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Memorandum on the future of theological education in Asia ETE Reference Document 2011.

Theological Education Is a Backbone for Integral Church Development and Authentic Christian Mission in Asian Contexts

The WCC global study report on theological education, published as part of the Edinburgh 2010 assembly, underlined the conviction that
 theological education is the seedbed for the
 renewal of churches, their ministries and
 mission and their commitment to church
 unity in today's world. If theological education
 systems are neglected or not given their
 due prominence in church leadership, in
 theological reflection and in funding, consequences
 might not be visible immediately,
 but quite certainly will become manifest after
 one or two decades in terms of theological
 competence of church leadership, holistic
 nature of the churches' mission, capacities
 for ecumenical and interfaith dialogue
 and for dialogue between churches and
 society. The transmission of the ecumenical
 memory and vision to future generations
 of pastors and church workers is a priority
 need in many WCC member churches, its
 continuation is far from being secured at
 present. (1)


This reflects the hope of the overwhelming majority of churches in Asia. For them, theological education of future pastors, church leaders and theological teachers is far from being secured at present. This requires more attention to well prepared strategies in order to prepare for the needs of these churches in the 21st century.

The Growth and Increasing Pluralization of Asian Christianity

While Christianity remains a minority religion in most Asian countries, there has been an impressive overall increase of the Christian population in Asia between 1910 and 2010 (from 2.4 to 8.5 percent), This is likely to increase the Christian population in Asia to over 352 million by 2010.

More detailed regional data note a particular increase of Christian populations in southeast Asia (from 10,8% to 21,8%), but also a sharp decrease in western Asia from 22.9 to 5.7 percent. It is predicted that by 2050 Christianity in Asia will grow to reach 595 million or 11.3 percent of Christians. (2) The most significant increases of Christianity are expected in eastern Asia (251 million Christians or 15.8 percent by 2050) and in southeastern Asia (197 million Christians or 25.7 percent by 2050). More specifically, Christianity will grow particularly in countries like China, India, Nepal and Cambodia and the Philippines. Although there still is a lack of concrete figures and exact data available from some of the emerging churches in specific Asian countries, it is clear that in certain regions (like east Asia, the Himalaya region and southeast Asia) the demand for theological education will not be able to be met by existing institutions and programmes.

Attention also needs to be given to the pluralism within Asian Christianity, and its effects on the landscape of theological education. Christian emigration and immigration as well as inner Asian Christian missions continue to play a major role in spreading the gospel. This will change the demands and programmes for theological education and mission training in Asia considerably. For example, between 40,000 and 80,000 Indians work as missionaries and evangelists to other ethnic groups and there are 250 mission organizations within India. South Korean churches send out 15,000 missionaries to other Asian countries. (3)

Unequal Allocation of Resources and Unbalanced Accessibility to Theological Education

The 2010 WCC report on theological education pointed to "an emerging global crisis in theological education which is becoming obvious increasingly and will be marking the next decades in the 21st century, having the potential of endangering the very future and integrity of World Christianity." (4)

Several factors were mentioned which contribute to a picture marked both by enormous achievements during the past 100 years as well as ongoing threats:

a) Most of the resources for theological education--both teaching staff, scholarship funds, theological libraries and publications--are still located in the North. In a situation marked by a remarkable shift of the center of gravity of world Christianity, the majority of needs and demands for theological education are now in the southern hemisphere. The average full costs for one student each year in Princeton Theological Seminary are some 60.000 USD, but the average costs for a BTh student in an institution for theological education in Nepal are just 1000 USD a year. Access to Ph.D. scholarships, to theological library resources and to research visits for theological students from churches in the south to countries in the north, becomes ever more restricted and difficult--not least due to heavy restrictions on visas and increased health insurance costs.

b) According to UNESCO, the 21st century will see an explosion in the number of higher education students in many Asian countries due to demographic and educational changes which also are reflected in those seeking study opportunities in Christian theology and church-related service. Higher education enrollment has increased approximately from 72 million in 1999 to 133 million in 2004. Excluding North America and Western Europe, enrollment in the rest of the world more than doubled in these five years, increasing from 41.1 to 99.1 million. China alone increased its share from 6.4 million in 1999 to 19.4 million in 2004. China has the largest higher education enrollment in the world at more than 23 million in 2005. (5) This massive expansion is taking place for at least two reasons: the social demand for higher education is increasing, along with the economic need for more highly educated human resources.

c) The increasing demand for theological education has led to a mushrooming of new colleges and Bible schools in many regions in Asia, many of which are institutionally unstable. While this proliferation reflects a genuine desire for access to theological education, this also has negative side-effects. Quite a few of the new schools offer only light and "fast food" theological education with impressive titles, but no libraries, developed curricula or common educational framework. Many of the new schools also lack experience or connection with the organized ecumenical movement, or to established regional associations of theological schools, which often serve to accredit or qualify schools. In some contexts, these new schools have arisen because established theological institutions have not been accommodating. In several contexts, the fragmentation, lack of unity and common standards, and the disintegration on the landscape of theological education have reached unprecedented levels.

Dissimilarities and Discrepancies in Theological Education Standards between Different National Contexts and Regions within Asia

Given the different historical, political and religious profiles and developments of churches in various Asian contexts, there are enormous differences in their institutional capacities and standards of quality. The following distinctions can be made among the types of theological education institutions in Asia: (6)

a) Smaller Bible colleges and training centers or institutes are sponsored by one person or family or by a single church. Many of these schools give a strong emphasis to church planting, evangelism and winning souls. Most of such schools are not accredited or affiliated with any wider theological bodies.

b) Nondenominational theological seminaries have been started by several evangelistic groups, revival groups or prayer groups. These tend to have a curriculum that reflects a strong concern for church planting and the traditional concepts and practices of mission that is, to Christianize others. Some of these schools have sought accreditation from regional theological associations.

c) Particular denominations sponsor denominational theological colleges or seminaries. A large number of such schools in Asia are denominationally-oriented, with curricular offerings mandated by their denominations. Although such denominational seminaries may be open to admitting students from other denominations, they emphasize a curriculum that reflects their denomination and focuses on mission and church growth of the particular denomination. The majority of these schools are accredited by regional theological associations.

d) There are several ecumenical seminaries born out of the ecumenical movement, but overall, these are still in the minority in Asia. Their curriculum includes some ecumenism, comparative study of religions, interfaith dialogue, feminist theology, tribal or dalit theology, eco-theology, and so forth. However, these courses typically are treated as "elective" or "optional."

e) There are also some public universities in Asian countries with departments for religious studies and related theological or historical research, although this is an exception in the interfaith milieu of Asian countries.

Further analysis would be needed to ascertain to what extent each of these types actually contributes to the task of assisting the churches to do contextually relevant mission and to respond adequately to fast-changing Asian circumstances.

These different types of institutions correspond to different socio-political settings:

a) Theological education institutions in hubs of theological education in well established and resourced centers for theological scholarship and which research often have several (sometimes associated) theological colleges within one urban context, and serve a wider region (e.g., in Hong Kong, Singapore, Seoul, Tokyo);

b) Theological education institutions in regions which have a sizeable, even majority Christian population and stable political conditions, and thereby are able to support centers for theological education and research either in the context of a university or college (e.g., South Korea, the Philippines, Indonesia, Taiwan, Japan);

c) Theological education institutions in Asian Christian contexts which are well established, politically stable and have common curricula and quality standards, with systems of affiliation or accreditation (e.g., India, Malaysia, Sri Lanka);

d) Theological education institutions in recently emerging Asian churches, with considerable church growth and some political stability; these generally are in settings in which theological education is being (re)constructed and consolidated (e.g., China, Myanmar);

e) Theological education programmes and institutions in emerging Asian churches with comparatively short histories, political instability or threats to religious identity, and a general lack of common coherence, joint planning and centralized structures; here embryonic theological education is occurring under often precarious conditions (e.g., in Mekong countries, Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan, Bangladesh).

One of the crucial 21st century challenges for theological education in Asia is to explore the most appropriate forms of inner- and inter-regional solidarity between institutions of theological education. What are the different expectations, points of connectivity and potentials for synergies for ministerial formation and theological education? With reduced funding available from outside, creating appropriate and culturally sensitive networks of mutual support and complementarity between the different sectors of Asian Christianity becomes imperative in the 21st century.

Individual theological schools operating in isolation and on separate tracks from each other, even in neighboring situations, is a matter of concern for understanding and practicing what it means to belong to the one body of Christ. The newly created Asian Forum for Theological Education (AFTE), in which all associations of theological schools are invited to cooperate, is an important platform to work out related mechanisms of Asian solidarity in theological education.

The Unfinished Work of Contextualizing Theological Education in Asia

Although theological education in Asia has some ancient roots, such as in the Oriental Orthodox churches, it mainly was begun to accompany mission activities initiated by missionaries from the west only a little over a century ago. Generally speaking, the kinds of theological education brought to Asia were copies of theological schools from western countries, with their structures, disciplines and curricula. Over the years, despite many challenges and attempts to change this, there still is a great need to contextualize theological education properly in Asia cultures and realities. Much theological education in Asia is still marked by 19th century western-based mission movements and by theologies influenced by European colonial expansion, the conquest of nature and technology-dependent development. (7)

In the wake of nationalism, many Asian theologians have become critical of western missionary theological education, and concepts, doctrines and symbols of Asian cultures and religious traditions increasingly have been drawn on for interpreting Christian faith. However, past decades of achievements of Asian liberation and inculturation theologies have remained limited to certain theological and intellectual circles, without really touching the realities of most local worshipping communities. The passionate plea in the 1960s and 70s to contextualize theological education, which marked the emergence of Asian liberation theologies and which through TEF and the voices such as Shoki Coe impacted theological education, remains on the whole an unfinished task. For many today, the vocation of theological education is to bring good news to the poor and to struggle for justice against structures of oppression in Asia. However, networks and structures to support an ecumenical and contextualized approach to theological education in Asia have remained fragile and limited in their outreach. There is a fundamental need to continue to develop Christian theology with Asian resources and to deepen the common search for appropriate, contextualized forms of Asian theological education so as to meet contemporary ministerial and societal challenges, as voiced both by theological faculties, students and church leadership in Asia.

Theological Education Related to Today's Multi-Religious Realities

It has been stated that "the Asian continent is the most religious.... At the same time.... the least Christian of all continents". (8) One of the fundamental 21st century questions for theological education in Asia is how Christian theological education will dialogue with those of different or no faith traditions. The task of theological education in contemporary Asia is to prepare candidates for transformation of Christian communities for the sake of the transformation of the whole society where they find themselves. (9) Yet only some theological schools offer substantial courses and programmes on non-Christian religions, on Asian spiritualities and on interfaith dialogue.

For Christianity in Asia to move out of its privatized pockets and small niches in societies, it is vital to underline that the gospel of Christ is for the life of all and for the peace and justice in the whole of creation, not just for the limited goals and institutionalized interests of a specific religious sector in society that the Christian churches represent. The public character of the gospel of reconciliation demands public interaction and common platforms of learning and research in higher education with representatives of all religious traditions who seek the common good in society, peace, justice, dignity and ecological integrity. In some Asian contexts it has become increasingly difficult for Christian churches and theological education to enter into interfaith dialogue or to encourage deliberate cooperation on peace, justice, human rights and ecological concerns with people of other living faiths. This especially applies in contexts where religious extremism, discrimination and political and and legal means of pressures are applied against Christian communities.

The test case for solidarity within Asia and globally lies particularly in contexts where Christian theological education is threatened and faces hostility or worsening political and religious conditions. At the same time, theological education in Asian societies will be recognized and seen as a legitimate and vital by governments and civil society networks in Asia insofar as they are able to contribute important competencies and insights to ongoing ethical challenges in areas such as bioethics, ecology, human rights and anthropology, especially in the face of economic globalization and exploitation.

Overcoming the Ecumenical/ Evangelical Divide in Theological Education in Asia

The division between ecumenical or so-called "liberal" and evangelical orientations in theological education, which in many Asian contexts still continues to influence the institutional landscapes of theological education, are not necessarily inherent in Asian Christianity but have their roots in the west. The so-called fundamentalist-liberal dispute, and the split between moderate evangelicals and their ultra-fundamentalist counterparts have their origins in a specific ideological context of the United States of America. They were shaped in the political context of the East-West conflict, and then became globalised and exported into Asian churches in the decades after the 1950s. (10) The communist threat seen as looming over the newly independent Asian nations was accompanied by suspicions that some social and political theological movements were hidden means for extending communist influences in these churches, and therefore had to be countered by evangelicals. In the decades after World War II and decolonialization, Asia and other places in the global South became contested ground for influence, both politically and ecclesiastically.

Organizations based in the USA often were the main driving force behind this dominance. Averting communist influences among the younger churches in southeast Asia was a key concern in the 1952 Anderson-Smith Report on theological education in southeast Asia. (11) Carl McIntire set up the International Council of Christian Churches global network to counter the work of John MacKay and the World Council of Churches. To him, the WCC was sympathetic to the communist cause. McIntire and MacKay convened parallel conferences in December 1949 in Bangkok. (12) Evangelicals adopted similar tactics to counter what they saw as liberal influences among Asian churches. The World Evangelical Fellowship convened a theological assistance program consultation in 1970 in Singapore, in the same period when the ecumenical Theological Education Fund (TEF) was launched. Eventually the Asia Theological Association was set up as an alternative to the ecumenical ATESEA body. (13)

The ongoing evangelical/ecumenical divide in theological education, which today is more visible and influential in some Asian contexts than others, absorbs more energies and creates more distortions than necessary in the face of the common missionary tasks Asian Christianity faces in the 21st century. The urgent need for a clear profile of biblically sound, contextually relevant and spiritually nurturing theological education in Asia can be sharpened only if all committed Christian traditions work together rather than wasting money and energies in debates of the past or in maintaining polarized profiles to please donors.

Strikingly, there is a growing convergence between evangelical and ecumenical leaders engaged in Christian mission, interfaith-dialogue and theological education in Asia today, but the institutional landscapes and "camps" of theological schools and colleges remain structurally divided. "Evangelicals" and "ecumenicals" or "liberals" (none of these terms fit well any more for existing realities) face similar challenges in Asia and often develop similar answers. Evangelicals from the Lausanne movement and evangelicals with deep commitment within the ecumenical movement often affirm shared understandings of mission, evangelism and education. Thus, churches and networks in Asia should move on and not be caught up in past and false stereotypes or define who they are in opposition to each other, rather than to act and learn together as part of the one body of Christ. There will be no major progress in the ecumenical contextualization of theological education in Asia unless there are deliberate attempts to bridge the divides between ecumenical and evangelical/ Pentecost networks of theological education operating in Asia. The focus today should be on the common objectives and tasks for all major stakeholders in theological education in relation to the common challenges in Asian contexts. Some separate affiliation systems and hermeneutical orientations may be dependent on and perpetuated more by funding relationships with external partners than internal to Asian theological education itself. The matter is not how and why these distinctions emerged historically but whether they still makes sense, and if not, how different Christian networks for theological education can join forces for common mission and to strengthen the unity of the Christian church in Asia for the future.

Seek Common Principles for Ongoing, Reliable Support for Theological Education

In Asia there are neither common regulations nor explicit recommendations from church leaders for ongoing, reliable sustainable church support for institutions of theological education. Only a minority of Asian churches provide regular and reliable financial support to their institutions of theological education. Only a minority have developed long-term master plans for theological education within their national context. Some churches support only the basic theological degree, which they consider sufficient for becoming a pastor, but do not support the higher-level theological work necessary for developing more contextualized Asian theologies and for theological teaching. In other cases, theological colleges cannot rely on regular church support at all and tend to remain dependent either on external support or create heavy financial burdens for students.

As the 2010 WCC report stated:
 We affirm that churches, mission organizations
 and ecumenical partners have a key responsibility
 for supporting and enabling high quality
 institutions of theological education while
 respecting a certain degree of autonomy in
 their operating and academic research. There
 are different models by which this sense of
 ownership for theological education is
 expressed in the different church settings. But
 there are also cases in which a genuine lack of
 support and ownership for institutions of
 theological education, particularly those who
 are supported by an interdenominational set
 of churches, is experienced.

 Theological education not only serves the
 building up the church from the perspective
 of the reign of God, but it also creates
 social awareness, political discernment, social
 involvement, and Christian participation
 in transformation processes of societies.
 Investment in theological education is a
 direct investment into the social and political
 development and transformation of society
 and the raising of its educational levels. Ecumenical
 partners and funding agencies which
 focus on development projects should
 review their guidelines so as to give
 theological education projects a place and
 higher priority in their agenda wherever
 possible.

 The only proper remedy against religious fundamentalism
 is investment in education. Lack
 of education and theological formation often
 is one of the root causes for ignorance over
 against other cultures, religious traditions and
 special social contexts. Churches which take
 theological education of both laity and
 ordained seriously and support all its different
 levels are better equipped to counteract trends
 towards religious fundamentalism and communal
 tensions in their own regions and
 worldwide.


It was also recommended
 that churches and its agencies (development,
 mission and others) reconsider their priorities
 in terms of making more regular support
 available for institutions of theological education.
 As there does not exist any set pattern
 on the percentage which might be recommended
 to be made available for theological
 education in Christian churches around the
 world, we recommend to consider an application
 of the UNO regulation or recommendation,
 that nation states should make available
 at least 6% of their annual gross national
 product for higher education, to the principles
 applied in church budgeting for theological
 education. (14)


Deepen Joint Research and Data Collection on Recent Developments in Theological Education in Asia

Although much has already been done to encourage the development of contextual Asian theologies, comparatively little research has been done on the actual developments in theological education in Asia. Although the future of churches and their mission is conditioned to a large extent by the quality and stability of theological education, there has been little empirical research on recent trends, difficulties, funding streams and orientations of theological education in Asia. The global survey on theological education project (15) and the related "mapping theological education in Asia" project which is supported by FTESEA and PTCA have been important initiatives to bridge this gap.

Jointly Developing Master Plans for the Future of Theological Education in National Contexts

Developing joint strategies for theological education in different Asian national contexts has been hindered by how theological education is fragmented, the isolation of different players and interest groups, and the lack of responsibility and ownership by churches. It would be very helpful if all partners in a given region, assisted by international bodies and accrediting agencies, could agree to develop empirically based, theologically responsible master plans for theological education in all Asia countries. Then it would be easier to bring together all relevant partners in that national context, and with the assistance of international ecumenical partners, to explore new kinds of cooperation in that respective context. If different institutions do not come together but instead protect their own institution at the expense of or in opposition to others, the overall situation of theological education in that country will be weakened. The articles in this issue provide a beginning basis for planning and dialogue on elements for such master plans.

Explore Possibilities for State Recognition, Greater Public Visibility and Criteria for Assuring Quality Theological Education in Asia

In light of the rapid changes in secular education and in socio-political circumstances in Asia, in many countries the quantity and availability of theological education has been upgraded significantly in the past decades. Theological schools first established as centers to train Christian evangelists who had few academic qualifications have now been upgraded to become degree granting institutions, with higher admission standards and accreditation to assure quality. Membership in theological associations such as ATESEA, Senate of Serampore and ATA has grown rapidly. Yet in Asia there still are few places where there is state recognition of their accreditation and public acceptance.

This exclusion from state and public recognition has not only affected the credibility of the churches' mission and witness regarding public issues in the wider society, but it also has restricted their access to potential resources and engagement with other disciplines Although in Asian countries such as Indonesia, Thailand and Taiwan degrees of seminaries and divinity schools can now be registered and recognized in the state education system, in most Asian countries this is restricted to the private realm and does not engage with other academic disciplines. But this is changing, as theological degrees are recognized by state authorities in more places, such as Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and the Philippines. How might Christian theological education become visible in the public arena and in public universities without diminishing the important tasks of ministerial formation?

Strengthen Existing Associations of Theological Schools and Mutual Networking for Common Doctoral Programs and Teacher Exchange among Asian Churches

Thus far there are three regional associations of theological schools in Asia: Board of Theological Education of the Senate of Serampore College (BTESSC, covering south Asia), the Association of Theological education in South East Asia (ATESEA, covering southeast Asia), and the North East Association of Theological Education (NEAATS, covering northeast Asia). In addition there are a number of national associations like Association of Theological education in Myanmar (ATEM), PERSETIA (association of theological schools in Indonesia), KAATS (Korean association of theological schools) and the theological commission of China Christian Council with over 20 seminaries and Bible schools. In addition there are all Asian denominational associations like the Asian Theological Association (ATA) with some 200 member schools, and the Asian Pentecostal Theological Association (APTA). In the past two years, representatives of these associations have come together to form a fellowship of theological education in Asia, the Asian Forum for Theological Education (AFTE).

Several structural and strategic questions need to be considered in order to prepare for new levels of cooperation and solidity in the 21st century:

a) What is happening with emerging Asian churches and theological schools (e.g., in Mekong region, Himalaya region, and in Mongolia, Kirgistan, Tadschikistan, Turkmenistan etc.)? Should they associate with an existing network or form a new network in order to receive the assistance and solidarity they require?

b) Will existing associations of theological schools in Asia come to agree on some common standards for quality, lest their standards and integrity be compromised? Could there be something like an Asian credit transfer system (similar to the European ECTS system) to guarantee the transferability and recognition of course credits between different contexts?

c) How can increasingly scarce financial and personnel resources for theological education best be used, such as through teacher exchange programs and common doctoral seminars of students from different institutions?

d) What mechanisms can facilitate better exchange and accessibility of resources for theological research, theological education and teaching resources within Asia and beyond (such as a common digital library for Asian theological education in cooperation with the Global Digital Library for Theology, GlobeTheoLib16)?

e) How can planning be implemented that focuses on faculty development areas of theological teaching and research that usually are overlooked but are vital for the future of Asian Christianity (e.g., Asian pastoral theology, Asian missiology, Asian ethics and Asian ecumenism?)

Continue and Deepen the Movement to Do Theology with Asian Resources

Encouraged by the internal conditions of the church mission developments and the external challenges caused by the international power remapping, Asian Christians after the Second World War became more aware of their identity as "Asian" Christians. Theological educators in Asia came together to form associations to encourage personnel exchanges, resources sharing, and to shape solidarity for theological development in Asia. The Association for Theological Education in South East Asia (ATESEA) was formed in 1957, and grew from a membership of 16 to 102. The Asian Theological Association (ATA) was formed in 1970 and has 212 member institutions from 27 nations 17 (accredited members and associated members). Both associations are committed to "train Asians in Asia," while ATESEA has stressed a contextual orientation for theological construction.

It was in the midst of this background, that the Programme for Theologies and Cultures (PTCA) began as a theological movement to serve contextual theological formation and theological education in Asia. First formed in 1983, this became a joint program of the Christian Conference of Asia (CCA), Association for Theological Education in Asia (ATESEA), South East Asia Graduate School of Theology (SEAGST), Tao Fong Shan and Kansai Seminar House. The mandate was to contribute to reorienting young theological faculty members in the theological schools in Asia and doctoral candidates of SEAGST in order to promote contextual awareness of doing theologies and theological education in Asian contexts. This was a considerable shift from the earlier emphasis on political and social contextualization to a theological method involving discernment and interaction with Asian cultural and religious resources in the process of doing theology. Moving from the WCC theological emphasis on "Gospel and Cultures" (Vancouver, 1983) to that of "Gospel in Diverse Cultures" (Canberra, 1991) implied significant theological transformation. Cultures in the "non-Christian" world would no longer be considered as independent from or in opposition to the gospel, but instead as a matrix of it. Several years of workshops under the motto "Doing Theology with Asian Resources" (inspired by C.S. Song and subsequent Asian scholars) fruitfully equipped more than a generation of theological scholars in Asia to become relevant to their own Asian cultural and religious backgrounds.

As PTCA has reflected on how to continue this vital heritage (18) it is important to seek ways by which

--the mission and mandate of the movement for Asian theologies in dialogue with Asian cultural traditions might be continued, with new centers and hubs for theological education in Asia;

--emerging small minority churches in Asia who did not have opportunities to participate in this movement might be enabled to formulate appropriate Asian theologies for their own contexts; church support and ownership for this theological movement is increased for the sake of vital interaction between church leadership and the movement to do theology with Asian resources, so that there will not be a split between what is going on in the churches and in the circles doing theology with Asian resources;

--a more stable situation can develop to provide appropriate leadership and networking both within PTCA and between PTCA and the major associations of theological schools in Asia, so that PTCA might develop into a research wing of the Asian Forum on Theological Education, which intends to bring together all major associations of theological schools from the different Christian traditions in Asia.

(1) Global Study Report on Theological Education, WCC-ETE 2010, p. 32.

(2) Atlas of Global Christianity, eds. Todd M. Johnson and Kenneth Ross (2009), Edinburgh University Press, Center for the Study of Global Christianity, p. 107.

(3) Robert, Dana L, Christian Mission: How Christianity Became a World Religion (2009) Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, p. 78.

(4) Global Study Report in Theological Education, WCC, p. 54.

(5) More information on the UNESCO Report on Higher Education in the world 2007 on the website of <<Global Universities Network for Innovation>> (GUNI) http://www.guni-rmies.net/info/default. php?id=89 or the website of the publisher Palgrave Macmillan http://www.palgrave.com/pdfs/ 0230000479.pdf)

(6) Following a typology offered by: Wati Longchar, Ecumenical Theological Education in Asia: Emerging Concerns for Relevant Theological Curricula, 2009.

(7) Wati Longchar, Ecumenical Theological Education in Asia: Emerging Concerns for Relevant Theological Curricula, 2009.

(8) Walbert Buhlmann. The coming of the third Church. An Analysis of the present and the future. Trs. By R. Woodhall, 1974, pp. 160-161.

(9) Henry Wilson, Theological education and ecumenical challenges in Asia. A checklist for journey forward.

(10) Some of the following insights are based upon: Michael Nai Poon, The Rise of Asia Pacific Christianity: prospects and challenges for the church universal, 2011.

(11) S. R. Anderson and C. Stanley Smith, The Anderson-Smith Report on Theological Education in Southeast Asia: Especially as It Relates to the Training of Chinese for the Christian Ministry: The Report of a Survey Commission, 1951-1952 (New York: Board of Founders, Nanking Theological Seminary, 1952); Michael Poon, "The Association for Theological Education in South East Asia, 1959-2002: A Pilgrimage in Theological Education," in Supporting Asian Christianity's Transition from Mission to Church: A History of the Foundation for Theological Education in South East Asia, ed. Samuel Campbell Pearson (2010) Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, pp. 363-402, 417-431.

(12) Carl McIntire, "The Battle of Bangkok: Second Missionary Journey, (1950) Christian Beacon Press, Collngwood.

(13) Michael Poon, The History and Development of "Theological Education in South East Asia," pp. 378-379.

(14) The Sixth International Conference of Adult Education of UNESCO (CONFINTEA VI) recommended that at least 6% of the GNP of all states should be devoted to education and that e-learning be increased. Scientific United Nations Educational, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), "Harnessing the Power and Potential of Adult Learning and Education for a Viable Future: Belem Framework for Action: Preliminary Draft," in The Sixth International Conference of Adult Education of UNESCO (CO NFINTEA VI) (Belem, Brazil: UNESCO, 2009).

(15) https://www.research.net/s/ globalsurveyontheologicaleducation

(16) http://www.globethics.net/web/gtl/globetheolib

(17) http://www.ataasia.com/ata-members

(18) Part of the following considerations are based on joint discussions during a PTCA Reflection Workshop which was held in January 2012 in Sabah Theological Seminary, Malaysia.

DOI: 10.1111/j.1758-6623.2012.00165x
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Title Annotation:Ecumenical Chronicle
Author:Werner, Dietrich
Publication:The Ecumenical Review
Geographic Code:90SOU
Date:Jul 1, 2012
Words:5610
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