The reign name of Japanese Emperor Mutsuhito (1852 - 1912). With the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the Tokugawa sh ogunate collapsed and, with it, the entire feudal system of government. The Meiji period, which lasted from 1868 to 1912, marks the emergence of Japan as a modern state. Under the banner of the restoration of the imperial family, various leaders joined to bring an end to the Tokugawa shogunate. This period saw an intense Westernization and modernization, with the introduction of Occidental scientific knowledge, culture, and literature. A constitution was established, parliamentary government was instituted, and Japan changed from an isolated feudal nation to a world power. Military victories were gained over China and Russia (1905), and Korea was annexed in 1910.