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Medicinal plant formulations of Kavirajes in several areas of Faridpur and Rajbari districts, Bangladesh.

Introduction

Various forms of traditional medicinal systems co-exist with modern allopathic medicine in most countries of the world. Traditional medicine has evolved from the medicinal practices of indigenous communities, who have probably used various treatments from time immemorial. The evolution of human beings is closely linked with ailments; anthropological records suggest that diseases have afflicted even the early humans. From early stages of experimentation with treatment of diseases with plants, animals or minerals, some traditional medicinal systems have become refined and now exist as distinct entities with their own defined formulations and modes of diagnosis of diseases. Other traditional medicinal systems in many countries of the world still rely on simple formulations for treatment of diseases, which usually consist of either oral or topical administration of medicinal plants depending on the ailment treated.

Folk medicine is one such simple traditional medicinal system in Bangladesh. Historical records do not exist as to when this form of medicine initiated in this region. At present, folk medicine in Bangladesh is practiced by the Kavirajes, who are the most commonly observed practitioners of medicine in Bangladesh, and also the most numerous. Kavirajes mostly cater to the people of the rural areas, and practically every village of the 86,000 villages of the country has one or more practicing Kavirajes, depending on the village population. Kavirajes also practice in the cities and small towns, and as such, form the first tier of primary health-care system of the country. Although use of animal, bird, fish, insect or minerals are not uncommon in some of the formulations of the Kavirajes, their mainstay is medicinal plants with which they prepare simple formulations like juice, paste, decoctions or even just administration of raw whole plant or plant part for treatment. Folk medicinal practice is generally a family-based practice where the knowledge accumulated by a given Kaviraj on medicinal plants, animals or minerals is transferred to the successive generation through a period of apprenticeship. The medicinal knowledge of a Kaviraj is also a closed-kept secret and seldom divulged to outsiders. This mode of practice has lead to a situation, where as our various ethnomedicinal surveys have shown, can lead to remarkable diversity in the selection of medicinal plants by Kavirajes of even adjacent villages for treatment of the same ailment or similar symptoms, even though the floral species are the same in the area inhabited by both Kavirajes.

Around 5,000 floral species are present in Bangladesh of which a number of plants are used by the Kavirajes for medicinal purposes. The exact number and identity of these plants are not known with certainty. Moreover, with the advent of allopathic medicine and increase in population, folk medicinal knowledge is getting lost, a major factor of which being extinction and endangerment of plant species. Also there is the perception that allopathic medicine is 'modern' and so must be superior. This is an unfortunate situation, because many important allopathic drugs have been discovered through close observation of the medicinal practices of indigenous communities (Balick and Cox, 1996; Gilani and Rahman, 2005). Among the various traditional medicinal systems of Bangladesh like Ayurveda, Unani, homeopathy and folk medicine, folk medicine remains the most unexplored and undocumented system. Before this knowledge disappears totally, we have been making attempts to document the folk medicinal practices of the Kavirajes and the tribal medicinal practitioners, whose system also closely corresponds to the folk medicinal system of the Kavirajes practicing among the mainstream Bengali-speaking population (Nawaz et al., 2009; Rahmatullah et al., 2009a-c; Chowdhury et al., 2010; Hasan et al., 2010; Hossan et al., 2010; Mollik et al., 2010a,b; Rahmatullah et al., 2010a-g; Haque et al., 2011; Islam et al., 2011; Jahan et al., 2011; Rahmatullah et al., 2011a,b; Sarker et al., 2011; Das et al., 2012; Rahmatullah et al., 2012a-d). The objective of this present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the Kavirajes practicing in adjoining areas of several places in Faridpur and Rajshahi districts of Bangladesh.

Materials and Methods

The present survey was carried out at Goalando and Nazim Fakirer Dangi village in Faridpur district and Digrirchar Chandpur village and Rajbari Sadar of Rajbari district. Altogether five Kavirajes were interviewed, namely Mst. Ayesha Begum, Rokonuddin Sheikh, Monowara Begum, Golap Fakir and Khorshed Alam Gurut. The first and third Kavirajes were females and the rest three males. Informed consent was initially obtained from the Kavirajes prior to any interviews. The Kavirajes were told in details about the purpose of our survey, mainly the need to document their information so that they do not get forgotten, and particular consent obtained to publish their names and information provided in national and international journals. The Kavirajes had no objections to being interviewed; in fact, consent and information was provided readily. Actual interviews were conducted in Bengali, the language being spoken by both interviewers and Kavirajes, with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method of Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995). In this method, the Kavirajes provided the information and took the interviewers in guided field-walks through areas from where they collected their plants, pointed out the plants, and described their uses. Plant specimens were collected from the spot, field-dried and brought back to Dhaka for identification by Mr. Manjur-Ul-Kadir Mia, ex-Curator and Principal Scientific Officer of the Bangladesh National Herbarium. Of the total of 74 plants, it was not possible to identify five plants. Those five plants were sent to the Bangladesh National Herbarium at Dhaka but any positive identification could not be done even there. Noteworthy in this regard is that the floral species of Bangladesh still remains to be properly explored and documented and fresh discoveries of new floral species from various parts of the country are being made on a fairly regular basis.

Results and Discussion

The five Kavirajes between themselves gave the interviewers a total of 38 formulations for treatment of various ailments. The formulations are shown in Table 1. Some of the formulations were for treatment of a single ailment; other formulations were used for treatment of diverse ailments, not necessarily of the same nature. Altogether, 74 plants were used in the formulations, of which 5 plants remained unidentified. The other 69 plants were distributed into 40 families. The Apiaceae and the Zingiberaceae family provided 5 plants each, while the Piperaceae family provided 4 plants. The results are shown in Table 2. With the exception of one formulation, the other 37 formulations consisted solely of whole plants or plant parts. The exception was formulation (serial Number 29) in which parts of 11 plant species were combined with the spleen of ghost knife fish (Notopterus notopterus) for the treatment of rheumatic pain.

For treatment of bone fracture (serial Number 1), paste prepared from six plants were used, including stems of Cissus quadrangularis. The plant is well-known in the Indian sub-continent for its bone fracture healing ability, and which has been validated through a number of scientific reports (Udupa et al., 1961; Udupa and Prasad, 1962; Singh and Udupa, 1962; Udupa and Prasad, 1963; Udupa and Prasad, 1964a,b; Chopra et al., 1976). Curcumin, which is a major compound found in rhizome of species of the Curcuma genus is well known for its anti-inflammatory properties (Jurenka, 2009). Additionally, the aniti-inflammatory and wound healing properties of Curcuma aromatica has been reported (Kumar et al., 2009). The anti-inflammatory effect of Curcuma amada has also been reported in albino rats using acute carrageenan paw oedema and chronic granuloma pouch model (Mujumdar et al., 2000). As such the inclusion of Curcuma aromatica and Curcuma amada in the formulation can be of healing effect during inflammation which invariably accompanies bone fractures. The bark of Cinnamomum verum contains upto 4% of essential oil of which a major component is eugenol. Eugenol has been reported as to possess anti-inflammatory properties (Pramod et al., 2010). Taken together, the various plant parts used by the Kavirajes for treatment of bone fracture appears to be validated scientifically in a remarkable manner.

Zingiber officinale rhizomes (ginger) are known to have carminative properties (Clement et al., 2007), so its use for treatment of bloating in cattle (see Serial Number 3) is also scientifically valid. For treatment of orchitis, roots of Physalis micrantha are tied to the head of boys suffering from this disease whose symptoms are swelling of one or both testicles. It is difficult to envisage how such a treatment can reduce swelling, unless it is meant to have, or does have a placebo-like effect. A similar apparently esoteric treatment can also be found in Serial Number 4, where for treatment of fever with shivering, roots of Musa paradisiaca are tied to the left hand on a Tuesday. For waist pain, the roots are tied to the right hand. For treatment of insanity, the plant is initially watered near the root. The water is then collected, mixed with fruit pulp of Cocos nucifera and applied to the head. A further esoteric treatment was tying the leaves of Vitex negundo (Serial Number 6) to the left hnad and keeping leaves under the bed as treatment for typhoid fever. However, for skin diseases, leaves of the same plant were fried in ghee and applied to affected areas of the skin. This suggests that the Kavirajes are aware of the emollient properties of ghee as well as the positive effect that ghee would have in helping spread the fried leaves on the affected area and the increase in absorption of lipid-soluble phytochemicals of the leaves through the skin. Another example of this esoteric treatment was tying the roots of Senna sophera to the waist as treatment for diarrhea (Serial Number 9).

The analgesic activity of Euphorbia neriifolia has been reported (Gaur et al., 2009). Notably, the plant is used by the Kavirajes for treatment of ear ache (Serial Number 7). Juice obtained from leaves of Andrographis paniculata was orally administered for stomach disorders like indigestion and bloating (see Serial Number 8). Leaf extract has been observed to reduce gastrointestinal motility at lower doses but increased contraction at higher doses (Nwinyi et al., 2012). As such, the leaf juice can have a beneficial effect on bloating if given at sufficiently high doses. The bark of Terminalia arjuna was used by the Kavirajes for treatment of heart disorders (see Serial Number 10). The various protective actions of the bark of this plant in cardiovascular disorders include protective effects of plant bark against Doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity (Singh et al., 2008); significant inotropic and hypotensive effect of bark, also increases coronary artery flow and protects myocardium against ischemic damage, reviewed by Dwivedi (Dwivedi, 2007); protection of rabbit heart by bark against ischemic-reperfusion injury (Gauthaman et al., 2005); cardioprotective effect of alcoholic extract of bark in an in vivo model of myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury (Karthikeyan et al., 2003); efficacy of the plant in chronic stable angina (Dwivedi and Gupta, 2002; Bharani et al., 2002); beneficial effects of bark of the plant in isolated ischemic-reperfused rat heart (Gauthaman et al., 2001); beneficial effects in coronary artery disease (significant reductions in anginal frequency) (Dwivedi and Jauhari, 1997). Besides heart disorders, the bark of the same plant was also used for hepatic and kidney problems. Notably, aqueous extract of the bark has been reported to prevent carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic and renal problems (Manna et al., 2006).

Whole plants of Leucas aspera was used by the Kavirajes for treatment of pain (see Serial Number 12). Various extracts of the plant has been reported to possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties (Saundane et al., 2000). Notably, the plant was boiled in mustard oil and then applied to painful areas. Warm mustard oil would have anodyne properties by itself and as so, the combination can prove a useful therapy for pain. Leaves, alternately seeds, of Syzygium cumini were used to treat diabetes (see Serial Number 13). Anti-diabetic and antihyperglycemic effects of plant parts, particularly seeds of this plant include reported inhibition of adenosine deaminase activity and reduction of glucose levels in hyperglycemic patients by aqueous extract of leaves (Bopp et al., 2009); anti-oxidant activity reported for leaf extracts (Ruan et al., 2008); therapeutic effect reported for ferulic acid isolated from an ethereal fraction of ethanolic extract of seeds against streptozotocin diabetic male rats (Mandal et al., 2008); D-glucosidase inhibitory activity reported for seed kernel in vitro and in GotoKakizaki rats (Shinde et al., 2008); reported decrease of blood sugar on administration of ethanolic extract of seeds in alloxan diabetic albino rats (Singh and Gupta, 2007); anti-hyperglycemic effect reported for dried bark when administered to mice (Villasenor and Lamadrid, 2006); high phenolic content and anti-oxidant activity observed in seeds (Bajpai et al., 2005); hypoglycemic effects observed with defatted seeds and water soluble fiber from seeds in alloxan diabetic rats (Pandey and Khan, 2002); reduction of tissue damage in diabetic rat brain reported for aqueous and alcoholic extract of seeds (Stanely Mainzen Prince at el., 2003); gastroprotective effect of tannins extracted from bark against HCl/ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in Sprague-Dawley rats (Ramirez and Roa, 2003).

Leaves of Coccinia grandis was used by the Kavirajes for gastrointestinal disorders (like dysentery), diabetes, and kamla disease, of which the latter appears to be jaundice. In fact, jaundice is often referred to by the rural population as kamla disease. The anti-ulcer effect of this plant has been reported (Manoharan et al., 2010). The blood sugar lowering efficacy of leaves of the plant has also been reported (Munasinghe et al., 2011). Aqueous leaf extract of the plant demonstrated hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties when tested against ethanol-induced liver toxicity in albino rats, suggesting that the plant may prove useful in diseases of the liver, like jaundice (Sivaraj et al., 2010). The available scientific reports validate the folk medicinal uses of the plant. Although there is no scientific report to our knowledge on Moringa oleifera inhibitory activity against hepatitis B virus (see Serial Number 17), anti-viral activity of aqueous extract of seed has been reported against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (Chollom et al., 2012). Bark of Swertia chirata and fruit of Emblica officinalis was used by the Kavirajes for treatment of stomach troubles (see Serial Numbers 18 1nd 19). The first plant has been described as stomachic, anthelmintic, appetizer, laxative and anti-diarrheic (Kumar et al., 2010), while the second plant has been reported to inhibit Helicobacter pylori, and therefore can prove to be a useful agent against gastric ulceration (Mehrotra et al., 2011).

Glycyrrhiza glabra roots were used by the Kavirajes for treatment of asthma (see Serial Numbers 20 and 21). The roots (licorice) has uses in Indian traditional systems of medicine (Ayurveda, Unani) for treatment of coughs, bronchitis, and respiratory disorders (Khare, 2007). It is noteworthy in this connection that another formulation used by the Kavirajes for treatment of asthma was exceedingly complex and consisted of parts from 11 different plants (Serial Number 21). The various plants utilized in this complex formulation included Acorus calamus, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Piper cubeba, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale, Bunium persicum, Carum copticum, Piper longum, Carum carvi, Elletaria cardamomum, and Cinnamomum verum. Acorus calamus has uses in Indian traditional medicine as a nervine tonic, spasmolytic agent, anti-convulsant and for treatment of bronchial catarrh and asthma (Balakumbahan et al., 2010). As such, it can have a soothing and synergistic effect along with Glycyrrhiza glabra in the treatment of asthma. The fruits of Piper cubeba are used in traditional medicines of Indonesia to treat asthma and two compounds, namely a lignan and dihydrocubebin has been isolated from the fruits with tracheospasmolytic activities (Wahyono et al., 2003). Anti-asthmatic effects have been reported for fruits of Piper longum (Kaushik et al., 2012) and fruits of Piper nigrum (Parganiha et al., 2011). Ancient Iranian texts have mentioned the use of Bunium persicum for treatment of asthma; scientific studies have demonstrated relaxant effect of the plant on guinea pig tracheal chains (Boskabady and Moghaddas, 2004). The beneficial effect of Zingiber officinale rhizome has also been reported (Banerjee et al., 2011). Carum carvi is also used in traditional medicines of many countries including Germany and Iran as an anti-spasmodic for relief from respiratory ailments and so can be beneficial for treatment of asthma (Forster et al., 1980). Bronchodilatory effect of boiled extract of Carum copticum has been observed in airways of asthmatic patients (Boskabady et al., 2007). The fruits of Elettaria cardamomum, which are widely used in traditional medicine of India to treat asthma has been reported to suppress carbachol-mediated bronchoconstriction in rats (Khan et al., 2011). The bark of Cinnamomum verum is considered anti-spasmodic in Indian traditional medicine and can prove useful in asthma (Khare, 2007). It becomes clear from the available scientific reports and the above discussion that the 11 plants or plant parts used by the Kavirajes for treatment of asthma have been chosen with excellent knowledge about their anti-asthmatic properties, and together the plant parts may give a synergistic and powerful anti-asthmatic effect. Modern medicine has often dismissed the formulations of Kavirajes as mere quackery; however, as more and more ethnomedicinal reports appear in the scientific press along with description of pharmacological activities of plants, it becomes clear that traditional medicinal practitioners really do possess good knowledge of the properties of medicinal plants. In fact, scientific reports have more often than not validated the traditional use of plants for treatment of any specific ailment.

For treatment of severe pain (arising from evil wind), the Kavirajes used a formulation containing 18 plants (see Serial Number 22). Evil wind was explained to us by the Kavirajes as something which has been borne by the wind and causing pain to the patient, when the patient has come in contact with that wind. Evil wind can supposedly exist by itself or caused by somebody applying black magic to harm somebody else. Whether such 'evil wind' exists or not can be justifiably argued. In our experience and on close questioning of the Kavirajes, it came out that the so called evil wind means a sudden gust of wind touching a person when the person is outdoors usually alone and usually late at night. Irrespective of the evil wind term, if one concentrates on the severe pain which is purportedly caused by the evil wind, and the medicinal plants used to treat such severe pain, it can readily be found that a number of the plants used in the formulation for relieving this pain has analgesic properties. For instance, alkaloids and alcoholic extract of Eclipta prostrata has reported analgesic activity (Sawant et al., 2004). The same is the case for Phyla nodiflora, which is used for treatment of pain in knee joints (Salve and Bhuktar, 2012). Methanolic extract of leaves as well as hydroalcoholic extract of leaves and seeds of Achyranthes aspera reportedly possess analgesic activity (reported in Srivastav et al., 2011). The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of Centella asiatica has been reported (Somchit et al., 2004). Antinociceptive activity has also been reported for methanol extract of leaves of Glycosmis pentaphylla (Shams-Ud-Doha et al., 2012). The anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, analgesic and anti-convulsant activity of essential oil from Cyperus rotundus has been demonstrated (Biradar et al., 2010). Analgesic activity of the plant Cynodon dactylon has been shown in hot plate and acetic acid-induced writhing tests (Asthana et al., 2012). Seed oil of Azadirachta indica also reportedly showed analgesic activity when tested in albino rats (Kumar et al., 2012). The leaves of Aegle marmelos have been shown to possess analgesic properties (Sekar et al., 2011). Analgesic activity of essential oil constituents has been reported for essential oil from Citrus aurantifolia (de Sousa, 2011). Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of leaves of Punica granatum has been shown in experimental animal models (Das et al., 2011). Thus once again it is evident, that even though this formulation against pain had 18 plant components, most of the plants used in the formulation has been scientifically shown to have analgesic activities and so validates their use for treatment of pain. Notably, the plant Eclipta prostrata was also used by the Kavirajes by itself to prevent hair loss. Extract of this plant has has been shown to exhibit hair growth potential when tested in C57BL6 mice (Datta et al., 2009).

Although not all the formulations have been discussed as to their scientific validity, it is already quite evident from the discussion that most of the plants discussed thus far have scientific reports which validate their traditional mediicnal uses. This only supports the conviction that modern medicine can learn a lot from documenting and observing the traditional medicinal practices. Not only this would open up new researches leading to potentially novel and more efficacious drugs, but also it can provide the people with cheaper and readily available medicines with possibly greater efficacy, and also spur conservation efforts on these plant species.

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Munasinghe, M.A.A.K., C. Abeysena, L.S. Yaddehige, T. Vidanapathirana and K.P.B. Piyumal, 2011. Blood sugar lowering effect of Coccinia grandis (L.) J. Voigt: path for a new drug for diabetes mellitus. Experimental Diabetes Research, Article ID 978762 (4 pages), doi:10.1155/2011/978762.

Nawaz, A.H.M.M., M. Hossain, M. Karim, M. Khan, R. Jahan, and M. Rahmatullah, 2009. An ethnobotanical survey of Rajshahi district in Rajshahi division, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 143-150.

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Pandey, M., and A. Khan, 2002. Hypoglycaemic effect of defatted seeds and water soluble fibre from the seeds of Syzygium cumini (Linn.) Skeels in alloxan diabetic rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 40: 1178-1182.

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Rahmatullah, M., D. Ferdausi, M.A.H. Mollik, M.N.K. Azam, M.T. Rahman and R. Jahan, 2009a. Ethnomedicinal Survey of Bheramara Area in Kushtia District, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 534-541.

Rahmatullah, M., A. Noman, M.S. Hossan, M.H. Rashid, T. Rahman, M.H. Chowdhury and R. Jahan, 2009b. A survey of medicinal plants in two areas of Dinajpur district, Bangladesh including plants which can be used as functional foods. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 862-876.

Rahmatullah, M., A.K. Das, M.A.H. Mollik, R. Jahan, M. Khan, T. Rahman, and M.H. Chowdhury, 2009c. An Ethnomedicinal Survey of Dhamrai Sub-district in Dhaka District, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 881-888.

Rahmatullah, M., D. Ferdausi, M.A.H. Mollik, R. Jahan, M.H. Chowdhury, and W.M. Haque, 2010a. A Survey of Medicinal Plants used by Kavirajes of Chalna area, Khulna District, Bangladesh. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 7: 91-97.

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Rahmatullah, M., A.A.B.T. Kabir, M.M. Rahman, M.S. Hossan, Z. Khatun, M.A. Khatun, and R. Jahan, 2010c. Ethnomedicinal practices among a minority group of Christians residing in Mirzapur village of Dinajpur District, Bangladesh. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4: 45-51.

Rahmatullah, M., M.A. Momen, M.M. Rahman, D. Nasrin, M.S. Hossain, Z. Khatun, F.I. Jahan, M.A. Khatun, and R. Jahan, 2010d. A randomized survey of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners in Daudkandi sub-district of Comilla district, Bangladesh. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4: 99-104.

Rahmatullah, M., M.A.H. Mollik, M.N. Ahmed, M.Z.A. Bhuiyan, M.M. Hossain, M.N.K. Azam, S. Seraj, M.H. Chowdhury, F. Jamal, S. Ahsan, and R. Jahan, 2010e. A survey of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners in two villages of Tangail district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 357-362.

Rahmatullah, M., M.A.H. Mollik, M.K. Islam, M.R. Islam, F.I. Jahan, Z. Khatun, S. Seraj, M.H. Chowdhury, F. Islam, Z.U.M. Miajee and R. Jahan, 2010f. A survey of medicinal and functional food plants used by the folk medicinal practitioners of three villages in Sreepur Upazilla, Magura district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 363-373.

Rahmatullah, M., R. Jahan, M.A. Khatun, F.I. Jahan, A.K. Azad, A.B.M. Bashar, Z.U.M. Miajee, S. Ahsan, N. Nahar, I. Ahmad and M.H. Chowdhury, 2010g. A pharmacological evaluation of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners of Station Purbo Para Village of Jamalpur Sadar Upazila in Jamalpur district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 170-195.

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Rahmatullah, M., M.N.K. Azam, Z. Khatun, S. Seraj, F. Islam, M.A. Rahman, S. Jahan, M.S. Aziz and R. Jahan, 2012d. Medicinal plants used for treatment of diabetes by the Marakh sect of the Garo tribe living in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 9: 380-385.

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(1) Mohsina Mukti, (1) Asma Ahmed, (2) Shuvro Chowdhury, (3) Zubaida Khatun, (3) Piplu Bhuiyan, (3) Kallol Debnath, (3) Mohammed Rahmatullah

(1) Department of Pharmacy, North South University, Bashundhara, Dhaka-1229, Bangladesh.

(2) United Hospital Limited, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

(3) Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh.

Corresponding Author: Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205 Bangladesh

Phone: 88-01715032621; Fax: 88-02-8157339; E-mail: rahamatm@hotmail.com
Table 1: Formulations used by the Kavirajes surveyed of Farid pus and
Rajbari districts in Bangladesh.

Serial
Number   Ailment with symptoms       Formulation

1        Bone fracture (swelling     Rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica
         and inflammation of the     Salisb. (Zingiberaceae) and
         fractured area, rise in     Curcuma amada Roxb.
         temperature of the          (Zingiberaceae), khai ada
         fractured area, pain        (unidentified, Zingiberaceae)
         while moving the            are mixed with stems of Cissus
         fractured part).            quadrangularis L. (Vitaceae),
                                     seeds of Cuminum cyminum L.
                                     (Apiaceae), and bark of
                                     Cinnamomum verum Presl.
                                     (Lauraceae). Paste prepared from
                                     the mixture is applied to the
                                     fractured area.

2        Chicken pox.                Oil obtained from whole plant of
                                     kuntidari (unidentified),
                                     alternately, pills prepared from
                                     whole plants is either massaged
                                     on the whole body or orally
                                     taken.

3        Ak koisha baram (orchitis   For ak koisha baram, roots of
         or inflammation of the      Physalis micrantha Link.
         testis), infertility in     (Solanaceae) are tied to the
         women, bloating in          head (note that this disease
         cattle.                     happens only to boys). For
                                     treatment of infertility, roots
                                     of the plant are macerated with
                                     seeds of Piper nigrum L.
                                     (Piperaceae). Pills prepared
                                     from the mixture are taken (3
                                     pills daily) during menstruation
                                     (Note that pills cannot be taken
                                     during pregnancy). Cattle are
                                     fed a macerated mixture of roots
                                     of the plant along with rhizomes
                                     of Zingiber officinale Roscoe
                                     (Zingiberaceae) during bloating.

4        Jaundice. snake bite.       For jaundice, crushed whole
                                     plants of Phyllanthus abnormis
                                     Baill. (Phyllanthaceae) are
                                     taken with slices of rhizomes of
                                     Zingiber officinale Roscoe
                                     (Zingiberaceae). Crushed whole
                                     plants are orally taken after
                                     snake bite.

5        Fever with shivering,       For fever with shivering, roots
         waist pain, insanity.       of Musa paradisiaca L.
                                     (Musaceae) are tied to the left
                                     hand on a Tuesday. For waist
                                     pain, roots are tied to the
                                     hand. For insanity, the plant is
                                     watered near the root initially.
                                     The water is then collected,
                                     mixed with pulp of coconut
                                     [fruit of Cocos nucifera L.
                                     (Arecaceae)] and applied to the
                                     head.

6        Skin disease, typhoid       Leaves of Vitex negundo L.
         fever,                      (Verbenaceae) are fried in ghee
                                     (clarified butter) and stored in
                                     a canister. The decoction is
                                     then applied to affected areas
                                     of the skin. For typhoid fever,
                                     leaves are kept underneath the
                                     bed and also tied to the left
                                     hand.

7        Ear ache, ear infection,    For ear ache and ear infections,
         coughs.                     leaves of Euphorbia neriifolia
                                     L. (Euphorbiaceae) are warmed
                                     over a fire, and then squeezed
                                     to obtain juice. 2-3 drops of
                                     the juice are applied to the ear
                                     canal. For coughs, 2 drops of
                                     juice obtained from squeezed
                                     leaves is taken orally.

8        Stomach disorders, to       Juice obtained from macerated
         improve digestion,          leaves of Andrographis
         bloating with burning       paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex
         sensations in the chest.    Nees. (Acanthaceae) is orally
                                     taken.

9        Crying of children when     Roots of Senna sophera (L.)
         afraid, diarrhea.           Roxb. (Fabaceae) are mixed with
                                     oil and applied to the body when
                                     children are crying out of fear.
                                     Roots are tied to the waist as
                                     treatment for diarrhea.

10       Heart disorders             Bark of Terminalia arjuna
         (fluttering of the          (Roxb.) Wight & Arn.
         heart), liver problem       (Combretaceae) is soaked in
         (accumulation of water in   water, followed by taking the
         the liver), hepatitis,      water with rice. Alternately,
         kidney problem.             powdered bark is taken daily.

11       Dudh bara baram (diarrhea   For treatment of dudh bara
         in children from drinking   baram, roots of Ricinus communis
         mother's milk               L. (Euphorbiaceae) are tied to
         excessively), pahorer       the mother's breast and to the
         baram (skin changing to     infant's blanket. Macerated
         whitish color, leprosy).    leaves are applied as poultice
                                     to the body for pahorer baram.

12       Severe pain.                Whole plants of Leucas aspera
                                     (Willd.) Link. (Lamiaceae) are
                                     boiled with mustard oil [oil
                                     obtained from seeds of Brassica
                                     juncea (L.) Czern.
                                     (Cruciferae)], and applied to
                                     painful areas.

13       Diabetes.                   Pills made from leaves of
                                     Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels
                                     (Myrtaceae) are taken orally.
                                     Alternately, seeds of the same
                                     plant are crushed, soaked in
                                     water and the water taken on an
                                     empty stomach.

14       To keep head cool (if one   Macerated leaves of Coccinia
         gets angry often),          grandis (L.) Voigt.
         diabetes, gogosh            (Cucurbitaceae) is applied to
         (dysentery), kamla (skin    head to keep head cool.
         and eye color turns         Macerated leaves are orally
         yellowish, wasting away     taken during diabetes,
         of body, cannot eat         dysentery, and kamla disease.
         because the odor of food
         seems offensive).

15       Lesions on the face,        Crushed whole plants of
         vitamin deficiency.         Hemidesmus indicus R.Br.
                                     (Apocynaceae) is chewed with
                                     leaves of Piper betle L.
                                     (Piperaceae) and honey.
                                     Alternately, leaves are squeezed
                                     and applied to facial lesions.

16       Bite of yellow jacket       Macerated whole plants of
         wasp Vespula squamosa       Persicaria glabra (Willd.) M.
         (Drury), other poisonous    Gomez (Polygonaceae) are applied
         insect bites, abscess.      to affected areas.

17       Hepatitis B (yellowish      Two teaspoonfuls of dried and
         color of body and eye,      powdered bark of Moringa
         inability to eat food,      oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is
         lack of water in body).     taken in the morning and evening
                                     for 45 days.

18       Stomach troubles.           One teaspoonful of dried and
                                     powdered bark of Swertia chirata
                                     Buch.-Ham. ex Wall.
                                     (Gentianaceae) is taken twice
                                     daily on a full stomach in the
                                     morning and evening for 2
                                     months.

19       Stomach troubles.           One teaspoonful of dried and
                                     powdered fruit of Emblica
                                     officinalis Gaertn.
                                     (Euphorbiaceae) is taken twice
                                     daily on a full stomach in the
                                     morning and evening for 2
                                     months.

20       Asthma (having difficulty   Roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
         breathing).                 (Fabaceae) are dried in the sun,
                                     powdered with a haman-dista (a
                                     type of mortar and pestle) and
                                     taken twice with honey--once in
                                     the morning on an empty stomach
                                     and once in the evening after
                                     meal.

21       Asthma.                     Leaves of Acorus calamus L.
                                     (Acoraceae) are dried and
                                     powdered and taken twice
                                     daily--once in the morning on an
                                     empty stomach and once in the
                                     evening after meals.
                                     Alternately, leaves of Acorus
                                     calamus are mixed with roots of
                                     Glycyrrhiza glabra, fruits of
                                     Piper cubeba L.f. (Piperaceae),
                                     seeds of Piper nigrum L.
                                     (Piperaceae), rhizomes of
                                     Zingiber officinale, seeds of
                                     Bunium persicum (Boiss) B.
                                     Fedtsch (Apiaceae), seeds of
                                     Carum copticum (L.) Benth. &
                                     Hook.f. ex C.B. Clarke
                                     (Apiaceae), fruits of Piper
                                     longum L. (Piperaceae), seeds of
                                     Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae),
                                     fruits of Elletaria cardamomum
                                     (L.) Aiton (Zingiberaceae), and
                                     bark of Cinnamomum verum. The
                                     mixture is dried in the sun,
                                     powdered in a haman-dista and
                                     taken twice daily. In the
                                     morning, the mixture is taken on
                                     an empty stomach and in the
                                     evening, the mixture is taken
                                     with honey after meal. The
                                     mixture is taken for 1-2 months.

22       Severe pain [arising from   For treatment of severe pain,
         'evil wind' or              whole plants of Eclipta
         'roktoboth' (accumulation   prostrata (L.) L. (Asteraceae)
         of toxins in blood)],       are mixed with leaves of
         whitish discharge from      (unidentified), bhouchita
         vagina, hair loss.          (unidentified), Phyla nodiflora
                                     (L.) Greene (Verbenaceae),
                                     Achyranthes aspera L.
                                     (Amaranthaceae), Centella
                                     asiatica (L.) Urb. (Apiaceae),
                                     Lippia javanica L.
                                     (Verbenaceae), Glycosmis
                                     pentaphylla (Retz.) DC.
                                     (Rutaceae), Cyperus rotundus L.
                                     (Cyperaceae), Alternanthera
                                     sessilis (L.)R.Br. ex DC.
                                     (Amaranthaceae), kuira
                                     (unidentified), Cynodon dactylon
                                     (L.) Pers. (Poaceae) (large
                                     variety), Cynodon dactylon (L.)
                                     Pers. (Poaceae) (small variety),
                                     Azadirachta indica A. Juss.
                                     (Meliaceae), Aegle marmelos (L.)
                                     Corr. (Rutaceae), Curcuma
                                     aromatica Salisb.
                                     (Zingiberaceae), Citrus
                                     aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle
                                     (Rutaceae) and Punica granatum
                                     L. (Punicaceae) and macerated to
                                     obtain juice. One ser (local
                                     measure equals to 4 poas equals
                                     approximately 1 kg) of mustard
                                     oil (oil obtained from seeds of
                                     Brassica juncea) is boiled till
                                     the volume has been reduced to 1
                                     poa. The oil is then mixed with
                                     the combined juices of the above
                                     plants and applied to pain
                                     affected areas. For whitish
                                     discharge from vagina, juice
                                     obtained from whole plants of
                                     Eclipta prostrata is taken with
                                     coconut water (water found in
                                     fruits of Cocos nucifera) and
                                     molasses or milk. To prevent
                                     hair loss, macerated whole plant
                                     of Eclipta prostrata is applied
                                     to scalp.

23       Jaundice, hankie (tooth     Crushed roots of Achyranthes
         infections, believed by     aspera L. (Amaranthaceae) are
         the Kavirajes to be         orally administered for
         caused by insect            jaundice. Roots are put within
         infestations of tooth).     the mouth and swirled around the
                                     infected tooth (the Kavirajes
                                     believe that insects die as a
                                     result of this swirling).

24       Jaundice, dysentery.        Juice obtained from macerated
                                     whole plant of Centella asiatica
                                     (L.) Urb. (Apiaceae) is taken
                                     for jaundice or dysentery.

25       Pain.                       Juice obtained from seven leaves
                                     of Alternanthera sessilis
                                     (L.)R.Br. ex DC. (Amaranthaceae)
                                     is rubbed onto painful areas.

26       Blood coming out through    Juice obtained from whole plants
         the throat.                 of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
                                     (Poaceae) (large variety) is
                                     orally taken.

2,       Bleeding from external      Crushed whole plants of Cynodon
         cuts and wounds.            dactylon (L.) Pers. (Poaceae)
                                     (small variety) are applied.

28       Stomach pain.               Leaves of Mangifera indica L.
                                     (Anacardiaceae) are chewed with
                                     table salt.

29       Rheumatic pain.             Leaves of Justicia gendarussa
                                     Burm.f. (Acanthaceae) are mixed
                                     with rhizomes of Curcuma longa
                                     L. (Zingiberaceae), leaves of
                                     Azadirachta indica, leaves of
                                     Persicaria hydropiper (L.)
                                     Delarbre (Polygonaceae), seeds
                                     of Piper nigrum, camphor
                                     [obtained from wood of
                                     Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.
                                     Presl. (Lauraceae)], one clove
                                     of Allium sativum L.
                                     (Liliaceae), rhizomes of
                                     Zingiber officinale, leaves of
                                     Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link.
                                     (Lamiaceae), leaves of Datura
                                     metel L. (Solanaceae) and
                                     mustard oil (oil obtained from
                                     seeds of Brassica juncea). The
                                     mixture is boiled and then
                                     cooled and bottled. Spleen of
                                     ghost knife fish (Notopterus
                                     notopterus) is added to the
                                     bottled decoction. The decoction
                                     is massaged onto painful areas.

30       Headache.                   Macerated whole plant of Phyla
                                     nodiflora is taken orally.

31       Foot and mouth disease in   Leaves of Commelina benghalensis
         cattle (khura rogh).        L. (Commelinaceae) are macerated
                                     with rhizomes of Zingiber
                                     officinale and applied to the
                                     hooves of cattle. At the same
                                     time roots of Commelina
                                     benghalensis are tied around the
                                     throat of cattle.

32       Headache due to hot         Macerated leaves of Crataeva
         temperature of the          magna (Lour.) DC.
         environment.                (Capparidaceae) are applied to
                                     the scalp.

33       Kamla disease (yellowish    Dried leaves of Cajanus cajan
         coloration of body and      (L.) Millsp. (Fabaceae) and
         eyes, wasting away of       Coccinia grandis are mixed with
         body, lack of water in      dried fruits of Ficus racemosa
         body, inability to take     L. (Moraceae) and bark of
         food).                      Moringa oleifera Lam.
                                     (Moringaceae), and powdered. Two
                                     spoonfuls of the powder is taken
                                     twice daily in the morning and
                                     evening for 45 days.

34       Gonorrhea (burning          Fruits of Ipomoea mauritiana
         sensations during           Jacq. (Convolvulaceae) and roots
         urination).                 of Withania somnifera (L.)
                                     Dunal. (Solanaceae) are dried,
                                     powdered and mixed together. One
                                     spoonful of the powder is taken
                                     twice daily in the morning and
                                     evening on a full stomach for 90
                                     days.

35       Passing of semen with       Paste (halwa) is made from eight
         urine (dhatu rogh).         eggs of local hens, nuts of
                                     Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb
                                     (Rosaceae), dried rhizomes of
                                     Zingiber officinale, sugar
                                     obtained from Kasi (India),
                                     cloves of Allium sativum, fried
                                     seeds of Linum usitatissimum L.
                                     (Linaceae), leaves of Bombax
                                     ceiba L. (Bombacaceae), bark of
                                     Terminalia arjuna, wheat husk
                                     [husk of seeds of Triticum
                                     aestivum L. (Poaceae)] and honey
                                     by putting all ingredients in an
                                     earthen container followed by
                                     boiling. The halwa is orally
                                     administered.

36       Sutika (puerperal fever,    Juice obtained from leaves of
         symptoms: wasting away      Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae) is
         of body).                   taken in the morning on an empty
                                     stomach and in the evening after
                                     meal along with molasses
                                     prepared from sugar cane juice
                                     for 3-7 days.

37       Gastric problem             Seeds of Piper nigrum are mixed
         (symptoms: burning          with dried fruits of Aegle
         sensations in the chest     marmelos, Emblica officinalis,
         and throat, stomach ache,   Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.)
         constipation).              Roxb. (Combretaceae) and
                                     Terminalia chebula Retz.
                                     (Combretaceae) and sugar. The
                                     mixture is boiled with water and
                                     stored. The decoction is taken
                                     in the morning, evening and
                                     night.

38       Uterine problems in women   Roots of Achyranthes aspera and
         due to hard work,           Heliotropium indicum L.
         physical stress, closure    (Boraginaceae) and bark of
         of uterine passage.         Cinnamomum verum is cleaned,
                                     dried, mixed and pills prepared
                                     from the mixture. Pills are
                                     taken for a 21 day plus 21 day
                                     time period (note that pills
                                     cannot be taken during menstrual
                                     cycle).

Serial   Local name of plants/
Number   ingredtents used

1        Curcuma aromatica: Kor ada
         Curcuma amada: Bao ada
         Unidentified: Khai ada
         Cissus quadrangularis: Har
         mokka gach
         Cuminum cyminum: Jira
         Cinnamomum verum: Daruchini

2        Unidentifed: Kuntidari

3        Physalis micrantha: Dhona tuila
         Piper nigrum: Gol morich
         Zingiber officinale: Ada

4        Phyllanthus abnormis: Beji rajar
         gach
         Zingiber officinale: Ada

5        Musa paradisiaca: Bicha kola
         Cocos nucilera: Narkel

6        Vitex negundo: Nishindir gach

7        Euphorbia neriifolia: Nogra hajar

8        Andrographis paniculata:
         Kalomegh

9        Senna sophera: Bhut rajar gach

10       Terminalia arjuna: Arjun gach

11       Ricinus communis: Valla

12       Leucas aspera: Dondo kolosh
         Brassica juncea: Shorisha

13       Syzygium cumini: Jaam gach

14       Coccinia grandis: Telakucha

15       Hemidesmus indicus: Bhui pana
         puti
         Piper betle: Paan

16       Persicaria glabra: Kechla ghash

17       Moringa oleifera: Shajhna,
         Shakna

18       Swertia chirata: Chirota

19       Emblica officinalis: Am

20       Glycyrrhiza glabra: Joishtho
         modhu

21       Acorus calamus: Boch
         Glycyrrhiza glabra: Joistho
         modhu
         Piper cubeba: Kabab chini
         Piper nigrum: Gol morich
         Zingiber officinale: Ada
         Bunium persicum: Kalo jeera
         Carum copticum: Joun
         Piper longum: Pipul
         Carum carvi: Shah jeera
         Elettaria cardamomum: Elach
         Cinnamomum verum:
         Daru chini

22       Eclipta prostrata: Kalo koishoria
         Unidentified: Dhola koishoria
         Unidentified: Bhouchita
         Phyla nodiflora: Kuiguta,
         Koimura
         Achyranthes aspera: Bilai hechra
         Centella asiatica: Taka
         khunkhuni
         Lippia javanica: Haddi murmura
         Glycosmis pentaphylla: Aishtali
         Cyperus rotundus: Gondho vadair
         Alternanthera sessilis: Hechi
         Unidentified: Kuira
         Cynodon dactylon (Large
         variety): Boro dubla
         Cynodon dactylon (small variety):
         Choto dubla
         Azadirachta indica: Neem
         Aegle marmelos: Bael
         Curcuma aromatica: Bao ada
         Citrus aurantifolia: Lebu
         Punica granatum: Dalim
         Brassica juncea: Shorisha

23       Achyranthes aspera: Bilai hechra

24       Centella asiatica: Taka
         khunkhuni

25       Alternanthera sessilis: Hechi

26       Cynodon dactylon: Boro dubla

2,       Cynodon dactylon: Choto dubla

28       Mangifera indica: Aam

29       Justicia gendarussa: Bish jharanir
         gach
         Curcuma longa: Holud
         Azadirachta indica: Neem
         Persicaria hydropiper: Bish
         katali
         Piper nigrum: Gol morich
         Cinnamomum camphora: Korpur
         Zingiber officinale: Ada
         Allium sativum: Roshun
         Leucas aspera: Dondo kolosh
         Datura metel: Kalo dhutura
         Brassica juncea: Shorisha
         Notopterus notopterus: Chital

30       Phyla nodiflora: Kuiguta,
         Koimura

31       Commelina benghalensis: Kella
         gach
         Zingiber officinale: Ada

32       Crataeva magna: Bonya gach

33       Cajanus cajan: Ohoroho
         Coccinia grandis: Telakucha
         Ficus racemosa: Joggo dumur
         Moringa oleifera: Shajhna,
         Shakna

34       Ipomoea mauritiana: Bhoi kumra
         Withania somnifera:
         Ashyogondha

35       Prunus dulcis: Kabli badam
         Zingiber officinale: Ada
         Allium sativum: Roshun
         Linum usitatissimum: Tishi
         Bombax ceiba: Shimul
         Terminalia arjuna: Arjun
         Triticum aestivum: Gom

36       Ocimum sanctum: Tulshi

37       Piper nigrum: Gol morich
         Aegle marmelos: Bael
         Emblica officinalis: Amloki
         Terminalia bellirica: Bohera
         Terminalia chebula: Horitoki

38       Achyranthes aspera: Bilai hechra
         Heliotropium indicum: Hati sura
         Cinnamomum verum: Daruchini

Table 2: Family-wise distribution of medicinal plants used by
the Kavirajes of Faridpur and Rajbari districts.

Serial Number   Medicinal plant name       Family

1               Andrographis paniculata    Acanthaceae
2               Justicia gendarussa        Acanthaceae
3               Acorus calamus             Acoraceae
4               Achyranthes aspera         Amaranthaceae
5               Alternanthera sessilis     Amaranthaceae
6               Mangifera indica           Anacardiaceae
7               Bunium persicum            Apiaceae
8               Carum carvi                Apiaceae
9               Carum copticum             Apiaceae
10              Centella asiatica          Apiaceae
11              Cuminum cyminum            Apiaceae
12              Hemidesmus indicus         Apocynaceae
13              Cocos nucifera             Arecaceae
14              Eclipta prostrata          Asteraceae
15              Bombax ceiba               Bombacaceae
16              Heliotropium indicum       Boraginaceae
17              Crataeva magna             Capparidaceae
18              Terminalia arjuna          Combretaceae
19              Terminalia bellirica       Combretaceae
20              Terminalia chebula         Combretaceae
21              Commelina benghalensis     Commelinaceae
22              Ipomoea mauritiana         Convolvulaceae
23              Brassica juncea            Cruciferae
24              Coccinia grandis           Cucurbitaceae
25              Cyperus rotundus           Cyperaceae
26              Emblica officinalis        Euphorbiaceae
27              Euphorbia neriifolia       Euphorbiaceae
28              Ricinus communis           Euphorbiaceae
29              Cajanus cajan              Fabaceae
30              Glycyrrhiza glabra         Fabaceae
31              Senna sophera              Fabaceae
32              Swertia chirata            Gentianaceae
33              Leucas aspera              Lamiaceae
34              Ocimum sanctum             Lamiaceae
35              Cinnamomum camphora        Lauraceae
36              Cinnamomum verum           Lauraceae
37              A llium sativum            Liliaceae
38              Linum usitatissimum        Linaceae
39              Azadirachta indica         Meliaceae
40              Ficus racemosa             Moraceae
41              Moringa oleifera           Moringaceae
42              Musa paradisiaca           Musaceae
43              Syzygium cumini            Myrtaceae
44              Phyllanthus abnormis       Phyllanthaceae
45              Piper betle                Piperaceae
46              Piper cubeba               Piperaceae
47              Piper longum               Piperaceae
48              Piper nigrum               Piperaceae
59              Cynodon dactylon           Poaceae
50              Triticum aestivum          Poaceae
51              Persicaria glabra          Polygonaceae
52              Persicaria hydropiper      Polygonaceae
53              Punica granatum            Punicaceae
54              Prunus dulcis              Rosaceae
55              Aegle marmelos             Rutaceae
56              Citrus aurantifolia        Rutaceae
57              Glycosmis pentaphylla      Rutaceae
58              Datura metel               Solanaceae
69              Physalis micrantha         Solanaceae
60              Withania somnifera         Solanaceae
61              Lippia javanica            Verbenaceae
62              Phyla nodiflora            Verbenaceae
63              Vitex negundo              Verbenaceae
64              Cissus quadrangularis      Vitaceae
65              Curcuma amada              Zingiberaceae
66              Curcuma aromatica          Zingiberaceae
67              Curcuma longa              Zingiberaceae
68              Elletaria cardamomum       Zingiberaceae
69              Zingiber officinale        Zingiberaceae
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Mukti, Mohsina; Ahmed, Asma; Chowdhury, Shuvro; Khatun, Zubaida; Bhuiyan, Piplu; Debnath, Kallol; Ra
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Oct 1, 2012
Words:9551
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