Printer Friendly

Mediating influences of entrepreneurial leadership on employee turnover intention in startups.

With the popularization of the Internet, there has been a wave of entrepreneurship in China. According to a report on China's private enterprise development, 150,000 private enterprises are established and more than 100,000 close each year (M. Huang, 2004). Further, 60% of private enterprises go bankrupt within five years, 85% close within 10 years, and their average duration is only 2.9 years (M. Huang, 2004). Daily, McDougall, Covin, and Dalton (2002) have shown that entrepreneurial leaders who can deal with an uncertain business environment are key to venture success. Entrepreneurial leadership is defined as an intersection of entrepreneurship and leadership (Zaech & Baldegger, 2017), and highlights the entrepreneurial behavior and capability that a leader needs to display in a turbulent environment, for example, seeking entrepreneurial opportunities, taking risks, and having the tenacity to put an idea into practice (Kuratko, 2007). Entrepreneurial leadership emphasizes leadership in new and small, rather than mature and stable organizations (Harrison, Leitch, & McAdam, 2015; Leitch, McMullan, & Harrison, 2013).

Previous researchers have been concerned with the effect of leadership on employees' work attitudes and behavior, such as organizational commitment (Gyensare, Anku-Tsede, Sanda, & Okpoti, 2016), job embeddedness (Erkutlu & Chafra, 2017), work-to-family conflict (Kinnunen & Mauno, 1998), and work-group identification (Azanza, Moriano, Molero, & Levy Mangin, 2015), as well as turnover intention (Alexandrov, Babakus, & Yavas, 2007; Eberly, Bluhm, Guarana, Avolio, & Hannah, 2017). However, few researchers have empirically investigated the mediating mechanism between entrepreneurial leadership and employee turnover intention in newly established enterprises.

Startups usually face a high risk of entrepreneurial failure (Ouimet & Zarutskie, 2014), internal and external uncertainties (Sommer, Loch, & Dong, 2009), lack of experience, a high degree of flexibility and motivation (Pellegrino, Piva, & Vivarelli, 2012), and limited financial and human resources (Romanelli, 1989). The organizational structure of these enterprises is usually flat, with few levels of hierarchy. In most cases, there is only one management level, with the founder as the chief executive officer. Therefore, these leaders need to pay attention to the emotional care of employees and establish their commitment to the organization. Unfortunately, owing to the harsh market competition environment, managers often respond to customer demands by working overtime and taking up employees' personal time, which may lead to family life conflict. The characteristics of entrepreneurial leadership, in contrast, are those of an authentic, charismatic, and transformational leadership style (Leitch & Volery, 2017) that is conducive to the remission of work-to-family conflict and the facilitation of affective commitment, which will greatly reduce turnover intention and actual turnover.

In this study, we aimed to establish a model of work-to-family conflict and affective commitment as mediating variables in the relationship between entrepreneurial leadership and turnover intention in startups. This study was a response to Chen's (2007) call for an examination of more significant contextual factors to better understand how entrepreneurial leadership exerts a positive impact on followers' behavior, and also to Leitch and Volery's (2017) call for an examination of a wider range of entrepreneurial and small to medium enterprise contexts (e.g., size, stage of development) of entrepreneurial leadership.

Literature Review and Hypothesis Development

Entrepreneurial Leadership

In comparison with leadership in general, entrepreneurial leadership is a relatively young field (Hitt & Ireland, 2017). As the Entrepreneurial Revolution has occurred throughout the world (Kuratko, 2007), the intersection of entrepreneurship and leadership (Zaech & Baldegger, 2017), entrepreneurial leadership, has emerged, bringing with it effective leaders who can adapt to the turbulent and competitive business environment (Gupta, MacMillan, & Surie, 2004; Ireland & Hitt, 1999).

According to Gupta et al. (2004), entrepreneurial leadership comprises five dimensions: (a) framing the challenge, which refers to the leader framing an achievable challenge to stimulate the team to go all out in their work (McGrath & MacMillan, 2000); (b) absorbing uncertainty, which involves the leader eliminating subordinates' uncertainty and building their confidence; (c) path clearing, which refers to the leader negotiating with related personnel, resolving resistance, and obtaining support to accomplish desired goals; (d) building commitment, which refers to the leader uniting and inspiring subordinates to commit to working hard; and (e) specifying limits, which refers to the leader pointing out subordinates' limitations and eliminating their misunderstanding of their abilities. Other theoretical and empirical findings (S. Huang, 2015; Qu, 2006) have confirmed the five dimensions of entrepreneurial leadership.

Turnover Intention

March and Simon (1958) defined turnover intention as the mobility of employee turnover reflecting the quality and quantity of their alternatives and their degree of job satisfaction. Voluntary employee turnover often results in great losses and repercussions for organizations (Mobley, 1982). Personnel uncertainty has an even more severe impact on startups in terms of future development. However, empirical researchers have shown that turnover intention has a positive relationship with actual turnover (e.g., Bothma & Roodt, 2013; Byrne, 2005), and is a determinant of actual turnover behavior (Muliawan, Green, & Robb, 2009).

A literature review indicates that most researchers are concerned with the relationship between various styles of leadership (e.g., transformational, ethical, authentic) and turnover intention (Azanza et al., 2015; Demirtas & Akdogan, 2015; Gyensare et al., 2016). For example, Gyensare et al.'s (2016) empirical findings showed a positive association between transformational leadership and turnover intention. Azanza et al. (2015) used structural equation modeling to test the mechanism between authentic leadership and employee turnover intention.

In this study, we have positioned entrepreneurial leaders as pivotal figures in a venture. By initiating vision, and mobilizing and obtaining commitment from employees, entrepreneurial leaders can inspire employees to create strategic value to promote better venture performance for the success of the startup. As employees would then be more reluctant to resign because of their affective commitment, this results in a low turnover ratio. Therefore, we proposed the following hypothesis:

Hypothesis 1: Entrepreneurial leadership will have a negative impact on employee turnover intention.

Work-to-Family Conflict

According to Greenhaus and Beutell (1985), when employees cannot balance family and work demands, and their work role interferes with their family role, work-to-family conflict occurs. Work-to-family conflict is "a form of interrole conflict in which the general demands of time devoted to, and strain created by, the job interfere with performing family-related responsibilities" (Netemeyer, Boles, & McMurrian, 1996, p. 401). Byron (2005) proposed that work-related factors such as hours spent at work, job stress, and supervisor support, are the main antecedent variables of work-to-family conflict. Empirical findings have confirmed this viewpoint. For example, Che, Zhou, Kessler, and Spector (2017) found that passive leadership was positively related to work-family conflict, Braun and Nieberle (2017) proposed that authentic leadership had a negative impact on work-family conflict, and Kailasapathy and Jayakody (2018) pointed out that although transformational leadership was negatively associated with work-family conflict, the relationship became positive when family supportive supervisor behavior was introduced as a mediator.

Entrepreneurial and transformational leaders are similar in that they both pay attention to reform and innovation, and look for new ways of working through intellectual stimulation, seeking opportunities from risks, and being unwilling to maintain the status quo (Wang & Liu, 2018). However, entrepreneurial leaders are likely to also operate as a social support resource for subordinates through different forms of support (e.g., instrumental, informational, emotional), from which subordinates profit. In addition, entrepreneurial leaders may act to prevent work-to-family conflict. Therefore, we proposed the following hypothesis:

Hypothesis 2: Entrepreneurial leadership will be negatively related to work-to-family conflict.

Work and family have always been most important in a person's life. However, they are not always compatible, and often create conflict leading to negative attitudes and passive behavior about work, such as job anxiety, job depression, and psychological distress, as well as increased turnover intention (Kossek & Ozeki, 1999; Mesmer-Magnus & Viswesvaran, 2005; Netemeyer et al., 1996). Prior researchers have indicated that work-to-family conflict is strongly related to turnover intention (Gutek, Searle, & Klepa, 1991; Kossek & Ozeki, 1999; Michel, Kotrba, Mitchelson, Clark, & Baltes, 2011). Thus, we proposed the following hypothesis:

Hypothesis 3: Work-to-family conflict will be positively related to employee turnover intention.

Many findings have shown that work-to-family conflict has a significant impact on organizational commitment (e.g., Anderson-Kulman & Paludi, 1986; Aryee, 1992). Kossek and Ozeki (1999) explored the relationship between work and family conflict and six work outcomes: performance, turnover, absenteeism, organizational commitment, job involvement, and burnout. Their meta-analytic results for the relationship between organizational commitment and work-to-family conflict showed that, in general, workers tended to have lower commitment when they experienced conflict of any kind between work and family roles. Therefore, we proposed the following hypothesis:

Hypothesis 4: Work-to-family conflict will be negatively associated with affective commitment.

Affective Commitment

Affective commitment is defined as employees' emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in, an organization (Meyer & Allen, 1991). Previous findings suggest that individual, organizational, and job-related characteristics are antecedents of affective commitment (Mowday, Porter, & Steers, 1982). Leadership is an organizational factor considered to be a key determinant of organizational commitment. Jackson, Meyer, and Wang (2013) suggested that transformational/charismatic leadership is positively associated with affective commitment, and laissez faire leadership is negatively associated with affective commitment. Entrepreneurial leaders influence subordinates' affective commitment by framing an achievable challenge and inspiring them to commit to working hard. Therefore, we proposed the following hypothesis:

Hypothesis 5: Entrepreneurial leadership will be positively related to affective commitment.

Affective commitment is one of the three organizational commitment dimensions (affective, normative, continuance; Allen & Meyer, 1990). Previous findings have demonstrated that affective commitment is the most consistent and powerful antecedent variable of turnover intention (Meyer, Stanley, Herscovitch, & Topolnytsky, 2002; Perryer, Jordan, Firns, & Travaglione, 2010). Joarder, Sharif, and Ahmmed (2011) examined the connection between affective commitment and turnover intention and found that affective commitment had a significant negative effect on turnover intention. A'yuninnisa and Saptoto (2015) examined the link between pay satisfaction and turnover intention through affective commitment with 150 staff in Indonesia. They found that pay satisfaction had both a direct effect, and an indirect effect via affective commitment, on turnover intention. Slugoski (2008) found that organizational commitment had the greatest impact on intent to stay. Therefore, we proposed the following hypothesis:

Hypothesis 6: Affective commitment will be negatively related to employee turnover intention.


Participants and Procedure

We collected survey data by random sampling, through Wenjuanxing, a market research website. We selected employees of Chinese startups that had been established within the past five years, with no more than 10 employees from each. We told the employees to fill out the survey form anonymously, and that we were collecting information for research purposes only. We restricted Internet protocol access and controlled answer time to avoid repeat surveys and to improve their quality. We collected 350 survey forms, with 312 deemed valid after the elimination of those without basic employee information, yielding an 89.1% effective rate. Of the participants, 61.2% were women and 38.8% were men; most were aged between 21 and 35 years (86.5%). In terms of education, 75% of participants had a bachelor's degree or above, and 25% had a college degree. Most companies had fewer than 100 employees (77.6%).


All the scales that we used are widely used research tools, with adjustments for this study. The scales were translated into Chinese, following the standard translation back-translation procedure (Brislin, 1980). All items were assessed on a Likert 7-point scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree).

Entrepreneurial leadership. We used 26 items from Gupta et al.'s (2004) study to measure the five dimensions of entrepreneurial leadership: framing the challenge, absorbing uncertainty, path clearing, building commitment, and specifying limits. Because the questionnaire was not designed for Chinese employees, we first conducted exploratory factor analysis, from which 17 items were reserved with four dimensions. Sample items are "Company leaders tend to set high standards of performance," "Company leaders have strong foresight and grasp of the company's development prospects," and "Leaders can inspire employees to achieve the company's goals." In this study, Cronbach's alpha for the four dimensions were .65, .75, .77, and .72, respectively.

Work-to-family conflict. From the two most used scales measuring work-to-family conflict, namely Gutek et al. (1991; Cronbach's alpha = .81 and .83 in two studies) and Netemeyer et al. (1996; Cronbach's alpha = .88 on average), we chose Netemeyer et al.'s (1996) four-item scale as it showed a stronger correlation with organizational commitment, which enhanced its predictive effectiveness. Sample items are "My work requirements interfere with my family and home life," and "Requirements from family members or spouse interfere with my work." In this study, Cronbach's alpha for this scale was .87.

Affective commitment. We used four items to measure affective commitment from Yao, Huang, and Fan's (2008) study. Yao et al. derived the items from the scale developed by Allen and Meyer (1990) and Ko, Price, and Mueller (1997). The items are "I'm glad to work in this company," "I feel like I'm part of this company," "I feel a sense of belonging in this company," and "I have a deep affection for this enterprise." In this study, Cronbach's alpha for this scale was .89.

Employee turnover intention. We used Liang's (1999) three-item single-dimension scale to measure employee turnover intention. The items are "I often want to leave this company," "I will probably find a new job next year," and "Recently, I have often wanted to change my job." In this study, Cronbach's alpha for this scale was .87.

Control variables. Previous findings have indicated that employee demographic characteristics (e.g., age, salary) and structural variables (e.g., number of staff, corporate tenure) have a noticeable influence on turnover intention (Griffeth, Hom, & Gaertner, 2000; Lee, Mitchell, Sablynski, Burton, & Holtom, 2004). We therefore controlled the following variables: employee age, employee salary, number of staff, and corporate tenure.

Data Analysis

We performed descriptive statistical analysis using SPSS 24.0, and used AMOS 24.0 to conduct confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and to test the hypothesized structural model.


Measurement Model Evaluation

We conducted CFA on the measurement models to test their validity and reliability. The results demonstrated that the indices were good, [chi square]/df = 1.43; goodness-of-fit index (GFI) =.90, comparative fit index (CFI) = .97, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = .96, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .03, (Hair, Anderson, Tatham, & Black, 1998; Henry & Stone, 1994; Hu & Bentler, 1999). Also, convergent validity was confirmed, as the standardized factor loading of observed variables was over .05 (Hair et al., 1998; Hulland, 1999), the average variance extracted (AVE) for each variable was greater than .36, which is an acceptable value (Fornell & Larcker, 1981), and the composite reliability of each variable was greater than .60 (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988; Fornell & Larcker, 1981; see Table 1). Finally, as the square root of the AVE for each construct was greater than the correlation between the construct and any other construct (Hair et al., 1998), discriminant validity was acceptable (see Table 2).

Structural Model Analysis

First, we used structural equation modeling to test the mediation model in which entrepreneurial leadership directly impacts on turnover intention. The results showed that entrepreneurial leadership had a direct negative effect on turnover intention ([gamma] = -0.55). Thus, Hypothesis 1 was supported. Second, we tested the partial mediation model in which entrepreneurial leadership partially impacts on turnover intention through work-to-family conflict and affective commitment. The results showed that the path between entrepreneurial leadership and turnover intention was not significant. Third, we tested the full mediation model, in which entrepreneurial leadership impacts on turnover intention entirely through work-to-family conflict and affective commitment. The full mediation model path coefficients ([gamma]) are shown in Figure 1. All paths were significant and supported Hypotheses 2 to 6. The results showed that entrepreneurial leadership had a negative impact on work-to-family conflict ([gamma] = -0.30) and a direct positive effect on affective commitment ([gamma] = 061) Hypotheses 2 and 5 respectively were therefore supported Entrepreneurial leadership had an indirect effect on turnover intention through work-to-family conflict ([gamma] = 0 11) and affective commitment ([gamma] = -0 77) Hypotheses 3 and 6 were thus supported Further we applied a serial multiple mediator model with a specified direction of causal relationship (Hayes 2012) The path coefficients between the causal flow of mediators (work-to-family conflict [right arrow] affective commitment; [gamma] = -030) supported Hypothesis 4

In summary, we found that the full mediation model indicated a good fit for all indices and that it had a slightly better fit than the partial mediation model (see Table 3). Thus, we judged the full mediation model to be the final model.


In general, when studying factors affecting employee turnover intention, both domestic and global researchers have concentrated less on the entrepreneurial leadership perspective and more on leaders' behavioral characteristics. Further, although researchers have explored how entrepreneurial leadership influences outcomes in mature enterprises, entrepreneurial leadership in startups has received little attention. Thus, we examined how entrepreneurial leadership impacts on employee work attitudes in startups. Our findings illustrate that entrepreneurial leadership negatively relates to employee turnover intention through the full mediators of work-to-family conflict and affective commitment.

Theoretical Implications

This study makes three contributions. First, we developed a model to explain the effectiveness of entrepreneurial leadership in relation to employee attitudes toward work. The model predicts that entrepreneurial leadership decreases turnover intention. Second, the model provides an understanding of the mediation between entrepreneurial leadership and turnover intention, that is, that entrepreneurial leaders fully influence employee turnover intention through work-to-family conflict and affective commitment. Although work-to-family conflict and affective commitment have been found to be related to turnover intention (Meyer et al., 2002; Perryer et al., 2010), few researchers have examined their mediating roles in entrepreneurial leadership. Third, we applied a serial multiple mediator model that assumes a causal chain linking the mediators, with a specified direction of causal relationship. The causal flow of the mediators (work-to-family conflict [right arrow] affective commitment) is not manipulated, but is based on a theoretical foundation. Therefore, our conceptual model is unique within the context of research on startups conducted in China.

Practical Implications

Currently a worldwide Entrepreneurial Revolution is taking place that is stronger than the Second Industrial Revolution was in the twentieth century (Kuratko, 2007). Our results have important practical significance for entrepreneurial leaders who wish to reduce turnover in startups. By revealing how entrepreneurial leadership influences employee turnover intention, that is, through the mediators of work-to-family conflict and affective commitment, we have shown that leaders should try to decrease work-to-family conflict and increase employees' affective commitment. For example, leaders can reduce occupying the time for family-related activities (Frone, 2003; Greenhaus & Beutell, 1985), and organize team activities so that employees enjoy the job and become emotionally attached to the enterprise (Mitchell, Holtom, Lee, Sablynski, & Erez, 2001).

Limitations and Directions for Future Research

There are the following limitations in this study: First, although we used Gupta et al.'s (2004) widely used scale, the Global Leadership Organizational Behavior Effectiveness program that they used was not originally designed to develop entrepreneurial leadership models, and thus lacks relevance. Although the reliability and validity statistics for all study variables were deemed acceptable, a specialized scale that addresses conditions in China is necessary for future research. Second, although we investigated the mediating roles of work-to-family conflict and affective commitment in the relationship between entrepreneurial leadership and employee turnover intention, there are also intermediary variables through which entrepreneurial leadership may influence employee work attitudes. Third, the impact of entrepreneurial leadership on employee turnover intention in startups should be examined longitudinally. This causal relationship cannot be clearly defined in our study because of the cross-sectional design. Future researchers can collect data at different points in time to provide additional support for model causality.


This research was supported by the project of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (71572154, 71472158, 71804119) and the Soft Science Research Project in Chengdu of China (2015-RK00-00040-ZF).


Alexandrov, A., Babakus, E., & Yavas, U. (2007). The effects of perceived management concern for frontline employees and customers on turnover intentions: Moderating role of employment status. Journal of Service Research, 9, 356-371.

Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 63, 1-18.

Anderson-Kulman, R. E., & Paludi, M. A. (1986). Working mothers and the family context: Predicting positive coping. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 28, 241-253.

Aryee, S. (1992). Antecedents and outcomes of work-family conflict among married professional women: Evidence from Singapore. Human Relations, 45, 813-837.

A'yuninnisa, R. N., & Saptoto, R. (2015). The effects of pay satisfaction and affective commitment on turnover intention. International Journal of Research Studies in Psychology, 4, 57-70.

Azanza, G., Moriano, J. A., Molero, F., & Levy Mangin, J.-P. (2015). The effects of authentic leadership on turnover intention. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 36, 955-971.

Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16, 74-94.

Bothma, C. F. C., & Roodt, G. (2013). The validation of the turnover intention scale. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 11, 1-12.

Braun, S., & Nieberle, K. W. A. M. (2017). Authentic leadership extends beyond work: A multilevel model of work-family conflict and enrichment. The Leadership Quarterly, 28, 780-797.

Brislin, R. W. (1980). Translation and content analysis of oral and written material. In H. C. Triandis & J. W. Berry (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology: Methodology (Vol. 2, pp. 339-444). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Byrne, Z. S. (2005). Fairness reduces the negative effects of organizational politics on turnover intentions, citizenship behavior and job performance. Journal of Business and Psychology, 20, 175-200.

Byron, K. (2005). A meta-analytic review of work-family conflict and its antecedents. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 67, 169-198.

Che, X. X., Zhou, Z. E., Kessler, S. R., & Spector, P. E. (2017). Stressors beget stressors: The effect of passive leadership on employee health through workload and work-family conflict. Work & Stress: An International Journal of Work, Health & Organisations, 31, 338-354.

Chen, M.-H. (2007). Entrepreneurial leadership and new ventures: Creativity in entrepreneurial teams. Creativity and Innovation Management, 16, 239-249.

Daily, C. M., McDougall, P. P., Covin, J. G., & Dalton, D. R. (2002). Governance and strategic leadership in entrepreneurial firms. Journal of Management, 28, 387-412.

Demirtas, O., & Akdogan, A. A. (2015). The effect of ethical leadership behavior on ethical climate, turnover intention, and affective commitment. Journal of Business Ethics, 130, 59-67.

Eberly, M. B., Bluhm, D. J., Guarana, C., Avolio, B. J., & Hannah, S. T. (2017). Staying after the storm: How transformational leadership relates to follower turnover intentions in extreme contexts. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 102, 72-85.

Erkutlu, H., & Chafra, J. (2017). Authentic leadership and organizational job embeddedness in higher education. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 32, 413-426.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 382-388.

Frone, M. R. (2003). Predictors of overall and on-the-job substance use among young workers. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 8, 39-54.

Greenhaus, J. H., & Beutell, N. J. (1985). Sources of conflict between work and family roles. Academy of Management Review, 10, 76-88.

Griffeth, R. W., Hom, P. W., & Gaertner, S. (2000). A meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: Update, moderator tests, and research implications for the next millennium. Journal of Management, 26, 463-488.

Gupta, V., MacMillan, I. C., & Surie, G. (2004). Entrepreneurial leadership: Developing and measuring a cross-cultural construct. Journal of Business Venturing, 19, 241-260.

Gutek, B. A., Searle, S., & Klepa, L. (1991). Rational versus gender role explanations for work-family conflict. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 560-568.

Gyensare, M. A., Anku-Tsede, O., Sanda, M.-A., & Okpoti, C. A. (2016). Transformational leadership and employee turnover intention: The mediating role of affective commitment. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 12, 243-266.

Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Harrison, R., Leitch, C., & McAdam, M. (2015). Breaking glass: Toward a gendered analysis of entrepreneurial leadership. Journal of Small Business Management, 53, 693-713.

Hayes, A. F. (2012). PROCESS: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling [White paper]. Retrieved from

Henry, J. W., & Stone, R. W. (1994). A structural equation model of end-user satisfaction with a computer-based medical information system. Information Resources Management Journal, 7, 21-33.

Hitt, M., & Ireland, R. D. (2017). The intersection of entrepreneurship and strategic management research. In D. L. Sexton & H. Landstrom (Eds.), The Blackwell handbook of entrepreneurship (pp. 45-63). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

Hu, L.-T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6, 1-55.

Huang, M. F. Z. B. (2004). Chinese private enterprises development report No. 1 (2004) (with SSDB CD) [In Chinese]. Beijing, China, Social Science Literature Press.

Huang, S. L. (2015). The influence of entrepreneurial leadership on the performance of start-ups [In Chinese] (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.

Hulland, J. (1999). Use of partial least squares (PLS) in strategic management research: A review of four recent studies. Strategic Management Journal, 20, 195-204.

Ireland, R. D., & Hitt, M. A. (1999). Achieving and maintaining strategic competitiveness in the 21st century: The role of strategic leadership. Academy of Management Perspectives, 13, 43-57.

Jackson, T. A., Meyer, J. P., & Wang, X.-H. (2013). Leadership, commitment, and culture: A meta-analysis. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 20, 84-106.

Joarder, M. H. R., Sharif, M. Y., & Ahmmed, K. (2011). Mediating role of affective commitment in HRM practices and turnover intention relationship: A study in a developing context. Business and Economics Research Journal, 2, 135-158. Retrieved from

Kailasapathy, P., & Jayakody, J. A. S. K. (2018). Does leadership matter? Leadership styles, family supportive supervisor behaviour and work interference with family conflict. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 29, 3033-3067.

Kinnunen, U., & Mauno, S. (1998). Antecedents and outcomes of work-family conflict among employed women and men in Finland. Human Relations, 51, 157-177.

Ko, J.-W., Price, J. L., & Mueller, C. W. (1997). Assessment of Meyer and Allen's three-component model of organizational commitment in South Korea. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 961-973.

Kossek, E. E., & Ozeki, C. (1999). Bridging the work-family policy and productivity gap: A literature review. Community, Work & Family, 2, 7-32.

Kuratko, D. F. (2007). Entrepreneurial leadership in the 21st century: Guest editor's perspective. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 13, 1-11.

Lee, T. W., Mitchell, T. R., Sablynski, C. J., Burton, J. P., & Holtom, B. C. (2004). The effects of job embeddedness on organizational citizenship, job performance, volitional absences, and voluntary turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 47, 711-722.

Leitch, C. M., McMullan, C., & Harrison, R. T. (2013). The development of entrepreneurial leadership: The role of human, social and institutional capital. British Journal of Management, 24, 347-366.

Leitch, C. M., & Volery, T. (2017). Entrepreneurial leadership: Insights and directions. International Small Business Journal: Researching Entrepreneurship, 35, 147-156.

Liang, K.-G. (1999). Fairness in Chinese organizations (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA.

March, J. G., & Simon, H. A. (1958). Organizations. New York, NY: Wiley.

McGrath, R. G., & MacMillan, I. C. (2000). The entrepreneurial mindset: Strategies for continuously creating opportunity in an age of uncertainty. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Mesmer-Magnus, J. R., & Viswesvaran, C. (2005). Convergence between measures of work-to-family and family-to-work conflict: A meta-analytic examination. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 67, 215-232.

Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1, 61-89.

Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. J., Herscovitch, L., & Topolnytsky, L. (2002). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: A meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61, 20-52.

Michel, J. S., Kotrba, L. M., Mitchelson, J. K., Clark, M. A., & Baltes, B. B. (2011). Antecedents of work-family conflict: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32, 689-725.

Mitchell, T. R., Holtom, B. C., Lee, T. W., Sablynski, C. J., & Erez, M. (2001). Why people stay: Using job embeddedness to predict voluntary turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 44, 1102-1121.

Mobley, W. H. (1982). Employee turnover, causes, consequences, and control. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Mowday, R. T., Porter, L. W., & Steers, R. M. (1982). Employee--organization linkages: The psychology of commitment, absenteeism, and turnover. New York, NY: Academic Press.

Muliawan, A. D., Green, P. F., & Robb, D. A. (2009). The turnover intentions of information systems auditors. International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, 10, 117-136.

Netemeyer, R. G., Boles, J. S., & McMurrian, R. (1996). Development and validation of work-family conflict and family-work conflict scales. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 400-410.

Ouimet, P., & Zarutskie, R. (2014). Who works for startups? The relation between firm age, employee age, and growth. Journal of Financial Economics, 112, 386-407.

Pellegrino, G., Piva, M., & Vivarelli, M. (2012). Young firms and innovation: A microeconometric analysis. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 23, 329-340.

Perryer, C., Jordan, C., Firns, I., & Travaglione, A. (2010). Predicting turnover intentions: The interactive effects of organizational commitment and perceived organizational support. Management Research Review, 33, 911-923.

Qu, W. P. (2006). Entrepreneurial leadership and its relationship with entrepreneurial performance: A preliminary exploration of the entrepreneurial mode in Qingdao [In Chinese] (Unpublished master's thesis). Zhejiang University, Zhejiang Sheng, China.

Romanelli, E. (1989). Environments and strategies of organization start-up: Effects on early survival. Administrative Science Quarterly, 34, 369-387.

Slugoski, E. V. (2008). Employee retention: Demographic comparisons of job embeddedness, job alternatives, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment (Unpublished master's thesis). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

Sommer, S. C., Loch, C. H., & Dong, J. (2009). Managing complexity and unforeseeable uncertainty in startup companies: An empirical study. Organization Science, 20, 118-133.

Wang, H., & Liu, B. (2018). A literature review of entrepreneurial leadership and prospects [In Chinese]. Foreign Economics and Management, 40, 84-95.

Yao, T., Huang, W. B., & Fan, X. C. (2008). Employee loyalty in the service industry based on an organizational commitment mechanism [In Chinese]. Management World, 5, 102-114.

Zaech, S., & Baldegger, U. (2017). Leadership in start-ups. International Small Business Journal, 35, 157-177.

Juan Yang (1), Zhenzhong Guan (1), Bo Pu (2)

(1) School of Economics and Management, Southwest Jiaotong University, People's Republic of China

(2) College of Tourism, Sichuan Agricultural University, People's Republic of China

CORRESPONDENCE Bo Pu, Sichuan Agricultural University College of Tourism, No. 288, Jianshe Road, Dujiangyan, Chengdu, Sichuan 611830, People's Republic of China. Email:
Table 1. Means, Standard Deviations, Cronbach's Alpha, Composite
Reliability, and Average Variance Extracted for Each Variable

Variables                                           M     SD

Entrepreneurial leadership   Framing the challenge  5.45  1.04
                             Absorbing uncertainty  5.18  0.86
                             Building commitment    5.34  0.95
                             Specifying limits      5.06  1.06
Work-to-family conflict                             3.57  2.00
Affective commitment                                4.99  2.64
Employee turnover intention                         3.07  2.51

Variables                    Cronbach's [alpha]  CR   AVE

Entrepreneurial leadership   .65                 .69  .54
                             .75                 .75  .38
                             .77                 .77  .36
                             .72                 .67  .34
Work-to-family conflict      .87                 .87  .62
Affective commitment         .89                 .89  .67
Employee turnover intention  .87                 .89  .73

Note. CR = composite reliability, AVE = average variance extracted.

Table 2. Correlations and Square Root of Average Variance Extracted

Variables                                           A

Entrepreneurial leadership   Framing the challenge   .73
                             Absorbing uncertainty   .25 (**)
                             Building commitment     .35 (**)
                             Specifying limits       .26 (**)
Work-to-family conflict                             -.08
Affective commitment                                 .25 (**)
Employee turnover intention                         -.14 (*)

Variables                    B          C          D          E

Entrepreneurial leadership
                              .54 (**)   .60
                              .56 (**)   .51 (**)   .58
Work-to-family conflict      -.24 (**)  -.14 (*)   -.25 (**)   .79
Affective commitment          .51 (**)   .53 (**)   .43 (**)  -.40 (**)
Employee turnover intention  -.40 (**)  -.41       -.36        .42 (**)

Variables                    G          H

Entrepreneurial leadership
Work-to-family conflict
Affective commitment          .82
Employee turnover intention  -.72 (**)  .85

Note. Values in bold on the diagonal are the square root of average
variance extracted.

(*) p < .05, (**) p < .01.

Table 3. Fit Indicators for Hypotheses and Adjusted Model

Test                     [chi square]  df   [chi square]/df  GFI   AGFI

Criteria                                    <2               >.90  >.90
Full mediation model     486.77        341   1.43             .90   .88
Partial mediation model  535.67        339   1.58             .90   .88

Test                     CFI   NFI   TLI   IFI   RMSEA

Criteria                 >.90  >.90  >.90  >.90  <.08
Full mediation model      .96   .88   .96   .96   .04
Partial mediation model   .95   .86   .94   .95   .04

Note. GFI = goodness-of-fit index, AGFI = adjusted goodness-of-fit
index, CFI = comparative fit index, NFI = normed fit index, TLI =
Tucker--Lewis index, IFI = incremental fit index, RMSEA = root mean
square error of approximation.
COPYRIGHT 2019 Scientific Journal Publishers, Ltd.
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2019 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Yang, Juan; Guan, Zhenzhong; Pu, Bo
Publication:Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal
Geographic Code:9CHIN
Date:Jun 1, 2019
Previous Article:Adolescents' online anger and aggressive behavior: Moderating effect of seeking social support.
Next Article:Sibling relationship quality and young children's mental health in Chinese two-child families.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2022 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |