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Membership of the 113th Congress: a profile.

Contents

Overview and Total Members in History
Party Breakdown
Age
Occupations
Education
Congressional Service
Religion
Gender and Ethnicity
  Female Members
  African American Members
  Hispanic/Latino American Members
  Asian/Pacific Islander American Members
  American Indian Members
Foreign Birth
Military Service

Tables

Table 1. Average Age of Members, 111th-113th Congresses
Table 2. Most Frequently Listed Occupational Categories
  by Members, 113th Congress
Table 3. Average Length of Service of Members of
  Congress, 109th-13th Congresses

Contacts

Author Contact Information
Acknowledgments


Summary

This report presents a profile of the membership of the 113th Congress (2013-2014). Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age, occupation, education, length of congressional service, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service.

As of October 31, 2013, in the House of Representatives, there are 231 Republicans, 206 Democrats (including 5 Delegates and the Resident Commissioner), and 4 vacant seats. The Senate has 45 Republicans, 53 Democrats, and 2 Independents, who caucus with the Democrats.

The average age of Members of the House at the beginning of the 113th Congress was 57.0 years; and of Senators, 62.0 years. The overwhelming majority of Members of Congress have a college education. The dominant professions of Members are public service/politics, business, and law. Most Members identify as Christians, and Protestants collectively constitute the majority religious affiliation. Roman Catholics account for the largest single religious denomination, and numerous other affiliations are represented.

The average length of service for Representatives at the beginning of the 113th Congress was 9.1 years (4.6 terms); for Senators, 10.2 years (1.7 terms).

One hundred one women (a record number) serve in the 113th Congress: 81 in the House, including 3 Delegates, and 20 in the Senate. There are 43 African American Members of the House and 2 in the Senate. This House number includes 2 Delegates. There are 37 Hispanic or Latino Members (a record number) serving: 33 in the House, including 1 Delegate and the Resident Commissioner, and 4 in the Senate. Thirteen Members (10 Representatives, 2 Delegates, and 1 Senator) are Asian American or Pacific Islanders. Two American Indians (Native Americans) serve in the House.

The portions of this report covering political party affiliation, gender, ethnicity, and vacant seats will be updated as events warrant. The remainder of the report will not be updated.

October 31, 2013

Overview and Total Members in History

Congress is composed of 541 individuals from the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, and Puerto Rico. (1) This count assumes that no seat is temporarily vacant. (2)

Since 1789, 12,104 individuals have served in Congress: (3) 10,817 in the House and 1,948 in the Senate. (4) Of these Members, 662 have served in both chambers. These numbers do not include the additional 213 nonvoting Delegates and Resident Commissioners who have served in the House.

The following is a profile of the 113th Congress (2013-2014). (5)

Party Breakdown

In the 113th Congress, the current party alignments as of October 31, 2013 are:

House of Representatives: 231 Republicans, 206 Democrats (including the 5 Delegates and the Resident Commissioner), and 4 vacant seats.

Senate: 52 Democrats; 2 Independents, who caucus with the Democrats; and 46 Republicans.

Age

The average age of Members of the 113th Congress is among the highest of any Congress in recent U.S. history. (6)

Table 1 shows the average ages at the beginning of the 113th Congress.

The U.S. Constitution requires Representatives to be at least 25 years old when they take office. The youngest Representative at the beginning of the 113th Congress is 30-year-old Patrick Murphy (D-FL), born March 30, 1983. The oldest Representative in U.S. history, as well as the oldest current Member of Congress, is 90-year-old Ralph Hall (R-TX), born May 3, 1923.

Senators must be at least 30 years old when they take office. The oldest Senator in the 113th Congress is Dianne Feinstein (D-CA), 80, born June 22, 1933. (7) The youngest Senator is 39-year-old Christopher S. Murphy (D-CT), born August 3, 1973.

Occupations

According to the CQ Roll Call Guide to the New Congress, in the 113th Congress, law is the dominantly declared profession of Senators, followed by public service/politics, then business; for Representatives, business is first, followed by public service/politics, then law. (8)

Table 2 uses data from the CQ Roll Call Member Profiles to show the following occupations most frequently listed for Members at the beginning of the 113th Congress.

A closer look at the prior occupations and previously held public offices of Members of the House and Senate at the beginning of the 113th Congress, as listed in their CQ Roll Call Member Profiles, (9) also shows the following:

* 51 Senators have previous House service;

* 102 educators, employed as teachers, professors, instructors, school fundraisers, counselors, administrators, or coaches (90 in the House, 12 in the Senate);

* 2 physicians in the Senate, 17 physicians in the House (including 1 Delegate), plus 2 dentists, 2 veterinarians, and 1 psychiatrist; (10)

* 3 psychologists (both in the House), an optometrist (in the Senate), and 5 nurses (all in the House);

* 5 ordained ministers, all in the House;

* 33 former mayors (24 in the House, 9 in the Senate (11));

* 10 former state governors (all 10 in the Senate) (12) and 8 lieutenant governors (4 in the Senate, 4 in the House, including 2 Delegates);

* 7 former judges (all in the House), and 32 prosecutors (8 in the Senate, and 24 in the House, including a Delegate), who have served in city, county, state, federal, or military capacities;

* 1 former Cabinet Secretary (in the Senate), and 2 Ambassadors (one in each chamber);

* 262 state or territorial legislators (219 in the House, including 2 Delegates, and 43 in the Senate); (13)

* at least 100 congressional staffers (20 in the Senate, 80 in the House), as well as 8 congressional pages (4 in the House and 4 in the Senate); (14)

* 5 Peace Corps volunteers, all in the House;

* 3 sheriffs and 1 deputy sheriff, 2 FBI agents (all in the House), and a firefighter in the Senate;

* 2 physicists, 6 engineers, and 1 microbiologist (all in the House, with the exception of 1 Senator who is an engineer);

* 5 radio talk show hosts (4 House, 1 Senate), 6 radio or television broadcasters (5 House, 1 Senate), 7 reporters or journalists (5 in the House, 2 in the Senate), and a radio station manager and a public television producer (both in the House);

* 9 accountants in the House and 2 in the Senate;

* 5 software company executives, all in the House;

* 3 pilots, all in the House, and 1 astronaut, in the Senate;

* a screenwriter, a comedian, and a documentary film maker, all in the Senate, and a professional football player, in the House;

* 29 farmers, ranchers, or cattle farm owners (25 House, 4 Senate);

* 2 almond orchard owners, both in the House, 1 cattle farm owner (a Senator), 1 vintner (a House Member), 1 fisherman (a House Member), and 1 fruit orchard worker (a House Member);

* 7 social workers in the House and 2 in the Senate; and

* 9 current members of the military reserves (8 House, 1 Senate), and 6 current members of the National Guard (all in the House).

Other occupations listed in the CQ Roll Call Member Profiles include car dealership owner, auto worker, insurance agent, rodeo announcer, union representative, stockbroker, welder, venture capitalist, funeral home owner, and software engineer.

Education

As has been true in recent Congresses, the vast majority of Members (93% of House Members and 99% of Senators) at the beginning of the 113th Congress hold bachelor's degrees. The CQ Roll Call Member Profiles at the beginning of the 113th Congress indicate the following:

* 21 Members of the House and 1 Senator have no educational degree beyond a high school diploma;

* 7 Members of the House, but no Senators, have associate's degrees as their highest degree, and 1 House Member has an L.P.N. (nursing) degree;

* 85 members of the House and 14 Senators earned a master's degree as their highest education degree;

* Law degrees are held by 169 Members of the House (38% of the House) and 57 Senators (57% of the Senate);

* Of the Members holding a law degree, 4 (3 House Members and 1 Senator) also hold an LL.M. (Master of Laws) degree;

* 20 Representatives (but no Senators) have doctoral (Ph.D. or D.Phil.) degrees; and

* 22 Members of the House and 3 Senators have a medical degree. (15)

By comparison, 30 years ago in the 97th Congress (1981-1982), 84% of House Members and 88% of Senators held bachelor's degrees. Forty years ago, in the 92nd Congress (1971-1972), 77% of House Members and 87% of Senators held bachelor's degrees. Fifty years ago, in the 87th Congress (1961-1962), 71% of House Members and 76% of Senators held bachelor's degrees. (16)

Three Representatives and one Senator in the 113th Congress are graduates of the U.S. Military Academy and one Senator and one Representative graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy. Two Senators and two Representatives were Rhodes Scholars, two Representatives were Fulbright Scholars, two Representatives were Marshall Scholars, and one Representative was a Truman Scholar. (17)

Congressional Service

The average length of service of Members of the House at the beginning of the 113th Congress was 9.1 years (4.6 terms), and for Senators, 10.2 years (1.7 terms). (18)

As of June 7, 2013, Representative John Dingell (D-MI), the current dean of the House, has the longest service of any Member in history (57 years and counting). He began serving on December 13, 1955.

At the beginning of the 113th Congress, 75 of the Representatives (17% of the total House membership) had first been elected to the House in November 2012, and 14 of the Senators (14% of the total Senate membership) had first been elected to the Senate in November 2012, or appointed to the Senate in December 2012. These numbers are lower than at the beginning of the 112th Congress, when 21% of the House, and 15% of the Senate, were newly elected or appointed "freshmen."

At the beginning of the 113th Congress, 157 Representatives (36% of the House Members) had no more than two years of House experience, and 30 Senators (30% of the Senators) had no more than two years of Senate experience.

For more historical information on the tenure of Members of Congress, please see CRS Report R41545, Congressional Careers: Service Tenure and Patterns of Member Service, 1789-2013, by Matthew E. Glassman and Amber Hope Wilhelm.

Religion

Ninety-eight percent of the Members of the 113th Congress cite a specific religious affiliation. (19) Of the 98%, the vast majority are Christian.

Statistics gathered by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, which studies the religious affiliation of Members, and CQ Roll Call at the beginning of the 113th Congress showed the following:

* 56% of the Members (247 in the House, 52 in the Senate) are Protestant, with Baptist as the most represented denomination;

* 31% of the Members (136 in the House, 27 in the Senate) are Catholic;

* 6.2% of the Members (22 in the House, 11 in the Senate) are Jewish;

* 2.8% of the Members (8 in the House, 7 in the Senate) are Mormon (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints);

* 3 Members (2 in the House, 1 in the Senate) are Buddhist, 2 House Members are Muslim, and 1 House Member is Hindu; and

* Other religious affiliations represented include Greek Orthodox, Quaker, Unitarian Universalist, and Christian Science.

The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life states, "The changes in the religious makeup of Congress during the last half-century mirror broader changes in American society. Congress, like the nation as a whole, has become much less Protestant and more religiously diverse. The number of Protestants in Congress has dropped from three-quarters (75%) in 1961 to 56% today. ... Meanwhile, other religious groups have seen their share of congressional seats grow, in some cases dramatically." (20)

Gender and Ethnicity

Female Members

A record 101 women (18.7% of total membership) serve in the 113th Congress as of February 2013, 8 more than at the beginning of the 112th Congress. (21) Eighty women, including 3 Delegates, serve in the House and 20 in the Senate. Of the 81 women in the House, 62 are Democrats, including the 3 Delegates, and 19 are Republicans. Of the 20 women in the Senate, 16 are Democrats and 4 are Republicans.

African American Members

There are 45 African American Members (8.3% of the total membership) in the 113th Congress; one more than at the beginning of the 112th Congress. Forty-three serve in the House, including 2 Delegates, and 2 serve in the Senate. (22) This number includes one Member of the House who is of African American and Asian ancestry and is counted in both ethnic categories in this report. All of the 43 House Members, including 2 Delegates, are Democrats, and the Senator is a Republican. Sixteen African American women, including two Delegates, serve in the House.

Hispanic/Latino American Members

There are 37 Hispanic or Latino Members in the 113th Congress, 6.9% of the total membership. (23) Thirty-three serve in the House and four in the Senate. Of the Members of the House, 26 are Democrats (including 1 Delegate and the Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico), (24) 7 are Republicans, and 9 are women. There are 4 male Hispanic Senators (3 Republicans, 1 Democrat). One set of Hispanic Members, Representatives Linda Sanchez and Loretta Sanchez, (25) are sisters. (26)

Asian/Pacific Islander American Members

Thirteen Members of the 113th Congress (2.4% of the total membership, the same as at the beginning of the 112th Congress) are of Asian, South Asian, or Pacific Islander ancestry. Twelve of them (all Democrats) serve in the House, and one (a Democrat) serves in the Senate. Of those serving in the House, two are Delegates. Seven of the Asian Pacific American Members are female: six in the House and one in the Senate. (27)

These numbers include one House Member who is also of African American ancestry and another of Hispanic ancestry; these Members are counted in both ethnic categories.

American Indian Members

There are two American Indian (Native American) Members of the 113th Congress, both of whom are Republican Members of the House. (28)

Foreign Birth

Ten Representatives and three Senators (2.4% of the entire 113th Congress) were born outside the United States. Their places of birth include Canada, Cuba, Great Britain, Japan, Peru, and Thailand. Many of these Members were born to American citizens working or serving abroad. The U.S. Constitution requires that Representatives be citizens for seven years, and Senators be citizens for nine years, before they take office.

Military Service

At the beginning of the 113th Congress, there were 108 Members (20% of the total membership) who had served or were serving in the military, 10 fewer than at the beginning of the 112th Congress (118 Members) and 12 fewer than in the 111th Congress (120 members). According to lists compiled by CQ Roll Call, the House currently has 88 veterans (including 2 female Members, as well as 2 Delegates); the Senate has 18. (29) These Members served in World War II, (30) the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Persian Gulf War, Afghanistan, Iraq, and Kosovo, as well as during times of peace. Many have served in the Reserves and the National Guard. Eight House Members and one Senator are still serving in the Reserves, and six House Members are still serving in the National Guard. Both of the female veterans are combat veterans.

The number of veterans in the 113th Congress reflects the trend of steady decline in recent decades in the number of Members who have served in the military. For example, 64% of the members of the 97th Congress (1981-1982) were veterans; and in the 92nd Congress (1971-1972), 73% of the Members were veterans.

For summary information on the demographics of Members in selected past Congresses, including age trends, occupation backgrounds, military veteran status, and educational attainment, please see CRS Report R42365, Representatives and Senators: Trends in Member Characteristics Since 1945, coordinated by R. Eric Petersen. (31)

Acknowledgments

Matthew Glassman, Eric Petersen, and the staff of the Office of the Historian of the United States House of Representatives provided assistance.

Author Contact Information

Jennifer E. Manning

Information Research Specialist

jmanning@crs.loc.gov, 7-7565

Jennifer E. Manning

Information Research Specialist

(1) This figure includes 100 Senators, 435 Representatives, 5 Delegates (from the District of Columbia, Guam, American Samoa, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands), and 1 Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico.

(2) As of October 31, 2013, there are four House vacancies and no Senate vacancies. For information on all resignations, deaths, special elections and appointments to fill vacancies in the 113th Congress, refer to "Changes in the Membership of the 113th Congress" at http://www.crs.gov/resources/Pages/Congress_113.aspx. This site is updated whenever there is a change in the membership of the House or Senate.

(3) Office of History, Art and Archives, U.S. House of Representatives, "Total Members of the House and State Representation," http://history.house.gov/Institution/Total-Members/Total-Members/, updated January 3, 2013, supplemented with CRS research.

Information about all individuals who have served in Congress is available in the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, a website maintained by the Clerk of the House and the Secretary of the Senate at http://bioguide.congress.gov.

(4) A cumulative chronological list of all U.S. Senators is available on the Senate website at http://www.senate.gov/ artandhistory/history/resources/pdf/chronlist.pdf. Information about all House Members is available on the House website at http://history.house.gov/Institution/Total-Members/Total-Members/.

(5) Information on the five Delegates and the Resident Commissioner is included where relevant. References to Representatives include information for the 435 Members of the House, but not Delegates or the Resident Commissioner. For background information on the previous Congress, refer to CRS Report R41647, Membership of the 112th Congress: A Profile, by Jennifer E. Manning. See also CRS Report RL30378, African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012, by Jennifer E. Manning and Colleen J. Shogan; CRS Report RL30261, Women in the United States Congress, 1917-2013: Biographical and Committee Assignment Information, and Listings by State and Congress, by Jennifer E. Manning and Ida A. Brudnick; CRS Report R42365, Representatives and Senators: Trends in Member Characteristics Since 1945, coordinated by R. Eric Petersen; and CRS Report 97-398, Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress, by Lorraine H. Tong.

(6) For average ages of Members in each Congress from 1949 to 2011, refer to an online feature of the Wall Street Journal, "The Capitol's Age Pyramid: A Graying Congress," at http://online.wsj.com/public/resources/documents/ CONGRESS_AGES_1009.html.

(7) Until his death at age 89 on June 3, 2013, Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ), born January 23, 1924, had been the oldest Senator in the 113th Congress.

(8) "Demographics of the New Congress" CQ Roll Call Guide to the New Congress, (November 8, 2012), pp. 16-17, available on the CQ.com subscription database at http://www.cq.com/flatfiles/editorialFiles/memberFactFiles/ guidetothenewcongress11082012.pdf.

(9) CQ Roll Call Member Profiles are available on the CQ.com subscription database at http://www.cq.com/members/ home.do. The CQ.com database is available in all Senate offices and most House offices. The professions listed here are not exhaustive, and are not necessarily the ones practiced by Members immediately prior to entering Congress. Most Members list more than one profession in their CQ Roll Call Member Profiles.

(10) One of the medical doctors in the Senate is an ophthalmologist. For more details on medical professionals serving in the 113th Congress, see Mike Mitka, "Physicians in Congress," JAMA, vol. 308, no. 22 (December 12, 2012), p. 2327, http://jama.jamanetwork.com/data/Journals/JAMA/926059/jch120144_2327b_2327.pdf.

(11) Another former mayor was elected to the Senate in October 2013.

(12) Another former state governor was elected to the House in May 2013.

(13) National Conference of State Legislators, "Former State Legislators in the 113th Congress" (as of January 4, 2013), http://www.ncsl.org/documents/statefed/fsl113.pdf, supplemented by data from CQ Roll Call Member Profiles.

(14) Michael L. Koempel and Judy Schneider, Congressional Deskbook, 6th ed. (Washington: TheCapitol.Net, 2012), figure 5.22, supplemented by data from CQ Roll Call Member Profiles.

(15) Three Senators, sixteen Representatives, and one delegate have an M.D. degree; one Representative has a D.O. (doctor of osteopathic medicine) degree; two Representatives have a D.D.S. (doctor of dental surgery) degree; and two Representatives have a D.V.M. (doctor of veterinary medicine) degree.

(16) CRS Report R42365, Representatives and Senators: Trends in Member Characteristics Since 1945, coordinated by R. Eric Petersen.

(17) Rhodes and Marshall Scholarships fund study at British Universities; Fulbright Scholarships fund international exchange programs; Truman Scholarships fund undergraduate study.

(18) Representatives are elected for two-year terms and Senators are elected for six-year terms.

(19) Eleven Members of the 113th Congress do not specify a religious affiliation. The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, "Faith on the Hill: the Religious Composition of the 113th Congress," http://www.pewforum.org/Government/ Faith-on-the-Hill-The-Religious-Composition-of-the-113th-Congress.aspx.

(20) The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, "Faith on the Hill: the Religious Composition of the 113th Congress," http://www.pewforum.org/Government/Faith-on-the-Hill-The-Religious-Composition-of-the-113th-Congress.aspx. Detailed religious affiliation information for the Members of the 113th Congress (excluding the Delegates and the Resident Commissioner) is available on this website.

(21) One hundred and one women were sworn into the 113th Congress, but one female House Member has since resigned, and another has been elected. For more information, see CRS Report RL30261, Women in the United States Congress, 1917-2013: Biographical and Committee Assignment Information, and Listings by State and Congress, by Jennifer E. Manning and Ida A. Brudnick.

(22) Forty-four African Americans were elected to the 113th Congress, but one House-Member elect chose not to be sworn in, and another was instead appointed to the Senate. An additional African American was temporarily appointed to the Senate in February 2013 and served until July 2013, another was elected to the House in April 2013, and another was elected to the Senate in October 2013. For more information, see CRS Report RL30378, African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012, by Jennifer E. Manning and Colleen J. Shogan.

(23) This number includes three House Members and one Senator who are of Portuguese ancestry and belong to the Congressional Hispanic Caucus or the Congressional Hispanic Conference. For more information, see the Library of Congress Hispanic Reading Room's "Hispanic Americans in Congress" website at http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/ congress/.

(24) This number includes one Delegate who is of Hispanic and Asian ancestry and counted in both ethic categories.

(25) Both sisters are Democrats from California. Note that Linda Sanchez uses an accent in her last name; her sister Loretta does not.

(26) Note that brothers Senator Carl Levin (D-MI) and Representative Sander Levin (D-MI) also serve in the 113th Congress.

(27) For more information, see CRS Report 97-398, Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress, by Lorraine H. Tong.

(28) This number only includes Members who are enrolled members of federally recognized tribes. For more information, see Congressional Research Service congressional distribution memorandum, Members of Congress of American Indian Descent, by Jennifer Manning, available to congressional offices upon request.

(29) CQ Roll Call, "113th Congress: House Military Veterans," http://www.cq.com/members/factfilereport.do7reportF mff-house-veterans and "113th Congress: Senate Military Veterans," http://www.cq.com/members/factfilereport.do7 report=mff-senate-veterans. Both lists updated May 2013.

A publically available list of House veterans as of the beginning of the 113th Congress is available on the House Library's website at http://library.clerk.house.gov/documents/113_Military_Vets.pdf. We have been unable to identify a comparable Senate list on an official Senate website.

(30) Only three Members of the 113th Congress (2 House Members and 1 Senator) served in World War II. The Senator, Frank Lautenberg, died on June 3, 2013.

(31) Because of differences in data sources used, some demographic information may differ between CRS Report R42365, Representatives and Senators: Trends in Member Characteristics Since 1945, this report, and other demographic studies of Congress. Other sources of demographic information for the 113th Congress, including downloadable data sets, are the "State of the 113th Congress" website of the Social Science Research Council's "Measure of America" project at http://www.measureofamerica.org/113congress/, and Vital Statistics on Congress at http://www.brookings.edu/vitalstats, a joint project of the American Enterprise Institute and the Brookings Institution. Also, the House Library's "Reference File Drawer" webpage at http://library.clerk.house.gov/reference-ffiles.aspx, includes lists such as "Representatives of the 113th Congress--Lawyers" and "Representatives of the 113th Congress-- Youngest."
Table 1. Average Age of Members, 111th-113th Congresses

Average (mean) age at the beginning of the Congress

Congress   Representatives    Newly Elected     Senators      Newly
                             Representatives                 Elected
                                                             Senators

113th        57.0 years        49.2 years      62.0 years   53.0 years
112th        56.7 years        48.2 years      62.2 years   52.1 years
111th        57.2 years        49.8 years      63.1 years   57.1 years

Source: CRS calculations based on CQ Roll Call Member Profiles.

Notes: Representatives age data do not include the Delegates and the
Resident Commissioner. "Newly Elected" Members data do not include
those returning to the House or Senate for a second time.

Table 2. Most Frequently Listed Occupational
Categories by Members, 1 13th Congress

At the beginning of the 113th Congress

Occupation        Representatives   Senators

Business                187            27
Education               77             15
Law                     I56            55
Public Service/         I84            42
  Politics

Source: CQ Roll Call Member Profiles.

Notes: Most members list more than one profession
when surveyed by CQ Roll Call, and the professions
listed are not necessarily the ones practiced by
Members immediately prior to entering Congress.

Table 3. Average Length of Service of Members of Congress,
109th-13th Congresses

Average (mean) at beginning of the Congress, in years and
numbers of terms

Congress      Representatives              Senators

113th      9.1 years (4.6 terms)    10.2 years (1.7 terms)
112th      9.8 years (4.9 terms)    11.4 years (1.9 terms)
111th      10.3 years (5.2 terms)   13.4 years (2.2 terms)
110th      10.3 years (5.2 terms)   13.1 years (2.2 terms)
109th      10.1 years (5.1 terms)   12.3 years (2.1 terms)

Source: CRS Report R4I545, Congressional Careers: Service
Tenure and Patterns of Member Service, 1789-2013, by
Matthew E. Glassman and Amber Hope Wilhelm.

Notes: Representatives are elected for two-year terms.
Senators are elected for six-year terms. Note that 51
Senators in the I 13th Congress have previously served
in the House. Their House service is not included in
this average, nor is the House service of Senators in
previous Congresses.
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