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Medicinal plants used by tribal medicinal practitioners of three clans of the Chakma tribe residing in Rangamati district, Bangladesh.

Introduction

Human beings probably recognized the value of plants for treatment of various ailments around 3,000 B.P. (Sofowara, 1982). Various indigenous communities or tribes throughout the world still are dependent on their own tribal medicinal practitioners (TMPs) for treatment of both human and livestock diseases. Since the advent of allopathic medicine, these "traditional" medicinal systems and practices continually started to lose ground and often became a subject of neglect by allopathic doctors and modern scientists. In recent years, attention has been re-focusing on the medicinal practices of the indigenous people (Cotton, 1996). Balick and Cox (1996) observed that a number of important modern pharmaceuticals have been derived from, or are plants used by indigenous people. Modern drugs like aspirin, atropine, ephedrine, digoxin, morphine, quinine, reserpine and tubocurarine are examples, which were originally discovered through observations of traditional cure methods of indigenous peoples (Gilani and Rahman, 2005). The huge number of floral species of the world, according to recent thinking, can be the future sources of newer and more efficacious drugs against emerging diseases, vector-resistant diseases, and diseases like diabetes, rheumatism or cancer, which cannot be effectively treated with allopathic medicine or where treatment may be accompanied with serious side-effects.

The Chakmas are the largest tribal group residing in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region in the southeastern part of Bangladesh. Although their habitat is in all four districts of the region, they are mainly concentrated in the districts of Rangamati and Khagrachari (Chakma, 2010). Anthropologists believe them to belong to the Mongoloid group of people, and they have facial similarities to the people of Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia and Laos. They call themselves 'Changma', while the mainstream Bengali-speaking population of Bangladesh refers to them as 'Chakma'. Various other tribes reside along with the Chakmas. The Tripura tribe call the Chakmas as 'Chaungma'; the Mro group refer to them as 'Achak', the Khiangs call the Chakmas as 'Sak', and the Lusai tribe calls the Chakmas as 'Takam'. According to the last population census of the Chakmas carried out in 1991, there were 239,417 Chakma people. Recent estimates put them around 300,000. The tribe is known to have over 30 clans and each clan is again sub-divided into sects, the total number of sects being over 50. For instance, the Boga clan has sects named Dhurja, Ninanda, Kattoga, Ramdalika, Mulikhaja, Boa, etc. The Larma clan has sects named Pirabhanga, Charga, Bhoba, and Todega. The Baburo clan has sects named Baburo, Gozalyo, Maloiya and Lohakodda.

The Chakma society is patriarchal. The predominant religion is Buddhism although they are to a great extent influenced by animistic and Hindu beliefs. An ancient religious text is present called Aghortara. As animists, they worship ghosts, deities and other forces, who they believe to possess supernatural powers. Their main festivals include 'hal palni', celebrated on the 7th day of the Bengali month of Ashar and which includes worship of the Hindu goddess 'Laxmi'. On the occasion of birth of a child, they celebrate 'bhat mojhi dena'. Their biggest festival is the 'biju', celebrated on the last two days of the Bengali calendar year and the first day of the new Bengali calendar year. The Chakmas have their own language with alphabets. The language belongs to the Indo-Aryan group of languages. Most words have Sanskrit, Pali or Prakrit language roots, the three languages being fore-runners of both the modern Bengali, as well as the Chakma language. The main diet of the Chakmas is rice taken with vegetables, fish or meat. 'Uchya' is boiled vegetables; 'sikya' contains grilled meat with salt, turmeric and pepper, while 'korbo' consists of dried fish with pepper and onion.

The Chakmas used to cultivate by the 'jhum' method, where a forest tract used to be cleared by burning followed by cultivation on the cleared land. After several years, they would move to a new spot and the whole process started again. In recent times, because of the increase in population and decreased forest habitat, jhum cultivation is making way to settled cultivation. However, most Chakmas are poor and work as agricultural laborer within the workforce of the Government Forest Division. Nevertheless, quite a number of Chakma families have quite extensive holdings, are educated, and hold some of the highest degrees of the land.

The Chakmas still frequent their own TMPs, especially for treatment of common ailments. The surrounding forest area is a rich source of diverse floral species, many of which have medicinal values known to the Chakma TMPs through centuries-long uses of these plants for medicinal purposes. Much of these Chakma knowledge remains to be adequately documented and scientifically tested. We had been conducting ethnomedicinal surveys among various tribal medicinal practitioners and mainstream traditional medicinal practitioners (Kavirajes) for a number of years (Nawaz et al., 2009; Rahmatullah et al., 2009a-c; Hasan et al., 2010; Hossan et al., 2010; Mollik et al., 2010a,b; Rahmatullah et al., 2010a-g; Haque et al., 2011; Jahan et al., 2011, Rahmatullah et al., 2012a-d). The objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the TMPs of the Baburo, Haduga and Larma clans of the Chakma tribe residing in Rangamati area, Bangladesh to document their use of medicinal plants for treatment of diverse ailments.

Materials and Methods

The present survey was carried out from June 2011 till December 2011. An initial survey was conducted among the Chakma people in the general area surrounding the town of Rangamati in Rangamati district of Bangladesh. Three Chakma clans were located in the area, namely the Baburo, Haduga and Larma clans. Each clan had one practicing TMP. Shukro Kumar Chakma belonged to the Baburo clan. He mentioned his age as 53 years old and religion to be Buddhism. Ramani Mohan Chakma, age 49 years, belonged to the Haduga clan, and he was also a Buddhist. Shanto Kaviraj belonged to the Larma clan. His age was 40 years and religion Buddhism. All three Kavirajes had been practicing at least for the last 15 years and each maintained an extensive medicinal plant garden and nursery adjacent to their homes. The three TMPs practiced, respectively, in the Bonorupa, Kanthaltoli and Rangapani area of Rangamati.

Informed consent was initially obtained from the TMPs to publish their names and any information provided both nationally as well as internationally. A consent form was signed individually by all TMPs. Actual interviews were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method of Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995). In this method, the TMPs took the interviewers in guided field-walks through forest areas or their own medicinal plants garden from where they collected their medicinal plants, pointed out the plants, and described their uses. Plants were photographed and plant samples collected and dried and brought back to Bangladesh National Herbarium at Dhaka for proper identification. Interviews were conducted of the TMPs in Bengali, the language being spoken by the interviewers as well as the TMPs. Voucher specimens were deposited at both the Bangladesh National Herbarium and the Medicinal Plant Collection Wing of the University of Development Alternative.

Results and Discussion

It was observed that the three TMPs interviewed used a total of 73 plants distributed into 42 plants for treatment of a diverse variety of ailments. The Rubiaceae family contributed the highest number of species at 7, while the Apocynaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and the Lamiaceae family contributed 4 species each. The various ailments treated included respiratory disorders, skin diseases, hemorrhoids, cancer, hypertension, diabetes, fever, gastrointestinal disorders, eye diseases, urinary tract disorders, helminthiasis, stomach and kidney stones, paralysis, pain, rheumatism, and jaundice. The results are shown in Table 1.

Overall, the formulations for treatment of ailments were simple. Most often a single plant was used for treatment of a single or multiple diseases. Within a single plant, a single plant part may be used or a combination of several plant parts. Administrations were either oral or topical. The leaves of Ipomoea aquatica were used for treatment of constipation. On the other hand, the leaves of Adhatoda zeylanica was used for treatment of coughs, mucus or hemorrhoids; the first two ailments being completely different in nature to the third. Similarly, the bark of Polyalthia longifolia was used for treatment of diverse ailments like burning sensations, fever or diabetes. The leaves, barks and roots of Lepidagathis incurva were used in combination for treatment of skin cancer. The leaves, stems and roots of Alstonia scholaris were used for treatment of lack of milk in mother following childbirth.

Despite the simplicity of formulations, there was some uniqueness to the Chakma TMPs selection of medicinal plants for treatment as well as the diseases treated. For instance, the TMPs were observed to use the following plants in their treatment, which has not been observed in our previously conducted more than 100 ethnomedicinal surveys among mainstream and tribal medicinal practitioners. These plants were Lepidagathis incurva, Alocasia cucullata, Tectaria heterosora, Dicranopteris linearis, Leea umbraculifera, Anamirta cocculus, Cheilanthes belangeri, Hedyotis verticillata, Hymenodictyon orixense, Ixora athroantha, Psychotria calocarpa, and Allophylus cobbe. Whether this reflects presence of the plants only in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region, or uniqueness on the part of the Chakma TMPs remain to be determined.

It is also notable that some of the plants used by the Chakma TMPs are in use by other traditional medicinal practitioners in Bangladesh in other regions, but the ailments treated differs between the Chakma TMPs and other traditional medicinal practitioners. For instance, Rauwolfia serpentina is a common remedy among the mainstream traditional medicinal practitioners for hypertension; the Chakma TMPS in the present study used it also as a remedy for stomach pain. Adhatoda zeylanica, similarly is a common remedy among traditional practitioners for respiratory disorders like coughs, mucus or bronchitis; the Chakma TMPs used the plant also for treatment of hemorrhoids. The leaves of Tagetes erecta are mainly used by mainstream traditional medicinal practitioners for stopping bleeding from external cuts and wounds. The Chakma TMPs used the leaves of this plant in conjunction with fruits of Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia belerica, and Terminalia chebula for treatment of hemorrhoids. It is noteworthy that the fruits of the latter three plants, in combination, are known as Triphala--a very well-known Ayurvedic preparation used by Ayurvedic practitioners to increase longevity, maintain good health, and as treatment for gout, obesity, nervous disorders, liver disorders, and ocular problems. Scientific studies have demonstrated a number of beneficial effects of Triphala, including anti-bacterial properties (Srinagesh and Pushpanjali, 2011), cytotoxic effects against human prostate cancer LNCap cells (Russell et al., 2011), anti-cataract potential (Wiwanitkit, 2011), and beneficial effects in experimental gouty arthritis (Sabina and Rasool, 2008). Whether Triphala is good for hemorrhoids, however, remains to be established. However, the use of Tagetes erecta leaves can have a controlling effect on bleeding during hemorrhoids, while the polyphenolic anti-oxidant constituents of Triphala may have an overall beneficial effect. Bryophyllum pinnatum is used by mainstream traditional practitioners usually for treatment of kidney, stomach or gall bladder stones; the Chakma TMPs used the plant for treatment of diabetes and constipation as well as stomach or kidney stones.

It is noteworthy that nine plants were used by the Chakma TMPs for treatment of diabetes and five plants for the treatment of hypertension. The nine anti-diabetic plants were Polyalthia longifolia, Terminalia chebula, Bryophyllum pinnatum, Coccinia grandis, Momordica charantia, Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum sanctum, Ficus hispida, and Clerodendrum viscosum. The five anti-hypertensive plants were Catharanthus roseus, Rauwolfia serpentina, Calotropis gigantea, Ficus religiosa, and Curcuma longa. The use of Catharanthus roseus and Rauwolfia serpentina by the Chakma TMPs for treatment of hypertension has been scientifically validated (Ara et al., 2009; Shamon and Perez, 2009). The Chakma TMPs use of Coccinia grandis and Momordica charantia for treatment of diabetes have also been similarly scientifically validated (Munasinghe et al., 2011; Chaturvedi, 2012). Anti-diabetic efficacies have also been reported for Terminalia chebula (Murali et al., 2007), Bryophyllum pinnatum (Ojewole, 2005), and Ocimum sanctum (Vats et al., 2002), all three of the latter group of plants being used by the Chakma TMPs for treatment of diabetes.

The Chakma TMPs also described the uses of three plants, namely, Lepidagathis incurva, Scoparia dulcis and Smilax zeylanica for treatment of skin and throat cancers. It is possible that the term cancer has been picked up from interaction with allopathic physicians. It is also possible that since the Chakma TMPs mentioned that they are familiar with Ayurvedic formulations, they may have picked up the cancer term from Ayurvedic texts. While the origin of the term cancer remains uncertain, skin cancer according to them is an unusual nodule on the skin surface or a lesion on the skin surface that will not heal with plants used for treating skin infections. Throat cancer, according to the Chakma TMPs is a swelling on the throat accompanied by a change in the voice. While the symptoms described may or may not be skin and throat cancers, it is interesting that out of the three plants used by them to treat these two types of cancer, Lepidagathis incurva reportedly possess cytotoxic activities (Charoenchai et al., 2010), while cytotoxic diterpenes have been isolated from Scoparia dulcis (Ahsan et al., 2003).

Overall, the medicinal plants reported by the Chakma TMPs for treatment of diverse ailments merit considerable potential from the scientific community for further studies. The number of plants used by the TMPs and validated by modern scientific research as to their actual uses are several in number. They are also important in the sense that the Chakma TMPs use these plants for incurable or difficult to cure diseases by allopathic medicine like cancer, diabetes and hypertension. Thorough scientific research as to the plant's relevant pharmacological activities can prove to be of immense benefit to patients all throughout the world if new and efficacious drugs can be discovered from the plants. Such discoveries can not only lead to novel drugs but also spur conservation efforts to save these plants, which are rapidly getting lost because of mindless destruction of forest areas through construction of human habitats and turning forest areas into cultivable lands.

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(1) Rashida Tabassum Esha, (1) Motiur Rahman Chowdhury, (1) Susamoy Adhikary, (1) Khan Md. Ariful Haque, (1) Mousumi Acharjee, (2) Md. Nurunnabi, (2) Zehedina Khatun, (2) Yong-kyu Lee, (1) Mohammed Rahmatullah

(1) Department of Pharmacy, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh.

(2) Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju, Republic of Korea, 380-702

Corresponding Author: Professor Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor University of Development lternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205 Bangladesh Phone: 88-01715032621 Fax: 88-02-8157339 E mail: rahamatm@hotmail.com
Table 1: Medicinal plants used for treatment of various ailments
by traditional medicinal practitioners of three clans of the
Chakma tribe inhabiting the Rangamati area of Bangladesh.

Serial        Scientific          Family Name           Local Name
Number           Name

1              Adhatoda           Acanthaceae          Ludi bashok
           zeylanica Medik.

2            Lepidagathis         Acanthaceae           Aarae uri
            incurva Buch.                               nolakkher
            -Ham. ex D.Don

3              Celosia           Amaranthaceae           Kheyang
             argentea L.                                  marek

4             Polyalthia           Annonaceae            Debdaru
              longifolia
           (Sonn.) Thwaites
                 (PL)

5              Alstonia           Apocynaceae         Sechsena gach
            scholaris (L.)
                R.Br.

6            Catharanthus         Apocynaceae           Badam boot
          roseus (L.) G.Don

7             Rauwolfia           Apocynaceae            Churmang
           serpentina (L.)
            Benth.ex Kurz

8          Tabernaemontana        Apocynaceae         Kathal khatya
              divaricata
            (L.) R. Br. ex
           Roem. & Schult.

9              Alocasia             Araceae            Bilae kochu
          cucullata (Lour.)
               G. Don.

10            Calotropis         Asclepiadaceae        Akkon shak,
            gigantea (L.)                               Akon shak
                Ait.f.

11           Chromolaena           Asteraceae           Mojakkher
             odorata (L.)
             R. M. King &
               H. Rob.

12        Tagetes erecta L.        Asteraceae           Ganda gach

13            Terminalia          Combretaceae          Bora gach
               belerica
           (Gaertn.) Roxb.

14            Terminalia          Combretaceae             Uoal
            chebula Retz.

15         Ipomoea aquatica      Convolvulaceae          Hormoma
               Forssk.                                     shak

16         Ipomoea triloba       Convolvulaceae          Del lodi
                  L.

17         Costus speciosus        Costaceae              Ghedgi
           (J. Konig.) Sm.

18           Bryophyllum          Crassulaceae             Jeus
           pinnatum (Lam.)
                 Oken

19             Coccinia        Cucurbitaceae               Ludi
           cordifolia (L.)         ishwarmuli
                Cogn.

20         Coccinia grandis      Cucurbitaceae        Eranga bacha,
            (L.) J. Voigt                               Hela hujur

21            Momordica          Cucurbitaceae       Tita pullo shak
             charantia L.

22             Tectaria         Dryopteridaceae        Baidya nath
              heterosora
            (Baker) Ching

23            Antidesma          Euphorbiaceae         Chung chunga
           roxburghii Wall.                            fejang, Sung
                                                      sunga prejang

24             Jatropha          Euphorbiaceae         Khegoon gach
              curcas L.

25           Phyllanthus         Euphorbiaceae           Hadamala
              emblica L.                                   gach

26           Phyllanthus         Euphorbiaceae         Bauli banga
              niruri L.                                    her

27         Mimosa pudica L.         Fabaceae            Lojjaboti

28           Senna alata            Fabaceae             Dao long
              (L.) Roxb.

29            Senna tora            Fabaceae           Ijibiji gach
              (L.) Roxb.

30         Swertia chirata        Gentianaceae           Chirota
              (Roxb. ex
             Fleming) H.
                Karst.

31          Dicranopteris        Gleicheniaceae        Horang veher
               linearis
             (Burman f.)
              Underwood

32          Leucas aspera          Lamiaceae              Gousha
            (Willd.) Link                                khongor

33              Ocimum             Lamiaceae          Sabarung gach
             basilicum L.

34        Ocimum sanctum L.        Lamiaceae             Tuloshi

35              Ocimum             Lamiaceae         Khargi shukchand
            tenuiflorum L.

36            Cinnamomum           Lauraceae             Tejpata
            tamala (Buch.
            -Ham.) Nees &
                Eberm.

37         Litsea glutinosa        Lauraceae            Mewa pata
               (Lour.)
             C.D.Robins.

38               Leea               Leeaceae          Aash ura gach
            umbraculifera
             C.B. Clarke

39          Hibiscus rosa          Malvaceae            Rokto joba
             sinensis L.

40         Sida rhombifolia        Malvaceae           Bilbili gach
                  L.

41           Angiopteris          Marattiaceae             Adib
            evecta (J. R.
            Forst.) Hoffm.

42            Melastoma         Melastomataceae         Moha purti
           malabathricum L.

43        Anamirta cocculus      Menispermaceae        Ludi chibang
          (L.) Wight & Arn.

44            Stephania          Menispermaceae          Fadarpur
          japonica (Thunb.)
                Miers

45        Ficus hirta Vahl.         Moraceae          Thammang gach

46          Ficus hispida           Moraceae         Debida sura gach
                 L.f.

47         Ficus religiosa          Moraceae             Ashwoth
                  L.

48         Psidium guajava         Myrtaceae              Goian
                  L.

49            Polygonum           Polygonaceae         Mon ijadar,
             chinensis L.                              Mone jojada

50           Cheilanthes          Pteridaceae          Ching fuchi,
           belangeri (Bory                              Sil fushi
            in Belang.) C.
                 Chr.

51             Ziziphus            Rhamnaceae              Kul
           mauritiana Lam.

52             Hedyotis            Rubiaceae          Gou o jhil her
          thomsonii Hook.f.

53             Hedyotis            Rubiaceae             Boithita
          verticillata (L.)
                 Lam.

54          Hymenodictyon          Rubiaceae           Dela gamari
           orixense (Roxb.)
              Mabberley

55         Ixora athroantha        Rubiaceae          Ludi choulla,
               Bremek.                                 Ludi choilla

56            Mussaenda            Rubiaceae            Rani thak
           roxburghii Hook.
                  f.

57         Paederia foetida        Rubiaceae           Gondo madok
                  L.

58            Psychotria           Rubiaceae             Shudoma
           calocarpa Kurz.

59          Aegle marmelos          Rutaceae            Urik phang
              (L.) Corr.

60        Santalum album L.       Santalaceae          Shet chondon

61         Allophylus cobbe       Sapindaceae           Jendra ma
            (L.) Raeuschel

62         Mimusops elengi         Sapotaceae             Bokul
                  L.

63         Scoparia dulcis      Scrophulariaceae       Aadam fuchi
                  L.

64         Smilax zeylanica       Smilacaceae         Kumujja loti,
                  L.                                  Gumujjej lodi

65         Datura metel L.         Solanaceae          Dhutur phool

66          Abroma augusta       Sterculiaceae          Gach Chula
                 L.f.

67            Aquilaria           Thymeliaceae             Akod
           agallocha Roxb.

68        Grewia paniculata        Tiliaceae            Ashar gach
             Roxb. ex DC.

69           Clerodendrum         Verbenaceae           Begh gach
            viscosum Vent.

70            Nyctanthes          Verbenaceae        Shing guri phool
           arbor-tristis L.                                gach

71         Curcuma longa L.      Zingiberaceae             Olud

72         Curcuma zedoaria      Zingiberaceae         Ranga holla
          (Christm.) Roscoe

73        Zingiber montanum      Zingiberaceae          Mone ada,
           (J. Koenig) Link                              Meni ada
             ex A. Dietr.

Serial      Utilized Part        Ailment(s) and formulation(s)
Number

1                Leaf             Coughs, mucus, hemorrhoids.
                                 Juice obtained from macerated
                                    leaves is taken orally.
                                 Rheumatic pain. The underside
                                of a leaf is warmed over a fire
                                  and then applied to painful
                                             areas.

2            Leaf, bark,            Skin cancer. Leaves are
                 root            softened by crushing with hand
                                and then applied as poultice to
                                affected area. At the same time
                                  juice obtained from crushed
                               bark or root is topically applied
                                       to the same area.

3                Leaf             Impotency, skin infections.
                                 Juice obtained from macerated
                               leaves is orally administered for
                                   impotency. Same juice is
                                   topically applied to skin
                                          infections.

4                Bark              Burning sensations, fever,
                                 diabetes. Bark is dried in the
                                   sun and powdered. Powdered
                                  bark is mixed with milk. 2-3
                                glasses of milk are taken daily.

5            Leaf, stem,             Lack of milk in mother
                 root            following childbirth. For one
                                   month the mother is fed a
                                mixture of boiled powdered rice
                                 mixed with bark with a slight
                                 amount of sugar and salt (1/2
                                 spoonful daily). Following one
                                  month, the mother is fed V2
                                 spoonfuls of boiled leaves and
                                     stems 3-4 times daily.

6            Leaf, bark,         Hypertension. A little amount
                 stem          of leaf is chewed (if excess leaf
                                   is chewed, it will lead to
                                    vomiting) and swallowed.
                                 Alternately bark or leaf with
                                    stems may be chewed and
                                           swallowed.
                                    Hypertension. Macerated
                                  rhizome of Curcuma longa is
                                 mixed with juice obtained from
                                      macerated leaves of
                                    Catharanthus roseus. 3-4
                                   spoonfuls are taken daily.

7            Leaf, stem,          Hypertension, stomach pain.
                 root                Juice obtained from a
                                    combination of macerated
                               leaves, stems and roots is orally
                                             taken.

8                Leaf           Redness in eyes, conjunctivitis.
                                One to two drops of clear juice
                                   coming out from a freshly
                                plucked leaf stalk is applied to
                                     eyes 1-2 times daily.

9                Leaf             Infections from being cut by
                                thorns, snake bite. Sap obtained
                                  from torn leaves is applied.

10               Leaf             Whitish discharge in urine,
                                  hypertension, helminthiasis
                                 (hook worm). Two spoonfuls of
                                 juice obtained from macerated
                               leaves are taken 2-3 times daily.

11          Young leaf at       Bleeding from external cuts and
             top of stem          wounds. Four, five or seven
                                 young leaves are plucked from
                                 top of stem, slightly crushed
                                 and applied to cuts and wounds
                                       to stop bleeding.

12               Leaf             Hemorrhoids. Juice obtained
                                    from macerated leaves of
                                  Tagetes erecta is mixed with
                                 juice obtained from fruits of
                                      Phyllanthus emblica,
                                    Terminalia belerica and
                                 Terminalia chebula. 1-2 large
                                  spoonfuls of the mixture is
                                  taken daily for 20-21 days.

13           Leaf, fruit         Abscess, burning sensations on
                                   skin. Juice obtained from
                                 macerated leaves is taken with
                                             sugar.
                                  Hemorrhoids. Juice obtained
                                    from macerated leaves of
                                  Tagetes erecta is mixed with
                                 juice obtained from fruits of
                                      Phyllanthus emblica,
                                    Terminalia belerica and
                                 Terminalia chebula. 1-2 large
                                  spoonfuls of the mixture is
                                  taken daily for 20-21 days.

14           Leaf, fruit          Hemorrhoids. Juice obtained
                                    from macerated leaves of
                                  Tagetes erecta is mixed with
                                 juice obtained from fruits of
                                      Phyllanthus emblica,
                                    Terminalia belerica and
                                 Terminalia chebula. 1-2 large
                                  spoonfuls of the mixture is
                                  taken daily for 20-21 days.
                                 Diabetes. Juice obtained from
                                 macerated leaves is mixed with
                               a little amount of salt and taken
                                          twice daily.

15               Leaf           Constipation. Boiled leaves are
                                             taken.

16               Leaf          Facial distortion. Juice obtained
                                    from macerated leaves is
                                  applied to distorted areas.

17               Leaf             Hydrocele. Boiled leaves are
                                    macerated and applied to
                                            scrotum.

18           Whole plant        Constipation, diabetes, stomach
                                 or kidney stones. Whole plants
                               (leaves, barks, stems, roots) are
                                 boiled with a little amount of
                                  sugar. Two to two and a half
                                  spoonful of the decoction is
                                orally administered to children
                                and three teaspoonfuls to adults
                                  2-3 times daily after meals.

19               Root               Menstrual problems like
                                   burning sensations during
                                 menstruation. One spoonful of
                                 juice obtained from macerated
                                 root is taken 1-2 times daily.

20               Leaf            Frequent urination, diabetes.
                                 Juice obtained from macerated
                                leaves is taken. Note that sugar
                                        cannot be used.

21               Leaf            Diabetes, frequent urination.
                                 One spoonful of juice obtained
                                 from macerated leaves is taken
                                        3-4 times daily.

22               Root               Diarrhea in infant. One
                                  spoonful of water is fed in
                                 which roots have been boiled.

23            Leaf, bark        Paralysis of hand or leg. Leaves
                                 or barks are crushed with hand
                                 to obtain juice, which is then
                                 massaged onto paralyzed areas.

24               Bark           Irregular menstruation. Bark is
                                  macerated followed by drying
                               in the sun. It is then taken with
                                          cold water.

25              Fruit             Hemorrhoids. Juice obtained
                                    from macerated leaves of
                                  Tagetes erecta is mixed with
                                 juice obtained from fruits of
                                      Phyllanthus emblica,
                                    Terminalia belerica and
                                 Terminalia chebula. 1-2 large
                                  spoonfuls of the mixture is
                                  taken daily for 20-21 days.
                               Gastrointestinal disorders, ulcer,
                               gastric pain. Fruits are taken on
                                    an empty stomach in the
                                 morning. Alternately dried and
                                 powdered fruits of Phyllanthus
                                  emblica, Terminalia belerica
                                   and Terminalia chebula are
                                  taken on an empty stomach in
                                          the morning.

26               Leaf              Skin rash, skin diseases.
                                 Macerated leaves are topically
                                            applied.

27               Root               Passing of blood during
                                urination, burning sensations in
                                urinary tract. 2-3 teaspoonfuls
                                     of juice obtained from
                                 macerated roots is mixed with
                                     water and taken daily.

28            Leaf, seed         Skin diseases. Juice obtained
                                 from macerated leaves or seeds
                                 is mixed with coconut oil and
                                   applied to affected areas
                                  following bathing. Note that
                                 leaves or seeds should not be
                                         taken orally.

29               Leaf              Sleeplessness, leech bite.
                                Leaves are chewed and the juice
                                swallowed for sleeplessness. At
                                    the same time leaves are
                                smelled. Note that leaves should
                                    be chewed without water.
                                 Leaves are massaged to leech-
                                         bitten areas.

30              Fruit             Gastrointestinal disorders,
                                helminthiasis. Fruits are soaked
                                 in a glass of water overnight
                                 followed by drinking the water
                                  the following morning on an
                                         empty stomach.

31               Leaf              Blood clotting on bones or
                                 muscle. Leaves are boiled and
                                  made into a paste, which is
                                   applied to affected areas.

32               Leaf          Lesions/infections within nostril.
                               Leaves are crushed by beating with
                                hand and then kept for some time
                                    on the infection/lesion.

33            Leaf, bark       Coughs, respiratory difficulties,
                                fever, diabetes, skin diseases.
                               Young leaves are slightly crushed
                               in hand and kept in the mouth for
                               coughs, respiratory difficulties,
                                 and fever. Juice obtained from
                                 macerated leaves is taken for
                                 diabetes. Macerated leaves or
                                 barks are applied to affected
                                    areas in skin diseases.

34            Leaf, bark       Coughs, respiratory difficulties,
                                fever, diabetes, skin diseases.
                                 For coughs, fever, respiratory
                               difficulties, and diabetes, leaves
                                or bark is boiled in water. For
                                 children less than 1 year old,
                                  dosage is V2 spoonful of the
                               water; for age 1-2 years, dose is
                                1 spoonful; for age more than 2
                                years, dose is 3-4 spoonful. For
                               treatment of skin diseases, leaves
                                 or bark is macerated to obtain
                                juice. One spoonful of the juice
                                 is mixed with coconut oil and
                                   applied to affected areas.

35               Leaf          Coughs, respiratory difficulties.
                                 Leaves are heated over a fire
                                 followed by extraction of leaf
                                 juice. The juice is then taken
                                  with honey 3-4 times daily.

36               Leaf            Infections on skin. Macerated
                                  young leaves are applied to
                                        affected areas.

37               Leaf           Mucus, respiratory difficulties
                               due to mucus. Leaves are boiled in
                                 water and then the juice taken
                                            orally.

38               Leaf           Abscess, infections arising out
                               from wounds due to being hit with
                                 a sharp iron utensil. Edges of
                                leaves are boiled, macerated and
                                   applied to affected areas.

39              Flower          Diarrhea, infections on palm of
                                   hand. Juice obtained from
                                macerated flower petals is taken
                                with water for diarrhea. Crushed
                                  flower petals are topically
                                  applied to palm infections.

40               Leaf           Scabies, eczema, abscess. Leaves
                                are slightly crushed in hand and
                                   then mixed with saliva and
                                 slightly pressed onto affected
                                             areas.

41               Leaf           Joint pain. Juice obtained from
                                macerated leaf is massaged onto
                                joints as well as taken orally.

42               Leaf             Red color of urine, burning
                                sensations during urination. 1-2
                                spoonfuls of juice obtained from
                                macerated leaves is taken twice
                                             daily.

43               Leaf            Spots on new-born baby's skin.
                                Macerated leaves are applied to
                                             spots.

44               Leaf              Pain on an empty stomach,
                                 menstrual pain. Juice obtained
                                from macerated leaves is taken.

45            Leaf, root       Insanity, mental disorders, memory
                                   loss. Juice obtained from
                                  macerated leaves or roots is
                                      orally administered.

46              Fruit           Diabetes. Fruits are cooked and
                                eaten as vegetable with regular
                                             meals.

47              Fruit           Hypertension. Dried and powdered
                                  fruits are taken with water.

48            Leaf, bark          Flatulence, gastrointestinal
                                 disorders. Leaves or barks are
                                  boiled in water followed by
                                      drinking the water.

49               Leaf          Paralysis of hand or leg, wasting
                                  away of hands or legs. Juice
                               obtained from macerated leaves is
                                massaged once daily to affected
                                             areas.

50               Leaf            Headache, feeing of hotness in
                                head. Crushed leaves are applied
                                     to forehead and scalp.

51            Leaf, bark          Fever, flatulence, diarrhea.
                                 Macerated leaves or barks are
                               mixed with a small amount of water
                               and applied to head during fever.
                                 Juice obtained from macerated
                                leaves is taken twice daily for
                                    flatulence or diarrhea.

52               Leaf          Excessive itching in the eyes. Two
                                  drops of juice obtained from
                                 squeezed leaves is applied to
                                         corner of eye.

53               Leaf           Bursting of abscess followed by
                               oozing of pus and reddish colored
                                 substance. Juice obtained from
                                macerated leaf is applied to the
                                             area.

54           Top of stem         Hemorrhoids. Top of stems are
                                 softened over a fire and then
                                         orally taken.

55               Bark          Diarrhea. Macerated bark is dried
                                 in the sun and then taken with
                                          cold water.

56               Leaf            Burning sensations in hands or
                                   legs, rheumatism, abscess.
                                 Macerated leaves are topically
                                   applied to affected areas.

57               Leaf          Rheumatic pain, burning sensations
                                during urination. Juice obtained
                                 from macerated leaves is taken
                                          with sugar.

58               Leaf          Paralysis of hands or legs. Juice
                               obtained from macerated leaves is
                                 massaged onto paralyzed area.

59              Fruit           Gastrointestinal disorders like
                               flatulence, constipation, stomach
                                pain. Soft pulp within the fruit
                                  is dried in the sun and then
                                 powdered. Powder is taken with
                                             water.

60               Wood          To remove scar marks or marks due
                                to burns, skin diseases. Wood is
                               dried and powdered and then mixed
                               with milk. The mixture is applied
                               to affected areas before bathing.

61               Leaf              Pain in hand or leg. Juice
                                 obtained from crushed leaf is
                                  massaged onto painful areas.

62            Leaf, bark         Skin wounds, skin infections.
                               Macerated leaf or bark is applied
                                       to affected area.

63               Leaf               Pain in chin or throat,
                               tonsillitis, throat cancer, facial
                                redness, eczema, skin diseases.
                                 Juice obtained from macerated
                                 leaves is applied to affected
                                areas. Rest of the leaf is then
                                applied to the area as poultice.

64               Leaf            Skin cancer, skin infections.
                                Macerated leaves are applied to
                                  affected area followed by a
                                 poultice on the area with the
                                       bottom of leaves.

65               Leaf            To stop bleeding from external
                               wounds. Crushed leaves are applied
                                to wounds. Leaves should not be
                                         taken orally.

66         Leaf, bark, root      Irregular menstruation. Juice
                                 obtained from a combination of
                               macerated leaves, barks and roots
                                 is mixed with water and taken
                                  daily (2-3 teaspoonfuls each
                                             time).

67               Leaf           Coughs, mucus. A small amount of
                                 juice obtained from macerated
                               leaves is orally taken. Rheumatic
                                pain. The underside of a leaf is
                                  warmed over a fire and then
                                   applied to painful areas.

68               Leaf          Gastric troubles. Small pills are
                                prepared from crushed leaves and
                               sun-dried. Pills are taken thrice
                                             daily.

69               Leaf            Frequent urination, diabetes.
                               Macerated leaves are taken orally.

70               Leaf          Skin diseases. Juice obtained from
                                 macerated leaves is mixed with
                                   coconut oil and applied to
                                affected areas 1-2 times daily.
                               This formulation can be applied if
                                  the patient is taking other
                                          medications.

71             Rhizome         Hypertension. Macerated rhizome of
                               Curcuma longa is mixed with juice
                               obtained from macerated leaves of
                               Catharanthus roseus. 3-4 spoonfuls
                                are taken daily. Abscess. Juice
                               obtained from macerated rhizome is
                               mixed with cow milk and applied to
                                            abscess.

72               Stem          Jaundice. Macerated stem is taken
                                            orally.

73               Leaf            Swelling of joints, rheumatic
                                pain. Crushed leaves are applied
                                       to affected areas.
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Original Articles
Author:Esha, Rashida Tabassum; Chowdhury, Motiur Rahman; Adhikary, Susamoy; Haque, Khan Md. Ariful; Acharje
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Apr 1, 2012
Words:6558
Previous Article:Activity of botanical extracts on paddy rice pathogen.
Next Article:An ethnomedicinal survey conducted among the folk medicinal practitioners of three villages in Kurigram district, Bangladesh.
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