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Medicinal plants of the Santal Tribe residing in Rajshahi district, Bangladesh.

Introduction

The Santals form the largest tribal group residing in the Himalayan sub-mountain region in different districts of Rajshahi division. They are the descendants of Austric-speaking Proto-Australoid race. In physical feature, the Santals closely resemble some other tribal groups like the Oraons, Mundas, and the Paharias.

The Santals rely on treatment of their ailments on their traditional healers known as "ojha". The ojha combines within one person the healer as well as the diviner. The ojha drives away malevolent spirits and deities, determines the cause of a disease, and administers remedies based on his considerable practical knowledge of medicinal plants. In fact, traditional medicine is highly developed among the Santals, and this knowledge extends to more than three hundred medicinal plant species. Their making of remedies suggests a practical knowledge of chemistry.

We are in the process of conducting an extensive ethnobotanical survey of the Santals, who currently number over two hundred thousand and are spread through a large area. The objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnobotanical survey of the Santals living in Rajshahi district, which form one of the districts within the Rajshahi division.

Materials and methods

Ethnobotanical methods like semi-structured interviews were employed to obtain the necessary information. The basic method employed is termed as guided field walk, which as per Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995) involves observation while interviewing the informant. Typically, the informant (ojha) was taken on field trips to forest areas from where he usually collected his medicinal plants. Plants were pointed out by the ojha and their local name, ailments for which they were prescribed, part of plant used, formulations and dosages were noted down by the researcher. Information was also obtained on any specific time or month when the plant was collected, the maturity of the plant when it was deemed suitable for medicinal use, and any other plants that were being used concomitantly in the preparation of remedies.

Plant specimens were photographed as well as collected, pressed and dried in the field. Local names of the plants were obtained from the informant and double-checked with other members of the Rakhain community. Plant specimens were identified at the Bangladesh National Herbarium, where voucher specimens were deposited.

Results and discussion

Plants and their distribution into families

Detailed information was collected on twenty six medicinal plants used by the ojhas to treat various ailments. The results are summarized in Table 1. Briefly, the plants were distributed in to twenty one families, which included Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Apiaceae, Asparagaceae, Capparaceae, Cuscutaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Leguminosae, Loganiaceae, Loranthaceae, Malvaceae, Marsileaceae, Meninspermaceae, Moraceae, Polygonaceae, Sapotaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae, Verbenaceae, and Vitaceae. The highest number of plants (three each) belonged to the Amaranthaceae and Leguminosae families, followed by two plants in the Solanaceae family.

Plant parts used and mode of preparation

Leaves formed the part of the plant most frequently used (eight plants), followed by use of the whole plant (seven plants) for treatment of ailments. The roots, tubers or rhizomes of six plants were also us ed by the ojhas. Flowers were leas t used; the flower of only one plant was used as remedy. The usual mode of use of the plants or plant parts involved crushing the plant and collecting the juice. Other remedies included making paste of plant or plant parts, soaking the plant or plant part in water followed by straining the water through cloth, and boiling the plant or plant part in water to form a decoction.

The Santal ojhas typically mix several ingredients in the preparation of their remedies. These ingredients can be parts of other plants, spices, or sugar. For instance, as remedy for stomach pain whole plant of Achyranthes aspera along with leaves of Aerva lanata is crushed and taken with a little crystalline sugar. The whole plant of Centella asiatica is crushed with whole plant of Marsilea quadrifolia and given as a remedy to mothers, who are lacking in breast milk after childbirth. On occasions, the number of ingredients may be substantial. For instance, the concoction that the ojhas use as remedy for tuberculosis include roots of Solanum virginianum, roots of Asparagus racemosus, roots of Hemidesmus indicus, roots of Abrus precatorius, fruits of Piper cubeba, fruits of Terminalia chebula, along with a number of spices including cinnamon, cardamom, nutmeg, clove, saffron, black cumin and a locally obtained unidentified Santal spice called gojruti. Pills made from all these ingredients are taken with chuani (rice fermented wine). As remedy for dripping o f saliva from mouth and loss of movement of tongue, the leaves and roots of Tinospora cordifolia are made into a paste with fruits o f Terminalia chebula, fruits of Terminalia bellerica, wood from Santalum album, leaves of Abrus precatorius, leaves of Andrographis paniculata, and whole plant of kantakhor (an unidentified plant), dried, powdered, and made into pills, which are taken thrice daily for seven days. For puerperal fever resulting in excessive loss of weight in women, the ojhas administer to women a concoction made from the flower buds of Hibiscus rosa sinensis, aerial roots of Ficus benghalensis, clove and gum from Acacia arabica along with a small amount of ginger juice.

A review of the available scientific literature suggests that the Santal remedies could be sometimes effective for treatment of the disease itself; at other times, the remedies may be considered as symptomatic treatments. The whole plant of Achyranthes aspera along with leaves of Aerva lanata and a little crystalline sugar is used to treat stomach pain. Since Achyranthes aspera has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity (Gokhale et al., 2002; Vetrichelvan and Jegadeesan, 2003), it is possible that stomach pain arising out from ulceration or inflammation of the stomach can be remedied through use of this plant. The same is true for Crinum sp., the tubers of which are taken with crushed ginger during stomach pain. Although it was not possible to fully identify the Crinum sp. used by the Santals, other species of this genus have analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. For instance, aqueous extract of Crinum glaucum have been reported to possess analgesic and antiinflammatory activities (Okpo et al., 2001). Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-lymphocytic activities have also been reported for aqueous extract of Crinum giganteum (Kapu et al., 2001). The bark of Capparis zeylanica is used by Santal ojhas as remedy for pain in hands or feet. Recent research has found evidences of analgesic and antipyretic effects of leaves of this plant (Ghule et al., 2007). The leaves of Leucas aspera are used as remedy for headache by the Santals. The roots of this plant reportedly possess antinociceptive, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities (Rahman et al., 2007), while the flowers are known to have antimicrobial activity (Mangathayaru et al., 2005). It is possible that while it has not so far been reported, the leaves of the plant may also possess antinociceptive properties, which may lead to direct relief of headache, or contain antimicrobial substances, which can contribute to symptomatic relief of headache caused as a result of bacterial infection. The leaves of Vitex negundo are also used as remedy for headache. The leaves particularly, as well as the seeds of this plant reportedly possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities (Chawla et al., 1992; Dharmasiri et al., 2003; Gupta and Tandon, 2005; Tandon and Gupta, 2006), which can account for the relief of headache.

The roots of Asparagus racemosus are used with other plant parts and spices by the Santals as remedy for tuberculosis. The root of this plant reportedly has anti-bacterial properties (Mandal et al., 2000). The roots and stems of Abrus precatorius are taken during tuberculosis and throat pains. It is interesting that the roots have been reported to contain four anti-bacterial compounds (Zore et al., 2007), and the plant as a whole has been reported to possess anti-bacterial activity against clinical pathogens (Adelowotan et al., 2008), immunopotentiating activity (Ramnath et al., 2002), as well as anti-tubercular and anti-plasmodial constituents (Limmatvapirat et al., 2004). Thus the use of this plant as remedy for tuberculosis appears to be scientifically validated.

The leaves of Cajanus cajan (synonym of Cajanus indicus) is taken for jaundice, which is a disorder of the liver. The hepatoprotective effect of this plant, particularly against various hepatotoxic compounds has been thoroughly documented (Sarkar and Sil, 2006; S arkar et al., 2005; Ghosh et al., 2006; Ghosh and Sil, 2006; Sarkar et al., 2006; Manna et al., 2007a,b).

The fruits of Madhuca indica are taken as a remedy by the Santals for debility and further considered to "purify blood". "Toxicity of blood" is considered by many traditional medicinal practitioners in Bangladesh as the cause for various ailments, for which medicines are taken, which are considered to "purify blood". It is possibly safe to assume that the above terms are symptomatic descriptions of disorders of blood like low hemoglobin, or lower than normal number of various blood cells, or other infections for which the assumption is made that blood plays an important role. It is noteworthy that Madhuca indica contains protobassic glycosides named madhucosides A and B, with inhibitory activity on free radical release from phagocytes (Pawar and Bhutani, 2004).

Modern scientific studies validate to a certain extent the us e of Scoparia dulcis by the Santals to treat blood dysentery. The plant is known to possess anti-microbial components (Latha et al., 2006); in vivo inhibition of gastric acid secretion by aqueous extract of the plant has also been reported in rodents (Mesia-Vela et al., 2007).

The scientific validation of the use of Cissus quadrangularis in healing bone fractures, as well as its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties has been widely documented (Udupa et al., 1961; Udupa and Pras ad, 1962; Singh and Udupa, 1962; Prasad and Udupa, 1963; Udupa and Prasad, 1964a,b; Chopra et al., 1976; Shirwaikar et al., 2003; Panthong et al., 2007). In our ongoing studies on the ethnobotanical survey of each district and each tribe in Bangladesh, we have observed that every district or tribe that we have surveyed uses this plant for healing bone fractures.

Conclusion

The Santals have a well-established system of administration of traditional medicine based mainly on plants by their traditional healers or ojhas for treatment of diverse ailments. This study forms part of our ongoing studies on the Santals, and gives the results of our ethnobotanical survey of the Santals of Rajshahi districts. The study is already providing enough information for further scientific studies to be conducted on medicinal plants used by the Santals, since the use of a number of plants has already been validated through modern scientific research. The once densely forested regions that the Santals inhabited are largely gone, and efforts need to be made by all quarters to save what is left of this fast dwindling medicinal plant resources.

References

Adelowotan, O., I. Aibinu, E. Adenipekun and T. Odugbemi, 2008. The in-vitro antimicrobial activity of Abrus precatorius (L) Fabaceae extract on some clinical pathogens. Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal, 15(1): 32-37.

Chawla, A.S., A.K. Sharma, S.S. Handa and K.L. Dhar, 1992. Chemical investigation and anti-inflammatory activity of Vitex negundo seeds. Journal of Natural Products, 55(2): 163-167.

Chopra, S.S., M.R. Patel and R.P. Awadhiya, 1976. Studies of Cissus quadrangularis in experimental fracture repair: a histopathological study. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 64(9): 1365-1368.

Dharmasiri, M.G., J.R. Jayakody, G. Galhena, S.S. Liyanage and W.D. Ratnasooriya, 2003. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities o f mature fresh leaves of Vitex negundo. J. Ethnopharmacology, 87(2-3): 199-206.

Ghosh, A. and P.C. Sil, 2006. A 43-kDA protein from the leaves of the herb Cajanus indicus L. modulates chloroform induced hepatotoxicity in vitro. Drug and Chemical Toxicology, 29(4): 397-413.

Ghosh, A., K. Sarkar and P.C. Sil, 2006. Protective effect of a 43 kD protein from the leaves of the herb, Cajanus indicus L on chloroform induced hepatic-disorder. Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 39(2): 197-207.

Ghule, B.V., G. Murugananthan and P.G. Yeole, 2007. Analgesic and antipyretic effects o f Capparis zeylanica leaves. Fitoterapia, 78(5): 365-369.

Gokhale, A.B. , A.S. Damre, K.R. Kulkami and M.N. Saraf, 2002. Preliminary evaluation of anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of S. lappa, A. speciosa and A. aspera. Phytomedicine, 9(5): 433-437.

Gupta, R.K. and V.R. Tandon, 2005. Antinociceptive activity of Vitex negundo Linn leaf extract. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 49(2): 163-170.

Kapu, S.D., Y.B. Ngwai, O. Kayode, P.A. Akah, C. Wambebe and K. Gamaniel, 2001. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-lymphocytic activities of the aqueous extract of Crinum giganteum. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 78(1): 7-13.

Latha, M., K.M. Ramkumar, L. Pari, P.N. Damodaran, V. Rajeshkannan and T. Suresh, 2006. Phytochemical and antimicrobial study of an antidiabetic plant: Scoparia dulcis L. Journal of Medicinal Food, 9(3): 391-394.

Limmatvapirat, C., S. Sirisopanaporn and P. Kittakoop, 2004. Antitubercular and antiplasmodial constituents of Abrus precatorius. Planta Medica, 70(3): 276-278.

Mandal, S.C., A. Nandy, M. Pal and B.P Saha, 2000. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Asparagus racemosus Willd. root. Phytotherapy Research, 14(2): 118-119.

Mangathayaru, K., J. Lakshmikant, N. Shyam Sundar, R. Swapna, X.F. Grace and J. Vasantha, 2005. Antimicrobial activity of Leucas aspera flowers . Fitoterapia, 76(7-8): 752-754.

Manna, P., M. Sinha and P.C. Sil, 2007a. Galactosamine-induced hepatotoxic effect and hepatoprotective role of a protein isolated from the herb Cajanus indicus L. in vivo. Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology, 21(1): 13-23.

Manna, P., M. Sinha and P.C. Sil, 2007b. A 43 kD protein isolated from the herb Cajanus indicus L. attenuates sodium fluoride-induced hepatic and renal disorders in vivo. Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 40(3): 382-395.

Martin, G.J., 1995. Ethnobotany: a 'People and Plants' Conservation Manual. Chapman and Hall, London. pp. 268.

Maundu, P., 1995. Methodology for collecting and sharing indigenous knowledge: a case study. Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor, 3: 3-5.

Mesia-Vela, S., M. Bielavs ky, L.M. Torres , S.M. Freire, M.T. Lima-Landman, C. Souccar and A.J. Lapa, 2007. In vivo inhibition of gastric acid secretion by the aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis L. in rodents. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 111(2): 403-408.

Okpo, S.O., F. Fatokun and O.O. Adeyemi, 2001. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Crinum glaucum aqueous extract. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 78(2-3): 207-211.

Panthong, A., W. Supraditaporn, D. Kanjanapothi, T. Taesotikul and V. Reutrakul, 2007. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and venotonic effects of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 110(2): 264-270.

Pawar, R.S. and K.K. Bhutani, 2004. Madhucosides A and B, protobassic acid glycosides from Madhuca indica with inhibitory activity on free radical release from phagocytes. Journal of Natural Products, 67(4): 668-671.

Prasad, G.C. and K.N. Udupa, 1963. Effect of Cissus quadrangularis on the healing of cortisone treated fractures . Indian Journal of Medical Research, 51: 667-676.

Rahman, M.S. , S. K. Sadhu and C.M. Hasan, 2007. Preliminary antinociceptive, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Leucas aspera root. Fitoterapia, 78(7-8): 552-555.

Ramnath, V., G. Kuttan and R. Kuttan, 2002. Immunopotentiating activity of abrin, a lectin from Abrus precatorius Linn. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 40(8): 910-913.

Sarkar, K., A. Ghosh and P.C. Sil, 2005. Preventive and curative role of a 43kD protein from the leaves of the herb Cajanus indicus L on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in vivo. Hepatology Research, 33(1): 39-49.

Sarkar, K., A. Ghos h, M. Kinter, B. Mazumder and P.C. Sil, 2006. Purification and characterization of a 43 kD hepatoprotective protein from the herb Cajanus indicus L. The Protein Journal, 25(6): 411-421.

Sarkar, K. and P.C. Sil, 2006. A 43 kDA protein from the herb Cajanus indicus L. protects thioacetamide induced cytotoxicity in hepatocytes. Toxicology In Vitro, 20(5): 634-640.

Shirwaikar, A., S. Khan and S. Malini, 2003. Antiosteoporotic effect of ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovariectomized rat. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 89(2-3): 245-250.

Singh, L.M. and K.N. Udupa, 1962. Studies on "Cissus quadrangularis" in fracture by using phosphorus 32. III. Indian Journal of Medical Science, 16: 926-931.

Tandon, V.R. and R.K. Gupta, 2006. Vitex negundo Linn (VN) leaf extract as an adjuvant therapy to standard anti-inflammatory drugs. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 124(4): 447-450.

Udupa, K.N., H.J. Arnikar and L.M. Singh, 1961. Experimental studies of the use of 'Cissus quadangularis' in healing of fractures. II. Indian Journal of Medical Science, 15: 551-557.

Udupa, K.N. and G.C. Pras ad, 1962. Cissus quadrangularis in healing of fractures. A clinical study. Journal of Indian Medical Association, 38: 590-593.

Udupa, K.N. and G.C. Prasad, 1964a. Further studies on the effect of Cissus quadrangularis in accelerating fracture healing. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 52: 26-35.

Udupa, K.N. and G. Prasad, 1964b. Biomechanical and calcium-45 studies on the effect of Cissus quadrangularis in fracture repair. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 52: 480-487.

Vetrichelvan, T. and M. Jegadeesan, 2003. Effect of alcohol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn. On acute and subacute inflammation. Phytotherapy Research, 17(1): 77-79.

Zore, G.B., V. Awad, A.D. Thakre, U.K. Halde, N.S. Meshram, B.S. Surwase and S.M. Karuppayil, 2007. Activity-directed-fractionation and isolation of four antibacterial compounds from Abrus precatorius L. roots. Natural Products Research, 21(9): 838-845.

Md. Shahidullah, Md. Al-Mujahidee, S.M. Nasir Uddin, Md. Shahadat Hossan, Abu Hanif, Sazzadul Bari, Mohammed Rahmatullah

Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh

Corresponding Author: Mohammed Rahmatullah, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh

E-mail: rahamatm@hotmail.com <mail to: rahamatm@hotmail.com>
Table 1: Medicinal plants of the Santals of Rajshahi district,
Bangladesh (Note that local names of ingredients in formulations
are given in bold letters; sometimes the corresponding botanical
or English name is not available)

Botanical name              Family              Local name

Achyranthes aspera L.       Amaranthaceae       Chirchithi

Aerva sanguinolenta (L)     Amaranthaceae       Lal bish hori
Blume.

Amaranthus viridis L.       Amaranthaceae       Gandhori ara

Crinum sp.                  Amaryllidaceae      Bon piyaz

Centella asiatica (L.)      Apiaceae            Tandi-poraioni
Urb.

Asparagus racemosus         Asparagaceae        Shotomul
Willd.

Capparis zeylanica L.       C apparaceae        Acharia

Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.       C uscutaceae alt.   Swarna lota,
                            Convolvulaceae      Alok lota

Leucas aspera (Willd.)      Lamiaceae           Durfa
1-
Link.

Litsea sp.                  Lauraceae           Pipulti, Poj

Abrus precatorius L.        Leguminosae         Sona kuchi
                            alt. Fabaceae

Cajanus cajan (Linn.)       Leguminosae         Arhal
Millsp.                     -Papilionoideae

Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.      Leguminosae         S his hu
Ex. DC.                     -Papilionoideae

Strychnos nux-vomica L.     Loganiaceae         Kuchlo

Dendrophthoe falcata        Loranthaceae        Dhaira
(L.f) Etting.

Hibiscus rosa sinensis L.   Malvaceae           Joba baha

Marsilea quadrifoliata L.   Marsileaceae        Chatom ara
syn. Marsilea quadrifolia

Tinospora cordifolia        Meninspermaceae     Heru-awar
Miers

Ficus benghalensis L.       Moraceae            Bot

Polygonum orientale L.      Polygonaceae        Bish-katali

Madhuca indica Gmel.        S apotaceae         Moa, Matkom

Scoparia dulcis L.          S crophulariaceae   Chini alo

Datura metel L.             S ol anaceae        Dhutura

Solanum virginianum L.      S olanaceae         Kontho-keyari

Vitex negundo L.            Verbenaceae         Nishinda,
Sinduari

Cissus quadrangularis L.    Vitaceae            Harjora

Botanical name              Part(s) used    Ailment(s) and Dosage

Achyranthes aspera L.       Whole plant     1. Severes to mach pain.
                                            Whole plant of
                                            Achyranthes aspera along
                                            with leaves of Aerva
                                            lanata is crushed and
                                            taken with a little
                                            misri (sugar crystal).

                                            2. Excessive bleeding
                                            after menstruation.
                                            Paste of Cuscuta reflexa
                                            is made separately with
                                            paste of whole plant of
                                            Achyranthes aspera.
                                            Achyranthera aspera
                                            paste is warmed and
                                            mixed with paste of
                                            Cuscuta reflexa and tied
                                            to vaginal area before
                                            sleeping for 7 days.

Aerva sanguinolenta (L)     Bark            Blood in urine. The bark
Blume.                                      of Aerva sanguinolenta
                                            is mixed with 3 ghughura
                                            (a type of insect), 60
                                            black peppers, crushed,
                                            made into pills and
                                            dried. The pills are
                                            taken thrice daily for
                                            one month.

Amaranthus viridis L.       Whole plant     Snake bite. Crushed
                                            whole plant of Amaranthus
                                            viridis is applied to
Crinum sp.                  Tuber           snake bites. At the same
                                            time juice from crushed
                                            chiari gach
                                            (unidentified plant) is
                                            taken. Stomach pain. The
                                            tuber is cut into small
                                            pieces, crushed and
                                            taken with seven slices
                                            of crushed ginger.

Centella asiatica (L.)      Whole plant     Lack of breast milk
Urb.                                        after childbirth. The
                                            whole plant of Centella
                                            asiatica including roots
                                            is crushed with whole
                                            plant of Marsilea
                                            quadrifoliata including
                                            roots and made into a
                                            paste. The paste is
                                            applied twice daily for
                                            7 days around the
                                            nipple.

Asparagus racemosus         Root            Tuberculosis. The roots
Willd.                                      of Solanum virginianum
                                            are mixed with roots of
                                            Asparagus racemosus,
                                            roots of Anantamul
                                            (Hemidesmus indicus
                                            R.Br.) and spices
                                            [cinnamon, cardamom,
                                            gojruti, root of Abrus
                                            precatorius L., fruit of
                                            Piper cubeba L., nutmeg,
                                            clove, saffron, black
                                            cumin, Terminalia
                                            chebula fruit], mixed,
                                            crushed and made into
                                            pills. The pills are
                                            taken with chuani (rice
                                            fermented wine) thrice
                                            daily for seven days.

Capparis zeylanica L.       Bark            1. Pain in hands or
                                            feet. Bark of plant is
                                            blended with about 1/2
                                            inch zinger rhizome. The
                                            paste is slightly warmed
                                            and applied to area of
                                            pain.

                                            2. Paralysis. Bark of
                                            Capparis zeylanica along
                                            with roots of Barogira
                                            gach (unidentified pl
                                            ant) is fried in 100g
                                            clarified butter (ghee)
                                            and applied to the
                                            paralyzed area.

Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.       Whole vine      Excessive bleeding after
                                            menstruation. Paste of
                                            Cuscuta reflexa is made
                                            separately with paste of
                                            whole plant of
                                            Achyranthes aspera.
                                            Achyranthera aspera
                                            paste is warmed and
                                            mixed with paste of
                                            Cuscuta reflexa and tied
                                            to vaginal area before
                                            sleeping for 7 days.

Leucas aspera (Willd.)      Leaf            Headache. Leaves are
1-                                          crushed,  mixed with a
Link.                                       little salt and
                                            2 drops of the juice
                                            applied to the nose.

Litsea sp.                  Leaf            Debility. T he leaves
                                            are soaked in water,
                                            slightly crushed and
                                            taken with misri (sugar
                                            crystal) in the morning.

Abrus precatorius L.        Root, stem,     1. Tuberculosis, throat
                            leaf            pain. The roots and
                                            stems of Abrus
                                            precatorius are crushed
                                            with leaves of Tinospora
                                            cordifolia, made into a
                                            paste, slightly warmed
                                            and taken for
                                            tuberculosis. The same
                                            paste is applied to
                                            throat for throat pains.

                                            2. Dripping of saliva
                                            from mouth and loss of
                                            movement o f tongue. The
                                            leaves and roots of
                                            Tinospora cordifolia are
                                            made into a paste with
                                            horitoki (fruit of
                                            Terminalia chebula
                                            Retz.), bohera (fruit of
                                            Terminalia bellerica
                                            Roxb.), kantakhor (an
                                            unidentified plant),
                                            chandan wood (Santalum
                                            album L., family
                                            Santalaceae), leaf of
                                            Abrus precatorius and
                                            leaf of Andrographis
                                            paniculata, dried,
                                            powdered and made into
                                            pills. The pills are
                                            taken thrice daily for
                                            seven days.

Cajanus cajan (Linn.)       Leaf            Jaundice. Leaf juice is
Millsp.                                     taken with molasses
                                            twice daily for seven
                                            days.

Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.      Young stems     Diarrhea. The young
Ex. DC.                                     stems are soaked
                                            overnight in water. The
                                            following morning they
                                            are taken on an empty
                                            stomach along with a
                                            sherbet of misri (sugar
                                            crystal) or molasses.
                                            This is done for seven
                                            days.

Strychnos nux-vomica L.     Bark            1. Paralysis. A paste is
                                            made from bark and oil
                                            of Goma snake (Varanus
                                            salvator) and applied to
                                            paralyzed area for 15
                                            days . T he bark is
                                            crushed, made into a
                                            paste. Pills are made of
                                            the paste, the size of
                                            gram seeds. The pills
                                            are taken thrice daily
                                            for 10 days.

                                            2. Fever. The bark is
                                            crushed, made into a
                                            paste. Pills are made of
                                            the paste, the size of
                                            gram seeds. The pills
                                            are taken thrice daily
                                            for 10 days.

Dendrophthoe falcata        Whole plant     Rheumatism. Crushed
(L.f) Etting.                               whole plant is mixed
                                            with fat from Darash
                                            snake (Xenochropis
                                            piscator) and applied to
                                            affected areas twice
                                            daily for 7-8 days.

Hibiscus rosa sinensis L.   Flower buds     Puerperal fever
                                            (resulting in excessive
                                            loss of weight in
                                            women). Flower buds of
                                            Hibiscus rosa sinensis,
                                            aerial roots of bot
                                            (Ficus benghalensis),
                                            one lobongo (clove), and
                                            gum from babla (Acacia
                                            arabica) is blended
                                            together and taken with
                                            a small amount of ginger
                                            juice.

Marsilea quadrifoliata L.   Whole plant     Lack of breast milk
syn. Marsilea quadrifolia                   after childbirth. The
                                            whole plant of Centella
                                            asiatica including roots
                                            is crushed with who l e
                                            plant of Marsilea
                                            quadrifoliata including
                                            roots and made into a
                                            paste. The paste is
                                            applied twice daily for
                                            7 days around the
                                            nipple.

Tinospora cordifolia        Leaf, root      Dripping of saliva from
Miers                                       mouth and loss of
                                            movement of tongue. The
                                            leaves and roots of
                                            Tinospora cordifolia are
                                            made into a paste with
                                            horitoki (fruit of
                                            Terminalia chebula
                                            Retz.), bohera (fruit of
                                            Terminalia bellerica
                                            Roxb.), kantakhor,
                                            chandan wood (Santalum
                                            album L., family
                                            Santalaceae), leaf of
                                            Abrus precatorius and
                                            leaf of Andrographis
                                            paniculata, dried,
                                            powdered and made into
                                            pills. The pills are
                                            taken thrice daily for
                                            seven days.

Ficus benghalensis L.       Aerial root     Puerperal fever
                                            (resulting in excessive
                                            loss of weight in
                                            women). Flower buds of
                                            Hibiscus rosa sinensis,
                                            aerial roots of bot
                                            (Ficus benghalensis),
                                            one lobongo (clove), gum
                                            from babla (Acacia
                                            arabica) is blended
                                            together and taken with
                                            a small amount of ginger
                                            juice.

Polygonum orientale L.      Leaf            Headache. The leaves are
                                            crushed with ten black
                                            peppers and taken
                                            through the nose.

Madhuca indica Gmel.        Fruit           Debility, blood
                                            purifier. The fruits are
                                            boiled with unripe gram
                                            and sugar added till the
                                            decoction takes a blood
                                            red color. The decoction
                                            is taken for debility
                                            and is also assumed to
                                            purify blood.

Scoparia dulcis L.          Leaf            Blood dysentery. The
                                            leaves of the plant are
                                            crushed and taken.

Datura metel L.             Rind of fruit   Throat pain in children.
                                            The inner portions of
                                            the fruit are discarded
                                            and the inside filled
                                            with mustard oil, warmed
                                            and applied to the
                                            throat and chest.

Solanum virginianum L.      Root            Tuberculosis. The roots
                                            of Solanum virginianum
                                            are mixed with roots of
                                            Asparagus racemosus,
                                            roots of Anantamul
                                            (Hemidesmus indicus
                                            R.Br.) and spices
                                            [cinnamon, cardamom,
                                            gojruti, root of Abrus
                                            precatorius L., fruit of
                                            Piper cubeba L., nutmeg,
                                            clove, saffron, black
                                            cumin, Terminalia
                                            chebula fruit], mixed,
                                            crushed and made into
                                            pills. T he pills are
                                            taken with chuani (rice
                                            fermented wine) thrice
                                            daily for seven days.

Vitex negundo L.            Leaf            Pain on one side of the
Sinduari                                    forehead. Leaves are
                                            crushed, mixed with
                                            water and put within the
                                            nostrils.

Cissus quadrangularis L.    Whole plant     Bone fracture. Whole
                                            plant of Cissus
                                            quadrangularis, whole
                                            plant of Evolvulus
                                            nummularius, whole plant
                                            of Cyperus rotundus, and
                                            7 slices of ginger are
                                            crushed and made into a
                                            paste. The paste is
                                            warmed and applied to
                                            fractures in the form of
                                            a poultice.
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Original Articles
Author:Shahidullah, Md.; Mujahidee, Md. Al-; Uddin, S.M. Nasir; Hossan, Md. Shahadat; Hanif, Abu; Bari, Saz
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:May 1, 2009
Words:4336
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