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Mental Health Issues in Young Adults of Pakistan: The Relationship of Narcissism and Self-Esteem With Aggression.

Byline: Moazama Anwar, Babak Mahmood and Muhammad Kashif Hanif

The current research was aimed to investigate the relationship between narcissism, self-esteem and aggression. Sample was comprised of 155 university students (84 men and 71 women). Narcissism Personality Inventory (NPI) (Raskin and Terry, 1988), Direct and Indirect Aggression Scale (DIAS: Bjorkqvist, Lagerspetz, and Osterman, 1992) and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES: Rosenberg, 1965) were used to measure the constructs of the study. Reliability analysis depicted that all the scales and their sub constructs have satisfactory alpha reliability coefficient. Pearson correlation shows that narcissism is positively associated with aggression, whereas self-esteem is negatively correlated withaggression. Significant gender differences are found in narcissism, as men scored significantly high than females. The research problems specify interventional strategies to limit the severity of narcissism and anger explosion in young adults.

Keywords: Narcissism, self-esteem, aggression

Narcissism is defined as the cognitive-affective preoccupation with the self (Westen, 1990). The concept of narcissism relate to "narcissus", the fabulous character that fell in love with his own reflection. Narcissism is seen as a personality trait classified as a psychological disorder. It originated from psychoanalysis and different theoretical framework of empirical research (American Psychiatric Association, 1994, 2000; Kohut, 1972; Levy, Ellison, and Reynoso, 2011;Miller and Campbell, 2008; Millon, 1997; Ronningstam, 2005).

For instance Freud (1932) as psychoanalyst explained narcissism as libido regulator. It is a type of attachment to the self that strengthen the positivity of the self by ignoring the feelings of warmth of others (Baranger, 1991). Furthermore, object relational theories of narcissism (Kernberg 1974, 1975; Kohut, 1977) focused on maladaptive and unreliable parental care giving practices such as excessive parental admiration and lack of realistic parental feedback as the key factors causing narcissism pathology. Likewise, these early pathological object relations lead individuals to develop ambivalent internalized mental images of the self and other that create pathological image of self, ideal self and ideal object (Kernberg, 1993).

Clinical description of Narcissism emphasizes the self-importance, egotism, overconfidence, and entitlement as key personality characteristics. People with this disorder totally focus on their own self and are preoccupied with how others perceive them (APA, 2000; Cain, Pincus, and Ansell, 2008; Ronningstam, 2005; Westen, 1990). Narcissistic people will mostly dismiss others needs of admiration, entitlement, blaming the others for their own failure (Farwell and Wohlwend-Lloyd, 1998), willingness to exploit others (Buss and Chiodo, 1991) and show lack of interest in affectionate and intimate interpersonal relationships (Campbell, Rudich, and Sedikides, 2002).

Narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability are two interrelated themes (Cain et al., 2008). Overconfidence, exhibitionism, publicity, and exploitativeness are characteristic of narcissistic grandiosity. Self-interest, defensiveness, uncertainty, and resentfulness are characteristic of vulnerability (Pincus and Lukowitsky, 2010; Miller and Campbell, 2008; Wink, 1991).

Empirical researches on narcissistic personality have revealed that people differ in two independent dimensions of narcissism, i.e., grandiosity and vulnerability. Both dimensions of narcissism predict egotistical, confrontational, and opportunistic tendencies in a person. The characteristics to show-off, being egoistic and assertive fall in the dimension of grandiosity while the vulnerability dimension includes characteristics of being argumentative, bitter, and self-protective. Many researchers have investigated these distinct dimensions to identify relationship with other personality traits. Authority, low emotional distress, and high self-esteem are linked to grandiosity where as High emotional distress and low self-esteem is related to vulnerability. However, entitlement and dismissive tendencies are associated with both dimensions (Glover, Miller, and Lynam, 2012; Krizan and Johar, 2012; Miller et al., 2011; Rathvon and Holstrom, 1996; Wink, 1991).

In the last few decades, the construct narcissism has been widely explored in the field of psychology (Cain et al., 2008; Miller and Campbell, 2008; Pincus and Lukowitsky, 2010). Social and personality psychology looked into the complex information about the construct of narcissism. On the one hand, the construct is associated with the psychological health, but in contrast it is associated with aggression and impaired interpersonal relationship (Sedikides, Rudich, Gregg, Kumashiro, and Rusbult, 2004; Wallace, Ready, and Weitenhagen, 2009; Campbell, Foster, and Finkel, 2002; Locke, 2009; Raskin, Novacek, and Hogan, 1991).

Numerous studies have shown contrary findings related to the link between narcissism and self-esteem and narcissism and aggression. This study is designed to measure the relationship between narcissism, self-esteem, and aggression. The basic purpose is to find the connections between confusing concepts, self-love or hate to establish the relationship of aggression with narcissism and self-esteem tendencies.

Narcissism and Aggression

Freud (1932) explained the relationship between narcissism and aggression by assuming that self-preoccupied people are aggressive towards others. Other psychoanalysts' clinical observations found potential link between aggression, and narcissism. They suggested that the vicious cycle of hostility, shame, and immediate aggression is result of narcissistic self-absorption (Alexander, 1938; Jacobson, 1964). Narcissistic rage is the vulnerable senses of self which results in dejection and shame that fuel aggression, bitterness, and cruelty (Kohut, 1972). Moreover, narcissistic rage is immature and dysfunctional because it is inconsistent or misdirected. Narcissistic individuals exhibit patterns of rage and feeling of rejection that opens childhood wounds or events that contradict with one's sense of uniqueness and rareness (Kernberg, 1975; Millon, 1997). They react to inter-personal affairs with disregard, rage, or rebellious counterattack (APA, 1994).

Many psychoanalytic researchers suggest that narcissistic personality lead toward intense aggression and hostility (Alexander; 1938; Freud, 1991). Baumeister, Smart, and Boden, (1996) concluded that exaggerated, grandiose, or baseless favorable views of self are the basic cause of aggression. In addition, narcissism is the etiological factor that predicts aggression in aggressive children (Barry et al., 2007). In the same context, Raskin, Novacek, and Hogan, (1991) demonstrated positive correlation between narcissism, aggression and hostility. Wink (1991) related narcissism to intense emotional liability and strong reactions. These include aggression and rage that might increase aggressive tendencies. Furthermore, Rhodewalt and Morf (1995) found a significant correlation between narcissism and hostility. They suggested that people show excessive aggression toward others when they fail to find the appropriate feedback of their success.

Self-esteem and Agression

Baumeister, Campbell, and Krueger (2003) studied the link between aggression and global self-esteem showed that people with low self-esteem are prone to real world externalizing problems such as law-breaking and antisocial behavior (Fergusson and Horwood, 2002; Sprott, and Doob, 2000; Rosenberg, Schooler, and Schoenbach, 1989). On the other hand, some studies failed to establish the relationship between low self-esteem and externalizing problems (Bynner, O'Malley, and Bachman, 1981; Jang and Thornberry, 1998; McCarthy and Hoge, 1984). Baumeister and his colleagues (1996) have identified the link between self-esteem and aggression. They suggested this link occur at the high end of the self-esteem continuum. Other researchers have shown that unrealistic high self-esteem relates to aggression and crime. Rosenberg recommended that low self-esteem weakens the connectivity of people with their society (Rosenberg, 1965).

According to the social-bonding theory, this decreases conformity with societal norms which leads to delinquency (Hirschi, 1969). Rogers (1957) assumed that lack of unconditional positive regard is linked to the most of the psychological problems such as repression of actual feeling, masked self-image, lack of self-esteem and incongruence in self and ideal image (Rogers, Stevens, Gendlin, Shlien, and Dusen, 1967; Rogers, 1957). Horney (1950) and Adler (1956) assumed that feeling of inferiority in childhood makes people aggressive and anti-social. Tracy and Robins (2003) suggested that individuals use externalizing blame to protect their feelings of hostility, and therefore express their aggression and hostility toward other people. Baumeister et al. (1996) proposed that aggressive behavior is the result of positive exaggerated view of self. However, some people with high self-esteem are unusually nonaggressive.

Narcissism and Self-Esteem

The relationship between narcissism and self-esteem can be conceptualized by several possible ways. Studies have indicated that narcissism is basically the exaggerated form of self-esteem (Kohut, 1972). Kernis, Grannemann, and Barclay (1989) proposed unstable high self-esteem is the sub-category of narcissism that leads people toward hostility. Alternatively, traditional conceptualizations explained narcissism as a defensive mask to hide the feeling of insecurity about oneself (Kernberg, 1975; Reich, 1960) and indicate feeling of low self-esteem. However, some personality theorists have made distinction between narcissism and high self-esteem by suggesting that high self-esteem is a self-evaluative construct and is manifested as a person simply thinking well of him or herself (Bushman and Baumeister, 1998).

On the other hand, narcissism seems to be both an evaluative and a motivational construct that is manifested as a desire to think well of oneself and to have others show the same high regard for one's worth (Bushman and Baumeister, 1998; Raskin and Terry, 1988; Rhodewalt, Madrian, and Cheney,1998). In the same context, Campbell et al. (2002) found positive correlation between narcissism and self esteem and recommended grandiose self view as major trait of narcissistic personality.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder, Self-Esteem, and Aggression

In 1994, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders third edition, first time introduced Narcissistic personality disorder with features of inflated self esteem, grandiosity and lack or empathy (DSM-IV, 2000). The prevalence of narcissistic personality disorder is varying across culture, age and gender (Campbell et al., 2002) and men are diagnosed more with NPD as compared to females. Preceding literature discovered strong positive relationship between NPD, a aggression and Self-esteem as Baumeister, Bushman, and Campbell (2000) concluded that inflated self-esteem and expressed aggression are basic personality traits found in Narcissistic people. Moreover, people having NPD, are more aggressive and show both implicit and explicit aggression expression (Campbell, Bosson, Goheen, Lakey, and Kernis, 2007).

Furthermore, McCann and Blaggio (1989) studied the narcissistic personality features and self-reported aggression in 91 university students and concluded that men score higher on verbal and physical anger along with narcissistic features as compared to females.

The present study was designed to investigate the real cause of externalizing aggression in Young adulthood. Young adulthood is critical period in human development (Santrock, 2001) and identified as a period of severe psychological and emotional stressors (Durham, 1999). Therefore there is need to find the etiology of psychological and emotional problem. Their research attempts to advance previous research in this area by providing indigenous evidence about adult aggression and its relation to narcissism and self esteem. So far there is limited indigenous literature that studied the link between narcissism, aggression and self esteem. Earlier studies investigated narcissism and self-esteem in relation to faces book addiction; self esteem is also studied in relation to subjective wellbeing. Moreover, the indigenous researches conducted on narcissism in an organizational context in relation with impression management motives and work place aggression.

Such as research has been conducted about the impact of extroversion and narcissism on role and extra role performance (Qureshi, Ashfaq, Hassan and Imdadullah, 2015) which found positive correlation between extraversion and narcissism. However, present research explores the etiological perspectives by giving importance to psychopathology of the aggression in relation to narcissism and self-esteem. It tests some potential explanations for the association between narcissism, aggression and self-esteem, such as whether self-esteem and narcissism predict aggression in adults or either there is any gender difference in the expression of aggression, self esteem and narcissism. The results provide insight whether self-love or self-hate lead people towards aggression.

The key objectives of this study are:

1. To analyze the relationship between narcissism, self esteem and aggression.

2. To find out gender differences in narcissism, self-esteem and aggression.

Hypotheses

1. Narcissism is likely to be positively correlated with self-esteem and aggression.

2. There is likely to be an inverse relationship between self-esteem and aggression.

3. There are likely to be gender differences in narcissism, self-esteem and aggression.

Method

Sample

The sample of study comprised of undergraduate and graduate students (N = 155) both men (n = 84) and women (n = 71). Age of sample ranged from 18 to 24 years (M =21.40, SD = 2.10). Data was collected from a public university.

Assesment Measures

Following were the instruments used in current study along with demographic Performa.

Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Narcissistic Personality Inventory of 40 item version developed by Raskin and Hall (1979, 1981) was used in current study. It comprise of seven component: (a) Authority, (b) Self-Sufficiency, (c) Superiority, (d) Exhibitionism, (e) Exploitativeness, (f) Vanity, and (g) Entitlement. Alpha coefficient reported by authors is.83 for total scale and for current study it is.95.

The Direct and Indirect Aggression Scale. The Direct and Indirect Aggression Scales (DIAS) measure indirect, verbal and physical aggression. DIAS was developed by Bjorkqvist and his colleague (1992). It contains 24 questions with 5 point likert sacle for each item ranging from "0 = never, to 4 = very often". Previouly computed Alpha reliability analsis by Bjorkqvist for physical, verbal and indirect anggression subsclaes were (.93,.92 and.93).For present study alpha relibilty is (.87,.85,.91) respectively for physical, verbal, and indirect aggression subsclaes.

Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. A 10-items Likert scale that was used to measure both positive and negative feelings of person about his global self-worth. The scale is supposed to be unidimensional. All items are answered using a 4-point Likert scale format ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Higher scores show higher self-esteem level (Rosenberg, 1965). This scale showed satisfactory reliability of.70 for the present study.

Procedure

Data was collected from university students after getting permission of university administration and heads of department. The objectives of the study were briefly explained to take informed consent from the participants. Scales of the study were provided in English to participants along with written and verbal instructions. They were ensured the confidentiality of their information to foster their honesty and to reduce their hesitation.

Results

Table 1 Descriptive Statistics, Alpha Reliability Coefficient, and Univariate Normality of Scales (N = 155).

###Range

Variables###k###M###SD###a###Skewness

###Potential###Actual

NPI###40###58.40###9.36###.95###1-2###1.3-1.6###.29

###AUT###8###11.68###2.22###.70###1-2###1.3-1.5###.25

###SEL###6###8.61###1.33###.60###1-2###1.3-1.5###.05

###SUP###5###7.27###1.33###.79###1-2###.24-.25###.14

###EXH###7###10.37###1.36###.86###1-2###.24-.25###.17

###EXP###5###6.86###2.40###.99###1-2###.23-.24###.52

###VAN###3###4.53###1.49###.99###1-2###.25-.26###-.05

###ENT###6###9.05###2.99###.99###1-2###.23-.25###-.03

DID###24###45.52###2.93###.95###0-4###1.3-2.4###-.62

###VER###5###33.91###5.69###.85###0-4###14-1.9###-.08

###PHY###7###9.62###5.03###.87###0-4###1.3-2.4###-.18

###IND###12###22.8###10.23###.91###0-4###1.0-1.7###-.22

SEE###10###30.24###4.19###.70###0-3###.43-1.89###-.16

Table 1 shows internal consistency index (alpha coefficients) for all scales and subscale used in the study. This table illustrates that all scales and sub-scales achieved satisfactory alpha level.

Table 2 Correlation Matrix for All the Variables Used in the Study (N = 155)

Variable###1###2###3###4###5###6###7###8###9###10###11###12###13

NPI###--###.95**###.59**###.56**###.16*###.74**###.83**###.83**###.27*###.02###.29*###.31**###.32**

###AUT###--###--###.53**###.49**###.03###.77*###.77**###.76**###.03###.01###.27*###.08###.08

###SEL###--###--###--###.40**###-.06###.36**###38**###.38**###.06###.03###.05###.07###.06

###SUP###--###--###--###--###.05###.40**###.27**###.28**###.04###.06###.06###.03###-.02

###EXH###--###--###--###--###--###.16*###-.06###-.06###.14###.09###.16###.14###.03

###EXP###--###--###--###--###--###--###.35**###.34**###.26*###.04###.28*###.06###.01

###VAN###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###99**###.00###.02###.02###.01###.14

###ENT###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###.01###.01###.01###.13###.14

DID###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###.93**###.93**###.99**###-.34**

###VER###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###.78**###.88**###-.07

###PHY###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###.89**###.03

###IND###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###-.27**

SEE###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###--###--

Inter-variable correlation of narcissism, self-esteem, and aggression (direct and indirect) and their subscales is illustrated table 2. Table depicts that NPI, DIAS and their sub-scales have significant correlation with each other. The result shows narcissism has significant positive correlation with direct and indirect aggression scale and their sub scales (physical and Indirect aggression). The authority and exploitative sub-constructs of narcissism have significant positive correlation with physical aggression construct. The self-esteem has significant positive correlation with narcissism and has significant negative correlation with aggression.

Table 3 Multiple Regression Analysis for Narcissism, Self-Esteem, Predicting Aggression (N = 155)

Variables###b###DR2###F(Model)

Narcissism###.24**###.03###6.3**

Self-Esteem###-.17*

Table 3 manifests a statistically significant model. It is evident from the table that Narcissism is a significant positive predictor of aggression (b =.24, t = 3.2, p <.01) whereas Self-esteem is a significant negative predictor of aggression (b = -.17, t = 3.9, p <.05) and contributes for 3.0% variance in Model.

Table 4 shows that overall men scored significantly higher than women on narcissism scale. Men scored higher on the authority, superiority, and expolotativeness sub-constructs of narcissism. women scored significantly high on self-efficacy, vanity, and entitlement. This table illustrate that there is no mean difference on direct and indirect aggression and self-esteem.

Table 4 Means, Standard Deviations and t-Value of Gender on Narcissistic, Self-Esteem, and Aggression (N = 155).

###95% Confidence Interval of###Cohen's

Sub-scales###Gender###M###SD###t(157)###the Difference###d

###Lower###Upper

Narcissistic###Men###64.5###8.08

###10.4***###-14.3###.97###1.60

Personality###Women###52.9###6.27

###Men###13.2###1.83

Authority###10.4***###3.41###2.32###1.77

###Women###10.2###1.53

###Men###7.82###7.82

Self-Efficacy###10.5***###1.85###2.05###1.02

###Women###9.52###9.54

###Men###8.23###1.15

Superiority###11.0***###.09###2.09###1.45

###Women###6.46###1.10

###Men###10.4###1.30

Exhibitionism###.302###.62###3.70###.07

###Women###10.3###1.44

###Men###8.16###2.39

Expolotativeness###7.15***###.41###3.07###1.12

###Women###5.78###1.79

###Men###4.02###1.42

Vanity###4.97***###.09###3.12###1.00

###Women###5.16###1.35

###Men###8.02###2.83

Entitlement###.54###.62###1.56###0.75

###Women###10.1###2.71

Direct and Indirect###44.5###21.1

###Men###.65###4.12###2.41###0.10

Aggression###46.7###20.8

Physical###Women###12.7###6.65

###.82###2.92###1.20###0.18

Aggression###Men###13.9###6.60

###Women###9.39###5.15

Verbal Aggression###.62###2.11###1.09###0.10

###Men###9.90###4.94

###Women###22.5###10.4

Indirect Aggression###.51###4.12###2.41###0.12

###Men###23.4###10.0

###Women###20.8###3.67

Self-Esteem###.33###2.05###1.40###0.19

###Men###21.5###3.60

Discussion

Findings of the present study demonstrated support for the first hypothesis of the study which stated that narcissism will be positively correlated with self-esteem and aggression. Results of correlation and regression analysis suggested that narcissism is indeed positively related with self-esteem and aggression. There was consistent evidence from preceding literature regarding to the relationship of narcissism, self-esteem and aggression. Such as Baumeister et al., (1996) concluded the same results that people who have inflated, grandiose, or unjustified favorable views of self are more likely be aggressive, and intolerant.In conjuction of this, psychanlytic and object relational theratical explanation of narcissam, hostility and aggression (Freud, 1932) profoundly supported current results.

These approach postulated that rejected,inconsistence and bitter interpersonal relation in childhood along with self absorbtion of shame, dejection and doubt developed the vicious cycle of hostility,aggression and expolitativeness that fuel the anger, bitterness, rage, rebelliouness and cruelty in narcissistic people (Alexander, 1938; Jacobson, 1964; Kohut, 1972; Kernberg, 1975).

Furthermore, the authority and exploitative sub-constructs of narcissism have significant positive correlation with verbal aggression. Findings support the extensive previous literature regarding narcissism and aggression (Campbell, Bonacci, Shelton, Exline, and Bushman, 2004; Konrath, Bushman, and Campbell, 2006; Reidy, Zeichner, Foster, and Martinez, 2008) that narcissism is related to grandiosity. Grandiose people have tactic to show their instrumental aggression and manipulating others (Barry, and Malkin, 2010). In the same context Pakistani research on narcissistic tendencies, forgiveness and empathy as Predictors of social connectedness in students concluded that narcissistic people failed to show empathy and social connectedness and forgiveness (Alam, Rafique, and Anjum, 2007). Therefore, we can say narcissistic people have feelings of superiority, grandiosity, and dominating behavior that direct them to reveal narcissistic exploitativenees and entitlement (Martinez, Zeichner, Reidy, and Miller, 2008).

The second hypothesis of this study proposed that self-esteem has significant positive correlation with narcissism and an inverse relationship with aggression. Our findings of correlation and regression analysis present an absolute support for this hypothesis as well as strongly supported by previous literature.Such as Prior research concluded that narcissism is basically the exaggerated form of one's own unstable self-esteem (Kernis et al., 1989). Rhodewalt, Madrian and Cheney (1998) found high correlation between narcissism and self-esteem. They concluded narcissism is the result of unstable high self-esteem. Furthermore,Sociometric theory conceptual model support the presentt study results by postulating that excessive and biased interpersonal and intrapersonal group support, acceptance and admiration is the foundation of inflamated self-esteem and concequently make people narcisstic (Leary and Downs, 1995).

Moreover,the social behavior of narcissists may be geared toward maximizing self-esteem in the quest to validate their grandiose self-image (Morf and Rhodewalt, 1993). Furthermore, Rose and Campbell (2004) concluded, people having narcissistic personality disorder directly associate themselves to behavior that enhance their self-esteem and self worth. Current research finding reveled inverse relation in self-esteem and aggression which supports Rosenberg (1965) findings, that low self esteem weakens the ties with the society and lead people to show delinquent behavior. Findings of the study are also consistent with the Rogers (1957) that lack of unconditional positive regards lead people to psychological problems including aggression. Furthermore, it is assumed that individual protect themselves from inferiority and feelings of shame by externalizing their blame of failure to others which leads to hostility and aggression towards other people (Tracy and Robins, 2003).

In the same context Pakistani research on aggression as a subsequent response to hopelessness feelings of infertility (Sultan, 2009) concluded that hopelessness and low self-esteem as a result of infertility engage people more in aggressive behavior. Moreover, it is conceptualized that low self-esteem and narcissism are the opposite end of same continuum (Baumeister et al., 1996). The result depicts narcissism and self-esteem separately affects the etiology of aggression.

Our third hypothesis proposed that adult males will score higher on narcissism and self-esteem as compared to their female counterparts. Findings regarding the gender differences indicated that males score high for authority, superiority, and exploitative sub-constructs. Females have high score for self-efficacy, exhibitionism, and vanity sub-constructs. The results are supported by the preceding findings (McCann and Blaggio, 1989: Tschanz, Morf, and Turner, 1998) that male scored high on expolitativeness and entitlement items of NPI than female. In the same context McCann and Biaggio (1989) concluded that male having narcissistic personality features scored high on expressed aggression and self esteem than female. Furthermore, Emmons (1984) suggested women have low slef-esteem and score low on exploitative sub-construct due to negative social sanctions and panelized for demonstration of this type of behavior (Tschanz et al. 1998; Rohmann, Neumann, Herner, and Bierhoff, 2012).

Males are more motivated to show authority which is consistent with this study finding (Eagly, Karau, Miner, and Johnson, 1994). Females scored high for exhibitionism and vanity components which solidify by previous research findings that women are preoccupied with their own physical appearance (Fredrickson, Roberts, Noll, Quinn, and Twenge, 1998).

Moreover, In the same context, Campbell and Colleagues (2002) conceptualized the narcissistic gender difference in conjunction with social role theory. They concluded that elevated male agency characteristics such as assertiveness,competitiveness, a need for achievement and dominance (Luchner, Houston, Walker, and Houston, 2011) make them more narcissistic as compared to female communal characteristics such as maintenance and amplification of social relationships (Campbell and Foster, 2007; Campbell and Green, 2008). In the same context, research on factor structure of the narcissistic personality inventory by Corry, Merritt, Mrug, and Pamp (2008) concluded that narcissistic personality symptomology resembles more to male masculine sex role stereotypic characteristic, including strong need of power, authoritative leadership style and physical expression of anger.

Likewise, the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2008) concluded that lifetime prevalence of narcissistic personality disorder is greater in male as compared to female (Stinson et al., 2008).

Conclusion. The results show that narcissism construct is positively correlated with aggression in university students. The NPI sub-construct authority and exploitative have significant positive correlation with sub-components of direct and indirect aggression such as verbal anger. Moreover, the result indicates that self-esteem has significant positive correlation with narcissism and has significant negative correlation with aggression. Furthermore, present research results depicted that male scored high on narcissism and self-esteem as compared to female.

Limitations and Suggestions. The generalizability of findings of the current study is limited because the sample was only restricted to the young adults of a single public university, and, as such, was not representative of the general population. Therefore, replication of this study with other groups and variables is important. Moreover, the age range of current analysis was 18 to 24 years. It is a limitation that we were not able to include samples from across the full life span, particularly samples of adults over the age of 24.Although, the current study revealed a gender difference, but the supplementary investigation is needed to examine the narcissism gender difference across a wider age range. Furthermore, birth order of students, socioeconomic status and education were not taken into account. Future studies should include all such factors as well.

Implications. This work does have definite practical implications in helping educationist, counselors, clinical psychologist to resolve the narcissistic and anger related issues of university population.

Furthermore, the finding of research guides students to execute appropriate anger management techniques to control their direct and indirect aggression explosion.

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