcus, 1951

Lenopharynx triops                     Sao Sebastiao/SP
Marcus, 1951

Lurus evelinae                             Santos/SP
Marcus, 1950

Microdalyellia sawayai             Botucatu/SP; Sao Paulo/SP
Marcus, 1946

Memyla phocanella                      Caraguatatuba/SP
Marcus, 1952

Mesostoma craci                        Belo Horizonte/MG
Schmidt, 1858

Mesostoma ehrenbergii            Sao Paulo/SP; Novo Hamburgo/
(Focke, 1836)                      RS; Nova Tramandai/RS;
                                  Terra de Areia/RS; Osorio/
                                   RS; Balneario Pinhal/RS;
                                Cachoeirinha/RS; Santo Antonio
                                  da Patrulha/RS; Camaqua/RS;
                                       Belo Horizonte/MG

Mesostoma lingua                  Osorio/RS; Cachoeirinha/RS;
(Abildgaard, 1789)               Santo Antonio da Patrulha/RS;
                                          Camaqua/RS

Mesostoma platycephalum         Cachoeirinha/RS; Santo Antonio
Braun, 1885                      da Patrulha/RS; Camaqua/RS

Mesostoma productum                  Sao Leopoldo/RS; Nova
(Schmidt, 1848)                 Tramandai/RS; Nova Petropolis/
                                    RS; Terra de Areia/RS;
                                Osorio/RS; Capivari do Sul/RS;
                                          Camaqua/RS

Nygulgus evelinae                         Itanhaem/SP
Marcus, 1954

Olisthanella opistomiformis              Sao Paulo/SP
Nasonov, 1924

Phaenocora bresslaui                     Sao Paulo/SP
Marcus, 1946

Phaenocora chloroxantha                  Sao Paulo/SP
Marcus, 1946

Phaenocora evelinae                      Sao Paulo/SP
Marcus, 1946

Phaenocora typhlops                     Cachoeirinha/RS
Vejdovsky, 1880

Phaenocora unipunctata                  Cachoeirinha/RS
(0rsted, 1843)

Pogaina suslica                        Sao Sebastiao/SP
(Marcus, 1951)

Pogaina tifa Marcus,                   Sao Sebastiao/SP
1954

Promesostoma scylax                    Sao Sebastiao/SP
Marcus, 1952

Ruanis pandula                         Sao Sebastiao/SP
Marcus, 1952

Strongylostoma dicorymbum                Sao Paulo/SP
Marcus, 1946

Temnocephala axenos                Blumenau/SC; Curitiba/PR;
Monticelli, 1889                  Porto Alegre/RS; Quarai/RS;
                                         Rio Grande/RS

Temnocephala brevicornis          Vicosa/MG; Juiz de Fora/MG;
Monticelli, 1889                  Teresopolis/RJ; Resende/RJ,
                                Angra dos Reis/RJ; Varginha/SP;
                                  Santa Tereza/ES; Viamao/RS

Temnocephala caddisflyi                Jaboticatubas/MG
Amato, Amato and

Seixas, 2011
Temnocephala curvicirri          Eldorado do Sul/RS; Viamao/RS
Amato and Amato, 2005

Temnocephala cyanoglandula             Cambara do Sul/RS
Amato et al., 2003

Temnocephala decarloi                  Serra do Cipo/MG;
Moretto, 1978                           Brumadinho/MG

Temnocephala haswelli             Porto Alegre/RS; Guaiba/RS;
Ponce de Leon, 1989                Eldorado do Sul/RS; Barra
                                  do Ribeiro/RS; Maquine/RS;
                                         Tramandai/RS

Temnocephala iheringi              Porto Alegre/RS; Barra do
Haswell, 1893                      Ribeiro/RS; Santa Vitoria
                                   do Palmar/RS; Guaiba/RS;
                                      Eldorado do Sul/RS;
                                          Maquine/RS;

                                   Salobra/MS; Guaicurus/MS
Temnocephala kingsleyae              Pedra do Marcirio/AP
Damborenea, 1994

Temnocephala lanei                   Santana do Riacho/MG;
Pereira and Cuoccolo,                     Juquia/SP.
1941

Temnocephala longivaginata               Peixe Boi/PA
Seixas et al., 2011

Temnocephala lutzi                Guaiba/RS; Porto Alegre/RS;
Monticelli, 1913                   Maquine/RS; Sao Jose dos
                                  Ausentes/RS; Rio Negro/AM;
                                 Lago do Prato/AM; Arquipelago
                                 das Anavilhanas/AM; Cachoeira
                                           Grande/AM
                                   Piracicaba/SP; Rio Amapa
                                           Grande/AP

Temnocephala microdactyla                     MG
Monticelli, 1903

Temnocephala minutocirrus          Maquine/RS; Sao Jose dos
Amato et al., 2007                        Ausentes/RS

Temnocephala pereirai                  Capao do Leao/RS
Volonterio, 2010

Temnocephala pignalberiae            Pocone/MT; Cuiaba/MT;
Dioni, 1967                              Bebedouro/SP

Temnocephala rochensis            Santa Vitoria do Palmar/RS;
Ponce de Leon, 1979              Jaguarao/RS; Sao Lourenco do
                                            Sul/RS

Temnocephala trapeziformis         Maquine/RS; Sao Jose dos
Amato et al., 2006                        Ausentes/RS

Temnocephala travassosfillioi     Serra da Cantareira/SP; Sao
Pereira and Cuoccolo, 1941            Bernardo do Cipo/SP

Trigonostomum lilliei              Santos/SP; Sao Vicente/SP
(Graff, 1911)

Trisaccopharynx pusa                   Sao Sebastiao/SP
(Marcus, 1952)

Kalyptorhynchia

Alcha evelinae Marcus, 1949       Santos/SP; Sao Sebastiao/SP

Carcharodorhynchus                     Sao Sebastiao/SP
brasiliensis
Reygel, Schockaert and
Artois, 2014

Cheliplana asica Marcus,         Cananeia/SP; Caraguatatuba/SP
1952

Cheliplana targa                           Santos/SP
(Marcus, 1952)

Harsa obnixa Marcus,            Cananeia/SP; Caraguatatuba/SP;
1951                                   Sao Sebastiao/SP

Itaipusa divae Marcus,            Santos/SP; Praia Grande/SP
1949

Itaipusa evelinae                 Sao Sebastiao/SP; Santos/SP
(Marcus, 1954)

Oneppus timius Marcus,               Caraguatatuba/SP; Sao
1952                                     Sebastiao/SP

Oneppus lacus Marcus,                     Itanhaem/SP
1954

Opisthocystis goettei           Cachoeirinha/RS; Santo Antonio
(Bresslau, 1906)                  da Patrulha/RS; Camaqua/RS

Paulodora felis                        Sao Sebastiao/SP
(Marcus, 1954)

Paulodora fredelyna                        Santos/SP
(Marcus, 1948)

Paulodora matarazzoi                       Santos/SP
Marcus, 1948

Paraustrorhynchus elixus          Santos/SP; Sao Sebastiao/SP
(Marcus, 1954)

Polycystis gabriellae                Santos/SP; Guaruja/SP
(Marcus, 1948)

Proschizorhynchella atopus             Sao Sebastiao/SP
(Marcus, 1950)

Rhinolasius sartus                        Cananeia/SP
Marcus, 1951

Schizorhynchoides                         Cananeia/SP
martae Marcus, 1950

Toia ycia Marcus, 1952                 Sao Sebastiao/SP

Trapichorhynchus tapes            Santos/SP; Sao Sebastiao/SP
Marcus, 1949

Utelga deina Marcus, 1949                  Santos/SP

           Species                  Environment

Dalytyphloplanida

Anoplodium evelinae                    Marine
Marcus, 1949

Artinga evelinae                       Marine
Marcus, 1948

Baicalellia evelinae            Freshwater (lentic)
Marcus, 1946

Brinkmanniella augusti                 Marine
Marcus, 1951

Bothromesostoma evelinae        Freshwater (lentic)
Marcus, 1946

Bothromesostoma personatum      Freshwater (lentic)
(Schmidt, 1848)

Byrsophlebs lutheri                    Marine
(Marcus, 1952)

Daelja secuta Marcus,                  Marine
1951

Gieysztoria acariaia            Freshwater (lentic)
(Marcus, 1946)

Gieysztoria bellis               Freshwater (lotic)
(Marcus, 1946)

Gieysztoria complicata          Freshwater (lentic)
(Fuhrmann,1912)

Gieysztoria cypris               Freshwater (lotic)
(Marcus, 1946)

Gieysztoria evelinae            Freshwater (lentic)
(Marcus, 1946)

Gieysztoria hymanae             Freshwater (lentic)
(Marcus, 1946)

Gieysztoria intricata           Freshwater (lentic)
(Marcus, 1946)

Gieysztoria ornata              Freshwater (lentic)
(Hofsten N, 1907)

Gieysztoria rubra               Freshwater (lentic)
(Fuhrmann, 1894)

Gieysztoria therapaina          Freshwater (lentic)
(Marcus, 1946)

Gieysztoria thymara              Freshwater (lotic)
(Marcus, 1946)

Gieysztoria tridesma             Freshwater (lentic
(Marcus, 1946)                       and lotic)

Gieysztoria triquetra           Freshwater (lentic)
(Fuhrmann, 1894)

Gieysztoria trisolena           Freshwater (lentic)
(Marcus, 1946)

Gieysztoria uncia               Freshwater (lentic)
(Marcus, 1946)

Gyratrix hermaphroditus         Freshwater (lentic)
Ehrenberg, 1831

Haloplanella ibla                      Marine
Marcus, 1952

Kalyla gabriellae                      Marine
Marcus, 1951

Lenopharynx triops                     Marine
Marcus, 1951

Lurus evelinae                         Marine
Marcus, 1950

Microdalyellia sawayai           Freshwater (lotic
Marcus, 1946                        and lentic)

Memyla phocanella                  Brackish water
Marcus, 1952                          (lotic)

Mesostoma craci                 Freshwater (lentic)
Schmidt, 1858

Mesostoma ehrenbergii           Freshwater (lentic)
(Focke, 1836)

Mesostoma lingua                Freshwater (lentic)
(Abildgaard, 1789)

Mesostoma platycephalum         Freshwater (lentic)
Braun, 1885

Mesostoma productum             Freshwater (lentic)
(Schmidt, 1848)

Nygulgus evelinae               Freshwater (lentic)
Marcus, 1954

Olisthanella opistomiformis     Freshwater (lentic)
Nasonov, 1924

Phaenocora bresslaui             Freshwater (lentic
Marcus, 1946                         and lotic)

Phaenocora chloroxantha          Freshwater (lentic
Marcus, 1946                         and lotic)

Phaenocora evelinae              Freshwater (lentic
Marcus, 1946                         and lotic)

Phaenocora typhlops             Freshwater (lentic)
Vejdovsky, 1880

Phaenocora unipunctata          Freshwater (lentic)
(0rsted, 1843)

Pogaina suslica                        Marine
(Marcus, 1951)

Pogaina tifa Marcus,                   Marine
1954

Promesostoma scylax                    Marine
Marcus, 1952

Ruanis pandula                         Marine
Marcus, 1952

Strongylostoma dicorymbum        Freshwater (lentic
Marcus, 1946                         and lotic)

Temnocephala axenos                  Freshwater
Monticelli, 1889

Temnocephala brevicornis        Freshwater (lentic)
Monticelli, 1889

Temnocephala caddisflyi          Freshwater (lotic)
Amato, Amato and

Seixas, 2011
Temnocephala curvicirri         Freshwater (lentic)
Amato and Amato, 2005

Temnocephala cyanoglandula      Freshwater (lentic)
Amato et al., 2003

Temnocephala decarloi           Freshwater (lentic)
Moretto, 1978

Temnocephala haswelli            Freshwater (lentic
Ponce de Leon, 1989                  and lotic)

Temnocephala iheringi            Freshwater (lentic
Haswell, 1893                        and lotic)

Temnocephala kingsleyae          Freshwater (lotic)
Damborenea, 1994

Temnocephala lanei               Freshwater (lotic)
Pereira and Cuoccolo,
1941

Temnocephala longivaginata       Freshwater (lotic)
Seixas et al., 2011

Temnocephala lutzi               Freshwater (lentic
Monticelli, 1913                     and lotic)

Temnocephala microdactyla        Freshwater (lotic)
Monticelli, 1903

Temnocephala minutocirrus        Freshwater (lotic)
Amato et al., 2007

Temnocephala pereirai           Freshwater (lentic)
Volonterio, 2010

Temnocephala pignalberiae        Freshwater (lentic
Dioni, 1967                         and lotic)

Temnocephala rochensis           Freshwater (lentic
Ponce de Leon, 1979                 and lotic)

Temnocephala trapeziformis       Freshwater (lotic)
Amato et al., 2006

Temnocephala travassosfillioi    Freshwater (lotic)
Pereira and Cuoccolo, 1941

Trigonostomum lilliei                  Marine
(Graff, 1911)

Trisaccopharynx pusa                   Marine
(Marcus, 1952)

Kalyptorhynchia

Alcha evelinae Marcus, 1949            Marine

Carcharodorhynchus                     Marine
brasiliensis
Reygel, Schockaert and
Artois, 2014

Cheliplana asica Marcus,           Brackish water
1952

Cheliplana targa                       Marine
(Marcus, 1952)

Harsa obnixa Marcus,             Freshwater (lotic)
1951                             and brackish water

Itaipusa divae Marcus,                 Marine
1949

Itaipusa evelinae                      Marine
(Marcus, 1954)

Oneppus timius Marcus,                 Marine
1952

Oneppus lacus Marcus,                  Marine
1954

Opisthocystis goettei           Freshwater (lentic)
(Bresslau, 1906)

Paulodora felis                        Marine
(Marcus, 1954)

Paulodora fredelyna                    Marine
(Marcus, 1948)

Paulodora matarazzoi                   Marine
Marcus, 1948

Paraustrorhynchus elixus               Marine
(Marcus, 1954)

Polycystis gabriellae                  Marine
(Marcus, 1948)

Proschizorhynchella atopus             Marine
(Marcus, 1950)

Rhinolasius sartus              Freshwater (lentic)/
Marcus, 1951                       brackish water

Schizorhynchoides                     Brackish
martae Marcus, 1950

Toia ycia Marcus, 1952                 Marine

Trapichorhynchus tapes                 Marine
Marcus, 1949

Utelga deina Marcus, 1949              Marine

           Species                 Substratum *

Dalytyphloplanida

Anoplodium evelinae                Holoturoidea
Marcus, 1949

Artinga evelinae                   Among algae
Marcus, 1948

Baicalellia evelinae                   Sand
Marcus, 1946

Brinkmanniella augusti             Among algae
Marcus, 1951

Bothromesostoma evelinae               Mud
Marcus, 1946

Bothromesostoma personatum             Mud
(Schmidt, 1848)

Byrsophlebs lutheri                Among algae
(Marcus, 1952)

Daelja secuta Marcus,              Areia lodosa
1951

Gieysztoria acariaia
(Marcus, 1946)

Gieysztoria bellis                On macrophyte
(Marcus, 1946)                        roots
                                 (Eichhornia sp.)
Gieysztoria complicata                 Mud
(Fuhrmann,1912)

Gieysztoria cypris                On macrophytes
(Marcus, 1946)                  (Myriophyllum sp.)
                                    and grass

Gieysztoria evelinae                   --
(Marcus, 1946)

Gieysztoria hymanae                    --
(Marcus, 1946)

Gieysztoria intricata                  Mud
(Marcus, 1946)

Gieysztoria ornata                 Mud and sand
(Hofsten N, 1907)

Gieysztoria rubra                      Mud
(Fuhrmann, 1894)

Gieysztoria therapaina             On riparian
(Marcus, 1946)                      vegetation

Gieysztoria thymara               On macrophytes
(Marcus, 1946)                  (Myriophyllum sp.)
                                    and grass

Gieysztoria tridesma                   --
(Marcus, 1946)

Gieysztoria triquetra                Mud/ on
(Fuhrmann, 1894)                   macrophytes

Gieysztoria trisolena                  Mud
(Marcus, 1946)

Gieysztoria uncia                      --
(Marcus, 1946)

Gyratrix hermaphroditus          Mud and sand/ on
Ehrenberg, 1831                  macrophyte roots

Haloplanella ibla                  Among algae
Marcus, 1952

Kalyla gabriellae                      Sand
Marcus, 1951

Lenopharynx triops                 Among algae
Marcus, 1951

Lurus evelinae                    Fine sand/ in
Marcus, 1950                     intertidal areas

Microdalyellia sawayai            On macrophytes
Marcus, 1946

Memyla phocanella                   Muddy sand
Marcus, 1952

Mesostoma craci                        --
Schmidt, 1858

Mesostoma ehrenbergii            Mud and sand/ on
(Focke, 1836)                    macrophyte roots
                                    and grass

Mesostoma lingua                       Mud
(Abildgaard, 1789)

Mesostoma platycephalum                Mud
Braun, 1885

Mesostoma productum              Mud and sand/ on
(Schmidt, 1848)                  macrophyte roots

Nygulgus evelinae                      Mud
Marcus, 1954

Olisthanella opistomiformis       On macrophytes
Nasonov, 1924

Phaenocora bresslaui              On macrophyte
Marcus, 1946                    roots (Eichhornia
                                    crassipes)

Phaenocora chloroxantha           On macrophyte
Marcus, 1946                    roots (Eichhornia
                                    crassipes)

Phaenocora evelinae               On macrophyte
Marcus, 1946                    roots (Eichhornia
                                    crassipes)

Phaenocora typhlops                    Mud
Vejdovsky, 1880

Phaenocora unipunctata                 Mud
(0rsted, 1843)

Pogaina suslica                     Fine sand
(Marcus, 1951)

Pogaina tifa Marcus,             Fine and coarse
1954                                   sand

Promesostoma scylax                Among algae
Marcus, 1952

Ruanis pandula                     Among algae
Marcus, 1952

Strongylostoma dicorymbum
Marcus, 1946

Temnocephala axenos                  Decapoda
Monticelli, 1889

Temnocephala brevicornis            Pleurodira
Monticelli, 1889

Temnocephala caddisflyi            Trichoptera
Amato, Amato and

Seixas, 2011
Temnocephala curvicirri             Hemiptera
Amato and Amato, 2005

Temnocephala cyanoglandula           Decapoda
Amato et al., 2003

Temnocephala decarloi               Hemiptera
Moretto, 1978

Temnocephala haswelli                Mollusca
Ponce de Leon, 1989

Temnocephala iheringi                Mollusca
Haswell, 1893

Temnocephala kingsleyae              Decapoda
Damborenea, 1994

Temnocephala lanei                  Hemiptera
Pereira and Cuoccolo,
1941

Temnocephala longivaginata           Decapoda
Seixas et al., 2011

Temnocephala lutzi                   Decapoda
Monticelli, 1913

Temnocephala microdactyla            Decapoda
Monticelli, 1903

Temnocephala minutocirrus           Hemiptera
Amato et al., 2007

Temnocephala pereirai               Pleurodira
Volonterio, 2010

Temnocephala pignalberiae            Decapoda
Dioni, 1967

Temnocephala rochensis               Mollusca
Ponce de Leon, 1979

Temnocephala trapeziformis           Decapoda
Amato et al., 2006

Temnocephala travassosfillioi        Decapoda
Pereira and Cuoccolo, 1941

Trigonostomum lilliei           Among green algae
(Graff, 1911)

Trisaccopharynx pusa               Among algae
(Marcus, 1952)

Kalyptorhynchia

Alcha evelinae Marcus, 1949        Among algae

Carcharodorhynchus                     Sand
brasiliensis
Reygel, Schockaert and
Artois, 2014

Cheliplana asica Marcus,            Sand/ mud
1952

Cheliplana targa                    Fine sand
(Marcus, 1952)

Harsa obnixa Marcus,                Sand/ mud
1951

Itaipusa divae Marcus,            Sand/ on algae
1949

Itaipusa evelinae                Coarse sand with
(Marcus, 1954)                        algae

Oneppus timius Marcus,              Sand/ mud
1952

Oneppus lacus Marcus,                  Mud
1954

Opisthocystis goettei                  Mud
(Bresslau, 1906)

Paulodora felis                    Coarse sand
(Marcus, 1954)

Paulodora fredelyna             Among green algae
(Marcus, 1948)

Paulodora matarazzoi            Among green algae
Marcus, 1948

Paraustrorhynchus elixus           Coarse sand
(Marcus, 1954)

Polycystis gabriellae           Among green algae
(Marcus, 1948)

Proschizorhynchella atopus          Fine sand
(Marcus, 1950)

Rhinolasius sartus                     Sand
Marcus, 1951

Schizorhynchoides                   Sand/ mud
martae Marcus, 1950

Toia ycia Marcus, 1952             Among algae

Trapichorhynchus tapes             Coarse sand
Marcus, 1949

Utelga deina Marcus, 1949       Among green algae

--No information. * For temnocephalids, the host organism
is indicated.

Table 6. Species of Prolecithophora, Lecithoepitheliata and
Revertospermata recorded for Brazil, with localities of occurrence
and type of environment and/or substratum where the microturbellarians
were found.

Species                                Locality

Lecithoepitheliata

Geocentrophora applanata        Campinas/SP; Caioba/PR
(Kennel, 1888)

Prorhynchus stagnalis         Curitiba/PR; Sao Paulo/SP;
Schultze, 1851               Terra de Areia/RS; Osorio/RS;
                            Capivari do Sul/RS; Balneario
                              Pinhal/RS; Tramandai/RS;
                            Cachoeirinha/RS; Santo Antonio
                              da Patrulha/RS; Camaqua/RS

Prolecithophora

Acmostomum canarium                   Santos/SP
Marcus, 1947

Cylindrostoma netsicum             Sao Sebastiao/SP
Marcus, 1950

Cylindrostoma ibeenum              Sao Sebastiao/SP
Marcus, 1950

Cylindrostoma monotrochum          Sao Sebastiao/SP
(Graff, 1882)

Cylindrostoma hyljeum              Sao Sebastiao/SP
Marcus, 1952

Einarhelmins musta                    Ubatuba/SP
(Marcus, 1952)

Monoophorum tigacum                Sao Sebastiao/SP
Marcus, 1950

Plagiostomum acoluthum                Santos/SP
Marcus, 1948

Plagiostomum autectum                 Santos/SP
Marcus, 1948

Plagiostomum clusum                Sao Sebastiao/SP
Marcus, 1951

Plagiostomum elachisterum            Guaruja/SP;
(Marcus, 1948)                        Santos/SP

Plagiostomum evelinae                Sao Paulo/SP
Marcus, 1946

Plagiostomum girardi                 Guaruja/SP;
girardi Westblad, 1956                 Santos/SP

Plagiostomum kurrum                Sao Sebastiao/SP
Marcus, 1951

Plagiostomum lapinum              Caraguatatuba/SP;
Marcus, 1952                       Sao Sebastiao/SP

Plagiostomum nonatoi                 Santos/SP;
Marcus, 1948                        Sao Vicente/SP

Plagiostomum remanei               Sao Sebastiao/SP
Marcus, 1954

Plagiostomum sagax                 Sao Sebastiao/SP
Marcus, 1951

Plagiostomum thelotrichum             Santos/SP
Marcus, 1951

Plicastoma astrum                     Santos/SP
Marcus, 1947

Plicastoma carvalhoi                  Santos/SP
Marcus, 1947

Plicastoma phocae                     Santos/SP
Marcus, 1947

Puzostoma evelinae                   Santos/SP;
Marcus, 1950                       Sao Sebastiao/SP

Rosmarium evelinae                 Sao Sebastiao/SP
Marcus, 1950

Thallagus divae                    Sao Sebastiao/SP
Marcus, 1951

Tuilica evelina                    Sao Sebastiao/SP
Marcus, 1951

Vorticeros cyrtum                     Santos/SP
Marcus, 1947

Revertospermata

Urastoma cyprinae                  Sao Sebastiao/SP
(Graff, 1882)

Species                        Environment          Substratum

Lecithoepitheliata

Geocentrophora applanata    Humid terrestrial    In Bromeliaceae
(Kennel, 1888)                 environment/
                            Freshwater (lotic)

Prorhynchus stagnalis           Freshwater       Mud and sand/on
Schultze, 1851                   (lentic)        macrophyte roots

Prolecithophora

Acmostomum canarium               Marine           Among algae
Marcus, 1947

Cylindrostoma netsicum            Marine           Among algae
Marcus, 1950                                     (Sargassum sp.)

Cylindrostoma ibeenum             Marine           Among algae
Marcus, 1950

Cylindrostoma monotrochum         Marine         Coarse sand with
(Graff, 1882)                                     Padina sp. and
                                                   other algae

Cylindrostoma hyljeum             Marine           Among algae
Marcus, 1952

Einarhelmins musta                Marine         Among algae and
(Marcus, 1952)                                      bryozoans

Monoophorum tigacum               Marine           Among algae
Marcus, 1950

Plagiostomum acoluthum            Marine           Among algae
Marcus, 1948

Plagiostomum autectum             Marine           Among algae
Marcus, 1948

Plagiostomum clusum               Marine           Coarse sand/
Marcus, 1951

Plagiostomum elachisterum         Marine           Among algae
(Marcus, 1948)

Plagiostomum evelinae       Freshwater (lotic
Marcus, 1946                   and lentic)

Plagiostomum girardi              Marine           Among algae
girardi Westblad, 1956

Plagiostomum kurrum               Marine           Among algae
Marcus, 1951

Plagiostomum lapinum              Marine           Among algae
Marcus, 1952

Plagiostomum nonatoi              Marine           Among green
Marcus, 1948                                     algae (Ulva sp.)
                                                  on rocky coast

Plagiostomum remanei              Marine         Coarse sand with
Marcus, 1954                                        Padina sp.

Plagiostomum sagax                Marine         Coarse sand with
Marcus, 1951                                        Padina sp.

Plagiostomum thelotrichum         Marine           Among algae
Marcus, 1951

Plicastoma astrum                 Marine               Sand
Marcus, 1947

Plicastoma carvalhoi              Marine           Among algae
Marcus, 1947

Plicastoma phocae                 Marine           Among algae
Marcus, 1947

Puzostoma evelinae                Marine           Among algae
Marcus, 1950

Rosmarium evelinae                Marine           Among algae
Marcus, 1950

Thallagus divae                   Marine           Coarse sand
Marcus, 1951

Tuilica evelina                   Marine           Among algae
Marcus, 1951

Vorticeros cyrtum                 Marine           Among algae
Marcus, 1947

Revertospermata

Urastoma cyprinae                 Marine           Among algae,
(Graff, 1882)                                      parasiting a
                                                     bivalve

--No information.

Table 7. Species of Proseriata recorded for Brazil, with localities
of occurrence and type of environment and/or substratum where the
microturbellarians were found.

Species                                   Locality

Bothrioplana semperi Braun,     Sao Paulo/SP; Santo Antonio
1881                             da Patrulha/RS; Camaqua/RS

Duplominona mica (Marcus,             Sao Sebastiao/SP
1951)

Duplominona tridens                   Sao Sebastiao/SP
(Marcus, 1954)

Inaloa scalopura (Marcus,          Sao Sebastiao/SP; Sao
1949)                                    Vicente/SP

Itaspis evelinae Marcus, 1952            Ubatuba/SP

Kata evelinae Marcus, 1949            Sao Sebastiao/SP

Kata leroda Marcus, 1950              Sao Sebastiao/SP

Meidiama lutheri Marcus,                 Guaruja/SP
1946

Mesoda gabriellae Marcus,             Sao Sebastiao/SP
1949

Mesoda thelura (Marcus,               Sao Sebastiao/SP
1951)

Minona divae Marcus, 1951            Rio de Janeiro/RJ

Minona evelinae Marcus,                  Guaruja/SP
1946

Monocelis tabira Marcus,        Santos/SP; Sao Sebastiao/SP;
1950                                 Rio de Janeiro/RJ

Necia sopha Marcus, 1950        Santos/SP; Sao Sebastiao/SP

Nematoplana asita Marcus,             Sao Sebastiao/SP
1950

Nematoplana naia Marcus,                 Santos/SP
1949

Parotoplana moya Marcus,              Sao Sebastiao/SP
1949

Peraclistus itaipus Marcus,              Santos/SP
1950

Philosyrtis eumeca Marcus,               Santos/SP
1950

Promonotus erinaceus                  Sao Sebastiao/SP
Marcus, 1950

Promonotus villacae Marcus,            Sao Vicente/SP
1949

Tabaota curiosa Marcus,               Sao Sebastiao/SP
1950

Togarma evelinae Marcus,              Sao Sebastiao/SP
1949

Vannuccia martae Marcus,                 Guaruja/SP
1948

Vannuccia talea Marcus,               Sao Sebastiao/SP
1954

Species                              Environment

Bothrioplana semperi Braun,      Freshwater (lentic)
1881

Duplominona mica (Marcus,               Marine
1951)

Duplominona tridens                     Marine
(Marcus, 1954)

Inaloa scalopura (Marcus,       Freshwater (lotic) and
1949)                                   marine

Itaspis evelinae Marcus, 1952           Marine

Kata evelinae Marcus, 1949              Marine

Kata leroda Marcus, 1950                Marine

Meidiama lutheri Marcus,
1946

Mesoda gabriellae Marcus,       Freshwater (lotic) and
1949                                    marine

Mesoda thelura (Marcus,                 Marine
1951)

Minona divae Marcus, 1951               Marine

Minona evelinae Marcus,                 Marine
1946

Monocelis tabira Marcus,                Marine
1950

Necia sopha Marcus, 1950                Marine

Nematoplana asita Marcus,               Marine
1950

Nematoplana naia Marcus,                Marine
1949

Parotoplana moya Marcus,                Marine
1949

Peraclistus itaipus Marcus,             Marine
1950

Philosyrtis eumeca Marcus,              Marine
1950

Promonotus erinaceus                    Marine
Marcus, 1950

Promonotus villacae Marcus,     Freshwater (lotic) and
1949                                brackish water

Tabaota curiosa Marcus,                 Marine
1950

Togarma evelinae Marcus,                Marine
1949

Vannuccia martae Marcus,                Marine
1948

Vannuccia talea Marcus,                 Marine
1954

Species                                Substratum

Bothrioplana semperi Braun,     Water with high organic
1881                              matter content/ mud

Duplominona mica (Marcus,                 Sand
1951)

Duplominona tridens                 Coarse sand with
(Marcus, 1954)                         Padina sp.

Inaloa scalopura (Marcus,                 Sand
1949)

Itaspis evelinae Marcus, 1952    Coarse or medium sand

Kata evelinae Marcus, 1949                Sand

Kata leroda Marcus, 1950               Fine sand

Meidiama lutheri Marcus,            Water with shell
1946                                   fragments

Mesoda gabriellae Marcus,                 Sand
1949

Mesoda thelura (Marcus,                Fine sand
1951)

Minona divae Marcus, 1951         Fine sand with shell
                                       fragments

Minona evelinae Marcus,             Sand with shell
1946                                   fragments

Monocelis tabira Marcus,               Fine sand
1950

Necia sopha Marcus, 1950              Among algae

Nematoplana asita Marcus,                 Sand
1950

Nematoplana naia Marcus,              Coarse sand
1949

Parotoplana moya Marcus,              Coarse sand
1949

Peraclistus itaipus Marcus,     In tubes of Terebellidae
1950

Philosyrtis eumeca Marcus,        Fine sand with shell
1950                                   fragments

Promonotus erinaceus             Sand on a river mouth
Marcus, 1950

Promonotus villacae Marcus,            Sand/ mud
1949

Tabaota curiosa Marcus,               Medium sand
1950

Togarma evelinae Marcus,              Coarse sand
1949

Vannuccia martae Marcus,            Sand with shell
1948                                   fragments

Vannuccia talea Marcus,            Coarse sand in the
1954                                intertidal zone
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Braccini, J.A.L.; Amaral, S.V.; Leal-Zanchet, A.M.
Publication:Brazilian Journal of Biology
Date:Apr 1, 2016
Words:10459
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