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Medicinal plants of the Chakma community of Rangapanir Chara area of Khagrachaari district, Bangladesh.

INTRODUCTION

Bangladesh is home to a number of tribal communities and which number may exceed a hundred according to recent data [10]. Indigenous people, as a rule, are more aware of the properties of medicinal plants around their vicinity, for they have used these plants for treatment of diseases for hundreds or even thousands of years. Plants have always proved to be a good source of medicines, and many modern allopathic drugs have resulted from close observations of the medicinal practices of indigenous communities [5,12,18].

The Chakmas are the largest tribal group residing in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region in the southeastern part of Bangladesh. Although their habitat is in all four districts of the region, they are mainly concentrated in the districts of Rangamati and Khagrachaari [10]. They are thought to belong to the Mongoloid group of people, and they have facial similarities to the people of Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia and Laos. The Chakmas call themselves 'Changma'; however, the mainstream Banglaspeaking population refers to them as 'Chakma'. The Tripura tribe residing in the same region as the Chakmas call the Chakmas as 'Chaungma'; the Mro tribe refer to them as 'Achak', the Khiang tribe call the Chakmas as 'Sak', and the Lusai tribe calls the Chakmas as 'Takam'. Recent estimates put the number of Chakma people at around 300,000. The tribe is known to have over 30 clans and each clan is again sub-divided into sects, the total number of sects being over 50. For instance, the Boga clan has sects named Dhurja, Ninanda, Kattoga, Ramdalika, Mulikhaja, Boa, etc. The Larma clan has sects named Pirabhanga, Charga, Bhoba, and Todega. The Baburo clan has sects named Baburo, Gozalyo, Maloiya and Lohakodda.

Since traditional medicines of Bangladesh (which mainly relies on medicinal plants for treatment) can play a major role in the discovery of new drugs, we had been conducting ethnomedicinal surveys among the folk and tribal medicinal practitioners of the country for a number of years [39,48,49,50,11,23,24,35,36,48,49,50,51,52,55,56,60 ,2,8,9,21,26,27,58,61,65,66,14,22,24,29,48,59,65,4,3 7]. The Chakma people are known to have a rich traditional medicinal heritage, which even consists of their own medical treatise written in the Chakma language. We have previously conducted surveys among the Chakma communities of Rangamati district [16]. The objective of the present study was to carry out an ethnomedicinal survey among the tribal medicinal practitioners of the Chakma community (with some Tripura tribal members mixed among the Chakma community) residing in Rangapanir chara area, which consists of five villages in Panchari Upazila, Khagrachaari district.

Materials and Methods

Rangapanir chara area consists of five villages in Panchari Upazila, Khagrachaari district. Inhabitants are mainly Chakmas with a few people from the Tripura tribe. Each village had a Headman. Gagan Chandra Chakma was the Headman of Gagan Chandra Para, which had 133 families with a total population of 526 members. Bhakta Chakma was the Headman of Bhakta Para, which had 17 families with a total population of 147 members. Suresh Chandra Chakma was the Headman of Suresh Chandra Para, which had 28 families with a total population of 200 members. Barmara Tripura was the Headman of Khamar Para (Tripura tribe), which had 14 families with a total population of about 75 members. Tirtha Ranjan Chakma was the Headman of Tirtha Ranjan Karbari Para, which had 12 families with a total population of 45 members.

There were three traditional medicinal practitioners (TMPs) in the villages. Bijoy Kumar Chakma (TMP 1) practiced in the Panchari Upazila. He was Buddhist by religion and was aged 55 years. He obtained his training from his grandfather. He obtained a treatise on treatment written in the Chakma language from his grandfather and obtained his knowledge from reading the treatise and from learning directly from his grandfather. Following the death of his grandfather, he again copied the treatise with his own hand and is currently maintaining it. The treatise contains information on treatment with medicinal plants.

Saptalendu Chakma (TMP 2) also received his training from his grandfather. He was Buddhist by religion and was aged 52 years. TMP 2 was given five reams of paper by his grandfather, which was written in the Chakma language and contained information on treatment of various diseases. For instance, treatment of snake bites consisted of orally administering the roots of a medicinal plant to the bitten area followed by sucking on the wound. He learnt treatment of dog bite from the papers and from a medical camp held by allopathic doctors at the village. His training included learning which type of dogs had poisonous bites as well as which insects and other animals were poisonous.

Bijoy Ranjan Chakma (TMP 3) was aged 83 years and was a Buddhist by religion. From an early age (5-6 years) he used to frequent Buddhist priests and TMPs. The TMPs used him to collect medicinal plants. Through this collection and acquaintance with other TMPs, he learnt about medicinal plants and treatment. At present, he was considered the most experienced and learned among the TMPs of the area. According to the TMPs, there were several types of TMPs. The two major types included (I) TMPs who knew more or little on traditional medicinal practices, treated all diseases, and (II) specialist TMPs, who treated select diseases like snake bite, dog bite, etc. Example of the latter type of TMP was Saptalendu Chakma (TMP 2). The three TMPs practiced in all the five villages of the area among both Chakma (majority) and Tripura (minority) community members.

Prior Informed Consent was first obtained from the TMPs. The TMPs were explained as to the nature of our visit and survey, and consent obtained to disseminate any information provided both nationally and internationally. Actual interviews and surveys were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method of Martin [33] and Maundu [34]. Briefly, in this method, the healers took the interviewers on guided field-walks through areas from where they collected their medicinal plants, showed the plants, and described their uses. Use information was later verified in evening sessions with the healers. Plant specimens as pointed out were photographed and collected on the spot, pressed, dried, and brought back to Dhaka for complete identification at the Bangladesh National Herbarium.

Results and Discussion

It was observed that the three practitioners among themselves used a total of 62 plants distributed into 33 families. The various plants or plant parts were administered for a number of diseases in the form of juice, paste and pills or administered topically. The diseases treated and claimed to be cured by the practitioners included jaundice, helminthiasis, fever, pain, wounds and sores, respiratory tract disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, eye disorders, leucorrhea, menstrual disorders, chicken pox, high blood pressure, rheumatism, insomnia, bone fracture, scorpion or poisonous insect bite, tumor in stomach, sexual disorders, kidney or gall bladder stone, cholera, burning sensations, infections of genital organs, kala azar, hydrocele, diabetes, obesity, skin diseases, burns, and urinary problems. The results are shown in Table 1.

The formulations of the TMPs were simple. There was not a single instance of use of any polyherbal formulation. Rather, a single plant or plant part was used to treat a single or occasionally more than one disease. It appeared from the number of plants used for treatment that rheumatism is a major disease affecting the Chakma community that was surveyed. Altogether, 13 plants were used for treatment of rheumatism or rheumatic pain.

A number of plants used by the TMPs have not been reported by other traditional or tribal medicinal practitioners in our previous surveys, including other Chakma communities. These plants are Dicliptera bupleuroides (used for treatment of fever, headache, wounds, and sores between fingers), Aglaonema hookerianum (used for treatment of rheumatism), Blumea clarkei (used for treatment of bone fractures and jaundice), Blumea membranacea (used for treatment of crying in children with squirming), Cirsium arvense (used for treatment of scorpion or poisonous insect bite), Gynura nepalensis (used for treatment of stomach tumor), Uraria crinita (used for treatment of diarrhea or dysentery in children), Molineria capitulata (used for treatment of rheumatism), Eleutherine palmifolia (used for treatment of jaundice in babies), Asparagus acerosus (used for treatment of abscess, skin diseases, and pain in genital regions), Rubus moluccanus (used for treatment of rheumatism), Ixora pavetta (used for treatment of allergy), and Cissus javana (used for treatment of jaundice and rheumatism).

Andrographis paniculata was used by the TMPs for treatment of jaundice and helminthiasis. It is interesting that the Ayurvedic medical treatise Charaka Samhita dating back to 175 BC mentioned the plant as a cure for jaundice [3]. Dicliptera bupleuroides, used by the TMPs for treatment of fever, headache, wounds, and sores between fingers has been reported to be used by the local inhabitants of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary in Western Himalaya, India for treatment of fever, stomach ache, and skin diseases [68]. The TMPs used whole plant of Hemigraphis hirta for treatment of headache; the folk medicinal practitioners of Balidha village in Jessore district, Bangladesh use leaves of this plant for treatment of headache [57]. The TMPs used Justicia adhatoda for treatment of coughs. In Ayurveda, the plant is used for treatment of respiratory tract disorders including coughs [30].

However, not all plants used by the TMPs had similar ethnomedicinal or traditional medicinal uses among other tribes. For instance, Thunbergia grandiflora was used by the TMPs for conjunctivitis. The plant is reportedly used by the Adi-Minyong tribe of Arunachal Pradesh, India for treatment of toothache and teeth infections [6]. Adiantum philippense was used by the TMPs to stop crying in feverish children; the plant is used by the tribal communities of Chitrakoot in Madhya Pradesh, India for treatment of spermatorrhea [67]. Sansevieria roxburghiana, used by the TMPs for treatment of leucorrhea is reportedly used by the Mali tribe of Munchingiputtu Mandal, Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India for treatment of dysentery [43].Celosia argentea has been described as an ethnomedicinal plant of Mansoora, Malegaon, India being used for treatment of diarrhea, mouth sores, eye diseases and also used as an aphrodisiac [1]; the plant was used by the TMPs for treatment of irregular menstruation.

Cyathula prostrata is used by the Kurichiya tribe of Kannur district in Western Ghats, Kerala, India for treatment of fever [63]; the plant was used by the TMPs as expectorant, emetic, demulcent, and vulnerary. Crinum asiaticum is used by the Baiga tribals in Amarkantak Meikal forest of Madhya Pradesh, India to cure ear pain and fever [28]; the plant was used by the TMPs against jaundice. The plant is also used by the Tripuri tribe of India against tonsillitis [32]. Thus it can be concluded that the plants used by the TMPs have both common usages as well as different usages among other tribes of the Indian sub-continent.

While a consensus of opinion as to disease(s) treated suggests a high probability of obtaining an efficacious drug from the plant, differences in usage can also be important in finding out the different pharmacological properties of a plant, which can be useful in discovery of multiple drugs from the same plant. As such, the plants of the Chakma TMPs are important for further scientific studies leading to new drug discoveries.

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Ishita Malek, Nahid Mia, Mst. Easmin Mustary, Md. Jubayet Hossain, Sabrin Mahmuda Sathi, Md. Jakaria Parvez, Moinuddin Ahmed, Shankar Chakma, Shohidul Islam, Md. Maruf Billah, Mohammed Rahmatullah

Faculty of Life Sciences University of Development Alternative Dhanmondi, Dhaka- 1209, Bangladesh

Received: 25 April 2014; Revised:: 20 May 2014; Accepted: 25 May 2014; Available online: 22 June 2014

Corresponding Author: Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1209 Bangladesh Phone: 88-01715032621; Fax: 88-02-8157339; E-mail: rahamatm@hotmail.com
Table 1: Medicinal plants and formulations
of the Chakma tribal medicinal practitioners.

Serial    Scientific Name           Family Name        Local Name
Number

1         Andrographis              Acanthaceae        Chirota
          paniculata Burm. f.

2         Dicliptera                Acanthaceae        Kala jaro
          bupleuroides Nees

3         Hemigraphis hirta         Acanthaceae        Kakra giluk
          (Vahl) T. Anderson                           shak

4         Justicia adhatoda L.      Acanthaceae        Bashok

5         Justicia                  Acanthaceae        Kala jaro gach
          gendarussa Burm.

6         Thunbergia grandiflora    Acanthaceae        Del lota
          (Ro xb. Ex
          Rottler) Roxb.

7         Adiantum                  Adiantaceae        Bandor thala
          philippense L.

8         Sansevieria               Agavaceae          Ghrito kanchon
          roxburghiana
          S chultes &
          Schultes f.

9         Celosia argentea L.       Amaranthaceae      Dhupful gach

10        Cyathula prostrata        Amaranthaceae      Aari huri
          (L.) Blume                                   nolahar

11        Crinum asiaticum L.       Amaryllidaceae     Hobaron

12        Leea macrophylla Roxb.    Ampelidaceae       Bakaraj
                                                       pata gach

13        Ichnocarpus               Apocynaceae        Monri chocha
          frutescens R. Br.

14        Rauvolfia serpentina      Apocynaceae        Shun san
          (L.) Benth. ex Kurz.

15        Tabernaemont ana          Apocynaceae        Fema
          divaricata
          (L.) R. Br. Ex
          Roem. & Schult.

16        Aglaonema                 Araceae            Gach pettai
          hookerianum Schott.

17        Aristolochia              Aristolochiaceae   Horin kan
          tagala Cham.                                 shak lota

18        Ageratum conyzoides L.    Asteraceae         Moni mucha her

19        Blumea clarkei            Asteraceae         Tora gach
          Hooker, f.

20        Blumea membranacea        Asteraceae         Kalo ambosh
          Wallich ex de
          Candolle

21        Cirsium arvense           Asteraceae         Bhosh mola
          (L.) Scop.

22        Gynura nepalensis DC.     Asteraceae         Sidereh beshak

23        Terminalia arjuna         Combretaceae       Arjun gach
          (Roxb.)
          Wight & Arn.

24        Terminalia chebula        Combretaceae       Uttel gach
          (Gaertn.) Retz

25        Kalanchoe pinnata         Crassulaceae       Pathor kuchi
          (Lam.) Pers.

26        Antidesma roxburghii      Euphorbiaceae      Chung chungi
          Wal l. ex Tul.                               prayjanga

27        Baliospermum montanum     Euphorbiaceae      Shovon pal
          Mue ll. Arg

28        Cnesmone javanica Bl.     Euphorbiaceae      Chagol chotta

29        Mallotus                  Euphorbiaceae      Sholok jhara
          philippinensis
          Muell

30        Phyllanthus               Euphorbiaceae      Baugari
          amarus Schum.                                bhanga her

31        Clitoria ternatea L.      Fabaceae           Unge ful gach

32        Crotalaria                Fabaceae           Iji gach
          pallida Aiton

33        Desmodium motorium        Fabaceae           Turgi modon
          (Hou tt.) Merr.

34        Flemingia congesta        Fabaceae           Gach archanga
          Roxb. ex W. T. Aiton

35        Senna sophera L.          Fabaceae           Shot rahong

36        Uraria crinita (L.)       Fabaceae           Billeh lengur
          Desvaux ex Candolle

37        Flacourtia jangomas       Flacourtiaceae     Hada annol
          (Lour .) Raeus.

38        Curculigo orchioides      Hypoxidaceae       Jongli peyaz
          Gaertn.

39        Molineria capitulata      Hypoxidaceae       Dhubo melloni
          (hou r.) Herb.

40        Eleutherine palmifolia    Iridaceae          Jharpo peyaz
          (L.) Merr.

41        Anisomeles                Lamiaceae          Horin ching
          indica (L.) Kuntze

42        Clerodendrum indicum      Lamiaceae          Noli gach
          (L.) Ku ntze

43        Dehaasia kurziiKing       Lauraceae          Shigerae shik
          ex Hook.f.

44        Litsea glutinosa          Lauraceae          Khara jora
          (Lour .)                                     gach, Moner
          C.B. Robinson                                moto gach

45        Leea sp.                  Leeaceae           Hurobok chora

46        Asparagus acerosus        Liliaceae          Shudi chora
          Roxb.

47        Lygodium flexuosum        Lygodiaceae        Katto jug
          (L.) Sw.

48        Abelmoschus moschatus     Malvaceae          Khunae gach
          Med ikus

49        Hibiscus sabdariffa L.    Malvaceae          Jarbo beroj,
                                                       Kunae ful

50        Stephania glabra Miers    Menispermaceae     Thanda manik

51        Ardisia solanacea         Myrsinaceae        Boro cholla
          Roxb.

52        Rubus moluccanus L.       Rosaceae           Handa shoal

53        Ixora pavetta Andr.       Rubiaceae          Bath jora ful

54        Mussaenda corymbosa       Rubiaceae          Hala gorjon
          Roxb.

55        Micromelum minutum        Rutaceae           Chadiuraccha
          Wight & Arn.

56        Scoparia dulcis L.        Scrophulariaceae   Chini sagor

57        Physalis                  Solanaceae         Pitting
          micrantha Link                              gulagach

58        Clerodendrum              Verbenaceae        Pilae shak
          viscosum Vent.

59        Cissus javana DC.         Vitaceae           Ajongma

60        Alpinia conchigera        Zingiberaceae      Khet ranga
          Grif f.

61        Curcuma caesia Roxb.      Zingiberaceae      Kalo holud

62        Kaempferia                Zingiberaceae      Komla gach
          galangal L.

Serial    Parts used                Disease, Symptoms,
Number                              Formulations, and
                                    Administration

1         Leaf, stem                Jaundice, helminthiasis.
                                    Juice obtained from
                                    crushed leaves and stems is
                                    taken orally with warm water.

2         Leaf, stem                Fever. Decoction of leaves and
                                    stems is taken orally during
                                    fever. Headache, wounds,
                                    sores between fingers. Leaf
                                    juice is topically applied.

3         Whole plant               Headache. Paste of whole plant
                                    is applied to the forehead.

4         Leaf                      Coughs. Dried and finely
                                    powdered leaves are
                                    taken orally.

5         Leaf                      Constipation. Leaf juice
                                    is taken orally.

6         Stem                      Conjunctivitis. Juice obtained
                                    from crushed stem is
                                    applied to eyes.

7         Leaf                      Crying in feverish children.
                                    Leaves are rubbed with water
                                    and administered orally
                                    with sugar.

8         Leaf                      Leucorrhea. Juice obtained
                                    from crushed leaf is
                                    orally taken.

9         Leaf, stem,               Irregular menstruation.
          flower                    Juice obtained from crushed
                                    leaves, stems and flowers is
                                    taken orally.

10        Whole plant               Expectorant, emetic, demulcent,
                                    vulnerary. Juice obtained
                                    from crushed whole plant
                                    is orally taken.

11        Stem                      Jaundice. Paste of stem
                                    is taken orally.

12        Leaf, stem, root          Chest pain, back pain. Juice
                                    obtained from crushed leaves,
                                    stems and roots is
                                    taken orally.

13        Leaf                      Chicken pox. Leaf juice is
                                    orally taken.

14        Leaf, root                High blood pressure. Leaves
                                    and roots are kept inside the
                                    mouth during high
                                    blood pressure.

15        Leaf                      Any disease in newborn infants.
                                    Leaf juice is
                                    administered orally.

16        Leaf, stem                Rheumatism. Juice obtained
                                    from crushed leaves and
                                    stems is taken orally.

17        Leaf, root                Fever, bloating. Leaves are
                                    applied to the head to
                                    treat fever. Roots are
                                    considered tonic,
                                    emmenagogue, and carminative.

18        Leaf                      Insomnia. Leaves are boiled in
                                    water and the water
                                    used for bathing.

19        Leaf                      Fracture, jaundice. Paste
                                    prepared from leaves is
                                    applied to fractures. Pills
                                    prepared from leaves are
                                    taken thrice daily for
                                    treatment of jaundice.

20        Leaf                      Crying in children with
                                    squirming. Leaf juice
                                    is administered.

21        Leaf                      Scorpion or other poisonous
                                    insect bite. Paste of leaves
                                    is applied topically.

22        Leaf                      Stomach tumor. Leaves
                                    are taken orally.

23        Bark                      Sex stimulant. Juice obtained
                                    from crushed bark is taken
                                    orally with honey.

24        Fruits                    Fruits are used against
                                    all kinds of diseases.

25        Leaf                      Kidney or gall bladder stone,
                                    high blood pressure,
                                    cholera. For kidney or gall
                                    bladder stone, 2-3 leaves
                                    are chewed daily;
                                    alternately, juice obtained
                                    from 23 crushed leaves is
                                    orally taken twice daily.
                                    For high blood pressure, 2-3
                                    leaves are chewed daily.
                                    For cholera, 2 tablespoonfuls
                                    of leaf juice is taken
                                    twice daily.

26        Leaf, stem, root          Rheumatic pain, stomach pain,
                                    waist pain. Paste of a
                                    combination of leaf, stem
                                    and root is applied to
                                    painful areas.

27        Leaf                      Joint pain, stomach tumor.
                                    Juice obtained from crushed
                                    leaf is applied topically
                                    in joint pain, and taken
                                    orally for stomach tumor.

28        Leaf                      Abdominal tumor. Boiled leaves
                                    are warmed with banana leaf
                                    and tied over the
                                    abdominal region.

29        Leaf                      Rheumatism. Juice obtained from
                                    crushed leaf is taken orally.

30        Whole plant               Burning sensations. Juice from
                                    crushed whole plant
                                    is orally taken.

31        Bark, root                Pneumonia, infections of
                                    genital organs. Juice
                                    obtained from crushed bark
                                    and root is orally taken
                                    during pneumonia. Same juice
                                    is applied topically for
                                    infections of genital organs.

32        Leaf                      Kala azar. Seven leaves are
                                    plucked from the plant in
                                    one breath on a Saturday or
                                    Tuesday. Then the leaves are
                                    crushed and the emerging
                                    juice is smelled.

33        Leaf                      Joint pain. Paste of leaf is
                                    applied topically to painful
                                    areas. Sex stimulant. Paste
                                    of leaves is applied to
                                    genital regions.

34        Leaf                      Rheumatism. Leaf juice is
                                    applied topically.

35        Leaf                      Burning sensations during
                                    urination, leucorrhea. Leaf
                                    juice is orally administered.

36        Root                      Diarrhea or dysentery in
                                    children. The roots are
                                    boiled and administered
                                    orally.

37        Leaf                      Rheumatism. Paste of leaves
                                    is applied to painful areas.
                                    To improve health. Dried
                                    and powdered leaves are
                                    boiled in water and the
                                    water taken orally like tea.

38        Stem                      Hydrocele. Stem juice is
                                    orally taken.

39        Leaf                      Rheumatism. Leaf juice is
                                    both orally taken and
                                    topically applied to
                                    painful areas.

40        Root                      Jaundice in babies. Roots are
                                    boiled in water followed by
                                    bathing the baby in the
                                    water.

41        Leaf                      Colic, dyspepsia, or fever in
                                    children arising from
                                    teething. Leaf juice is
                                    orally administered.

42        Leaf, bark                Diabetes, obesity,
                                    hypertension. Leaf juice is
                                    orally taken. Abscess.
                                    Juice obtained from crushed
                                    bark is topically applied
                                    to abscess.

43        Stem                      If children bring out their
                                    tongue too often. Stems are
                                    rubbed upon a stone. The
                                    juice that emerges is
                                    applied to the tongue.

44        Stem                      Headache, stomach pain. Boiled
                                    stems are applied to
                                    painful areas.

45        Root                      Toothache. Roots are boiled
                                    in water and the boiled roots
                                    are then placed at the
                                    base of teeth.

46        Root                      Abscess, skin disease, pain
                                    in genital regions. Root
                                    juice is applied to
                                    affected areas.

47        Leaf                      Burns. The leaves are
                                    boiled in virgin coconut
                                    oil and the oil is smeared
                                    over the burnt area.

48        Leaf                      Headache. Juice obtained from
                                    crushed leaves is applied
                                    topically to forehead.

49        Leaf, root                Rheumatism. Paste of leaf is
                                    applied to painful areas.
                                    Pain due to injury. Paste of
                                    root is applied to
                                    painful area(s).

50        Leaf, fruit               Rheumatism. Leaf juice is
                                    taken orally. Stomach pain.
                                    Fruits are taken orally.

51        Leaf, stem                Rheumatism. Paste of leaf and
                                    stem is applied to
                                    affected areas.

52        Leaf, stem                Rheumatism. Juice obtained
                                    from crushed leaves and
                                    stems is taken orally.

53        Stem                      Allergy. Stem juice
                                    orally taken.

54        Leaf                      Rheumatism. Leaf juice is
                                    orally taken.

55        Leaf, root                Leaf and root paste is
                                    applied to tumors.

56        Leaf                      Swelling of fingers. Leaf
                                    paste is applied topically.

57        Leaf                      Urinary problem. Juice obtained
                                    from crushed leaves is
                                    orally taken.

58        Leaf, root                Stomach pain. Juice
                                    obtained from crushed leaves
                                    and roots is taken orally.

59        Leaf                      Jaundice, rheumatism. Pills
                                    prepared from leaves are
                                    taken during jaundice.
                                    Juice obtained from crushed
                                    leaves is taken orally
                                    for rheumatism.

60        Rhizome                   Dysentery, abdominal pain,
                                    stomach upset, gastric pain.
                                    Rhizome juice is orally taken.

61        Rhizome                   Bloating, menstrual disorders.
                                    A small amount of rhizome
                                    paste is taken orally.

62        Leaf                      Bloating. Leaves are warmed
                                    and applied over the abdomen.
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Author:Malek, Ishita; Mia, Nahid; Mustary, Easmin; Hossain, Jubayet; Sathi, Sabrin Mahmuda; Parvez, Jakaria
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Apr 1, 2014
Words:6424
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