Printer Friendly

Medicinal Plants from North and Central America and the Caribbean Considered Toxic for Humans: The Other Side of the Coin.

1. Introduction

The use of herbal medicine has increased around the world due to its presumptive efficiency, availability, and general acceptance. Approximately 80% of the general population, especially in developing countries, uses medicinal herbs for primary health care [1, 2]. Worldwide, the interest in medicinal plants by patients has increased over the past two decades. The global market for medicinal plants and plant-derived drugs in 2015 was estimated at 25.6 billion dollars and is expected to rise to 35.4 billion dollars in 2020 [3]. This clearly indicates that the consumption of medicinal plants is a current topic of interest. Despite the high consumption of medicinal plants and related products, their toxicity remains to be evaluated. In addition, many medicinal plants require scientific evidence for their medicinal use, particularly those that are sold as food supplements.

Some medicinal plants might trigger undesirable side effects for human health because of (a) pharmacodynamic interaction with prescribed drugs, (b) intrinsic effects, (c) pharmacokinetic interaction with prescribed drugs, and (d) the presence of contaminants and/or pathogenic microorganisms. Other factors that impact the toxicity of medicinal plants in humans include the age of the patient, nutritional status, and the presence of chronic diseases. The concentration of toxic metabolites in plants is determined by the season of collection, nutrients in the soil, and growth stage, among others [4].

The main reasons for focusing this review on medicinal flora with supposed toxicological effects from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean are as follows: (a) the ancient importance of traditional medicine in this region, (b) their great biodiversity, and (c) the current use of herbal products. This review will be useful for physicians, toxicologists, pharmacologists, and general audiences. We have tried to describe in detail some toxic symptoms reported with the consumption of the medicinal plants covered in this review.

2. Methodology

A bibliographic search was conducted from July 2016 to May 2017 of published scientific material on native plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean that describes the ethnomedical and toxicological information for medicinal plants reputed to be toxic for humans. The following keywords were searched in different scientific databases: plant extract, toxicity, Mexico, and Central America. Additional data were acquired from undergraduate and postgraduate theses, as well as published and electronic books. The admittance criteria for the selection of scientific information in this review were as follows: (i) plants native to North and Central America and the Caribbean, (ii) plants used for medicinal purposes with or without toxicological studies, (iii) plants with experimental reports on their in vitro and/or in vivo toxicity, (iv) plants thought to be toxic for humans, (v) studies where the concentrations were presented as weight/volume relationship in international units (mg/ml, [micro]g/ml), (vi) studies where the doses were presented as weight/weight relationship in international units (mg/kg, g/kg), and (vii) plants with information obtained from a clear source. Scientific studies reporting the combination of plant extracts were excluded. Medicinal plants considered toxic were classified into two categories: (1) plants with toxicological evidence reported in a scientific source and (2) plants without toxicological evidence. All plant names and their distributions were confirmed at the Missouri botanical garden [73]. Many of the medicinal plants cited in this review have no common name in English. Therefore, the common names were given in Spanish (Table 1).

3. Medicinal Plants Considered to Be Toxic for Humans

A total of 216 medicinal plants belonging to 77 families reported as toxic were recorded. Of these plants, 76 had been studied, and 140 plants lacked studies regarding their toxicological effects (Table 1). Aristolochia (6 plant species), Euphorbia (6 plant species), Solanum (5 plant species), and Asclepias (5 plant species) are the plant genera most often reported to induce toxicity (Table 1). Chemotaxonomic studies should be performed toidentify the toxic principle in these genera. The parts of the plants considered toxic are listed in the following order: aerial parts including branches, leaves and flowers (22%), whole plant (22%), leaves exclusively (15%), seeds (14%), roots (8%), fruits (8%), bark (4%), latex (3%), and other plant parts.

The signs and symptoms of toxicity induced by medicinal plants are reported in Table 1. The main toxic effects occur in the following order: nausea and vomiting (20%), dermatitis (14%), gastritis (9%), abdominal pain (9%), abortifacient (8%), skin burns (8%), hepatotoxicity (7%), severe diarrhea (6%), cardiotoxicity (5%), nephrotoxicity (2%), numbness (2%), dizziness (2%), and hallucinations (2%), among others.

3.1. Dosages. In most of the cases, the dose for the induction of toxic effects by medicinal plants is not indicated. Usually, consumers of medicinal plants believe that increasing the consumption of these products will increase the efficacy of the treatment. In these cases, the daily dosage is exceeded, which triggers toxicity. For instance, the roots of Ipomoea purga, a purgative agent, are used at a dose of 2 g/L/day. Administration of higher doses induces vomiting and abdominal pain [15]. Fresh leaves of Prunus serotina, used for the treatment of cough, or Zanthoxylum fagara, an anxiolytic agent, each must be consumed in a maximum quantity of five leaves in 250 ml of water per day. Higher doses produce spasms and nausea [26]. Approximately 5mL of an infusion of Picrasma excelsa (10 g/L) should be administered three times per day. Higher doses induce hypotension. This infusion should not be prepared with ethanol and orally administered. If a person consumes the hydroalcoholic infusion, the consequences could be lethal [35]. The maximum consumption of Manilkara zapota seeds should be 10 seeds per day. A higher consumption of these seeds might induce vomiting and gastroenteritis [26]. On the other hand, Sosa-Gomez [35] recommends the preparation of an infusion using approximately 1-3 g Argemone mexicana leaves in 1L of water. This infusion should be taken 3 times per day. A higher dose might induce immobilization.

Studies analyzing the range of doses considered safe for human consumption remain to be performed. The use of natural products needs scientific evidence to corroborate the medicinal uses attributed to different plant species. Many medicinal plants sold as "food supplements" lack warnings if the suggested dosage is exceeded.

3.2. Toxic Principles. In some cases, the toxic principle is known. For instance, it is reported that cefalatin, the main toxic compound in Cephalanthus occidentalis bark, induces vomiting, anemia, and seizures, among other toxic effects. Similarly, hederagenin is the main toxic compound in Clematis dioica, which is a caustic substance [4]. Monocrotaline is the compound responsible for the toxic effects in Crotalaria sagittalis. Cianhidric acid, one of the most toxic compounds in plants, is found in Crescentia cujete fruit, Phaseolus lunatus whole plant, and Prunus serotina leaves and seeds [4]. In Phaseolus lunatus, the concentration of cianhidric acid ranges 6.8-533 mg/kg dw [74, 75]. There is limited information on the major toxic compounds cited in this review. Therefore, the identification of toxic principles in medicinal plants is necessary.

4. Toxicology

4.1. In Vitro Studies. The Artemia salina (brine shrimp) bioassay has been widely used for the analysis of acute toxicity in vitro. Although there are no range values to consider an extract or compound as toxic in the brine shrimp test, vincristine, the positive control for toxicity, has a lethal concentration 50 ([LC.sub.50]) = 0.91 [micro]g/ml [76]. Considering this value, plant extracts or compounds with [LC.sub.50] values 1000-fold higher than vincristine could be considered nontoxic.

The following plant extracts have been tested for their in vitro toxicology using the brine shrimp test and had [LC.sub.50] values higher than 1000 [micro]g/ml. The ethyl acetate fraction of Solanum nigrescens aerial parts [77], the ethanol extract of Ambrosia peruviana whole plant [78], the aqueous extract of Jatropha gossypifolia aerial parts [79], the methanol extract of Jatropha dioica leaves [80], the aqueous extract of Cnidoscolus urens whole plant [79], the ethanol extract of Crescentia cujete fruits [81], the aqueous extract of Enterolobium cyclocarpum bark [82], and the ethanol extract of Cordia dentata leaves and their fractions [83].

The plant extract and compounds that could be considered dangerous ([LC.sub.50] = 100-1000 [micro]g/ml) include the following: methanol and hexane proportions derived from a hexane extract of Gymnosperma glutinosum aerial parts [84], the ethyl acetate extracts of Monstera deliciosa branches [85], and icosandrin, a cyclic homoflavonoid isolated from Phytolacca icosandra [86].

The plant extract and compounds that could be considered toxic ([LC.sub.50] = 10-100 [micro]g/ml) include the following: the ethyl acetate extracts of Monstera deliciosa leaves [85], the ethanol extract of Solanum americanum fruits [87], the ethanol extract of Scoparia dulcis aerial parts [76], the methanol extract of Enterolobium cyclocarpum leaves [88], the ethanol extract of Pimenta dioica leaves [89], and the hydroalcoholic extract of Sanguinaria canadensis whole plant [90]. None of the plant extracts or compounds included in this review were considered highly toxic ([LC.sub.50] < 10 [micro]g/ml).

4.1.1. Cytotoxicity. Other plant extracts and their compounds have been tested in other in vitro models, including cytotoxicity test in nontumorigenic cells, genotoxicity using the comet assay on lymphocytes, and the mutagenic test using lymphocytes or Salmonella spp. The positive controls for cytotoxicity in nontumorigenic cells include cisplatin and Taxol. These compounds have inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) values ranging from 0.1 to 4 [micro]g/ml [91]. Some plants extracts have been reported to lack cytotoxic effects ([IC.sub.50] > 250 [micro]g/ml) in nontumorigenic cells. These include the ethanol extract of Phoradendron serotinum leaves tested on peripheral blood mononuclear cells [91], the aqueous extract of Cnidoscolus chayamansa leaves on baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells [92], and the aqueous extract of Enterolobium cyclocarpum bark assayed on 3T3 murine preadipocytes [82]. Additionally, the ethanol extract of Equisetum hyemale aerial parts evaluated on rabbit corneal fibroblasts (SIRC) [93], the methanol extract of Enterolobium cyclocarpum leaves evaluated on Vero cells (obtained from kidney epithelial cells extracted from the African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) [88], and the diterpene ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, obtained from Annona cherimola, tested on rat embryo primary striatal cultures [94]. On the other hand, the hydroalcoholic extract of Hura crepitans leaves had an [IC.sub.50] = 107.7 [micro]g/ml in lung fibroblasts [95].

4.1.2. Mutagenicity and Genotoxicity. Regarding mutagenicity, parthenin, isolated from Parthenium hysterophorus, lacked mutagenicity (0.19 to 19 [micro]M) but showed chromosomal aberrations at concentrations of 10-60 [micro]M in blood lymphocytes [96]. These results suggested genotoxic effects of parthenin. A methanol extract of Indigofera suffruticosa aerial parts (1.25-7.5 mg/plate) showed mutagenic activity in a Salmonella microsome assay [97]. The acetone extract of Heliopsis longipes roots (10-80 [micro]g/Petri dish) and its active compound affinin (6.25-50 [micro]g/Petri dish) were not mutagenic, as evaluated by the Ames test [98]. Lobeline (5-10mg/kg i.p.), an alkaloid isolated from Lobelia inflata, had no genotoxic or mutagenic effects in the comet assay, the micronucleus test in bone marrow, or the Salmonella/ microsome mutagenic assay [99].

For genotoxicity, the ethyl acetate/n-hexane extract of Zinnia peruviana aerial parts tested using 5 and 20 mg/ml extracts showed genotoxic effects in PBMC compared to the positive control of copper sulfate (1%) [100]. A butanol fraction of Urera baccifera roots at a 1.8mg/g concentration of oxalic acid decreased leukocyte number significantly and increased cell death and DNA damage in primary cultures of leukocytes in comparison to the control treatment [101]. The methanolic extract of Psittacanthus calyculatus aerial parts (200 and 400 mg/kg i.p.) did not induce chromosomal damage in peripheral blood erythrocytes obtained from mice after 72 h of exposure [102]. An ethanol extract of Heliopsis longipes roots (3-100 mg/kg p.o.) did not produce genotoxic or cytotoxic effects on peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from mice 24-96h after administration [103]. Parthenin, isolated from Parthenium hysterophorus, showed genotoxic effects at 4-31 mg/kg i.p. in micronuclei in mouse peripheral blood after 48 and 72 h of treatment [96].

4.2. In Vivo Acute Studies

4.2.1. Lethal Dose 50 ([LD.sub.50]). The guideline 423 of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) establishes that substances with an [LD.sub.50] < 5 mg/kg are highly toxic, whereas [LD.sub.50] values from 5 to 50 mg/kg are very toxic, [LD.sub.50] values from 50 to 300 mg/kg are toxic, [LD.sub.50] values from 300 to 2000 mg/kg are dangerous, and [LD.sub.50] values higher than 2000 mg/kg are not dangerous [104].

Some plant extracts showed [LD.sub.50] > 2000 mg/kg p.o. in mice: ethanol extracts of leaves of Casimiroa edulis [105] and Cnidoscolus chayamansa [106], ethanol extracts of aerial parts of Moussonia deppeana [107], Equisetum hyemale [93], and Ruta chalepensis [108], as well as methanol extracts of leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides [109] and Rauvolfia tetraphylla [110]. The same pattern was also shown in aqueous extract of Cuphea aequipetala aerial parts [111], ethanol extract of Plumeria rubra flowers [112], aqueous extract of Larrea divaricata leaves [113], ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima leaves and bark [114, 115]. aqueous extract of Euphorbia prostrata whole plant [116], aqueous-methanol extract of Ceiba pentandra leaves [117], petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol extracts of Gelsemium sempervirens roots [118], acetone extract of Capsicum annum fruits [119], and aqueous and ethanol extract of Scoparia dulcis leaves and whole plant [120, 121].

The following extracts have shown [LD.sub.50] > 2000 mg/kg p.o. in rats: aqueous extract of Pouteria sapota seeds [122], methanol extract of Martynia annua leaves [123], ethanol extract of Flourensia cernua leaves [124], aqueous extract of Enterolobium cyclocarpum bark [82], ethanol and aqueous extract C. pulcherrima aerial parts [125], aqueous extract of Passiflora edulis leaves [126], hydroalcoholic extract of Magnolia grandiflora seeds [127], and ethanol extract of Crescentia cujete fruits [128]. The same pattern was also shown in methanol extracts of leaves of Amaranthus spinosus [129], and Rauvolfia tetraphylla [130], chloroform-methanol extract of Cnidoscolus chayamansa leaves [131], aqueous extract of R. humilis fruits [132], a chloroform fraction from an ethanol extract of Tagetes erecta flowers [133], aqueous extract of Karwinskia humboldtiana seeds [134], and hydroalcoholic extract of Senna occidentalis aerial parts [135], as well as lutein and lutein ester, obtained from Tagetes erecta [136], and ethanol extract of Jatropha gossypiifolia aerial parts [137], and aqueous extract of Caladium bicolor [138].

Other plant extracts showed [LD.sub.50] > 2000 mg/kg i.p. in mice: hexane extract of Tilia mexicana inflorescences [139], aqueous extract of Tagetes lucida aerial parts [140], ethanol extract of Mirabilis jalapa aerial parts [141], and aqueous extract of Urera baccifera leaves [142].

Some plant extracts and plant compounds had [LD.sub.50] values from 300 to 2000 mg/kg, which is considered dangerous [104]. These plant extracts were intraperitoneally administered to mice: the ethanol extract of Tagetes lucida aerial parts ([LD.sub.50] = 970 mg/kg) [140], the aqueous extract of Caladium bicolor leaves ([LD.sub.50] = 1778.28 mg/kg) [138], and the ethanol extract of Tagetes lucida aerial parts ([LD.sub.50] = 970 mg/kg i.p.) [140]. On the other hand, the ethanol extract of Phoradendron serotinum leaves had an [LD.sub.50] = 375 mg/kg p.o. in mice [143], and sanguinarine, an alkaloid isolated from Sanguinaria canadensis, had an [LD.sub.50] = 1658 mg/kg p.o. in rats [144]. Methanol extracts of Tilia mexicana inflorescences had [LD.sub.50] values of 375 mg/kg i.p. in mice [139].

Other plant extracts and plant compounds had [LD.sub.50] values varying from 50 to 300 mg/kg, which is considered toxic [104]. Ethanol extract of Phoradendron serotinum leaves had an [LD.sub.50] = 125 mg/kg i.p. in mice, [143], whereas capsaicin, the main active principle of Capsicum annum, had an [LD.sub.50] = 190 mg/kg p.o. [145]. The acetone extract of Heliopsis longipes roots had an [LD.sub.50] = 62.14 mg/kg p.o. in mice, whereas its active compound affinin had an [LD.sub.50] = 113.13 mg/kg p.o. in mice [98]. The ethanol extract of Heliopsis longipes roots had an [LD.sub.50] = 288 mg/kg p.o. in mice [103].

The following plant extracts and compounds can be considered very toxic (5-50 mg/kg) [104]: the free alkaloid fraction in hexane and methanol extracts from Erythrina americana seeds ([LD.sub.50] = 38.54 to 40.37 mg/kg i.p.) in mice [146], Jatropha curcas oil ([LD.sub.50] = 23.34 mg/kg p.o.) in mice [147], and a-solamargine, isolated from Solanum americanum, with an [LD.sub.50] = 42 [+ or -] 2 mg/kg i.p. in rats [148]. The alkaloid Nmethylisocorydinium, obtained from Magnolia grandiflora trunkwood, had an [LD.sub.50] = 10 mg/kg i.p. in mice [149] and yconiceine, isolated from Conium maculatum, had an [LD.sub.50] = 12 mg/kg p.o in mice [150]. Parthenin, the toxic compound of Parthenium hysterophorus, had an [LD.sub.50] = 42 mg/kg i.p. in rats [151]. Capsaicin had an [LD.sub.50] = 8 mg/kg i.p. and 7.80 mg/kg i.m in mice [152]. Sanguinarine, an alkaloid isolated from Sanguinaria canadensis, was toxic at 29 mg/kg i.v. in rats [144].

The following plant compounds had [LD.sub.50] values < 5 mg/kg, which is considered highly toxic [104]. Capsaicin had an [LD.sub.50] = 0.56 mg/kg i.v. [152].

4.2.2. Biochemical and Hematological Parameters. Treatment with plant extracts in short-term studies have effects on biochemical and hematological parameters, as well as the levels of the hepatic enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). An aqueous extract of Larrea divaricata aerial parts (0.5-200 mg/kg i.p.) did not affect the levels of ALT in mice after 2 days [153]. Aqueous extract of Karwinskia humboldtiana fruits (1250 mg/kg p.o.) administered to rats for 3 days increased the levels of hepatic enzymes compared to the untreated group [154]. An aqueous extract of Passiflora edulis (30 mg/kg p.o.) did not affect motor coordination in mice or change the biochemical measurements in serum after 4 days [155]. [alpha]-Solamargine (15-35 mg/kg i.p.) did not affect hematological parameters or the levels of hepatic enzymes in rats after 5 days [148], whereas an aqueous extract of Karwinskia humboldtiana fruit (5000 mg/kg p.o.) in rats for 5 days induced weight loss (15%) in rats, as well as toxicity in the pancreas [156]. An aqueous extract of Passiflora edulis leaves (100-400 mg/kg p.o.) did not affect organ body weight or hematological parameters but decreased the levels of ALT in rats after 7 days of treatment at all doses [126]. A methanol extract of R. tetraphylla leaves (1000 mg/kg p.o.) decreased body weight change and food consumption and increased total bilirubin in rats after 7 days [157]. An aqueous extract of K. humboldtiana (1000-2000 mg/kg p.o.) administered for 7 days in rats induced alterations in membrane fluidity and ATPase activity in liver submitochondrial particles [158]. An ethanol extract of Euphorbia hirta leaves (60.4-483 mg/kg i.p.) [159] and a chloroform fraction from an ethanol extract of Tagetes erecta flowers (200-400 mg/kg p.o.) [133] did not affect hematological or biochemical parameters in rats after 14 days. An aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta whole plant administered at a single dose of 2000 mg/kg p.o. significantly decreased the levels of ALP and ALT after 14 days in broiler chickens [160]. Lobeline (5-10 mg/kg i.p.) did not affect the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and LDH after 4 days of exposure [99].

4.2.3. Toxicity to Reproduction and Pregnancy. [alpha]-Solamargine (15-35 mg/kg i.p.) did not affect the number of spermatozoa or the weight of the testicles and epididymis of male rats after 24 h of treatment [148]. Jervine (70-300 mg/kg p.o.), a steroidal alkaloid found in Veratrum californicum, administered on days 8-10 of gestation induced malformations in the offspring, including isolated cleft palate, mandibular micrognathia, and limb malformations in C57BL/6J and A/J mice [161]. The administration of an aqueous extract of Ruta chalepensis leaves (10 mg/kg p.o.) to pregnant rats from day 9 to day 17 of gestation decreased the uterine weight, the number of live fetuses, and the fetal weight. The number of fetal resorptions was also increased, and the fetuses showed skeletal malformations [162]. Additionally, an aqueous extract of R. chalepensis leaves (0.8 and 1.6 g/kg p.o.) administered to mice from day 1 to day 14 post coitum caused perinatal changes in mice such as righting reflex, cliff avoidance, and swimming ability, among others [163].

4.2.4. Dermal Tests. An aqueous extract of Pouteria sapota seeds lacked dermal irritation in rabbits and showed mild reversible eye irritation in rabbits [122]. Jatropha multifida sap did not induce skin lesions in rats after 14 days of treatment [164]. A diethyl ether extract of Jatropha multifida showed the presence of 16-hydroxyphorbol. This compound showed an irritant dose 50 (ID50) of 0.05 [micro]g/ear [165].

4.3. In Vivo Subacute and Chronic Studies

4.3.1. Biochemical and Hematological Parameters. Some plant extracts and their active compounds have been tested for their effects on biochemical and hematological parameters in rodents for at least 18 days of exposure. A histological study has also been included in some reports. A hydroalcoholic extract of Senna occidentalis aerial parts (100-2500 mg/kg p.o.) [135] and a hydroalcoholic extract of Sapindus saponaria leaves (44.76 mg/kg p.o.) and fruits (45.0 mg/kg p.o.) [166] did not change the biochemical profile or hematological parameters or alter body weight and organ weight for 30 days in rats. An ethanol extract of the pod of Plumeria rubra (50-200 mg/kg p.o) [167] and an aqueous-methanol extract of Ceiba pentandra leaves (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) [117] did not alter hematological or biochemical parameters in rats and mice, respectively, after 21 days [167]. A chloroform-methanol extract of Cnidoscolus chayamansa leaves (1000 mg/kg p.o.) [131] and an ethanol extract of Moussonia deppeana aerial parts (1000 mg/kg p.o.) [107] did not affect biochemical or hematological parameters in mice after 28 days of daily administration. In addition, histological examinations of the spleen, kidney, and liver showed no abnormalities. Capsaicin (5-100 mg/kg p.o.) [168], obtained from Capsicum annum, and lutein and lutein ester (4-400 mg/kg p.o.) [136], obtained from Tagetes erecta, did not affect hematological or biochemical parameters, growth, food consumption, or body weight in mice and rats, respectively, after 28 days. An aqueous extract of Rivina humilis fruits (2500 and 5000 mg/kg p.o.) administered daily for 35 days showed no changes in the hematological profile or in the relative organ weight, whereas the same extract administered daily for 90 days at 0.5-2 g/100 g in a powdered diet did not affect hematological parameters, biochemical determinations, or the levels of hepatic enzymes [132].

In contrast, some plant extracts have altered biochemical and/or hematological parameters. An aqueous extract of Abrus precatorius leaves (400-1600 mg/kg p.o.) was administered to rats for 18 days. Only the highest dose (1600 mg/kg p.o.) decreased levels of hematological parameters and increased the levels of hepatic enzymes [169]. An aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis leaves (250-500 mg/kg p.o.) showed mild vascular and portal congestion in the heart and the liver, respectively, of rats treated daily with this extract for 30 days. Nevertheless, there were effects in the lungs and testis [120]. A methanol extract of Rauvolfia tetraphylla leaves did not affect hematological parameters. However, a significant decrease in the total bilirubin and glucose levels was observed in the mice treated at 100 and 300 mg/kg, with a significant increase in triglycerides at doses of 10-300 mg/kg after 28 days in mice [130]. An ethanol extract of the aerial parts from Jatropha gossypifolia (135 mg/kg p.o. or higher doses) reduced the activity in the central nervous system and showed hepatotoxicity, pulmonary damage, and digestive disturbances in rats over 13 weeks of treatment [170]. The lethality was 46.6% and 13.3% among male and female rats under the highest tested dose (405 mg/kg), respectively [170].

4.3.2. Toxicity during Reproduction and Pregnancy. Yao et al. [171] reported that an aqueous extract of Hydrastis canadensis (1.86 g/kg p.o.) containing 9.6 mg/ml of berberine and 8.4 mg/ml of hydrastine did not affect fetal development in pregnant rats over 20 days of treatment. A Prosopis juliflora seedcase added at 70% to the diet of pregnant rats resulted to be teratogenic (13-fold) compared to the untreated group [172]. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Plumeria rubra pods (200 mg/kg p.o.) had 51% and 100% abortifacient activity, respectively, in female albino rats from day 11 to day 15 of pregnancy [173]. The hydroalcoholic extract of Lantana camara leaves (1000-7000 mg/kg p.o.) administered during premating, mating, pregnancy, and lactation (56 days in total) in rats did not affect mating, pregnancy, delivery, and live birth. Nevertheless, the two highest doses tested (3000 and 7000 mg/kg p.o.) produced an increase in the resorption rate and parallel increases in the postimplantation loss index, as well as embryotoxicity characterized by skeletal abnormalities [174].

4.3.3. Carcinogenicity. Only one plant extract has been tested for its carcinogenic effects. Rats (treated with doses ranging 136-1175 mg/kg p.o.) and mice (treated with doses ranging 375-3275 mg/kg) received an aqueous extract of Hydrastis canadensis root for 2 years (106 weeks). At the end of the treatment, the doses of 1175 mg/kg in rats and the doses varying from 1120 to 3275 mg/kg in mice showed hepatocarcinoma [175].

4.4. Clinical Cases. The toxicity of sixteen species plants has been reported in clinical cases. Fourteen of the sixteen plants are enlisted in Table 2. The other two plants are described in Section 4.4.1. The Naranjo algorithm [176], which consists of 10 questions that address the factors considered to determine the causal relationship in case reports, was used to assess causality. A score is obtained (maximum 13) and the results are classified as doubtful or unlikely (0), possible (from 1 to 4), probable (from 5 to 8), and clear or definite (socre > 9). The event must be definitive from a pharmacological or phenomenological point of view, using, if necessary, a conclusive procedure of reexposure [177].

Those cases that report hepatic damage were also evaluated using the method proposed by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences/Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (CIOMS/RUCAM) [178], which is an organospecific instrument designed for the assessment of hepatotoxicity. This method evaluates the temporal relationship between the consumption of a substance (drug or natural remedy) and the appearance of hepatic damage, the absence or presence of risk factors, the exclusion of alternative causes of liver injury, among others. The sum of the scores leads to a final score between -8 and 14 points, which results in the following categories: highly probable or definite, probable, possible, or excluded. The amount of information of each clinical case considered for this review was classified as enough (number of criteria: 5-6), regular (number of criteria: 3-4), and poor (number of criteria: 1-2). The following criteria were used to evaluate the amount of information: (1) clear information regarding the intake and time elapsed for the onset of symptoms, (2) information of the dose ingested, (3) explanation and clinical management of the intoxication, (4) information for the exclusion of other causes that might induce the toxic effect, (5) information of the withdrawal of the plant substance, and (6) time of recovery from the toxicity or death of the patient.

The toxicity presented in clinical cases was mainly due to the accidental consumption of toxic medicinal plants, especially by children. In all the cases, the toxic effects occurred after the administration of the plant. The symptoms of toxicity were confirmed using objective evidence. None of the reports provided information about the presence of similar toxic effects compared to a previous experience. Improvement of symptoms occurred in some cases (i.e., [58, 62-64, 69, 71, 72]). The information about the number of ingestion with the plant is only reported in some cases (i.e., [43, 57, 59, 60, 65, 67, 70]).

4.4.1. Case Series. Krenzelok et el. [179] gathered information about Euphorbia pulcherrima exposure during an 8-year period in the United States of America. The results showed that children accounted for 93.3% of cases of exposure, which were accidental (98.9% of cases) and by ingestion (94.5% of cases). No deaths were reported. However, this study did not report the symptomatology. The toxicity of Cimicifuga racemosa has been extensively studied. The reviews of Borrelli and Ernst [180] and Teschke et al. [181] can be consulted for more information regarding the adverse effects of Cimicifuga racemosa in other clinical cases. The prevalence of allergy to Myroxylon pereirae resin has been reported in many countries, ranging from 5.4 to 11.8% (i.e., [49,182-185]). From a total of 27815 patients recorded over 5 years in Croatia, 8.4% were positive to contact dermatitis upon exposure to Myroxylon pereirae bark [186]. In another case, the prevalence of toxicity by medicinal plants was also reported. Jatropha curcas, Andira inermis, and Canella winterana were the third, the fourth, and the fifth most cited plant species, respectively, associated with cases of toxicity in Cuba from 1998-2007 [36]. Eddleston et al. [187] reported 351 patients with a history of T. peruviana consumption for 2 years. No deaths were reported.

5. General Considerations

The identification of the compounds responsible for the toxicity has been reported only in some cases. Urushiol might be the compound responsible for the dermatitis reactions to Metopium brownei [188], whereas sanguinarine is the compound associated with the toxicity of Argemone mexicana. Eddleston et al. [189] reported six fatalities in patients who ingested between 1 and 10 seeds of T. peruviana. These fatalities occurred due to high concentrations of cardiac glycosides (neriifolin, thevetin A, thevetin B, and oleandrin) in seeds. Three toxins (T-544, T-514, and T-496) have been reported in Karwinskia humboldtiana [190]. Manihot esculenta, an important dietary staple, is toxic because of the presence of cyanogenic compounds. Linamarin, the predominant cyanogenic glycoside in Manihot esculenta, can be accumulated in a range of concentrations between 100 and 500 mg/kg in roots and leaves. The content of HCN in Manihot esculenta has been reported 0.1-1 mg/g fresh weight in the leaves [191]. Several intoxications have been described in humans. The clinical pattern consists of neuropathy and hyperthyroidism [192].

The mechanism of toxicity is also unknown in many cases. The mechanism of toxicity of Argemone mexicana oil might be explained by the inhibitory effects of sanguinarine on Na+/K+ATPase, induction of cell membrane damage by reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation, and inhibition of DNA polymerase activity, among other effects [193]. Larrea tridentata and nordihydroguaiaretic acid, its active compound, generate acute hepatotoxicity by the inhibition of cyclooxygenase and cytochrome P-450 [194].

Special attention should be given in medicinal plants such as Argemone mexicana, Chenopodium ambrosioides, and Thevetia peruviana. Effects in humans have been reported due the consumption of these medicinal plants. Other plant species, including Abrus precatorius, Capsicum annum, Conium maculatum, Erythrina Americana, Heliopsis longipes, Hydrastis canadensis, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Karwinskia humboldtiana, Larrea tridentata, Magnolia grandiflora, Parthenium hysterophorus, Phoradendron serotinum, Plumeria rubra, Prosopis juliflora, Ruta chalepensis, Sanguinaria canadensis, Solanum americanum, and Veratrum californicum, have shown effects considered highly toxic, including hepatotoxicity, teratogenic, and cardiotoxicity, or with high toxicity in acute studies. Therefore, a total of 22 plants of 216 cited in this review should be extensively studied in terms of their toxicity. Regarding the hepatotoxicity induced by medicinal plants, Valdivia-Correa [39] reported 15 medicinal plants commonly used in Mexican traditional medicine that induce hepatotoxicity. Five (Equisetum hyemale, Tilia mexicana, Passiflora edulis, and Scoparia dulcis) of these fifteen medicinal are considered as toxic, according to our bibliographic research. The induction of hepatotoxicity induced by herbal products represents a serious problem in Mexico since the symptoms and signs might be confused with other diseases, and the diagnosis can be incorrect [39].

Some aspects that influence the toxicity of medicinal plants reported in this study are: (a) time of exposure, (b) misidentification of medicinal plants, and (c) adulteration of medicinal plants. Most of the acute symptoms reported in this review appear in the first 24 h after exposure. Nevertheless, more studies, including subacute and chronic assays, as well as the quantitation of hepatic enzymes, should be performed. In other cases, such as the intoxication of Crotalaria sagittalis, the toxic symptoms appear 2 to 6 months after the exposure [4]. However, chronic poisoning induced by medicinal plants is not easily detected since the symptoms are multiple and variable and a diagnosis cannot be made. Many poisonings caused by medicinal plants are classified as of unknown origin because most of the patients deny the consumption of herbal products. For instance, the clinical picture of intoxication with Karwinskia humboldtiana might be confused with poliomyelitis [190]. In addition, in most of the cases, the plants are not taxonomically identified [36]. The misidentification of medicinal plants represents a serious problem for human health. The adulteration of medicinal plants sold as food products should be considered as a risk of intoxication by medicinal plants.

Another aspect to consider for further studies is the evaluation of mixtures of medicinal plants and the combination of medicinal plants with allopathic medications. It is thought that the combination of medicinal plants might result in higher beneficial effects compared to those found with single preparations. Nevertheless, it might be the case that two toxic plants are combined and their toxic effects might result in a synergistic action. The self-medication of drugs along with the consumption of medicinal plants is a common practice among patients with chronic diseases [195], which can be considered as an alternative cause of intoxication. In the clinical record, it is not indicated whether the patient consumes medicinal plants. The interaction of herbal extracts and drugs remains to be studied. There are few documented cases that report the toxicity of the combination of plant extracts and drugs. For instance, the combination of Picrasma excelsa coumarins are reported to potentiate the activity of warfarin [196]. The toxicity of mixtures of medicinal plants and the combination of medicinal plants with allopathic medication requires further investigation.

6. Conclusions

There is limited information about the toxicity of medicinal plants used in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. The molecular mechanisms by which medicinal plants induce toxic effects should also be addressed. In many cases, intoxication by medicinal plants might be confused with other diseases. The detection of intoxication with medicinal plants could be difficult because the symptoms might be confused with other diseases.

The prevention of poisoning in humans can be avoided if the chemical composition of medicinal plants is known.

https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9439868

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] UICN, OMS, and WWF, "Guidelines on the conservation of medicinal plants World Health Organization (OMS)," in Union Internacional para la Conservacion de la Naturaleza (UICN) and World Wild life Fund (WWF), Gland, Switzerland, 1993.

[2] G. A. Taddei-Bringas, M. A. Santillana-Macedo, J. A. Romero-Cancio, and M. B. Romero-Tollez, "Acceptance and use of therapeutic medical plants in family medical care," Salud Publica de Mexico, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 216-220, 1999.

[3] Botanical and plant derived drugs, "Global markets. BCC Research Report BIO022G," http://www.bccresearch.com/marketresearch/biotechnology/botanical-plant-derived- drugs-report- bio022g.html.

[4] A. Aguilar-Contreras and C. Zollas, Plantas toxicas de Moxico. Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico city, Mexico, 1982.

[5] M. H. Royo-Morquez and A. Melgoza-Castillo, "Listado floristico del campo experimental la campana y usos de su flora," Tocnica Pecuaria Mexicana, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 105-125, 2001.

[6] M. E. Mitre and N. Camacho, Plantas Medicinales de la Cuenca Hidrografica del Canal de Panama, vol. 6, Editora Sibauste, Panamo, Panama, 2013.

[7] S. Castaneda-Diaz, Uso de la vegetacion forestal fanerogamica de San Miguel Pipillola, Tlaxcala, Mexico [Bachelor thesis], Universidad Autonoma Chapingo, Texcoco, Estado de Moxico, Meoxico, 2013.

[8] J. S. Flores, G. C. O. Canto-Aviles, and A. G. Flores-Serrano, "Plantas de la flora yucatense que provocan toxicidad en el humano," Revista Biomedica, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 86-96, 2001.

[9] L. C. Navarro-Perez and S. Avendano-Reyes, "Flora util del municipio de Astancinga, Veracruz, Mexico," Polibotanica, vol. 14, pp. 67-84, 2002.

[10] C. Gutiorrez-Baez, Plantas utiles de Chiconquiaco, Veracruz, vol. 19, Universidad Veracruzana, La Ciencia y el Hombre, 1995.

[11] L. S. Nelson and M. J. Shih, Handbook of poisonous and injurious plants, New York Botanical Garden, Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, USA, 2007.

[12] A. M. Fernandez-Brewer, V. Juarez-Jaimes, and L. Cortos-Zoarraga, "Usos de las especies del goenero Asclepias L. (Apocynaceae, aclepiadoideae), informacioon del herbario nacional de Moxico, MEXU," Polibotanica, vol. 25, pp. 155-171, 2008.

[13] O. Gonzalez-Costilla, Estudio etnobotanico del municipio de Matehuala, San Luis Potosi, Moxico, Universidad Autonoma de [M.sc. thesis], Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Moxico, 1991.

[14] G. Garcia-Regalado, Plantas medicinales de Aguascalientes, Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes., Moxico, 2014.

[15] M. Martinez, Las plantas medicinales de Mexico, Editorial Botas, Meoxico city, Moexico, 1996.

[16] B. Juscafresa, "Guia de la flora medicinal: toxica, aromatica y condimenticia," in Editorial Aedos, vol. 851, p. 542, Barcelona, Espana, 1995.

[17] Y. A. Gonzolez, M. Pena, J. Perez Agreda, and M. Diaz, "Intoxicacion por la administracion de tabletas de Thevetia peruvianacomo tratamiento para bajar de peso: presentacion de un caso," Revista de Toxicologoa, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 221-223, 2003.

[18] F. Lagunes-Gutierrez, Vademecum de plantas medicinales del municipio de puente nacional, Veracruz, Universidad Veracruzana, Meoxico, 2013.

[19] A. DerMarderosian and J. A. Beutler, "The Review of Natural Products: the most complete source of natural product information," in editorial Facts and Comparisons, p. 1672, St Louis, United States of America, editorial Facts and Comparisons, 2002.

[20] D. W. Nellis, "Poisonous plants and animals of Florida and the Caribbean," in USA, p. 321, Pineapple Press, Sarasota, 1997.

[21] L. Gonzalez-Chovez, P. Hersch-Martinez, and A. Juarez-Miranda, Plantas medicinales de Copalilloy Temalac, Guerrero, Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Mexico city, Mexico, 2000.

[22] P. Giovannini and M. Heinrich, "Xki yoma' (our medicine) and xki tienda (patent medicine)-Interface between traditional and modern medicine among the Mazatecs of Oaxaca, Mexico," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 121, no. 3, pp. 383-399, 2009.

[23] S. Blair-Trujillo and B. Madrigal, "Plantas antimalaricas de Tucumaco, costa pacifica Colombiana," in Editorial Universidad de Antioquia, p. 348, Medellin, Colombia, 2005.

[24] P. J. Salinas, "Plantas toxicas comunes en el estado de Merida, Venezuela. Segunda parte. Adoxaceae, Asteraceae, Caesalpinaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Combretaceae, Cruciferaceae, Cycadaceae, Ericaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabiaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Papaveraceaea," Revista.Facultad de Medicina, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 26-46, 2012.

[25] L. O. Loreno-Medina, J. M. Rodriguez-Chovez, and M. G. Ramos-Espinosa, "Aprovechamiento de recursos vegetales en una localidad de la reserva de la biosfera mariposa monarca, Michoacon, Moxico," Etnobiologoa, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 33-60, 2002.

[26] J. Adame and H. Adame, "Plantas curativas del noreste mexicano," in Ediciones Castillo, p. 347, Monterrey Nuevo Leon, Moexico, 2000.

[27] J. Gonzolez-Rodrigo and J. Gonzolez-Rodrigo, Editorial Universidad Iberoamericana, vol. 3, Moxico City, Mexico, 1993.

[28] J. C. Rios, E. Paris, and G. Repetto, "Intoxicaciones por plantas medicinales," in Toxicologoa Alimentaria, A. M. Cameon and M. Repetto, Eds., pp. 212-222, Madrid, Spain, 2012.

[29] G. Gutierrez, M. E. Siqueiros-Delgado, H. E. Rodriguez-Chaovez, M. De la, and E. Cerda-Lemus, "Comisioon Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad (CONABIO)/ Instituto de Ecologia del Estado de Guanajuato," in en Guanajuato: Estudio de Estado, A. Cruz-Angon, E. D. Melgarejo, A. V. Contreras-Ruiz Esparza, and M. A. Gonzolez-Gutierrez, Eds., pp. 262-265, Mexico, 2012.

[30] M. Gonzolez-Elizondo, I. L. Lopez-Enriquez, M. S. Gonzolez-Elizondo, and J. A. Tena-Flores, Plantas Medicinales del Estado deDurango y Zonas Aledanas, Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigacion para el Desarrollo Integral Regional Unidad Durango, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, 2004.

[31] G. Mendoza-Castelan, Manual de usos terapouticos y dosificacion de flores medicinales de Mexico, Universidad Autonoma Chapingo, Guerrero, Meoxico, 2002.

[32] E. Linares, R. A. Bye, and B. Flores, Plantas Medicinales de Moxico. Usos y remedios tradicionales, Instituto deBiologoa. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Moxico. Moxico city, Plantas Medicinales de Usos y remedios tradicionales, Moxico, 1999.

[33] M. A. Bello-Gonzolez, S. Hernandez-Mrnioz, M. B. Lara-Chaovez, and R. Salgado-Garciglia, "Plantas uotiles de la comunidad indigena Nuevo San Juan Parangaricutiro, Michoacon, Mexico," Polibotanica, vol. 0, no. 39, 2015.

[34] E. Nunez-Melendez, "Plantas venenosas de Puerto Rico y las que producen dermatitis," in Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, p. 321, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico, 1996.

[35] R. Sosa-Gomez, El poder medicinal de las plantas, Ediciones GEMA, Asociacion Publicadora Interamericana, Miami, Fl, USA, 2012.

[36] B. Macias-Peacok, M. F. Sufirez-Crespo, A. Berenguer-Rivas et al., "Intoxicaciones por plantas toxicas atendidas desde un servicio de informacion toxicologica," Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales, vol. 14, no. 2, p. 1, 2009.

[37] G. Mendoza-Castelan, Manual de usos terapeuticos y dosificacion de maderas medicinales de Mexico, Universidad Autonoma Chapingo, Guerrero, Meoxico, 2003.

[38] V. A. Argueta, A. L. M. Cano, and M. E. Rodarte, Flora Medicinal Indigena de Mexico, Instituto Nacional Indigenista, Moxico city, Moxico, 1994.

[39] B. Valdivia-Correa, C. Gomez-Gutierrez, M. Uribe, and N. Mondez-Sonchez, "Herbal medicine in Mexico: a cause of hepatotoxicity. A critical review," International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 17, no. 2, article 235, 2016.

[40] S. Nogue-Xarau, P. Sanz-Gallon, and C. Blanche-Verges, "Intoxicaciones por plantas (I)," Medicina Integral, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 371-379, 2000.

[41] K. Mejia and F. Rengifo, "Plantas medicinales de uso popular en la Amazonia Peruana," in Agencia Espanola de cooperacion internacional (AECI) & Instituto de investigaciones de la amazonia peruana (IIAP), p. 286, Lima, Peru, 2000.

[42] D. Godinez-Carballo and G. Volpato, "Plantas medicinales que se venden en el mercado El Rio, Camaguey, Cuba," Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 243-259, 2008.

[43] Y. Levin, Y. Sherer, H. Bibi, M. Schlesinger, and E. Hay, "Rare Jatropha multifida intoxication in two children," The Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 173-175, 2000.

[44] C. N. Arroyo, "Plantas toxicas del estado de Aguascalientes, Taller de Investigacion," in Aguascalientes: Universidad Autenoma de Aguascalientes, Mexico, 2007.

[45] A. Herrera, Farmacopea Latinoamericana, Mexico city, Mexico, 1921.

[46] P. J. Cambar, ""Algunos estudios farmacologicos de las plantas medicinales de Honduras," Revista Medica Hondurena, vol. 53, pp. 190-196, 1985.

[47] A. Fierro-Alvarez, A. Porez-Cardona, C. Guerrero-Borda et al., "Plantas silvestres que se comen en Ixhuatlan del Cafe, Veracruz," in Editoriales Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia, p. 47, Mexico city, Mexico, 2000.

[48] A. Casas, "Silvicultura y domesticacion de plantas en Mesoamerica," in Plantas, Cultura y Sociedad: Estudio sobre la Relacion entre Seres Humanos y Plantas en los Albores del Siglo XX, B. Rendon-Aguilar, S. Rebollar-Dominguez, J. Caballero-Nieto, and M. A. Martmez-Alfaro, Eds., pp. 123-159, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana unidad Iztapalapa, Mexico city, Mexico, 2001.

[49] P. Avalos-Peralta, B. Garcia-Bravo, and F. M. Camacho, "Sensitivity to Myroxylon pereirae resin (balsam of Peru). A study of 50 cases," Contact Dermatitis, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 304-306, 2005.

[50] F. Garcia-Fajardo, L. Gonzolez-Chevez, P. Hersch-Martinez, and A. Peorez-Cardona, "Plantas medicinales de Ixhuatlaon del Cafo, Veracruz," in Editorial Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia (INAH) y Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACyT), vol. 43, Mexico city, Mexico, 2000.

[51] J. D. Guin, R. H. Schosser, and E. W. Rosenberg, "Magnolia grandiflora dermatitis," Dermatologic Clinics, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 81-84, 1990.

[52] V. Leon-Jimenez, Elaboracion de una base de datos de plantas utilizadas en la medicina tradicional de Mexico [Bachelor thesis], Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico, 2005.

[53] M. V. Bermudez-de Rocha, F. E. Lozano-Melondez, V. A. Tamez-Rodriguez, G. Diaz-Cuello, and A. Pmedo-Lopez, "Frecuencia de intoxicacioon con Karwinskia humboldtiana en Mexico," Salud Publica de Mexico, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 57-62, 1995.

[54] M. E. Arreola-Nava, J. L. Vezquez-Castellanos, and M. E. Gonzolez-Castaneda, "Geographical factors in the epidemiology of intoxication by Karwinskia (tullidora)," Cadernos Saude Publica, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 255-260, 2000.

[55] J. Waizel-Bucay and I. Martinez-Rico, "Algunas plantas usadas en Mexico en padecimiento periodontales," Revista de la Asociacioen Dental Mexicana, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 73-88, 2011.

[56] L. Rodriguez-Fragoso, J. Reyes-Esparza, S. W. Burchiel, D. Herrera-Ruiz, and E. Torres, "Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico," Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 227, no. 1, pp. 125-135, 2008.

[57] M. L. Kulkami, H. Sreekar, K. S. Keshavamurthy, and N. Shenoy, "Jatropha curcas - Poisoning," The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 75-76, 2005.

[58] B. S. Frank, W. B. Michelson, K. E. Panter, and D. R. Gardner, "Ingestion of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum)," Western Journal of Medicine, vol. 163, no. 6, pp. 573-574, 1995.

[59] E. Biberci, Y. Altuntas, A. Cobanoglu, and A. Alpinar, "Acute respiratory arrest following hemlock (Conium maculatum) intoxication [1]," Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 517-518, 2002.

[60] S. K. Verma, G. Dev, A. K. Tyagi, S. Goomber, and G. V. Jain, "Argemone mexicana poisoning: autopsy findings of two cases," Forensic Science International, vol. 115, no. 1-2, pp. 135-141, 2001.

[61] M. A. Montoya-Cabrera, P. Escalante-Galindo, M. MeckesFischer, G. Sanchez-Vaca, E. Flores-Alvarez, and M. ReynosoGarcia, "Envenenamiento mortal causado por el aceite de epazote, Chenopodium graveolens," Gaceta Medica de Mexico, vol. 132, pp. 433-437, 1996.

[62] A. Ingraffea, K. Donohue, C. Wilkel, and V. Falanga, "Cutaneous vasculitis in two patients taking an herbal supplement containing black cohosh," Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. S124-S126, 2007.

[63] S. M. Cohen, A. M. O'Connor, J. Hart, N. H. Merel, and H. S. Te, "Autoimmune hepatitis associated with the use of black cohosh: A case study," Menopause, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 575-577, 2004.

[64] G. E. Slater, B. H. Rumack, and R. G. Peterson, "Podophyllin poisoning: Systemic toxicity following cutaneous application," Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 94-96, 1978.

[65] M. J. Chamberlain, A. L. Reynolds, and W. B. Yeoman, "Medical Memoranda. Toxic Effect of Podophyllum Application in Pregnancy," British Medical Journal, vol. 3, no. 5823, pp. 391-392, 1972.

[66] R. B. Rao and R. S. Hoffman, "Nicotinic toxicity from tincture of blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) used as an abortifacient," Veterinary and Human Toxicology, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 221-222, 2002.

[67] P. Durasnel, L. Vanhuffel, R. Blondo et al., "Severe poisoning by plants used for traditional medicine in Mayotte," Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique, vol. 107, no. 5, pp. 306-311, 2014.

[68] M. R. Quintanilla and R. Arenas, "Dermatitis por contacto a Metopium brownei (Chechem). Observaciones clinicas de 20 casos en Quintana Roo," Dermatologea Cosmetica, Medica y Quirurgica, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 226-233, 2009.

[69] K. L. Grant, L. V. Boyer, and B. E. Erdman, "Chaparral-induced hepatotoxicity," Integrative Medicine A Clinicican's Journal, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 83-87, 1998.

[70] C. Fernando, "Poisoning due to Abrus precatorius (jequirity bean)," Anaesthesia, vol. 56, no. 12, pp. 1178-1180, 2001.

[71] D. Subrahmanyan, J. Mathew, and M. Raj, "An unusual manifestation of Abrus precatorius poisoning: A report of two cases," Clinical Toxicology, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 173-175, 2008.

[72] L. J. DeFrates, J. D. Hoehns, E. L. Sakornbut, D. G. Glascock, and A. R. Tew, "Antimuscarinic intoxication resulting from the ingestion of moonflower seeds," Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 173-176, 2005.

[73] Missouri Botanical Garden, "Tropicos," 2017, http://www .tropicos.org.

[74] A. D. Ologhobo, B. L. Fetuga, and O. O. Tewe, "The cyanogenic glycoside contents of raw and processed limabean varieties," Food Chemistry, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 117-128, 1984.

[75] P. Cressey, D. Saunders, and J. Goodman, "Cyanogenic glycosides in plant-based foods available in New Zealand," Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment, vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 1946-1953, 2013.

[76] A. H. Md. Zulfiker, M. Siddiqua, L. Nahar et al., "In vitro antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activity of Scoparia dulcis L," International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 198-203, 2011.

[77] P. G. Susana, R. C. Aarland, M. G. C. Lara, M. E. Jimonez Lara, and M. E. Joso Alberto, "Toxicity analysis, phytochemical and pharmacological study of the plant known as Mora herb, collected at the environmental education center of yautlica (CEA-Yautlica)," Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 159-164, 2013.

[78] R. W. Bussmann, G. Malca, A. Glenn et al., "Toxicity of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Northern Peru," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 137, no. 1, pp. 121-140, 2011.

[79] F. G. Coe, D. M. Parikh, and C. A. Johnson, "Alkaloid presence and brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay of medicinal species of eastern Nicaragua," Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 439-445, 2010.

[80] S.-G. Luis-Benjamin, C.-M. Irais, B.-R. Claudia-Guadalupe et al., "Antimicrobial activity and toxicity of plants from northern Mexico," Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 203-207, 2017.

[81] J. E. Espitia-Baena, H. D. R. Duran-Sandoval, J. Fandino-Franky, F. Diaz-Castillo, and H. A. Gomez-Estrada, "Chemistry and biology of ethanol extract from the epicarp of Crescentia cujete L. (totumo)," Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 337-346, 2011.

[82] D. Raya-Gonzolez, J. Chovez Duran, S. E. Urrutia Hernondez et al., "Toxicological study of an aqueous extract from Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb. duramen," Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 1-8, 2008.

[83] J. E. Espitia-Baena, S. M. Robledo-Restrepo, B. S. Cuadrado-Cano, H. R. Duran-Sandoval, and H. A. Goomez-Estrada, "Perfil fitoquimico, actividad anti-Leishmania, hemolitica y toxicologica de Cordia dentata Poir. y Heliotropium indicum L," Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 208-224, 2014.

[84] M. Canales, T. Hernondez, R. Serrano et al., "Antimicrobial and general toxicity activities of Gymnosperma glutinosum: A comparative study," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 343-347, 2007.

[85] C. H. Tokarnia, A. G. Armien, P. V. Peixoto, J. D. Barbosa, M. De Farias Brito, and J. Dobereiner, "Experiments on the toxicity of some ornamental plants in cattle," Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 5-20, 1996.

[86] E. Galarraga Montes and J. M. Amaro-Luis, "Icosandrin, a novel peltogynoid from the fruits of Phytolacca icosandra (Phytolaccaceae)," Natural Product Research (Formerly Natural Product Letters), vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 89-94, 2016.

[87] G. Lopes, T. M. S. Da Silva, and A. Echevarria, "Toxicity from crude extracts and glycoalkaloid fractions of Solanum spp. Against Artemia salina and Biomphalaria glabrata," Revista Virtual de Quomica, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 141-156, 2016.

[88] A. Sowemimo, L. Venables, M. Odedeji, T. Koekemoer, M. Van De Venter, and L. Hongbing, "Antiproliferative mechanism of the methanolic extract of Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb. (Fabaceae)," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 159, pp. 257-261, 2015.

[89] A. Lagarto Parra, R. Silva Yhebra, I. Guerra Sardinas, and L. Iglesias Buela, "Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts," Phytomedicine, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 395-400, 2001.

[90] M. A. Karim, A. A. Sidddiqui, G. H. Rizwani, M. F. Khan, and M. Ahmed, "Toxicity of Sanguinaria canadensis as compared to Aloe vera against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) using the probit methodology," Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1-4, 2015.

[91] M. C. Jacobo-Salcedo, A. J. Alonso-Castro, L. A. Salazar-Olivo et al., "Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Mexican medicinal plants," Natural Product Communications, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 1925-1928, 2011.

[92] F. M. Torrico, J. Gambay, A. I. Suorez, R. S. Compagnone, and A. I. Suorez, "Estudio toxicologico de Cnidoscolus chayamansa Mc Vaugh," Revista de la Facultad de Farmacia, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 58-66, 2003.

[93] G. M. de Queiroz, T. M. de Souza-Moreira, H. R. N. Salgado et al., "Antimicrobial activity and toxicity in vitro and in vivo of Equisetum hyemale extracts," Revista de Ciencias Farmaceuticas Basica e Aplicada, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 559-563, 2014.

[94] R. Guillopo, M. Escobar-Khondiker, V Guorineau, O. Laprovote, G. U. Hooglinger, and P. Champy, "Kaurenoic acid from pulp of Annona cherimolia in regard to annonaceae-induced parkinsonism," Phytotherapy Research, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 1861-1864, 2011.

[95] A. F. Valdes, J. Mendiola, D. Acuna, Y. caballero, R. Scull, and Y. Gutiorrez, "Antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity of hydroalcoholic extracts from six plant species used in Cuban traditional medicine," Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 52-57, 2011.

[96] A. Ramos, R. Rivero, A. Visozo, J. Piloto, and A. Garcia, "Parthenin, a sesquiterpene lactone of Parthenium hysterophorus L. is a high toxicity clastogen," Mutation Research, vol. 514, no. 1-2, pp. 19-27, 2002.

[97] E. A. Varanda, T. R. Calvo, C. R. P. Cardoso et al., "Mutagenic activity of Indigofera truxillensis and I. suffruticosa aerial parts," Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 323276, 2011.

[98] M. Dociga-Campos, M. Arriaga-Alba, R. Ventura-Martinez, B. Aguilar-Guadarrama, and M. Y. Rios, "Pharmacological and toxicological profile of extract from Heliopsis longipes and affinin," Drug Development Research, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 130-137, 2012.

[99] L. D. Da Costa E Silva, L. C. L. V. Rodrigues, V R. Dos Santos et al., "Evaluation of mutagenic and genotoxic activities of lobeline and its modulation on genomic instability induced by ethanol," Life Sciences, vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 73-78, 2014.

[100] C. M. Mattana, M. A. Cangiano, S. E. Satorres, L. E. Alcaroz, and A. L. Laciar, "Potential genotoxicity of zinnia peruviana extract," Pharmacologyonline, vol. 2016, no. 2, pp. 72-80, 2016.

[101] A. L. Gindri, L. B. De Souza, R. C. Cruz, A. A. Boligon, M. M. Machado, and M. L. Athayde, "Genotoxic evaluation, secondary metabolites and antioxidant capacity of leaves and roots of Urera baccifera Gaudich (Urticaceae)," Natural Product Research (Formerly Natural Product Letters), vol. 28, no. 23, pp. 2214-2216, 2014.

[102] J. G. Avila-Acevedo, A. M. Garcia-Bores, F. Martinez-Ramirez et al., "Antihyperglycemic effect and genotoxicity of Psittacanthus calyculatus extract in streptozotocm-rnduced diabetic rats," Boletin Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromaticas, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 345-353, 2012.

[103] R. Carmo-Cortes, J. A. Gayosso-De-Lucio, M. I. Ortiz et al., "Antinociceptive, genotoxic and histopathological study of Heliopsis longipes S.F. Blake in mice," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 130, no. 2, pp. 216-221, 2010.

[104] Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Guideline for Testing of Chemicals, Test guideline 423: acute oral toxicity, acute toxic class methods, 2012.

[105] A. S. Awaad, N. A. Al-Jaber, G. A. Soliman et al., "New biological activities of Casimiroa edulis leaf extract and isolated compounds," Phytotherapy Research, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 452-457, 2012.

[106] R. V. Garcia-Rodriguez, G. A. Gutiorrez-Rebolledo, E. Mondez-Bolaina et al., "Cnidoscolus chayamansa Mc Vaugh, an important antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective plant used in Mexico," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 151, no. 2, pp. 937-943, 2014.

[107] G. A. Gutiorrez-Rebolledo, L. Garduno-Siciliano, R. V. Garcia-Rodriguez et al., "Anti-inflammatory and toxicological evaluation of Moussonia deppeana (Schldl. & Cham) Hanst and Verbascoside as a main active metabolite," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 187, pp. 269-280, 2016.

[108] A. H. Shah, S. Qureshi, and A. M. Ageel, "Toxicity studies in mice of ethanol extracts of Foeniculum vulgare fruit and Ruta chalepensis aerial parts," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 34, no. 2-3, pp. 167-172, 1991.

[109] O. A. Olajide, S. O. Awe, and J. M. Makinde, "Pharmacological screening of the methanolic extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides," Fitoterapia, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 529-532, 1997.

[110] S. R. Tamboli and R. S. Pandit, "Acute toxicity evaluation of Rauvolfia tetraphylla leaf extract in rat by up and down method," International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 316-319, 2014.

[111] J. F. Palacios-Espinosa, O. Arroyo-Garcia, G. Garcia-Valencia, E. Linares, R. Bye, and I. Romero, "Evidence of the antiHelicobacter pylori, gastroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities of Cuphea aequipetala infusion," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 151, no. 2, pp. 990-998, 2014.

[112] K. Sirisha, Y. Rajendra, P. Gomathi, K. Soujanya, and N. Yasmeen, "Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of flowers ofplumeria rubra l. f. rubra and plumeria rubra f. lutea: A comparative study," Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 743-756, 2013.

[113] C. Anesini, J. Boccio, G. Cremaschi et al., "In vivo antitumoural activity and acute toxicity study of Larrea divaricata Cav. extract," Phytotherapy Research, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 521-523, 1997.

[114] D. Kumar, J. Singh, A. Baghotia, and S. Kumar, "Anticonvulsant effect of the ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw., Fabaceae, leaves," Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 751-755, 2010.

[115] S. Kumar, J. Singh, A. Baghotia et al., "Antifertility potential of the ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn. leaves," Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 90-92, 2013.

[116] F. Kengni, D. Tala, M. Djimeli et al., "In vitro antimicrobial activity of Harunganamadagascriensis and Euphorbia prostrata extracts against some pathogenic Salmonella sp," International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, vol. 7, no. 3, p. 1106, 2013.

[117] S. Sarkiyayi, S. Ibrahim, and M. S. Abubakar, "Toxicological studies of Ceiba pentandra Linn," African Journal of Biochemistry Research, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 279-281, 2009.

[118] V. Dutt, V. J. Dhar, and A. Sharma, "Antianxiety activity of Gelsemium sempervirens," Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 1091-1096, 2010.

[119] M. Hernondez-Ortega, A. Ortiz-Moreno, M. D. Hemondez-Navarro, G. Chamorro-Cevallos, L. Dorantes-Alvarez, and H. Necoechea-Mondragoon, "Antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory effects of carotenoids extracted from dried pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)," Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, vol. 2012, Article ID 524019, 2012.

[120] T. A. Abere, C. J. Okoye, F. O. Agoreyo et al., "Antisickling and toxicological evaluation of the leaves of Scoparia dulcis Linn (Scrophulariaceae)," BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 15, article 414, 2015.

[121] M. Momrazzaman, M. Atikur Rahman, and A. Ferdous, "Evaluation of sedative and hypnotic activity of ethanolic extract of Scoparia dulcis Linn.," Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2015, Article ID 873954, 6 pages, 2015.

[122] C. M. S. Dutok, C. A. Berenguer-Rivas, E. Rodriguez-Leblanch et al., "Acute toxicity and dermal and eye irritation of the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of the seeds of "zapote" pouteria mammosa (L.) cronquist," The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2015, Article ID 642906, 2015.

[123] B. Harish-Babu, S. Mohana-Lakshmi, and A. Saravana-Kumar, "Studies on phytochemical and anticonvulsant property of Martyniya annua Linn," vol. 1, pp. 82-86, 2010.

[124] C. D. Zavala, M. L. Carrillo I, B. Alvarado S, and A. O. Sanchez Ch, "Evaluation of the acute toxicity of an alcoholic extract from tarbush leaves (Flourensia cernua)," Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 50-54, 2010.

[125] V. Sharma and G. Rajani, "Evaluation of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn. for anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activities," Indian Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 168-171, 2011.

[126] K. Devaki, U. Beulah, G. Akila, and V. K. Gopalakrishnan, "Effect of aqueous extract of Passiflora edulis on biochemical and hematological parameters of Wistar Albino rats," Toxicology International, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 63-67, 2012.

[127] B. E. Bastidas-Ramirez, N. Navarro-Ruiz, J. D. Quezada-Arellano, B. Ruiz-Madrigal, M. T. Villanueeva-Michel, and P. Garzoon, "Anticonvulsant effects of Magnolia grandiflora L. in the rat," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 143-152, 1998.

[128] C. S. Shastry, M. Bhalodia Maulik, and B. J. Aswathanarayana, "Antivenom activity of ethanolic extract of Crescentia cujete fruit," International Journal of Phytomedicine, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 108-114, 2012.

[129] B. S. Kumar, K. Lakshman, R. Nandeesh et al., "In vitro alpha-amylase inhibition and in vivo antioxidant potential of Amaranthus spinosus in alloxan-induced oxidative stress in diabetic rats," Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1-5, 2011.

[130] S. Gupta, V. K. Khanna, A. Maurya et al., "Bioactivity guided isolation of antipsychotic constituents from the leaves of Rauwolfia tetraphylla L.," Fitoterapia, vol. 83, no. 6, pp. 1092-1099, 2012.

[131] M. Z. Porez-Gonzolez, G. A. Gutiorrez-Rebolledo, L. Yopez-Mulia, I. S. Rojas-Tomoe, J. Luna-Herrera, and M. A. JimeonezArellanes, "Antiprotozoal, antimycobacterial, and anti-inflammatory evaluation of Cnidoscolus chayamansa (Mc Vaugh) extract and the isolated compounds," Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, vol. 89, pp. 89-97, 2017.

[132] M. I. Khan, K. M. Denny Joseph, Muralidhara, H. P. Ramesh, P. Giridhar, and G. A. Ravishankar, "Acute, subacute and subchronic safety assessment of betalains rich Rivina humilis L. berry juice in rats," Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 3154-3157, 2011.

[133] F. Nikkon, M. R. Habib, Z. A. Saud, and M. R. Karim, "Tagetes erecta Linn. and its mosquitocidal potency against Culex quinquefasciatus," Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 186-188, 2011.

[134] F. Jaramillo-Juorez, M. L. Rodriguez-Vozquez, J. Munoz-Martinez et al., "The ATP levels in kidneys and blood are mainly decreased by acute ingestion of tullidora (Karwinskia humboldtiana)," Toxicon, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 99-103, 2005.

[135] M. G. B. Silva, T. P. Aragao, C. F. B. Vasconcelos et al., "Acute and subacute toxicity of Cassia occidentalis L. stem and leaf in Wistar rats," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 136, no. 2, pp. 341-346, 2011.

[136] K. B. Harikumar, C. V Nimita, K. C. Preethi, R. Kuttan, M. L. Shankaranarayana, and J. Deshpande, "Toxicity profile of lutein and lutein ester isolated from marigold flowers (Tagetes erecta)," International Journal of Toxicology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 1-9, 2008.

[137] S. R. Mariz, M. S. T. Araujo, G. S. Cerqueira et al., "Histopathological evaluation in rats after acute treatment with the ethanol extract from aerial parts of Jatropha gossypiifolia L.," Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 213-216, 2008.

[138] O. A. Salako, A. J. Akindele, O. M. Shitta, O. O. Elegunde, and O. O. Adeyemi, "Antidiarrhoeal activity of aqueous leaf extract of Caladium bicolor (Araceae) and its possible mechanisms of action," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 176, pp. 225-231, 2015.

[139] E. Aguirre-Hernandez, A. L. Martinez, M. E. Gonzolez-Trujano, J. Moreno, H. Vibrans, and M. Soto-Hernaondez, "Pharmacological evaluation of the anxiolytic and sedative effects of Tilia americana L. var. mexicana in mice," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 140-145, 2007.

[140] G. Porez-Ortega, M. E. Gonzolez-Trujano, G. E. Angeles-Lopez, F. Brindis, H. Vibrans, and R. Reyes-Chilpa, "Tagetes lucida Cav.: Ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of its tranquilizing properties," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 181, pp. 221-228, 2016.

[141] M. Singh, V Kumar, I. Singh, V. Gauttam, and A. Kalia, "Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. leaves," Pharmacognosy Research, vol. 2, no. 6, p. 364, 2010.

[142] B. Badilla, G. Mora, and L. J. Poveda, "Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts of five Costa Rican medicinal plants in Sprague-Dawley rats," Revista deBiologoa Tropical, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 723-727, 1999.

[143] A. J. Alonso-Castro, M. D. C. Juarez-Vozquez, F. Dominguez et al., "The antitumoral effect of the American mistletoe Phoradendron serotinum (Raf.) M.C. Johnst. (Viscaceae) is associated with the release of immunity-related cytokines," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 142, no. 3, pp. 857-864, 2012.

[144] P. J. Becci, H. Schwartz, H. H. Barnes, and G. L. Southard, "Short-term toxicity studies of sangu1nar1ne and of two alkaloid extracts of Sanguinaria Canadensis L," Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, vol. 20, no. 1-2, pp. 199-208, 1987.

[145] Muralidhara and K. Narasimhamurthy, "Non-mutagenicity of capsaicin in Albino mice," Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 26, no. 11-12, pp. 955-958, 1988.

[146] M. E. Garin-Aguilar, J. E. Ramirez Luna, M. Soto-Hernandez, G. Valencia del Toro, and M. Martinez Vazquez, "Effect of crude extracts of Erythrina americana Mill. on aggressive behavior in rats," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 189-196, 2000.

[147] C.-Y. Li, R. K. Devappa, J.-X. Liu, J.-M. Lv, H. P. S. Makkar, and K. Becker, "Toxicity of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters in mice," Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 620-625, 2010.

[148] L. A. Chami, R. Mendez, B. Chataing, J. O'Callaghan, A. Usubillaga, and L. LaCruz, "Toxicological effects of a-solamargine in experimental animals," Phytotherapy Research, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 254-258, 2003.

[149] K. V. Rao and T. L. Davis, "Constituents of Magnolia grandiflora. III. Toxic principle of the wood," Journal of Natural Products, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 283-287, 1982.

[150] W. C. Bowman and I. S. Sanghvi, "Pharmacological actions of hemlock (Conium maculatum) alkaloids," Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1-25, 1963.

[151] T. R. Narasimhan, B. S. K. Murthy, N. Harindranath, and P. V. S. Rao, "Characterization of a toxin from Parthenium hysterophorus and its mode of excretion in animals," Journal of Biosciences, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 729-738, 1984.

[152] T. Glinsukon, V. Stitmunnaithum, C. Toskulkao, T. Buranawuti, and V. Tangkrisanavinont, "Acute toxicity of capsaicin in several animal species," Toxicon, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 215-220, 1980.

[153] R. Davicino, A. Mattar, Y. Casali, C. Porporatto, S. G. Correa, and B. Micalizzi, "In vivo immunomodulatory effects of aqueous extracts of Larrea divaricata Cav.," Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, vol. 29, no. 3-4, pp. 351-366, 2007.

[154] F. Jaramillo, V. M. L. Rodriguez, C. M. G. Castillo et al., "Hepatic and blood coagulation damage produced by administration of ripe fruit from the tullidora plant (Karwinskia humboldtiana) in the rat," Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 28-34, 2009.

[155] E. Maluf, H. M. T. Barros, M. L. Frochtengarten, R. Benti, and J. R. Leite, "Assessment of the hypnotic/sedative effects and toxicity of Passiflora edulis aqueous extract in rodents and humans," Phytotherapy Research, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 262-266, 1991.

[156] K. Carcano-Diaz, A. Garcia-Garcia, J. C. Segoviano-Ramirez, H. Rodriguez-Rocha, M. D. J. Loera-Arias, and J. Garcia-Juarez, "Damage to pancreatic acinar cells and preservation of islets of langerhans in a rat model of acute pancreatitis induced by karwinskia humboldtiana (Buckthorn)," Histology and Histopathology, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 1001-1010, 2016.

[157] S. R. Tamboli and R. S. Pandit, "Subacute toxicity evaluation of Rauvolfia tetraphylla methanolic leaf extract in Sprague dawley rat," International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, vol. 34, no. 1, article no. 24, pp. 152-157, 2015.

[158] M. Cid-Hernandez, A. C. Ramirez-Anguiano, G. G. Ortiz et al., "Mitochondrial atpase activity and membrane fluidity changes in rat liver in response to intoxication with buckthorn (karwinskia humboldtiana)," Biological Research, vol. 48, 2015.

[159] J. N. Ogbulie, C. C. Ogueke, I. C. Okoli, and B. N. Anyanwu, "Antibacterial activities and toxicological potentials of crude ethanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta," African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 6, no. 13, pp. 1544-1548, 2007.

[160] S. R. Hashemi, I. Zulkifli, H. Davoodi, Z. Zunita, and M. Ebrahimi, "Growth performance, intestinal microflora, plasma fatty acid profile in broiler chickens fed herbal plant (Euphorbia hirta) and mix of acidifiers," Animal Feed Science and Technology, vol. 178, no. 3-4, pp. 167-174, 2012.

[161] M. L. Omnell, F. R. P. Sim, R. F. Keeler, L. C. Harne, and K. S. Brown, "Expression of Veratrum alkaloid teratogenicity in the mouse," Teratology, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 105-119, 1990.

[162] J. Gonzales, V. Benavides, R. Rojas, and J. Pino, "Efecto embriotooxico y teratogoenico de Ruta chalepensis L. ruda, en raton (Mus musculus)," Revista Peruana deBiologea, vol. 13, no. 3, 2013.

[163] R. Zeichen de Sa, A. Rey, E. Arganaraz, and E. Bindstein, "Perinatal toxicology of Ruta chalepensis (Rutaceae) in mice," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 93-98, 2000.

[164] D. T. Victorien, K. Jean Robert, D. T. Jacques et al., "Hemostatic activity screening and skin toxicity of sap of Jatropha multifida L. (Euphorbiaceae) used in traditional medicine (Benin)," Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. S927-S932, 2012.

[165] W. Adolf, H. J. Opferkuch, and E. Hecker, "Irritant phorbol derivatives from four Jatropha species," Phytochemistry, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 129-132, 1984.

[166] A. L. Meyer Albiero, J. A. Aboin Sertio, and E. M. Bacchi, "Antiulcer activity of Sapindus saponaria L. in the rat," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 41-44, 2002.

[167] D. Dabhadkar, V. Zade, S. Dawada, M. Dhore, and M. Kodape, "Effect of alcoholic pod extract of Plumeria rubra on biochemical and haematologicalparameters of female albino rats," International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 69-74, 2013.

[168] J.-J. Jang, D. E. Devor, D. L. Logsdon, and J. M. Ward, "A 4-week feeding study of ground red chilli (Capsicum annuum) in male B6C3F1 mice," Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 783-787, 1992.

[169] A. A. Adedapo, O. A. Omoloye, and O. G. Ohore, "Studies on the toxicity of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Abrus precatorius in rats," Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 31-36, 2007.

[170] S. R. Mariz, G. S. Cerqueira, W. C. Araujo et al., "Chronic toxicologic study of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Jatropha gossypiifolia in rats," Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 663-668, 2012.

[171] M. Yao, H. E. Ritchie, and P. D. Brown-Woodman, "A reproductive screening test of goldenseal," Birth Defects Research Part B - Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology, vol. 74, no. 5, pp. 399-404, 2005.

[172] M. A. Medeiros, F. Riet-Correa, F. P. M. Dantas, J. R. S. Santos, and R. M. T. Medeiros, "Efeitos teratogenicos de prosopis juliflora em ratos e anolise da toxicidad e das vagens," Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1089-1093, 2014.

[173] D. Dabhadkar and V. Zade, "Abortifacient activity of Plumeria rubra (Linn) pod extract in female albino rats," Indian Journal ofExperimental Biology (IJEB), vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 702-707, 2012.

[174] F. B. Mello, D. Jacobus, K. Carvalho, and J. R. B. Mello, "Effects of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) on general reproductive performance and teratology in rats," Toxicon, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 459-466, 2005.

[175] National Toxicology Program, Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of goldenseal root powder (Hydrastis Canadensis) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (feed studies), vol. 562, National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series, 2010.

[176] C. A. Naranjo, U. Busto, and E. M. Sellers, "A method for estimating the probability of adverse drug reactions," Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 239-245, 1981.

[177] Mexican Official Norm NOM-220-SSA1-2016, Pharmacovigilance Installation and Operation, Secretary of Health, Mexico City, Mexico, 2013.

[178] G. Danan and C. Benichou, "Causality assessment of adverse reactions to drugs--I: a novel method based on the conclusions of international consensus meetings: application to druginduced liver injuries," Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 1323-1330, 1993.

[179] E. P. Krenzelok, T. D. Jacobsen, and J. M. Aronis, "Poinsettia exposures have good outcomes--Just as we thought," The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 671-674, 1996.

[180] F. Borrelli and E. Ernst, "Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa): a systematic review of adverse events," American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 199, no. 5, pp. 455-466, 2008.

[181] R. Teschke, A. Schwarzenboeck, W. Schmidt-Taenzer, A. Wolff, and K. Hennermann, "Herb induced liver injury presumably caused by black cohosh: a survey of initially purported cases and herbal quality specifications," Annals of Hepatology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 249-259, 2011.

[182] A. Schnuch, H. Lessmann, J. Geier, P. J. Frosch, and W. Uter, "Contact allergy to fragrances: Frequencies of sensitization from 1996 to 2002. Results of the IVDK," Contact Dermatitis, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 65-76, 2004.

[183] J. G. Marks Jr., D. V Belsito, V. A. DeLeo et al., "North American contact dermatitis group patch-test results, 1996-1998 [8]," JAMA Dermatology, vol. 136, no. 2, pp. 272-273, 2000.

[184] S. Wohrl, W. Hemmer, M. Focke, M. Gotz, and R. Jarisch, "The significance of fragrance mix, balsam of Peru, colophony and propolis as screening tools in the detection of fragrance allergy," British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 145, no. 2, pp. 268-273, 2001.

[185] A. Trattner and M. David, "Patch testing with fine fragrances: Comparison with fragrance mix, balsam of Peru and a fragrance series," Contact Dermatitis, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 287-289, 2003.

[186] P. Turic, J. Lipozencio, V. Milavec-Puretio, and S. M. Kulisic, "Contact allergy caused by fragrance mix and Myroxylon pereirae (balsam of Peru) - A retrospective study," Collegium Antropologicum, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 83-87, 2011.

[187] M. Eddleston, S. Attapattu, S. A. M. Kularatne et al., "Acute yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning: Cardiac arrhythmias, electrolyte disturbances, and serum cardiac glycoside concentrations on presentation to hospital," Heart, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 301-306, 2000.

[188] J. F. Rivero-Cruz, D. Chavez, B. Hernandez Bautista, A. L. Anaya, and R. Mata, "Separation and characterization of Metopium brownei urushiol components," Phytochemistry, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 1003-1008, 1997.

[189] M. Eddleston, C. A. Ariaratnam, W. P. Meyer et al., "Epidemic of self-poisoning with seeds of the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) in northern Sri Lanka," Tropical Medicine & International Health, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 266-273, 1999.

[190] M. Guerrero, A. Pineyro, and N. Waksman, "Extraction and quantification of toxins from Karwinskia humboldtiana (Tullidora)," Toxicon, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 565-568, 1987.

[191] P. A. Lancaster and J. E. Brooks, "Cassava leaves as human food," Economic Botany, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 331-348, 1983.

[192] J. M. McMahon, W. L. White, and R. T. Sayre, "Cyanogenesis in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)," Journal of Experimental Botany, vol. 46, no. 288, pp. 731-741, 1995.

[193] S. Husain, R. Narsimha, and R. N. Rao, "Separation, identification and determination of sanguinarine in argemone and other adulterated edible oils by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography," Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 863, no. 1, pp. 123-126, 1999.

[194] F. Stickel and D. Shouval, "Hepatotoxicity of herbal and dietary supplements: an update," Archives of Toxicology, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 851-865, 2015.

[195] S. R. Lin, L. P. Cai, and D. Y. Lin, "Effects of electroacupuncture of "Zusanli" (ST 36) on gastric mucosal blood flow, NO and ET contents in gastric mucosal injury rats," Acupuncture Research, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 110-112, 2006.

[196] S. P. Myers, "Interactions between complementary medicines and warfarin," Australian Prescriber, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 54-56, 2002.

Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro, (1) Fabiola Dominguez, (2) Alan Joel Ruiz-Padilla, (1) Nimsi Campos-Xolalpa, (3) Juan Ramon Zapata-Morales, (1) Candy Carranza-Alvarez, (4) and Juan Jose Maldonado-Miranda (4)

(1) Departamento de Farmacia, Division de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato, GTO, Mexico

(2) Centro de Investigacion Biomedica de Oriente, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Metepec, PUE, Mexico

(3) Departamento de Sistemas Biologicos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Xochimilco, Mexico City, Mexico

(4) Unidad Academica Multidisciplinaria de la Zona Huasteca, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Ciudad Valles, SLP, Mexico

Correspondence should be addressed to Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro; angeljosabad@hotmail.com

Received 14 August 2017; Revised 4 October 2017; Accepted 10 October 2017; Published 2 November 2017

Academic Editor: Karin Kraft
Table 1: Ethnobotanical information of medicinal plants from Mexico
and Central America considered as toxic.

Family                Scientific name             Common name
                                                   in Spanish

                    Amaranthus spinosus        Quelite de Puerco
                           L. **

Amaranthaceae
                        Chenopodium                 Epazote
                    ambrosioides L. **

Amaryllidaceae      Allium glandulosum          Cebolla de monte
                        Link & Otto

Anacardiaceae        Metopium brownei            Chechem negro
                       (Jacq.) Urb.

                       Toxicodendron            Hiedra venenosa
                   radicans (L.) Kuntze

Annonaceae           Annona cherimola              Chirimoya
                         Mill. **

Apiaceae            Conium maculatum L.              Cicuta
                            **

Apocynaceae        Asclepias curassavica          Rompemuelas
                            L.

                    Asclepias linaria            Algodoncillo
                           Cav.

                    Asclepias mexicana         Venenillo cimarron
                           Cav.

                         Asclepias               Hierba lechosa
                       oenotheroides
                      Schltdl. & Cham

                         Asclepias               Hierba lechosa
                    subverticillata (A.
                        Gray) Vail

                   Plumeria rubra L. **           Zacalazuchil

                   Rauvolfia tetraphylla         Cinco negritos
                           L. **

                   Thevetia ahouai (L.)          Bola de venado
                          A. DC.

                     Thevetia gaumeri              Campanilla
                          Hemsl.

                    Thevetia peruviana             Troncomin
                   (Pers.) K. Schum. **

                   Thevetia thevetioides             Yoyote
                     (Kunth) K. Schum

Aquifoliaceae        Ilex opaca Aiton            American holly

Araceae                  Anthurium               Kiilbal chaak
                   crassinervium (Jacq.)
                          Schott

                         Anthurium            Hoja de reumatismo
                   pentaphyllum (Aubl.)            de bejuco
                          G. Don

                         Anthurium               Hoja de piedra
                   schlechtendalii Kunth

                     Caladium bicolor            Heart of Jesus
                     (Aiton) Vent. **

                    Monstera deliciosa              Ceriman
                         Liebm. **

Aristolochiaceae   Aristolochia foetida              Guaco
                           Kunth

                       Aristolochia               Flor de pato
                      grandiflora Sw.

                       Aristolochia                  Guaco
                      odoratissima L.

                       Aristolochia             Camotillo guaco
                      pentandra Jacq

                       Aristolochia            Texas dutchman's
                     reticulata Nutt.                 pipe

                       Aristolochia            Virginia snakeroot
                      serpentaria L.

Asparagaceae          Yucca filifera                 Palma
                          Chabaud

Asteraceae            Acmella repens           Yerba de San Pedro
                      (Walter) Rich.

                         Ambrosia                   Amargosa
                     confertiflora DC.

                    Ambrosia peruviana              Altamisa
                         Willd. **

                   Ambrosia psilostachya           Estafiate
                            DC.

                   Artemisia ludoviciana           Estafiate
                      subsp. mexicana
                    (Willd. ex Spreng.)
                         D.D. Keck

                       Barkleyanthus             Jaral Amarillo
                   salicifolius (Kunth)
                    H. Rob. & Brettell

                    Conyza filaginoides            Simonillo
                       (DC.) Hieron.

                    Eupatorium odoratum         Rama de la cruz
                            L.

                     Flourensia cernua              Hojasen
                          DC. **

                        Gymnosperma                Tatalencho
                   glutinosum (Spreng.)
                         Less. **

                        Haplopappus              Arnica morada
                     gymnocephalus DC.

                    Helenium mexicanum              Cabezona
                           Kunth

                    Heliopsis longipes             Chilcuague
                      (A. Gray) S.F.
                         Blake **

                    Montanoa tomentosa              Zoapatle
                           Cerv.

                   Packera aurea (L.) A.           Life root
                      Love & D. Love

                   Packera candidissima              Chuca
                   (Greene) W.A. Weber &
                          A. Love

                        Parthenium               Escoba amarga
                    hysterophorus L. **

                    Parthenium incanum              Mariola
                           Kunth

                         Psacalium                 Matarique
                     decompositum (A.
                      Gray) H. Rob. &
                         Brettell

                   Tagetes erecta L. **         Flor de muerto
                                                 (cempaxochitl)

                   Tagetes lucida Cav **            Pericoon

                   Zinnia peruviana (L.)           Mal de ojo
                           L. **

Berberidaceae       Berberis moranensis          Palo amarillo
                   Schult. & Schult. f.

                       Caulophyllum               Blue cohosh
                    thalictroides (L.)
                         Michx. **

                    Podophyllumpeltatum             Mayapple
                           L. **

Bignoniaceae         Crescentia alata             Cuatecomate
                           Kunth

                   Crescentia cujete L.              Guoiro
                            **

Boraginaceae       Cordia dentata Poir.              Uvita
                            **

                       Heliotropium               Alacrancillo
                      curassavicum L.

Bromeliaceae        Bromelia pinguin L.             Pinuela

                   Bromelia plumieri (E.           Timbiriche
                     Morren) L.B. Sm.

Cactaceae          Cereus marginatus DC.      Oregano de zopilote

                        Coryphantha               Falso peyote
                    pycnacantha (Mart.)
                           Lem.

                   Lophophora williamsii             Peyote
                    (Lem. ex Salm-Dyck)
                        J.M. Coult.

Campanulaceae      Lobelia cardinalis L.            Lobelia

                   Lobelia inflata L. **            Lobelia

Canellaceae          Canella winterana              Curbana
                       (L.) Gaertn.

Caprifoliaceae     Lonicera periclymenum            Woodbine
                            L.

                   Symphoricarpos albus            Snowberry
                      (L.) S.F. Blake

Celastraceae       Celastrus scandens L.        Falsa dulcamara

                         Euonymus                    Wahoo
                    atropurpureus Jacq.

Commelinaceae        Commelina elegans          Hierba del pollo
                           Kunth

                       Tradescantia              Maguey morado
                       spathacea Sw.

Convulvulaceae      Ipomoea murucoides             Cazahuate
                      Roem. & Schult.

                       Ipomoea purga             Raiz de Jalapa
                      (Wender.) Hayne

                    Ipomoea stans Cav.           Tumbavaqueros

                   Ipomoea tricolor Cav.           Hiedra de
                                                 flores grandes

                     Turbina corymbosa           Flor de pascua
                         (L.) Raf.

Coriariaceae        Coriaria ruscifolia              Huique
                            L.

Cucurbitaceae      Apodanthera undulata            Gualaista
                          A. Gray

Dioscoreaceae      Dioscorea floribunda        Barbasco amarillo
                   M. Martens & Galeotti

Equisetaceae       Equisetum hyemale L.            Carricillo
                            **

Ericaceae          Arbutus arizonica (A.            Madrono
                        Gray) Sarg.

                      Comarostaphylis               Madrono
                     discolor (Hook.)
                           Diggs

                    Kalmia latifolia L.            Ivy brush

Euphorbiaceae      Acalypha monostachya        Hierba del cancer
                         Cav. Cav

                    Adelia barbinervis           Espino blanco
                     Schltdl. & Cham.

                        Cnidoscolus                  Chaya
                   chayamansa McVaugh **

                    Cnidoscolus souzae             Ch'iinchay
                          McVaugh

                     Cnidoscolus urens               Ortiga
                      (L.) Arthur **

                          Croton               Hierba de la cruz
                    ciliatoglandulosus
                          Ortega

                     Croton humilis L.             ik'ja'aban

                   Dalechampia scandens            Mo'ol koj
                            L.

                   Euphorbia cotinifolia          Lechero rojo
                            L.

                   Euphorbia hirta L. **    Hierba de la golondrina

                   Euphorbia maculata L.    Hierba de la golondrina

                    Euphorbia prostrata     Hierba de la golondrina
                         Aiton **

                   Euphorbia pulcherrima          Noche buena
                   Willd. ex Klotzsch **

                         Euphorbia               Redbird flower
                     tithymaloides L.

                   Hura crepitans L. **             Catahua

                   Hura polyandra Baill.              Haba

                   Jatropha curcas L. **              Pmon

                      Jatropha dioica           Sangre de grado
                         Sesse **

                   Jatrophagossypiifolia            Tua tua
                      L. ** Jatropha
                      multifida L. **
                                                    Palmeado

                     Manihot esculenta                Yuca
                         Crantz **

                    Tragia nepetifolia             Ortiguilla
                           Cav.

                    Tragia yucatanensis              Poopox
                          Millsp.

Fabaceae            Abrus precatorius          Semilla de culebra
                           L **

                    Andira inermis (W.
                   Wright) Kunth ex DC.               Yaba

                        Astragalus                Garbancillo
                     plattensis Nutt.

                        Caesalpinia           Clavellina colorada
                     pulcherrima (L.)

                        Calliandra              Cabello de engel
                   grandiflora (L'Her.)
                          Benth.

                    Calliandra molinae           Palo de corcho
                          Standl.

                     Crotalaria pumila
                          Ortega                    Tronador

                   Crotalaria sagittalis            Cocuite
                            L.

                   Dalea bicolor Humb. &          Engordacabra
                     Bonpl. ex Willd.

                    Diphysa robinioides         Flor de gallito
                          Benth.

                    Entada polystachya           Bejuco de agua
                         (L.) DC.

                       Enterolobium             Cascabel sonaja
                    cyclocarpum (Jacq.)
                        Griseb. **

                    Erythrina americana             Colorin
                          Mill **

                   Erythrina standleyana             Cancer
                          Krukoff

                     Gliricidia sepium            Matarratoon
                   (Jacq.) Kunth ex Walp

                   Indigofera microcarpa      Yaga-cohui-pichacha
                           Desv.

                        Indigofera                    Anil
                   suffruticosa Mill. **

                    Leucaena esculenta               Guaje
                   (Moc. & Sesse ex DC.)
                          Benth.

                    Myroxylon pereirae           Indian balsam
                    (Royle) Klotzsch **

                   Phaseolus lunatus L.           Frijol ancho

                    Prosopis juliflora              Mezquite
                         (Sw.) DC.

                   Robinia pseudoacacia           Black locust
                            L.

                   Senna multiglandulosa             Parral
                   (Jacq.) H.S. Irwin &
                          Barneby

                    Senna occidentalis             Frijolillo
                       (L.) Link **

Garryaceae          Garrya ovata Benth.           Cuauhchichic

Gelsemiaceae             Gelsemium                   Retama
                   sempervirens (L.) J.
                        St.-Hil. **

Gesneriaceae        Moussonia deppeana           Cacahuapaxtle
                    (Schltdl. & Cham.)
                         Hanst. **

Lamiaceae           Hedeoma drummondii         Drummond's false
                          Benth.                   pennyroyal

                    Hedeoma pulegioides       American pennyroyal
                        (L.) Pers.

                   Salvia leucantha Cav               Lana

                     Satureja brownei                Poleo
                        (Sw.) Briq.

                        Scutellaria                 Scullcap
                      lateriflora L.

Loasaceae            Mentzelia hispida             Pegajilla
                          Willd.

Loranthaceae           Psittacanthus           Muerdago o injerto
                   calyculatus (DC.) G.
                          Don **

Lythraceae          Cuphea aequipetala         Hierba del ceancer
                          Cav. **

Magnoliaceae       Magnolia grandiflora             Magnolia
                           L. **

Malpighiaceae       Malpighia glabra L.             Acerola

Malvaceae          Ceiba pentandra (L.)              Ceiba
                        Gaertn. **

                      Tilia mexicana                 Tilia
                        Schltdl. **

Marantaceae        Thalia geniculata L.              Kento

Martyniaceae       Martynia annua L. **           Una de gato

Melanthiaceae      Veratrum californicum      California corn lily
                         Durand **

                    Trillium erectum L.             Bethroot

Menispermaceae     Menispermum canadense        Canada moonseed
                            L.

Myrtaceae           Pimenta dioica (L.)             Pimiento
                         Merr. **

Nartheciaceae       Aletris farinosa L.           Unicorn root

Nyctaginacea       Mirabilis jalapa L **           Maravilla

Oxalidaceae        Oxalis alpina (Rose)             Acedera
                     Rose ex R. Knuth

Papaveraceae        Argemone mexicana             Cardo santo
                           L. **

                        Sanguinaria                Bloodroot
                     canadensis L. **

Passifloraceae      Passiflora caerulea         Pasionaria azul
                            L.

                     Passiflora edulis              Maracuya
                          Sims **

                        Passiflora                   Badea
                     quadrangularis L.

Petiveriaceae      Rivina humilis L. **            Coralillo

Phytolaccaceae     Phytolacca americana          Hierba carmine
                            L.

                   Phytolacca icosandra           Mazorquilla
                           L. **

                   Phytolacca rivinoides
                    Kunth & C.D. Boucho           Mazorquilla

Plantaginaceae     Scoparia dulcis L. **          Culantrillo

Plumbaginaceae      Plumbago pulchella              Jiricua
                          Boiss.

                          Monnina                 Aguacatillo
                   schlechtendaliana D.
                          Dietr.

Polygalaceae        Polygala senega L.          rattlesnake root

                    Rumex hymenosepalus             Canaigre
                         Torr. **

Ranunculaceae        Actaea alba (L.)             White cohosh
                           Mill.

                   Actaea rubra (Aiton)            Baneberry
                          Willd.

                   Anemone canadensis L.         Meadow anemone

                    Cimicifuga racemosa
                       (L.) Nutt. **               Baneberry

                    Clematis dioica L.           Barba de chivo

                    Clematis virginiana         Old man's beard
                            L.

                   Hydrastis canadensis           Sello dorado
                           L. **

                    Ranunculus geoides            Pata de leen
                   Humb. Bonpl. & Kunth
                           ex DC

                        Thalictrum              Hierba del zorro
                    strigillosum Hemsl.

Rhamnaceae              Karwinskia                 Tullidora
                       humboldtiana
                    (Schult.) Zucc. **

                     Karwinskia mollis              Capulin
                         Schltdl.

                   Rhamnus kcalifornica       California buckthorn
                          Eschsch

Rosaceae           Prunus serotina Ehrh.         Capulin blanco

Rubarwiaceae            Carapichea                   Ipecac
                    ipecacuanha (Brot.)
                       L. Andersson

                       Cephalanthus                Guayabillo
                      occidentalis L.

                                                     Quino
                    Cinchona pubescens
                          Vahl **

Rutaceae            Casimiroa edulis La            Matasanos
                      Llave & Lex. **

                     Ruta chalepensis                 Ruda
                           L. **

                    Zanthoxylum fagara               Colima
                        (L.) Sarg.

Santalaceae            Phoradendron                 Muerdago
                     bolleanum (Seem.)
                          Eichler

                       Phoradendron                 Muerdago
                   quadrangulare (Kunth)
                          Griseb.

                       Phoradendron
                   serotinum (Raf.) M.C.            Muerdago
                        Johnst. **

Sapindaceae         Sapindus saponaria             Jaboncillo
                           L. **

Sapotaceae            Pouteria sapota                Zapote
                   (Jacq.) H.E. Moore &
                         Stearn **

Scrophulariaceae         Buddleja               Azafran de campo
                   marrubiifolia Benth.

Simaroubaceae        Picrasma excelsa            Palo Amarillo
                       (Sw.) Planch.

                     Castela tortuosa           Chaparro amargo
                          Liebm.

Smilacaceae               Smilax                  Zarzaparilla
                     aristolochiifolia
                           Mill.

Solanaceae         Capsicum annuum L. **             Chile

                   Cestrum fasciculatum         Hierba del perro
                     (Schltdl.) Miers

                   Cestrum nocturnum L.          Dama de noche

                       Datura inoxia                Toloache
                        Miller. **

                    Solanum americanum            Quelite mora
                          Mill **

                          Solanum                  Trompillo
                    elaeagnifolium Cav.

                    Solanum mammosum L.            Chichigua

                   Solanum nigrescens M.          Hierba mora
                   Martens & Galeotti **

                     Solanum rostratum             Duraznillo
                           Dunal

                   Witheringia solanacea           Merengena
                          L'Her.

Urticaceae         Urera baccifera (L.)           Ortiga brava
                   Gaudich. ex Wedd. **

                      Urtica mexicana                Ortiga
                          Liebm.

Verbenaceae          Duranta repens L.         Mohuite de huerto

                   Lantana camara L. **          Hierba de San
                                                     Pedro

                   Lippia dulcis Trevir.       Hierbabuena dulce

Zygophyllaceae       Larrea divaricata             Chaparral
                          Cav. **

                     Larrea tridentata            Gobernadora
                     (DC.) Coville **

Family                Scientific name      Medicinal use

                    Amaranthus spinosus    Rheumatism, diuretic,
                           L. **           wound healing

Amaranthaceae           Chenopodium        Vermifuge, vomit
                    ambrosioides L. **

Amaryllidaceae      Allium glandulosum     Cough, flu, tuberculosis
                        Link & Otto

Anacardiaceae        Metopium brownei      Antiviral, Rheumatism
                       (Jacq.) Urb.

                       Toxicodendron       Headache, rheumatism
                   radicans (L.) Kuntze

Annonaceae           Annona cherimola      Diarrhea, dysentery
                         Mill. **

Apiaceae             Conium maculatum      Body pain
                           L. **

Apocynaceae        Asclepias curassavica   Vermifuge, cancer, wound
                            L.             healing, diuretic

                     Asclepias linaria     Cough, fever, purgative,
                           Cav.            diuretic

                    Asclepias mexicana     Warts
                           Cav.

                         Asclepias         Tooth ache
                       oenotheroides
                      Schltdl. & Cham

                         Asclepias         Snake bite
                    subverticillata (A.
                        Gray) Vail

                   Plumeria rubra L. **    Stomachache, toothache

                   Rauvolfia tetraphylla   Wound healing, rheumatism
                           L. **

                   Thevetia ahouai (L.)    Toothache, headache
                          A. DC.

                     Thevetia gaumeri      Toothache, cancer
                          Hemsl.

                    Thevetia peruviana     Stomachache
                   (Pers.) K. Schum. **

                   Thevetia thevetioides   Warts, analgesic
                     (Kunth) K. Schum

Aquifoliaceae        Ilex opaca Aiton      Digestive

Araceae                  Anthurium         Warts
                   crassinervium (Jacq.)
                          Schott

                         Anthurium         Rheumatism
                   pentaphyllum (Aubl.)
                          G. Don

                         Anthurium         Hemorrhage postpartum
                   schlechtendalii Kunth

                     Caladium bicolor      Antiseptic
                     (Aiton) Vent. **

                    Monstera deliciosa     Flu, rheumatism
                         Liebm. **

Aristolochiaceae   Aristolochia foetida    Snake bite, headache
                           Kunth

                       Aristolochia        Stomachache, snake bite
                      grandiflora Sw.

                       Aristolochia        Diarrhea, stomachache,
                      odoratissima L.      belly cramps

                       Aristolochia        Fever, diarrhea
                      pentandra Jacq

                       Aristolochia        Digestive
                     reticulata Nutt.

                       Aristolochia        Digestive, diuretic
                      serpentaria L.

Asparagaceae          Yucca filifera       Cough
                          Chabaud

Asteraceae            Acmella repens       Malaria
                      (Walter) Rich.

                         Ambrosia          Diarrhea, vomiting
                     confertiflora DC.

                    Ambrosia peruviana     Rheumatism, pain, fever
                         Willd. **

                   Ambrosia psilostachya   Stomachache
                            DC.

                   Artemisia ludoviciana   Vermifuge, fever
                      subsp. mexicana
                    (Willd. ex Spreng.)
                         D.D. Keck

                       Barkleyanthus       Fever, diuretic,
                   salicifolius (Kunth)    rheumatism
                    H. Rob. & Brettell

                    Conyza filaginoides    Stomachache, diabetes,
                       (DC.) Hieron.       anxiolytic

                    Eupatorium odoratum    Wound healing,
                            L.             anti-inflammatory

                     Flourensia cernua     Stomachache, diarrhea
                          DC. **

                        Gymnosperma        Diuretic,
                   glutinosum (Spreng.)    rheumatism,
                         Less. **          analgesic

                        Haplopappus        Body pain, hemorrhoids
                     gymnocephalus DC.

                    Helenium mexicanum     Flu
                           Kunth

                    Heliopsis longipes     Analgesic
                   (A. Gray) S.F. Blake**

                                           Rheumatism,
                    Montanoa tomentosa     cough, menstrual
                           Cerv.           colic

                   Packera aurea (L.) A.   Amenorrhea, menopause and
                      Love & D. Love       leucorrhea.

                   Packera candidissima    Cough
                   (Greene) W.A. Weber &
                          A. Love

                        Parthenium         Stomachache, headache
                    hysterophorus L. **

                    Parthenium incanum     Stomachache, diarrhea
                           Kunth

                         Psacalium         Diabetes, rheumatism
                     decompositum (A.
                      Gray) H. Rob. &
                         Brettell

                   Tagetes erecta L. **    Diarrhea,
                                           vermifuge, diabetes,
                                           rheumatism

                   Tagetes lucida Cav**    Stomachache,
                                           diarrhea, vomit

                   Zinnia peruviana (L.)   Stomachache, diarrhea
                           L. **

Berberidaceae       Berberis moranensis    Rheumatism
                   Schult. & Schult. f.

                       Caulophyllum        Dysmenorrhea, rheumatism
                    thalictroides (L.)
                         Michx. **

                    Podophyllumpeltatum    Genital warts
                           L. **

Bignoniaceae         Crescentia alata      Cough, asthma
                           Kunth

                   Crescentia cujete L.    Cough, tuberculosis
                            **

Boraginaceae       Cordia dentata Poir.    Cough
                            **

                       Heliotropium        Asthma, anemia, snake
                      curassavicum L.      bite

Bromeliaceae        Bromelia pinguin L.    Cough

                   Bromelia plumieri (E.   Inflammation
                     Morren) L.B. Sm.

Cactaceae          Cereus marginatus DC.   Rabies

                        Coryphantha        Rheumatism, analgesic
                    pycnacantha (Mart.)
                           Lem.

                   Lophophora williamsii   Rheumatism, analgesic
                    (Lem. ex Salm-Dyck)
                        J.M. Coult.

Campanulaceae      Lobelia cardinalis L.   Cough, flu

                   Lobelia inflata L. **   Asthma, muscle relaxant

Canellaceae          Canella winterana     Rheumatism, stomachache
                       (L.) Gaertn.

Caprifoliaceae     Lonicera periclymenum   Diuretic, cough
                            L.

                   Symphoricarpos albus    Tuberculosis
                      (L.) S.F. Blake

Celastraceae       Celastrus scandens L.   Diuretic, tuberculosis

                         Euonymus          Purgative
                    atropurpureus Jacq.

Commelinaceae        Commelina elegans     Conjunctivitis
                           Kunth

                       Tradescantia        Cancer, wound healing,
                       spathacea Sw.       asthma, cough

Convulvulaceae      Ipomoea murucoides     Hair loss, wound healing,
                      Roem. & Schult.      cough, diuretic

                       Ipomoea purga       Purgative
                      (Wender.) Hayne

                    Ipomoea stans Cav.     Epileptic seizures

                   Ipomoea tricolor Cav.   Analgesic

                     Turbina corymbosa     Fever, wound healing
                         (L.) Raf.

Coriariaceae        Coriaria ruscifolia    Pneumonia
                            L.

Cucurbitaceae      Apodanthera undulata    Gastritis
                          A. Gray

Dioscoreaceae      Dioscorea floribunda    Rheumatism, body pain
                   M. Martens & Galeotti

Equisetaceae       Equisetum hyemale L. ** Abdominal pain, urinary
                                           tract infections

Ericaceae          Arbutus arizonica (A.   Diuretic
                        Gray) Sarg.

                      Comarostaphylis      Diuretic
                     discolor (Hook.)
                           Diggs

                    Kalmia latifolia L.    Syphilis

Euphorbiaceae      Acalypha monostachya    Cancer
                         Cav. Cav

                    Adelia barbinervis     Body pain, wounds
                     Schltdl. & Cham.

                        Cnidoscolus        Diabetes
                    chayamansa McVaugh
                             **

                    Cnidoscolus souzae     Rheumatism
                          McVaugh

                     Cnidoscolus urens     Diuretic
                      (L.) Arthur **

                          Croton           Constipation
                    ciliatoglandulosus
                          Ortega

                     Croton humilis L.     Wounds

                   Dalechampia scandens    Headache
                            L.

                   Euphorbia cotinifolia   Purgative
                            L.

                   Euphorbia hirta L. **   Stomachache

                   Euphorbia maculata L.   Toothache

                    Euphorbia prostrata    Pain in the kidney,
                         Aiton **          wounds, diarrhea

                   Euphorbia pulcherrima   Wound healing
                   Willd. ex Klotzsch **

                         Euphorbia         Asthma, skin cancer, warts
                     tithymaloides L.

                   Hura crepitans L. **    Laxative

                   Hura polyandra Baill.   Stomachache, body
                                           pain,

                   Jatropha curcas L. **   Fever, warts

                                           Cancer,
                      Jatropha dioica      rheumatism, hair
                          Sesse**          loss, wound
                                           healing

                   Jatrophagossypiifolia   Cough, flu, fever
                      L. ** Jatropha
                      multifida L. **      Wound healing, to
                                           purify blood

                     Manihot esculenta     Wound healing, vermifuge
                         Crantz **

                    Tragia nepetifolia     Diuretic
                           Cav.

                    Tragia yucatanensis    Rheumatism
                          Millsp.

Fabaceae            Abrus precatorius      Diabetes, asthma
                           L **

                    Andira inermis (W.
                   Wright) Kunth ex DC.    Vermifuge

                        Astragalus         Diuretic
                     plattensis Nutt.

                        Caesalpinia        Fever, pain, cough
                     pulcherrima (L.)

                        Calliandra         Fever
                   grandiflora (L'Her.)
                          Benth.

                    Calliandra molinae     Hypertension
                          Standl.

                     Crotalaria pumila
                          Ortega           Cough, diabetes

                   Crotalaria sagittalis   Fever, snake bite
                            L.

                   Dalea bicolor Humb. &   Diarrhea
                     Bonpl. ex Willd.

                    Diphysa robinioides    Fever, headache
                          Benth.

                    Entada polystachya     To promote hair growth
                         (L.) DC.

                       Enterolobium        Bronchitis, sore throat
                    cyclocarpum (Jacq.)
                        Griseb. **

                    Erythrina americana    Diuretic
                          Mill **

                   Erythrina standleyana   Cancer
                          Krukoff

                     Gliricidia sepium     Vermifuge
                   (Jacq.) Kunth ex Walp

                   Indigofera microcarpa   Purgative
                           Desv.

                        Indigofera         Vermifuge
                   suffruticosa Mill. **

                    Leucaena esculenta     Wound healing
                   (Moc. & Sesse ex DC.)
                          Benth.

                    Myroxylon pereirae     Burns, wounds and ulcers
                    (Royle) Klotzsch **

                   Phaseolus lunatus L.    Fever, headache

                    Prosopis juliflora     Fever, diabetes
                         (Sw.) DC.

                   Robinia pseudoacacia    Diuretic, laxative
                            L.

                   Senna multiglandulosa   Diabetes
                   (Jacq.) H.S. Irwin &
                          Barneby

                    Senna occidentalis     Fever
                       (L.) Link **

Garryaceae          Garrya ovata Benth.    Diarrhea

Gelsemiaceae             Gelsemium         Stomachache, asthma,
                   sempervirens (L.) J.    headache, rheumatism
                        St.-Hil. **

Gesneriaceae        Moussonia deppeana     Diuretic, gastritis
                    (Schltdl. & Cham.)
                         Hanst. **

Lamiaceae           Hedeoma drummondii     Muscle relaxing
                          Benth.

                    Hedeoma pulegioides    Antispasmodic, pneumonia
                        (L.) Pers.

                   Salvia leucantha Cav    Cough,
                                           stomachache

                     Satureja brownei      Colic, cough
                        (Sw.) Briq.

                        Scutellaria        Nervousness, headache,
                      lateriflora L.       fever, anxiety

Loasaceae            Mentzelia hispida     Rheumatism, anemia
                          Willd.

Loranthaceae           Psittacanthus       Hypertension,
                   calyculatus (DC.) G.    seizures,
                          Don **           rheumatism,
                                           wound healing

Lythraceae          Cuphea aequipetala     Cancer, wound healing
                          Cav. **

Magnoliaceae       Magnolia grandiflora    Nervousness, menstrual
                           L. **           colics

Malpighiaceae       Malpighia glabra L.    Dysentery, fever

Malvaceae          Ceiba pentandra (L.)    Diuretic, cough, fever
                        Gaertn. **

                      Tilia mexicana       Nervousness, menstrual
                        Schltdl. **        pain

Marantaceae        Thalia geniculata L.    Anaemia, hemorrhoids

Martyniaceae       Martynia annua L. **    Snake bite

Melanthiaceae      Veratrum californicum   Cancer
                         Durand **

                    Trillium erectum L.    To prevent obstetric
                                           hemorrhage

Menispermaceae     Menispermum canadense   Warts
                            L.

Myrtaceae           Pimenta dioica (L.)    Rheumatism, stomachache
                         Merr. **

Nartheciaceae       Aletris farinosa L.    Laxative, diarrhea,
                                           rheumatism

Nyctaginacea         Mirabilis jalapa      Rheumatism, stomachache,
                           L. **           fever

Oxalidaceae        Oxalis alpina (Rose)    Gastritis
                     Rose ex R. Knuth

Papaveraceae       Argemone mexicana L. ** Wound healing,
                                           fever, diuretic,
                                           analgesic

                        Sanguinaria        Skin cancer, polyps and
                     canadensis L. **      warts

Passifloraceae      Passiflora caerulea    Epilepsy, anxiolytic
                            L.

                     Passiflora edulis     Relaxing
                          Sims **

                        Passiflora         Vermifuge, obesity
                     quadrangularis L.

Petiveriaceae      Rivina humilis L. **    Varicose veins,
                                           snake bite, wound
                                           healing, stomachache

Phytolaccaceae     Phytolacca americana    Warts
                            L.

                   Phytolacca icosandra    Cancer, vermifuge,
                           L. **           rheumatism

                   Phytolacca rivinoides   Headache, wound healing,
                    Kunth & C.D. Boucho    vermifuge

Plantaginaceae     Scoparia dulcis L. **   Diarrhea,
                                           stomachache,
                                           asthma,
                                           nervousness

Plumbaginaceae      Plumbago pulchella     Diabetes, wound healing
                          Boiss.

                          Monnina          Dehydration
                   schlechtendaliana D.
                          Dietr.

Polygalaceae        Polygala senega L.     Cough, diuretic

                    Rumex hymenosepalus    Wound healing
                         Torr. **

Ranunculaceae        Actaea alba (L.)      Arthritis, rheumatism,
                           Mill.           dysmenorrhea

                   Actaea rubra (Aiton)    Dysmenorrhea
                          Willd.

                   Anemone canadensis L.   Body pain and
                                           wound healing

                    Cimicifuga racemosa    To manage some
                       (L.) Nutt. **       symptoms of
                                           menopause

                    Clematis dioica L.     Rheumatism, cough,
                                           diuretic

                                           For skin disorders (sores,
                    Clematis virginiana    cuts), itching and
                            L.             venereal eruptions

                   Hydrastis canadensis    Laxative
                           L. **

                    Ranunculus geoides     Cough
                   Humb. Bonpl. & Kunth
                           ex DC

                        Thalictrum         Cough
                    strigillosum Hemsl.

Rhamnaceae              Karwinskia         Wound healing
                       humboldtiana
                    (Schult.) Zucc. **

                     Karwinskia mollis     Wound healing
                         Schltdl.

                   Rhamnus kcalifornica    Laxative
                          Eschsch

Rosaceae           Prunus serotina Ehrh.   Cough, diarrhea, abdominal
                                           pain

Rubarwiaceae            Carapichea         Dysentery
                    ipecacuanha (Brot.)
                       L. Andersson

                       Cephalanthus        Fever
                      occidentalis L.

                                           Malaria, varicose veins,
                                           internal hemorrhoids

                    Cinchona pubescens
                          Vahl**

Rutaceae            Casimiroa edulis La    Hypertension, diabetes,
                      Llave & Lex. **      rheumatism

                     Ruta chalepensis      Analgesic
                           L. **

                    Zanthoxylum fagara     Nervousness
                        (L.) Sarg.

Santalaceae            Phoradendron        Diuretic
                     bolleanum (Seem.)
                          Eichler

                       Phoradendron        Cancer
                   quadrangulare (Kunth)
                          Griseb.

                       Phoradendron
                   serotinum (Raf.) M.C.   Cancer, diabetes
                        Johnst. **

Sapindaceae         Sapindus saponaria     Diuretic
                           L. **

Sapotaceae            Pouteria sapota      To eliminate louse
                   (Jacq.) H.E. Moore &
                         Stearn **

Scrophulariaceae         Buddleja          Diuretic
                   marrubiifolia Benth.

Simaroubaceae        Picrasma excelsa      Stomachache, diabetes
                       (Sw.) Planch.

                     Castela tortuosa      Fever, amebas
                          Liebm.

Smilacaceae               Smilax           Syphilis, psoriasis
                     aristolochiifolia
                           Mill.

Solanaceae         Capsicum annuum L. **   Analgesic

                   Cestrum fasciculatum    Vomiting
                     (Schltdl.) Miers

                   Cestrum nocturnum L.    Headache,
                                           stomachache

                       Datura inoxia       Diabetes, asthma,
                        Miller. **         wound healing

                    Solanum americanum     Headache, wound
                          Mill **          healing

                          Solanum          Rattlesnake bite
                    elaeagnifolium Cav.

                    Solanum mammosum L.    Diuretic, cough

                   Solanum nigrescens M.   Fever, rheumatism
                   Martens & Galeotti **

                     Solanum rostratum     Diuretic, stomachache,
                           Dunal           diarrhea

                   Witheringia solanacea   To purify blood
                          L'Her.

Urticaceae         Urera baccifera (L.)    Diuretic, rheumatism,
                   Gaudich. ex Wedd. **    body pain

                      Urtica mexicana      Diabetes, rheumatism
                          Liebm.

Verbenaceae          Duranta repens L.     To purify blood, fever

                   Lantana camara L. **    Stomachache, diarrhea,
                                           rheumatism

                   Lippia dulcis Trevir.   Cough, diarrhea,
                                           stomachache

Zygophyllaceae       Larrea divaricata     Rheumatism, tuberculosis,
                          Cav. **          snake bite

                     Larrea tridentata     Diabetes, diuretic
                     (DC.) Coville **

Family                Scientific name          Signs of toxicity
                                                  [plant part]

                    Amaranthus spinosus      Nephrotoxicity [whole
                           L. **                     plant]

Amaranthaceae           Chenopodium              Nephrotoxicity
                    ambrosioides L. **           abortifacient,
                                             hepatotoxicity [whole
                                                     plant]

Amaryllidaceae      Allium glandulosum       Numbness, nausea, and
                        Link & Otto             vomiting [bulb]

Anacardiaceae        Metopium brownei        Skin burns [latex from
                       (Jacq.) Urb.                 leaves]

                       Toxicodendron           Dermatitis [latex]
                   radicans (L.) Kuntze

Annonaceae           Annona cherimola        Abortifacient [aerial
                         Mill. **                parts, fruits]

                                                Hypertension and
Apiaceae            Conium maculatum L.         sweating [whole
                            **                       plant]

Apocynaceae        Asclepias curassavica      Nausea and vomiting,
                            L.              muscle paralysis [whole
                                                     plant]

                     Asclepias linaria     Muscle paralysis [leaves]
                           Cav.

                    Asclepias mexicana         Numbness [leaves]
                           Cav.

                         Asclepias           Numbness, nausea, and
                       oenotheroides           vomiting [leaves]
                      Schltdl. & Cham

                         Asclepias          Severe diarrhea [leaves]
                    subverticillata (A.
                        Gray) Vail

                   Plumeria rubra L. **        Dermatitis [latex]

                                             Diarrhea, nausea, and
                   Rauvolfia tetraphylla    vomiting, hypertension,
                           L. **           depression [aerial parts]

                   Thevetia ahouai (L.)    Cardiotoxicity [fruits and
                          A. DC.                     seeds]

                     Thevetia gaumeri      Tooth loss [leaves, latex]
                          Hemsl.

                    Thevetia peruviana      Cardiotoxicity [leaves]
                   (Pers.) K. Schum. **

                   Thevetia thevetioides     Cardiotoxicity [whole
                     (Kunth) K. Schum                plant]

Aquifoliaceae        Ilex opaca Aiton          Cardiotoxicity and
                                               vomiting [fruits]

Araceae                  Anthurium              Dermatitis [sap]
                   crassinervium (Jacq.)
                          Schott

                         Anthurium         Dermatitis [aerial parts]
                   pentaphyllum (Aubl.)
                          G. Don

                         Anthurium         Dermatitis [aerial parts]
                   schlechtendalii Kunth

                     Caladium bicolor         Dermatitis, diarrhea
                     (Aiton) Vent. **            [aerial parts]

                    Monstera deliciosa      Dysphagia [aerial parts]
                         Liebm. **

Aristolochiaceae   Aristolochia foetida      Hepatotoxicity [whole
                           Kunth                     plant]

                       Aristolochia        Abdominal pain, gastritis
                      grandiflora Sw.               [roots]

                       Aristolochia            Nephrotoxicity and
                      odoratissima L.        hepatotoxicity [roots]

                       Aristolochia          Nephrotoxicity [roots]
                      pentandra Jacq

                       Aristolochia          Nephrotoxicity [roots]
                     reticulata Nutt.

                       Aristolochia          Nephrotoxicity [roots]
                      serpentaria L.

Asparagaceae          Yucca filifera          Nausea and vomiting
                          Chabaud                [aerial parts]

Asteraceae            Acmella repens         Hallucinations [aerial
                      (Walter) Rich.                 parts]

                         Ambrosia           Gastritis [whole plant]
                     confertiflora DC.

                    Ambrosia peruviana        Neurotoxicity [whole
                         Willd. **                   plant]

                   Ambrosia psilostachya   Nausea and vomiting [whole
                            DC.                      plant]

                   Artemisia ludoviciana     Numbness, carcinogenic
                      subsp. mexicana            [aerial parts]
                    (Willd. ex Spreng.)
                         D.D. Keck

                       Barkleyanthus         Hepatotoxicity [whole
                   salicifolius (Kunth)              plant]
                    H. Rob. & Brettell

                    Conyza filaginoides    Nausea and vomiting [whole
                       (DC.) Hieron.                 plant]

                    Eupatorium odoratum    Nausea and vomiting [whole
                            L.                       plant]

                     Flourensia cernua      Hepatotoxicity [leaves]
                          DC. **

                        Gymnosperma            Sleepiness, muscle
                   glutinosum (Spreng.)        paralysis [seeds,
                         Less. **                   leaves]

                        Haplopappus         Gastritis [aerial parts]
                     gymnocephalus DC.

                    Helenium mexicanum       Gastritis and vomiting
                           Kunth                   [flowers]

                    Heliopsis longipes          Narcotic [roots]
                   (A. Gray) S.F. Blake **

                                                 Abortifacient,
                    Montanoa tomentosa        respiratory failure
                           Cerv.                 [aerial parts]

                   Packera aurea (L.) A.     Hepatotoxicity [aerial
                      Love & D. Love                 parts]

                   Packera candidissima      Hepatotoxicity [aerial
                   (Greene) W.A. Weber &             parts]
                          A. Love

                        Parthenium          Hypotensive, bradycardia
                    hysterophorus L. **          [whole plant]

                    Parthenium incanum     Nausea and vomiting [whole
                           Kunth                     plant]

                         Psacalium           Neurotoxicity [roots]
                     decompositum (A.
                      Gray) H. Rob. &
                         Brettell

                   Tagetes erecta L. **
                                              Gastritis [flowers]

                   Tagetes lucida Cav **         Abortifacient
                                                 [whole plant]

                   Zinnia peruviana (L.)          Eye irritant
                           L. **

Berberidaceae       Berberis moranensis      Numbness, nausea, and
                   Schult. & Schult. f.     vomiting [aerial parts]

                       Caulophyllum           Nausea and vomiting,
                    thalictroides (L.)        gastritis [seeds and
                         Michx. **                   roots]

                                                 Altered mental
                                               states, tachypnea,
                                                   peripheral
                    Podophyllumpeltatum        neuropathy, nausea
                           L. **                 and vomiting,
                                                hypotension, and
                                              fever [whole plant]

Bignoniaceae         Crescentia alata              Vomiting,
                           Kunth                 abdominal pain
                                                    [ fruit]

                   Crescentia cujete L.      Abortifacient, severe
                            **                 diarrhea [fruits]

Boraginaceae       Cordia dentata Poir.     Severe diarrhea [fruits]
                            **

                       Heliotropium         Hepatitis [whole plant]
                      curassavicum L.

Bromeliaceae        Bromelia pinguin L.       Dermatitis [fruits]

                   Bromelia plumieri (E.      Dermatitis [fruits]
                     Morren) L.B. Sm.

Cactaceae          Cereus marginatus DC.     Cardiotoxicity [aerial
                                                     parts]

                        Coryphantha           Sedation in tongue
                    pycnacantha (Mart.)             [fruit]
                           Lem.

                   Lophophora williamsii     Hallucinations [whole
                    (Lem. ex Salm-Dyck)              plant]
                        J.M. Coult.

Campanulaceae      Lobelia cardinalis L.          Hypothermia,
                                            vomiting, abdominal pain
                                                 [aerial parts]

                   Lobelia inflata L. **   Hypotension [whole plant]

Canellaceae          Canella winterana      Edema, hemorrhage [whole
                       (L.) Gaertn.                  plant]

Caprifoliaceae     Lonicera periclymenum       Cardiotoxicity and
                            L.               neurotoxicity [fruits]

                                              Nausea and vomiting,
                   Symphoricarpos albus      abdominal pain [whole
                      (L.) S.F. Blake                plant]

Celastraceae       Celastrus scandens L.     Gastritis, nausea and
                                           vomiting, diarrhea [fruit]

                         Euonymus               Vomiting [bark]
                    atropurpureus Jacq.

Commelinaceae        Commelina elegans      Edema, dermatitis [whole
                           Kunth                     plant]

                       Tradescantia             Skin burns [sap]
                       spathacea Sw.

Convulvulaceae      Ipomoea murucoides          Gastritis [bark]
                      Roem. & Schult.

                       Ipomoea purga         Vomiting and abdominal
                      (Wender.) Hayne             pain [roots]

                    Ipomoea stans Cav.       Neurotoxicity [roots]

                   Ipomoea tricolor Cav.     Hallucinations [aerial
                                                     parts]

                     Turbina corymbosa       Hallucinations [seeds]
                         (L.) Raf.

Coriariaceae        Coriaria ruscifolia      Hallucinations [aerial
                            L.                       parts]

Cucurbitaceae      Apodanthera undulata      Vomiting and abdominal
                          A. Gray            pain [roots and seeds]

Dioscoreaceae      Dioscorea floribunda      Abortifacient [roots]
                   M. Martens & Galeotti

Equisetaceae       Equisetum hyemale L.      Hepatotoxicity [whole
                            **                       plant]

Ericaceae          Arbutus arizonica (A.      Nausea and vomiting
                        Gray) Sarg.                 [fruit]

                      Comarostaphylis         Nausea and vomiting
                     discolor (Hook.)               [fruit]
                           Diggs

                    Kalmia latifolia L.          Neurotoxicity,
                                             cardiotoxicity [aerial
                                                     parts]

Euphorbiaceae      Acalypha monostachya        Skin burns [latex]
                         Cav. Cav

                    Adelia barbinervis     Dermatitis [aerial parts]
                     Schltdl. & Cham.

                        Cnidoscolus        Dermatitis [aerial parts]
                   chayamansa McVaugh **

                    Cnidoscolus souzae     Dermatitis [aerial parts]
                          McVaugh

                     Cnidoscolus urens      Hypotension, skin burns,
                      (L.) Arthur **       nausea and vomiting [whole
                                                     plant]

                          Croton              Gastritis, excessive
                    ciliatoglandulosus      salivation [whole plant]
                          Ortega

                     Croton humilis L.     Skin burns [aerial parts]

                   Dalechampia scandens    Edema, dermatitis [aerial
                            L.                       parts]

                   Euphorbia cotinifolia       Skin burns [seeds]
                            L.

                   Euphorbia hirta L. **   Skin burns [aerial parts]

                   Euphorbia maculata L.   Severe diarrhea, vomiting
                                                    [seeds]

                    Euphorbia prostrata    Gastritis, abdominal pain
                         Aiton **                [whole plant]

                                              Vomiting, diarrhea,
                   Euphorbia pulcherrima     abdominal pain [whole
                   Willd. ex Klotzsch **             plant]

                         Euphorbia         Irritation ofthe mouth and
                     tithymaloides L.       throat, vomiting [whole
                                                     plant]

                   Hura crepitans L. **        Skin burns [seeds]

                   Hura polyandra Baill.      Skin burns [latex] ,
                                              nausea and vomiting,
                                              gastritis [seeds and
                                                    fruits]

                   Jatropha curcas L. **     Dermatitis, vomiting,
                                            diarrhea [seeds, leaves]

                      Jatropha dioica             Dermatitis,
                         Sesse **               vomiting, muscle
                                                paralysis [stem,
                                                    fruits]

                   Jatrophagossypiifolia   Skin burns, abortifacient
                      L. ** Jatropha         [seeds, leaves] Severe
                      multifida L. **           diarrhea [seeds]

                     Manihot esculenta           Poisoning and
                         Crantz **           neurotoxicity [leaves]

                    Tragia nepetifolia     Skin burns [Aerial parts]
                           Cav.

                    Tragia yucatanensis    Dermatitis [aerial parts]
                          Millsp.

Fabaceae            Abrus precatorius L      Stomachache, diarrhea
                            **                   [aerial parts]

                    Andira inermis (W.          Vomiting, fever,
                   Wright) Kunth ex DC.       hypotension, mental
                                             confusion, respiratory
                                              insufficiency [bark]

                        Astragalus             Vomiting [leaves]
                     plattensis Nutt.

                        Caesalpinia              Dermatitis and
                     pulcherrima (L.)        neurotoxicity [Aerial
                                                     parts]

                        Calliandra            Dermatitis [leaves]
                   grandiflora (L'Her.)
                          Benth.

                    Calliandra molinae          Hepatotoxicity,
                          Standl.             hypotension [leaves]

                     Crotalaria pumila          Abdominal pain,
                          Ortega              nausea and vomiting
                                                 [whole plant]

                   Crotalaria sagittalis       Anoxia, gastritis,
                            L.              abdominal pain, blood in
                                              feces [Aerial parts]

                   Dalea bicolor Humb. &    Vomiting [aerial parts]
                     Bonpl. ex Willd.

                    Diphysa robinioides       Nausea and vomiting
                          Benth.                    [leaves]

                    Entada polystachya     Abdominal pain and severe
                         (L.) DC.              diarrhea [Fruits]

                       Enterolobium           Severe diarrhea and
                    cyclocarpum (Jacq.)      abdominal pain [Aerial
                        Griseb. **                   parts]

                    Erythrina americana         Immobilization,
                          Mill **               hypotension, and
                                             respiratory paralysis
                                                    [seeds]

                   Erythrina standleyana   Somnolence, vomit [aerial
                          Krukoff                    parts]

                     Gliricidia sepium        Nausea and vomiting
                   (Jacq.) Kunth ex Walp     [roots, leaves, seeds]

                   Indigofera microcarpa    Severe diarrhea [leaves]
                           Desv.

                        Indigofera          Severe diarrhea [leaves]
                   suffruticosa Mill. **

                    Leucaena esculenta        Nausea and vomiting
                   (Moc. & Sesse ex DC.)            [seeds]
                          Benth.

                    Myroxylon pereirae         Allergies, contact
                    (Royle) Klotzsch **     urticaria and dermatitis
                                                    [resin]

                   Phaseolus lunatus L.     Seizures, immobilization
                                                 [whole plant]

                    Prosopis juliflora        Nausea and vomiting
                         (Sw.) DC.                  [seeds]

                                                   Anorexia,
                   Robinia pseudoacacia      hypothermia, dyspnoea
                            L.              [bark, leaves and seeds]

                   Senna multiglandulosa     Abortifacient [fruit]
                   (Jacq.) H.S. Irwin &
                          Barneby

                    Senna occidentalis     Gastritis, dermatitis, and
                       (L.) Link **          conjunctivitis [fruit]

Garryaceae          Garrya ovata Benth.     Muscle paralysis [ bark]

Gelsemiaceae             Gelsemium             Sedative, vertigo,
                   sempervirens (L.) J.       hypotension, blurred
                        St.-Hil. **           vision [whole plant]

Gesneriaceae        Moussonia deppeana       Abortifacient [aerial
                    (Schltdl. & Cham.)               parts]
                         Hanst. **

Lamiaceae           Hedeoma drummondii        Abortifacient [whole
                          Benth.                     plant]

                    Hedeoma pulegioides      Abortifacient, kidney
                        (L.) Pers.          toxicity [aerial parts]

                   Salvia leucantha Cav      Abortifacient [aerial
                                                     parts]

                     Satureja brownei         Nausea and vomiting,
                        (Sw.) Briq.           dermatitis, bleeding
                                                 [whole plant]

                        Scutellaria            Giddiness, stupor,
                      lateriflora L.        confusion, twitching of
                                           the limbs, intermission of
                                            the pulse [whole plant]

Loasaceae            Mentzelia hispida          Vomiting [resin]
                          Willd.

Loranthaceae           Psittacanthus       Nausea and vomiting [whole
                   calyculatus (DC.) G.              plant]
                          Don **

Lythraceae          Cuphea aequipetala        Numbness, nausea and
                          Cav. **           vomiting [aerial parts]

Magnoliaceae       Magnolia grandiflora       Dermatitis [leaves]
                           L. **

Malpighiaceae       Malpighia glabra L.       Dermatitis [fruits]

Malvaceae          Ceiba pentandra (L.)        Dermatitis [seeds]
                        Gaertn. **

                      Tilia mexicana        Hepatotoxicity [flower]
                        Schltdl. **

Marantaceae        Thalia geniculata L.     Edema, gastritis [aerial
                                                     parts]

Martyniaceae       Martynia annua L. **       Nausea and vomiting
                                                    [seeds]

Melanthiaceae      Veratrum californicum      Neurotoxicity [whole
                         Durand **                   plant]

                    Trillium erectum L.       Skin burns [leaves]

Menispermaceae     Menispermum canadense    Cardiotoxicity [fruits]
                            L.

Myrtaceae           Pimenta dioica (L.)       Neurotoxicity [whole
                         Merr. **                    plant]

Nartheciaceae       Aletris farinosa L.      Narcotic [whole plant]

Nyctaginacea       Mirabilis jalapa L **   Severe diarrhea [roots and
                                                     seeds]

Oxalidaceae        Oxalis alpina (Rose)     Poisoning [whole plant]
                     Rose ex R. Knuth

Papaveraceae       Argemone mexicana L.    Dermatitis, abortifacient
                            **                   immobilizing,
                                              neurotoxicity [whole
                                                     plant]

                        Sanguinaria             Narcotic [root]
                     canadensis L. **

Passifloraceae      Passiflora caerulea       Nausea and vomiting,
                            L.                 dizziness [flower]

                     Passiflora edulis     Hallucinations, dizziness,
                          Sims **          confusion, ataxia, nausea
                                           and vomiting, drowsiness,
                                           and tachycardia; [flower]

                        Passiflora            Nausea and vomiting,
                     quadrangularis L.       dizziness [leaves and
                                                     seeds]

Petiveriaceae      Rivina humilis L. **       Nausea and vomiting,
                                             abdominal pain [whole
                                                     plant]

Phytolaccaceae     Phytolacca americana      Blurred vision, vomit,
                            L.               vertigo [whole plant]

                   Phytolacca icosandra    Blurred vision, vomiting,
                           L. **                    [roots]

                   Phytolacca rivinoides     Blurred vision, vomit,
                    Kunth & C.D. Boucho      vertigo [whole plant]

Plantaginaceae     Scoparia dulcis L. **         Hepatotoxicity
                                                 [whole plant]

Plumbaginaceae      Plumbago pulchella        Skin burns, vomiting
                          Boiss.                 [whole plant]

                          Monnina                  Nausea and
                   schlechtendaliana D.         vomiting [fruit]
                          Dietr.

Polygalaceae        Polygala senega L.         Gastritis [roots]

                    Rumex hymenosepalus     Vomiting, abdominal pain
                         Torr. **                [Aerial parts]

Ranunculaceae        Actaea alba (L.)         Headache, vomiting,
                           Mill.             delirium, circulatory
                                             failure [whole plant]

                   Actaea rubra (Aiton)    Vomiting, abdominal pain,
                          Willd.             salivation [fruits and
                                                     roots]

                   Anemone canadensis L.     Salivation, abdominal
                                              pain, and salivation
                                                 [whole plant]

                    Cimicifuga racemosa    Vomiting, abdominal pain
                       (L.) Nutt. **                [fruit]

                    Clematis dioica L.        Skin burns [leaves]

                    Clematis virginiana      Dizziness, confusion,
                            L.                 profuse salivation
                                                    [leaves]

                   Hydrastis canadensis     Gastritis, abortifacient
                           L. **                   [rhizome]

                    Ranunculus geoides       Skin burns [seeds and
                   Humb. Bonpl. & Kunth             fruits]
                           ex DC

                        Thalictrum         Nausea and vomiting [whole
                    strigillosum Hemsl.              plant]

Rhamnaceae              Karwinskia              Immobilization,
                       humboldtiana          abortifacient [fruit]
                    (Schult.) Zucc. **

                     Karwinskia mollis      Immobilization [ fruit]
                         Schltdl.

                   Rhamnus kcalifornica    Gastritis [fruit and bark]
                          Eschsch

Rosaceae           Prunus serotina Ehrh.   Spasm, nausea and vomiting
                                               [leaves and seeds]

Rubarwiaceae            Carapichea         Rhinitis or asthma [whole
                    ipecacuanha (Brot.)              plant]
                       L. Andersson

                       Cephalanthus        Vomiting, seizures, anemia
                      occidentalis L.                [bark]

                    Cinchona pubescens     Hypoglycemia, hematologic
                          Vahl **            disorders, urticaria,
                                            contact dermatitis, and
                                             other hypersensitivity
                                                   reactions.

Rutaceae            Casimiroa edulis La      Hepatotoxicity, peptic
                      Llave & Lex. **          ulcer, hypotensive
                                                    [leaves]

                   Ruta chalepensis L. **  Dermatitis, abortifacient
                                                 [aerial parts]

                    Zanthoxylum fagara         Narcotic [leaves]
                        (L.) Sarg.

Santalaceae            Phoradendron           Nausea and vomiting
                     bolleanum (Seem.)         [leaves and seeds]
                          Eichler

                       Phoradendron           Nausea and vomiting,
                   quadrangulare (Kunth)   dehydration [aerial parts]
                          Griseb.

                       Phoradendron           Nausea and vomiting,
                   serotinum (Raf.) M.C.        abdominal pain,
                        Johnst. **         dehydration [aerial parts]

Sapindaceae         Sapindus saponaria         Skin burns [seeds]
                           L. **

Sapotaceae            Pouteria sapota         Nausea and vomiting,
                   (Jacq.) H.E. Moore &        dizziness [seeds]
                         Stearn **

Scrophulariaceae         Buddleja            Neurotoxicity [seeds]
                   marrubiifolia Benth.

Simaroubaceae        Picrasma excelsa         Hypotension [ bark]
                       (Sw.) Planch.

                     Castela tortuosa        Hepatotoxicity [stem]
                          Liebm.

Smilacaceae               Smilax            Gastritis [whole plant]
                     aristolochiifolia
                           Mill.

Solanaceae         Capsicum annuum L. **    Dermatitis by rubbing or
                                            gastritis, hemorrhoids,
                                              and colitis by oral
                                             administration [seeds,
                                                    fruits]

                   Cestrum fasciculatum       Nausea and vomiting,
                     (Schltdl.) Miers       dizziness [aerial parts]

                                             tachycardia, dyspnea,
                   Cestrum nocturnum L.      fever, hallucinations
                                                    [leaves]

                                              Narcotic, anorexic,
                       Datura inoxia            cardiotoxicity,
                        Miller. **               blurred vision
                                                    [seeds]

                    Solanum americanum       Dermatitis, vomiting,
                          Mill **          severe diarrhea, paralysis
                                                    [fruits]

                          Solanum           Dermatitis [whole plant]
                    elaeagnifolium Cav.

                    Solanum mammosum L.     Narcotic, cardiotoxicity
                                                    [fruits]

                   Solanum nigrescens M.   Immobilization [leaves and
                   Martens & Galeotti **             seeds]

                     Solanum rostratum     Dermatitis [aerial parts]
                           Dunal

                   Witheringia solanacea      Nausea and vomiting
                          L'Her.               [leaves and seeds]

Urticaceae         Urera baccifera (L.)    Dermatitis, edema [aerial
                   Gaudich. ex Wedd. **              parts]

                      Urtica mexicana      Skin burns [aerial parts]
                          Liebm.

Verbenaceae          Duranta repens L.        Nausea and vomiting,
                                               seizures [flowers]

                   Lantana camara L. **     Hepatotoxicity, nausea,
                                              and vomiting [aerial
                                                     parts]

                   Lippia dulcis Trevir.      Vertigo, hypotension
                                                 [aerial parts]

Zygophyllaceae       Larrea divaricata       Hepatotoxicity [aerial
                          Cav. **                    parts]

                     Larrea tridentata     Hepatotoxicity, nausea and
                     (DC.) Coville **       vomiting, abortifacient,
                                            gastritis [aerial parts]

Family                  Scientific name         Reference

                      Amaranthus spinosus          [5]
                             L. **

Amaranthaceae             Chenopodium              [6]
                      ambrosioides L. **

Amaryllidaceae        Allium glandulosum           [7]
                          Link & Otto

Anacardiaceae          Metopium brownei            [8]
                         (Jacq.) Urb.

                         Toxicodendron             [9]
                     radicans (L.) Kuntze

Annonaceae             Annona cherimola            [10]
                           Mill. **

Apiaceae              Conium maculatum L.          [11]
                              **

Apocynaceae          Asclepias curassavica         [12]
                              L.

                       Asclepias linaria           [13]
                             Cav.

                      Asclepias mexicana           [12]
                             Cav.

                           Asclepias               [5]
                         oenotheroides
                        Schltdl. & Cham

                           Asclepias               [5]
                      subverticillata (A.
                          Gray) Vail

                     Plumeria rubra L. **          [14]

                     Rauvolfia tetraphylla         [15]
                             L. **

                     Thevetia ahouai (L.)          [8]
                            A. DC.

                       Thevetia gaumeri            [16]
                            Hemsl.

                      Thevetia peruviana           [17]
                     (Pers.) K. Schum. **

                     Thevetia thevetioides         [18]
                       (Kunth) K. Schum

Aquifoliaceae          Ilex opaca Aiton            [19]

Araceae                    Anthurium               [8]
                     crassinervium (Jacq.)
                            Schott

                           Anthurium               [8]
                     pentaphyllum (Aubl.)
                            G. Don

                           Anthurium               [8]
                     schlechtendalii Kunth

                       Caladium bicolor            [4]
                       (Aiton) Vent. **

                      Monstera deliciosa           [20]
                           Liebm. **

Aristolochiaceae     Aristolochia foetida          [21]
                             Kunth

                         Aristolochia              [15]
                        grandiflora Sw.

                         Aristolochia              [22]
                        odoratissima L.

                         Aristolochia              [22]
                        pentandra Jacq

                         Aristolochia              [19]
                       reticulata Nutt.

                         Aristolochia              [19]
                        serpentaria L.

Asparagaceae            Yucca filifera             [14]
                            Chabaud

Asteraceae              Acmella repens             [23]
                        (Walter) Rich.

                           Ambrosia                [13]
                       confertiflora DC.

                      Ambrosia peruviana           [24]
                           Willd. **

                     Ambrosia psilostachya         [25]
                              DC.

                     Artemisia ludoviciana         [14]
                        subsp. mexicana
                      (Willd. ex Spreng.)
                           D.D. Keck

                         Barkleyanthus             [14]
                     salicifolius (Kunth)
                      H. Rob. & Brettell

                      Conyza filaginoides          [7]
                         (DC.) Hieron.

                      Eupatorium odoratum          [5]
                              L.

                       Flourensia cernua           [13]
                            DC. **

                          Gymnosperma
                     glutinosum (Spreng.)          [5]
                           Less. **

                          Haplopappus              [14]
                       gymnocephalus DC.

                      Helenium mexicanum           [15]
                             Kunth

                      Heliopsis longipes           [26]
                    (A. Gray) S.F. Blake **

                      Montanoa tomentosa           [27]
                             Cerv.

                     Packera aurea (L.) A.         [19]
                        Love & D. Love

                     Packera candidissima          [28]
                     (Greene) W.A. Weber &
                            A. Love

                          Parthenium               [29]
                      hysterophorus L. **

                      Parthenium incanum           [13]
                             Kunth

                           Psacalium               [30]
                       decompositum (A.
                        Gray) H. Rob. &
                           Brettell

                     Tagetes erecta L. **
                                                   [31]

                     Tagetes lucida Cav **         [32]

                     Zinnia peruviana (L.)         [14]
                             L. **

Berberidaceae         Berberis moranensis          [33]
                     Schult. & Schult. f.

                         Caulophyllum              [11]
                      thalictroides (L.)
                           Michx. **

                      Podophyllumpeltatum          [19]
                             L. **

Bignoniaceae           Crescentia alata
                             Kunth                 [21]

                     Crescentia cujete L.          [18]
                              **

Boraginaceae         Cordia dentata Poir.          [8]
                              **

                         Heliotropium              [11]
                        curassavicum L.

Bromeliaceae          Bromelia pinguin L.          [34]

                     Bromelia plumieri (E.         [8]
                       Morren) L.B. Sm.

Cactaceae            Cereus marginatus DC.         [13]

                          Coryphantha              [14]
                      pycnacantha (Mart.)
                             Lem.

                     Lophophora williamsii         [30]
                      (Lem. ex Salm-Dyck)
                          J.M. Coult.

Campanulaceae        Lobelia cardinalis L.         [4]

                     Lobelia inflata L. **         [35]

Canellaceae            Canella winterana           [36]
                         (L.) Gaertn.

Caprifoliaceae       Lonicera periclymenum         [11]
                              L.
                     Symphoricarpos albus          [11]
                        (L.) S.F. Blake

Celastraceae         Celastrus scandens L.         [11]

                           Euonymus                [11]
                      atropurpureus Jacq.

Commelinaceae          Commelina elegans           [8]
                             Kunth

                         Tradescantia              [8]
                         spathacea Sw.

Convulvulaceae        Ipomoea murucoides           [37]
                        Roem. & Schult.

                         Ipomoea purga             [15]
                        (Wender.) Hayne

                      Ipomoea stans Cav.           [38]

                     Ipomoea tricolor Cav.         [14]

                       Turbina corymbosa           [4]
                           (L.) Raf.

Coriariaceae          Coriaria ruscifolia          [33]
                              L.

Cucurbitaceae        Apodanthera undulata          [14]
                            A. Gray

Dioscoreaceae        Dioscorea floribunda          [8]
                     M. Martens & Galeotti

Equisetaceae         Equisetum hyemale L.          [39]
                              **

Ericaceae            Arbutus arizonica (A.         [14]
                          Gray) Sarg.

                        Comarostaphylis            [33]
                       discolor (Hook.)
                             Diggs

                      Kalmia latifolia L.          [11]

Euphorbiaceae        Acalypha monostachya          [14]
                           Cav. Cav

                      Adelia barbinervis           [8]
                       Schltdl. & Cham.

                          Cnidoscolus              [8]
                     chayamansa McVaugh **

                      Cnidoscolus souzae           [8]
                            McVaugh

                       Cnidoscolus urens           [24]
                        (L.) Arthur **

                            Croton                 [4]
                      ciliatoglandulosus
                            Ortega

                       Croton humilis L.           [8]

                     Dalechampia scandens          [11]
                              L.

                     Euphorbia cotinifolia         [24]
                              L.

                     Euphorbia hirta L. **         [14]

                     Euphorbia maculata L.         [4]

                      Euphorbia prostrata          [31]
                           Aiton **

                     Euphorbia pulcherrima         [40]
                     Willd. ex Klotzsch **

                           Euphorbia               [20]
                       tithymaloides L.

                     Hura crepitans L. **          [41]

                     Hura polyandra Baill.         [15]

                     Jatropha curcas L. **         [36]

                        Jatropha dioica            [13]
                           Sesse **

                     Jatrophagossypiifolia         [42]
                        L. ** Jatropha
                        multifida L. **            [43]

                       Manihot esculenta           [41]
                           Crantz **

                      Tragia nepetifolia           [44]
                             Cav.

                      Tragia yucatanensis          [8]
                            Millsp.

Fabaceae            Abrus precatorius L **
                                                   [4]

                      Andira inermis (W.
                     Wright) Kunth ex DC.          [36]

                          Astragalus               [26]
                       plattensis Nutt.

                          Caesalpinia              [18]
                       pulcherrima (L.)

                          Calliandra               [45]
                     grandiflora (L'Her.)
                            Benth.

                      Calliandra molinae           [46]
                            Standl.

                       Crotalaria pumila
                            Ortega                 [14]

                     Crotalaria sagittalis         [4]
                              L.

                     Dalea bicolor Humb. &         [14]
                       Bonpl. ex Willd.

                      Diphysa robinioides          [47]
                            Benth.

                      Entada polystachya           [4]
                           (L.) DC.

                         Enterolobium              [4]
                      cyclocarpum (Jacq.)
                          Griseb. **

                      Erythrina americana          [15]
                            Mill **

                     Erythrina standleyana         [8]
                            Krukoff

                       Gliricidia sepium           [24]
                     (Jacq.) Kunth ex Walp

                     Indigofera microcarpa         [4]
                             Desv.

                          Indigofera               [4]
                     suffruticosa Mill. **

                      Leucaena esculenta           [48]
                     (Moc. & Sesse ex DC.)
                            Benth.

                      Myroxylon pereirae           [49]
                      (Royle) Klotzsch **

                     Phaseolus lunatus L.          [4]

                      Prosopis juliflora           [4]
                           (Sw.) DC.

                     Robinia pseudoacacia          [4]
                              L.

                     Senna multiglandulosa         [33]
                     (Jacq.) H.S. Irwin &
                            Barneby

                      Senna occidentalis           [4]
                         (L.) Link **

Garryaceae            Garrya ovata Benth.          [26]

Gelsemiaceae               Gelsemium               [10]
                     sempervirens (L.) J.
                          St.-Hil. **

Gesneriaceae          Moussonia deppeana           [50]
                      (Schltdl. & Cham.)
                           Hanst. **

Lamiaceae             Hedeoma drummondii           [26]
                            Benth.

                      Hedeoma pulegioides          [19]
                          (L.) Pers.

                     Salvia leucantha Cav          [27]

                       Satureja brownei            [24]
                          (Sw.) Briq.

                          Scutellaria              [19]
                        lateriflora L.

Loasaceae              Mentzelia hispida           [14]
                            Willd.

Loranthaceae             Psittacanthus
                     calyculatus (DC.) G.          [26]
                            Don **

Lythraceae            Cuphea aequipetala           [10]
                            Cav. **

Magnoliaceae         Magnolia grandiflora          [51]
                             L. **

Malpighiaceae         Malpighia glabra L.          [19]

Malvaceae            Ceiba pentandra (L.)          [24]
                          Gaertn. **

                        Tilia mexicana             [39]
                          Schltdl. **

Marantaceae          Thalia geniculata L.          [8]

Martyniaceae         Martynia annua L. **          [18]

Melanthiaceae        Veratrum californicum         [11]
                           Durand **

                      Trillium erectum L.          [19]

Menispermaceae       Menispermum canadense         [11]
                              L.

Myrtaceae             Pimenta dioica (L.)          [19]
                           Merr. **

Nartheciaceae         Aletris farinosa L.          [19]

Nyctaginacea         Mirabilis jalapa L **         [4]

Oxalidaceae          Oxalis alpina (Rose)          [7]
                       Rose ex R. Knuth

Papaveraceae        Argemone mexicana L. **        [35]

                          Sanguinaria              [19]
                       canadensis L. **

Passifloraceae        Passiflora caerulea
                              L.                   [24]

                       Passiflora edulis         [39, 41]
                            Sims **

                          Passiflora               [24]
                       quadrangularis L.

Petiveriaceae        Rivina humilis L. **
                                                   [11]

Phytolaccaceae       Phytolacca americana
                              L.                   [52]

                     Phytolacca icosandra          [14]
                             L. **

                     Phytolacca rivinoides
                      Kunth & C.D. Boucho          [30]

Plantaginaceae       Scoparia dulcis L. **
                                                   [39]

Plumbaginaceae        Plumbago pulchella
                            Boiss.                 [14]

                            Monnina                [33]
                     schlechtendaliana D.
                            Dietr.

Polygalaceae          Polygala senega L.           [19]

                      Rumex hymenosepalus          [19]
                           Torr. **

Ranunculaceae          Actaea alba (L.)
                             Mill.                 [19]

                     Actaea rubra (Aiton)          [11]
                            Willd.

                     Anemone canadensis L.         [11]

                      Cimicifuga racemosa
                         (L.) Nutt. **             [19]

                      Clematis dioica L.           [10]

                      Clematis virginiana          [19]
                              L.

                     Hydrastis canadensis          [35]
                             L. **

                      Ranunculus geoides           [30]
                     Humb. Bonpl. & Kunth
                             ex DC

                          Thalictrum               [7]
                      strigillosum Hemsl.

Rhamnaceae                Karwinskia               [53]
                         humboldtiana
                      (Schult.) Zucc. **

                       Karwinskia mollis           [54]
                           Schltdl.

                     Rhamnus kcalifornica          [11]
                            Eschsch

Rosaceae             Prunus serotina Ehrh.         [7]

Rubarwiaceae              Carapichea               [19]
                      ipecacuanha (Brot.)
                         L. Andersson

                         Cephalanthus              [4]
                        occidentalis L.

                      Cinchona pubescens           [19]
                            Vahl **

Rutaceae              Casimiroa edulis La
                        Llave & Lex. **            [46]

                    Ruta chalepensis L. **         [18]

                      Zanthoxylum fagara           [26]
                          (L.) Sarg.

Santalaceae              Phoradendron              [55]
                       bolleanum (Seem.)
                            Eichler

                         Phoradendron              [11]
                     quadrangulare (Kunth)
                            Griseb.

                         Phoradendron
                     serotinum (Raf.) M.C.         [11]
                          Johnst. **

Sapindaceae           Sapindus saponaria           [24]
                             L. **

Sapotaceae              Pouteria sapota            [35]
                     (Jacq.) H.E. Moore &
                           Stearn **

Scrophulariaceae           Buddleja                [26]
                     marrubiifolia Benth.

Simaroubaceae          Picrasma excelsa            [35]
                         (Sw.) Planch.

                       Castela tortuosa            [37]
                            Liebm.

Smilacaceae                 Smilax                 [19]
                       aristolochiifolia
                             Mill.

Solanaceae           Capsicum annuum L. **         [35]

                     Cestrum fasciculatum          [10]
                       (Schltdl.) Miers

                     Cestrum nocturnum L.          [4]

                         Datura inoxia             [15]
                          Miller. **

                      Solanum americanum           [29]
                            Mill **

                            Solanum                [13]
                      elaeagnifolium Cav.

                      Solanum mammosum L.          [35]

                     Solanum nigrescens M.         [7]
                     Martens & Galeotti **

                       Solanum rostratum           [13]
                             Dunal

                     Witheringia solanacea         [47]
                            L'Her.

Urticaceae           Urera baccifera (L.)          [11]
                     Gaudich. ex Wedd. **

                        Urtica mexicana            [10]
                            Liebm.

Verbenaceae            Duranta repens L.           [4]

                     Lantana camara L. **          [52]

                     Lippia dulcis Trevir.         [18]

Zygophyllaceae         Larrea divaricata           [56]
                            Cav. **

                       Larrea tridentata           [37]
                       (DC.) Coville **

** indicates plant with toxicological information obtained from
preclinical or clinical studies.

Table 2: Evaluation of causality and exclusion of alternate causes
in clinical cases of medicinal plants from Mexico and Central
America considered as toxic.

Information of           Plant, way of        First symptoms (onset,
the patient (age,    administration, dose     in days, of the first
gender, country of   and part of the plant          symptoms)
residence)             consumed, time of
                        consumption if
                           indicated

9, M, Israel          Jatropha multifida         Vomiting, watery
                       Oral: >10 fruits           diarrhea, and
                                               abdominal pain (1 h)
                                                 Vomiting, watery
8, M, Israel                                      diarrhea, and
                                               abdominal pain (1 h)

20 children; 8-13      Jatropha curcas,               1-2 h
years old, India        Oral: 1-4 seeds

4, M, United           Conium maculatum
States of America    (piperidina 850 Ug/g       Drowsiness (0.5 h)
                          plant), ND

19, F, Turkey        Conium maculatum, ND       Headache, blurred
                                              vision, and difficulty
                                                 speaking (0.5 h)

5, M, India            Argemone mexicana     Abdominal pain, loos of
                           Oral: oil          movements and swelling
                                               throughout the body
                                                       (20)

                                                 Abdominal pain,
10, M, India                                   fever, and shortness
                                                  of breath (20)

2, F, Mexico              Chenopodium            Vomiting and CNS
                      ambrosioides, Oral:        depression (3 h)
                      oil 80 ml (1,560 mg
                          ascaridol)

64, F, United        Cimicifuga racemosa,     Painful nodules on her
States of America     Oral: capsules (80          left foot (ND)
                       mg/day/2 months)

54, F, United         Cimicifuga racemosa          Ulcers (ND)
States of America     Oral: capsules (80
                       mg/day/4 months)

57, F, United             Cimicif uga          Lethargy and fatigue
States of America       racemosa, Oral:                (14)
                       capsules (without
                     more specifications)

16, F, United        Podophyllum peltatum        Vomiting, watery
States of America     Topical; 20% of the    diarrhea, and abdominal
                       resin in tincture            pain (7 h)

18, F, United             Podophyllum                   ND
Kingdom               peltatum, Topical;
                      25% of the resin in
                      tincture (7.5 ml =
                            1.88g)

21, F, United            Caulophyllum                   ND
States of America      thalictroides, ND

40, M                 Thevetia peruviana                ND
                          Oral: seeds

25, F                 Cinchona pubescens                ND
                         Oral: leaves

75, F                 Cinchona pubescens                ND
                        Oral: infusion

20 patients: 9-50    Metopium brownie, ND              1-4
years old, Mexico

27, M, United         Larrea tridentata,         Vomiting, watery
States of America     Oral: 500 capsules          diarrhea, and
                      (3-7/day/10 months)      abdominal pain (ND)

13, M, Siri Lanka      Abrus precatorius         Vomiting, watery
                         Oral: 1 seed             diarrhea, and
                                                abdominal pain (5)

17, F, India          Abrus precatorius,       Gastrointestinal (4)
                        Oral: 10 seeds

28, F, India          Abrus precatorius,      Gastrointestinal (20)
                         Oral: 7 seeds

18, M, United        Datura inoxia, Oral:        Incoherences and
States of America            seeds              hallucination (ND)

Information of        Toxic effects        Clinical       Evaluation
the patient (age,       (onset, in      complications    of causality
gender, country of     days, of the                        (score)
residence)            toxic effects)

9, M, Israel         Gastroenteritis       Hepatic       Naranjo (5):
                           (1)             enzymes         probable
                                          elevation
                                           Hepatic       Naranjo (5):
8, M, Israel         Gastroenteritis       enzymes         probable
                           (1)            elevation

20 children; 8-13                    Vomiting (95%)           ND
years old, India                     Headache (40%)
                                     Fever (40%)
                                     Diarrhea (50%)

4, M, United         Central nervous          ND         Naranjo (6):
States of America         system                           probable
                       depression
                        (3 hours)

19, F, Turkey        Central nervous      Difficulty     Naranjo (5):
                          system          breathing        probable
                     depression (ND)

5, M, India          Epidemic dropsy          ND         Naranjo (6):
                           (ND)                            Probable

                                              ND         Naranjo (6):
10, M, India                                               Probable

2, F, Mexico          Multiple organ      Seizures,      Naranjo (6):
                       dysfunction        periods of       probable
                      syndrome (ND)         apnea

64, F, United           Cutaneous             ND         Naranjo (5):
States of America    vasculitis (42)                       Probable

54, F, United           Cutaneous             ND         Naranjo (4):
States of America    vasculitis (90)                       Possible

57, F, United           Autoimmune            ND          RUCAM (6)
States of America     hepatitis (21)                       probable
                                                           (Hepato-
                                                          cellular)
                                                         Naranjo (7):
                                                           Probable

16, F, United         Multiple organ     Neurological    Naranjo (6):
States of America      dysfunction       toxicity and      probable
                      syndrome (<1)      respiratory
                                        complications

18, F, United        Hypokalemia and     Hypokalemia     Naranjo (5):
Kingdom                 peripheral      and peripheral     probable
                     neuropathy (<1)      neuropathy

21, F, United           Nicotinic        Tachycardia,    Naranjo (5):
States of America     toxicity (<1)      diaphoresis,      probable
                                          abdominal
                                        pain, vomiting
                                          and muscle
                                           weakness

40, M                Atrioventricular   Hyperkalemia,    Naranjo (3):
                        block (1)        bradycardia       Possible

25, F                Atrioventricular    bradycardia     Naranjo (3):
                        block (1)                          Possible

75, F                 Multiple organ          ND         Naranjo (3):
                       dysfunction                         Possible
                      syndrome (ND)

20 patients: 9-50                    Erythema (95%)           ND
years old, Mexico                    Vesicles (60%)
                                     Papules (4%)
                                     Blebs (2%)

27, M, United         Hepatic damage          ND         Naranjo (4):
States of America          (ND)                            Possible
                                                          RUCAM (4):
                                                           Possible
                                                           (Hepato-
                                                          cellular)

13, M, Siri Lanka    Pulmonary edema     Early renal     Naranjo (5):
                     associated with     parenchymal       probable
                     hypertension (1)      disease

17, F, India            Idiopathic         Hepatic       Naranjo (5):
                       intracranial        failure,        Probable
                     hypertension (6)   hyponatremia,
                                             and
                                         hypokalemia

28, F, India            Idiopathic       Seizures and    Naranjo (5):
                       intracranial      respiratory       Probable
                     hypertension (4)      failure

18, M, United        Anticholinergic          ND         Naranjo (4):
States of America      intoxication                        Possible
                           (<1)

Information of         Amount of          Outcome
the patient (age,     information          (days)
gender, country of
residence)

9, M, Israel            Enough         Recovered (5)

8, M, Israel            Enough         Recovered (5)

20 children; 8-13       Regular          Recovered
years old, India                         (6 hours)

4, M, United            Regular        Recovered (6)
States of America

19, F, Turkey           Regular        Recovered (1)

5, M, India             Regular          Fatal (4)

10, M, India            Regular          Fatal (11)

2, F, Mexico            Enough           Fatal (3)

64, F, United           Regular        Recovered (90)
States of America

54, F, United           Regular        Recovered (90)
States of America

57, F, United           Enough         Recovered (14)
States of America

16, F, United           Enough        Recovered (120)
States of America

18, F, United           Regular        Recovered (90)
Kingdom

21, F, United            Poor          Recovered (1)
States of America

40, M                   Regular        Recovered (3)

25, F                   Regular        Recovered (2)

75, F                    Poor                ND

20 patients: 9-50       Regular          Recovered
years old, Mexico                           (ND)

27, M, United           Regular              ND
States of America

13, M, Siri Lanka       Enough         Recovered (3)

17, F, India            Enough         Recovered (21)

28, F, India            Enough           Fatal (4)

18, M, United           Enough           Recovered
States of America                           (4)

Information of         Alternate causes excluded       Reference
the patient (age,
gender, country of
residence)

9, M, Israel                       ND                    [43]

8, M, Israel                       ND

20 children; 8-13                  ND                    [57]
years old, India

4, M, United                       ND                    [58]
States of America

19, F, Turkey                      ND                    [59]

5, M, India           Thalassemia and sickle cell        [60]
                          disease (postmortem)

10, M, India          Thalassemia and sickle cell
                          disease (postmortem)

2, F, Mexico           Encephalopathy due to lead
                     poisoning and organophosphates      [61]

64, F, United                      ND                    [62]
States of America

54, F, United                      ND
States of America

57, F, United         Hepatic disease, serology of       [63]
States of America      negative hepatitis, normal
                         Antinuclear antibodies

16, F, United                      ND                    [64]
States of America

18, F, United         Previous cesarean anesthesia       [65]
Kingdom                      not discarded

21, F, United                      ND                    [66]
States of America

40, M                No cardiac history or vascular      [67]
                              risk factor

25, F                              ND

75, F                              ND

20 patients: 9-50              Poison ivy                [68]
years old, Mexico

27, M, United         Hepatic disease, serology of       [69]
States of America         negative hepatitis,
                       (cytomegalovirus positive,
                       abuse) ingestion of other
                     plants and history of alcohol

13, M, Siri Lanka      Organophosphate poisoning,        [70]
                      acute glomerular nephritis,
                     viral myocarditis, and dengue

17, F, India                      ND,                    [71]

28, F, India               intentional intake

18, M, United         Methamphetamine intake, and        [72]
States of America       intake of other unknown
                               substances

Age is given in years old; ND, not described; F, female; M, male.
COPYRIGHT 2017 Hindawi Limited
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2017 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Dominguez, Fabiola; Ruiz-Padilla, Alan Joel; Campos-Xolalpa, Nimsi; Za
Publication:Evidence - Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Date:Jan 1, 2017
Words:19149
Previous Article:Association between Nine Types of TCM Constitution and Five Chronic Diseases: A Correspondence Analysis Based on a Sample of 2,660 Participants.
Next Article:The Effects of Curcumin on Wound Healing in a Rat Model of Nasal Mucosal Trauma.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2020 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters