Microbiological and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in patients with chronic discharging ear disease.
The causative infection may be in the nose, paranasal sinuses or in the oropharynx, and can lead to ascending infection of the Eustachian tube.  In a discharging ear both topical and systemic therapy is employed to control infection. [3,4]
Due to irrational use of wide-spectrum antibiotics, problem of resistance become very common. So choice of antibiotics therapy depends on the organism isolated in the culture. 
MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a prospective observational study conducted in tertiary care centre, Ranchi, Jharkhand over 30 patients attended outdoor and indoor with ear discharge with signs and symptoms of chronic otitis media. Detailed history and examination were done. All patients having ear discharge for more than 3 months duration were included.
Commercially available single use cotton swabs were used to collect pus and care was taken to avoid surface contamination and swab was sent to microbiology department for bacteriological pattern and antibiotics susceptibility assessment. All micro-organism isolated were identified using standard microbiological methods, and their antimicrobial sensitivity performed using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method.
RESULT: There were total 30 patients of age ranged from 10 years to 60 years were included in the study. Male to female ratio is 21: 9.
Staphylococcus aureus were isolated in 22 cases followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 6 cases, while 2 cases showed coliforms. In total, Staphylococcus aureus were found susceptible to gentamicin and levofloxacin in 86.36% cases, ciprofloxacin in 81.81% cases followed by lomefloxacin in 77.27%, amikacin in 68.18%, ampicillin in 54.55%, erythromycin (18.18%), and cloxacillin (13.63%).
Drug susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, of total 6 isolates, 83.33% were found susceptible to amikacin, 66.67% to lomefloxacin, azithromycin to 50%, and 100% isolates were showed resistant to ciprofloxacin and cloxacillin.
Coliforms showed 100% resistance to amoxicillin and ampicillin while 100% susceptibility towards amikacin and gentamicin.
DISCUSSION: Usually the most common pathogen isolated around world in CSOM patient is Pseudomonas species and less commonly Staphylococcus species, [6,7] and coliforms, occasionally fungi and viruses. Some studies revealed to have higher incidence of CSOM among males than female,  but others have found female preponderance!9 Early bacteriological evaluation of isolates will assure accurate and effective therapy.
Ear swab microbiological studies of chronic discharging ear revealed that the most frequently isolated bacteria was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (30.96%), Staphylococcus aureus (29.65%), and coliform (14.2%).  and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (31.1%), Staphylococcus aureus (19.1%), Proteus species (7.7%), Klebsiella species (1%) and fungi. 
In our study, the most common pathogen isolated is Staphylococcus aureus (73.33%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20%) and coliforms (6.67%).
Some studies also revealed that the most common micro-organism isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (37.6%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (32.8%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (4%). E. coli (3.2%), streptococcus pneumoniae (1.6%) and Proteus mirabilis (0.8%). 
Staphylococcus aureus susceptibility with ciprofloxacin was 81. 81% in our study. In some of the study, susceptibility with ciprofloxacin was on lower side (55.3%) , and were on higher side (83.0%-95.0%). [13,14,15] Staphylococcus aureus were resistant with ampicillin in 45. 45% cases. But, in study at Rawalpindi by Aslam, et al  resistance with ampicillin and amoxicillin was found to be 77.2%.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed 83.33% sensitivity with amikacin, 66.67% with gentamicin in our study. Mirza, et al,  found sensitivity of 45% with gentamicin and 48% with amikacin. Tahir, et al,  observed sensitivity of 60% with gentamicin and 70% with amikacin.
In our study, Coliforms showed 100% sensitivity towards amikacin and gentamicin, and 100% resistance to ampicillin.
CONCLUSION: Our study showed, Staphylococcus aureus, most common organism isolated and susceptibility towards gentamicin was 86.36% and towards ciprofloxacin 81.81% and followed by Pseudomonas and Coliforms. The study showed increasing resistance to commonly used ant microbiological agents. Thus, evaluation of microbiological profile and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern will be helpful in prescribing specific antibiotics and preventing further emergence of resistance.
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Abhinav Paul Minj (1), Amit Kumar (2), Tarun Gurjar (3), Binod Kumar Sinha (4), Chandra Kant (5)
(1.) Abhinav Paul Minj
(2.) Amit Kumar
(3.) Tarun Gurjar
(4.) Binod Kumar Sinha
(5.) Chandra Kant
PARTICULARS OF CONTRIBUTORS:
(1.) Junior Resident-III, Department of ENT, RIMS, Ranchi.
(2.) Senior Resident, Department of ENT, RIMS, Ranchi.
(3.) Junior Resident-II, Department of ENT, RIMS, Ranchi.
FINANCIAL OR OTHER COMPETING INTERESTS: None
(4.) Assistant Professor, Department of ENT, RIMS, Ranchi.
(5.) Professor & Head, Department of ENT, RIMS, Ranchi.
NAME ADDRESS EMAIL ID OF THE CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Dr. Amit Kumar, Senior Resident, Department of ENT, RIMS, Ranchi-834009.
Date of Submission: 24/03/2015.
Date of Peer Review: 25/03/2015.
Date of Acceptance: 30/04/2015.
Date of Publishing: 08/05/2015.
TABLE 1: SEX DISTRIBUTION TYPE OF OTITIS MEDIA SEX NO. OF CASES % CSOM MALE 21 70 CSOM FEMALE 9 30 TABLE 2: STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBLE % RESISTANT % 1. GENTAMICIN 86.36 13.63 2. LEVOFLOXACIN 86.36 13.63 3. CIPROFLOXACIN 81.81 18.182 4. LOMEFLOXACIN 77.27 22.73 5. AMIKACIN 68.18 31.82 6. AMPICILLIN 54.55 45.45 7. ERYTHROMYCIN 18.18 81.82 8. SPARFLOXACIN 27.27 72.73 9. CLOXACILLIN 13.63 86.36 10. AZITHROMYCIN 13.63 86.36 TABLE 3: PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBLE% RESISTANT% 1. AMIKACIN 83.33 16.67 2. GENTAMICIN 66.67 33.33 3. LOMEFLOXACIN 66.67 33.33 4. AZITHROMYCIN 50 50 5. LEVOFLOXACIN 16.67 83.33 6. AMPICILLIN 16.67 83.33 7. CIPROFLOXACIN 0 100 8. CLOXACILLIN 0 100 TABLE 4: COLIFORMS ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBLE % RESISTANT % 1. AMOX/CLAV 0 100 2. AMPICILLIN 0 100 3. AMIKACIN 100 0 4. GENTAMICIN 100 0
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|Title Annotation:||ORIGINAL ARTICLE|
|Author:||Minj, Abhinav Paul; Kumar, Amit; Gurjar, Tarun; Sinha, Binod Kumar; Kant, Chandra|
|Publication:||Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences|
|Article Type:||Clinical report|
|Date:||May 11, 2015|
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