Maximize findings through diversity research methods.
Research has now become the main task of academicians. New knowledge will be explored and existing knowledge is developed through research. Research is not being carried out solely to get a degree, but has become a job to be done. Therefore, the skills in conducting research are truly needed by academicians. The type of research approach is a method or means used to achieve the research objectives. Types of research methods can be divided into two main parts as clusters of Pure Science and Social Science. However there are some areas of research that combines both methods and it is mentioned as the integration method.
Research is divided into various types and modes; according to the criteria and interests. In terms of purpose, research is divided into exploration, and development or verification. In terms of approach, the research may be in the form of longitudinal or cross-sectional. However, research in general distinguishes qualitatively and quantitatively. Figure 1 shows the relationship between research methods and cluster as well as the areas in their scope. Integration of both research methods are also used in some fields in clusters of pure science and social science for the purpose of enhancing the quality of research findings.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Each researcher should be aware of the importance of research methods and be able to use it as a strategy of effective research output. Creativity is needed to identify the appropriate tools and adapt them in a research. Apart from exploring the different conditions, the tool can also be used as a method to confirm the results obtained from a research. With the diversification of research methods and tools to ensure research results are also diverse.
Qualitative & Quantitative Research:
Quantitative and qualitative research contains the basic elements of the same, but using several different approaches. Quantitative research is usually associated with experiments involving numeric and statistical data. This method is widely used in research under the clusters of numerical and prototype-oriented pure science. While descriptive qualitative is a real life observation (naturalistic) and based on the understanding process of public perceptions. This method is often used in social science cluster. In the history of the development of science, both qualitative and quantitative aspects are interrelated and not separate from each other, for the purpose of science is to seek the truth. Separation occurs only when the development of Western knowledge in the mid 19th century, began to make the division of knowledge according to certain premises. Among others, concluded that the natural sciences is not the knowledge which has emerged as an distinct knowledge objectively, but it is a branch of philosophy that makes the qualitative aspects of metaphysics as a main goal (Ismail, 1995 & 2004). Science should be seen on the qualitative aspects of the loaded content, not only for technology products. Meanwhile, according to Zainal (2006), the West defines science as merely quantitative observations. Although qualitative and quantitative research plays a major role in the development of knowledge, but ironically scientists today do not make qualitative research as an option. This syndrome is likely to occur because of the quantitative research is said to be objective, while qualitative is descriptive.
Qualitative methods refer to the definitions, analogies, models or metaphors that characterize things. Qualitative method focuses on efforts to find and give evidence as well as non-numerical observations although there is evidence that refers to the statistics. This method is also more focused on efforts to provide details on the nature and the human condition with a broad overview of social action. Thus, qualitative research is not focused on the collection of information. Instead, this method seeks to obtain quality information to focus on small samples. Therefore, it is the responsibility of modern researchers to re-integrate these research methods. This is because the benefits of this research can only be achieved when it is viewed in two different dimensions, namely numerical and perception. For example, a product is said to be best when the quality is trusted by users as well as study after study is conducted to maintain the characteristics of excellence. This is to differentiate products from reputable companies compared with other companies that have still new brand in the market.
Research Methods and Tool:
Science is sometimes called pure science to differentiate it from applied science, which is the application of research to human needs. The branches of science are commonly divided into two major groups: natural sciences, which study natural phenomena, and social sciences, which study human behavior and societies (Science Made Simple, 2006).
Pure science in the Oxford Dictionary Online (2011), defined as a science depending on deductions from demonstrated truths, such as mathematics or logic, or studied without regard to practical applications.. Pure science is also known as Natural Science. Natural science is the use of scientific methods to study the real things on this earth. This field consists of Biology, Physics and Chemistry (Science Made Simple, 2006). Three approaches are commonly used to achieve the objectives of the study are simulation, analytical modeling and development prototypes / experiments. All three of these approaches has an interest and certain limitations. Operating costs also vary, so it is important in determining the type of approach taken by the size of the grant or the amount of provision available.
Qualitative research is a method of inquiry employed in many different academic disciplines, traditionally in the social sciences, but also in market research and further contexts (Denzin &Lincoln, 2005). Qualitative approaches based on 'quality'. It is descriptive and more to the explanation of ' the 'meaning' of matters under the study. It does not focus on the form of numerical data. It is less structured, open and more focused on the process. The scope of study covers a small number of respondents. Although there are differences between qualitative and quantitative, both are empirical research methods. All empirical research has basic similarities with the objective, systematic procedures, making comparisons, create descriptions, testing hypotheses, making causal explanation and critical analysis. According to the study specifications, researchers can select one of the problems and approaches, especially based on the scope of the study area that will be implemented. If the study involves a large number of respondents is more than forty people, the quantitative approach is more suitable. If we just choose a small number of respondents, for example five peoples and then qualitative approach is chosen. Six approaches commonly used to achieve the objectives of the study is content analysis, statistical data analysis, questionnaires, involvement with the respondent, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions.
OXADM Research Maximizes Output- A Case Study:
This study has used three different approaches to achieve the objective which are simulation, analytical modeling and experiments. Each approach has a purpose and also their limitations. For example, the simulation approach is to investigate and prove a concept of the ideal condition and the experimental methods should give the actual reading of a measurement. Analytical modeling was used to examine a study in the worst condition. Simulation approach is used when the experimental approach cannot be achieved may be due to the cost or the services provided. Analytical approach is used when the two other approaches are not able to reach such a scale with the size of the study is too large. OXADM device design is based on the functional approach which all the weaknesses of the original device is restored and new features have also been listed. OXADM design was developed based on the application of all the features to be embedded to the architecture that allows all the functions listed can be carried out. The purpose of analysis based on the number of unit sample and the condition of study that is suitable for the different methods is shown in Figure 4.
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
This investigation began with an understanding of the ring and mesh networking and FTTH distribution network users. Features, advantages and disadvantages of OADM and OXC in the network are examined. Based on the weaknesses of the devices, a new device intended to improve and enhance the performance of data transmission as well as added some exciting new features to meet specific needs. Characterization of a new device is done by simulation and experimentally. The same method was also performed on the metropolitan ring network using this device as an optical distribution node. Two modeling methods were used to analyze the parameters in the study of this dissertation. The first modeling software to characterize OptiSystem version 4 network point to point, ring, mesh and OXADM single device. The second is the analytical modeling using MATLAB version 6. It includes studies of penalties authorized, the signal-to-noise ratio optical (OSNR) and the limitations OXADM device in a ring network. Characterization performed on the prototype hardware device OXADM to get the actual insertion loss and OSNR of each function of OXADM. Characterization tests are also carried out continuous signals and digital signals to test security systems for measuring OXADM dissipation and system BER performance to support the results obtained by simulation. The characterization is performed using an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) and an tunable laser source (TLS).
To ensure that the output is a maximum, the MDA has been practiced in this study. Research is seen in various forms, and assisted by the approach used to produce the different sub-investigation. Each sub-research is to yielding at least one instance income journal. Figure 5 shows the sub-breaking research to help in diversifying the research findings according to the approach used.
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
The success of a vision and prosperity of a country depends on the technology resulting from research. Quality research is an important asset that can contribute to the quality of life. The qualities of the research are expressed in terms that describe the impact of the research to other research. To improve the citation is essential to produce a variety of research output. This can be achieved with the implementation of effective research methods.
Denzin, N.K. and Y.S. Lincoln, 2005. The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, California, USA.
Ismail, M.R., 1995. Sejarah Aritmetik dan Aljabar Islam. Universiti Pertanian Malaysia., Selangor, Malaysia.
Ismail, M.R., 2004. Matematik Merentas Tamadun. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Oxford Dictionaries Online, 2011. Pure Science. http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/pure+science [accessed on 21st October 2011].
Science Made Simple, 2006. The definition of science: What is science? http://www.sciencemadesimple.com/ science-definition.html [accessed on 21st October 2011].
Zainal, B., 2006. Peluang-peluang Penyelidikan Kualitatif Dalam Ilmu Falak. Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
Corresponding Author: Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman, Research Advancement Strategic and Planning (RASP), Spectrum Technology Research Group (SPECTECH), Department of Electrical, Electronic & System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, MALAYSIA.
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel: +603-89216837; Fax: +603-89216146
(1,2) Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman
(1) Research Advancement Strategic and Planning (RASP), (2) Spectrum Technology Research Group (SPECTECH), Department of Electrical, Electronic & System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, MALAYSIA.
Fig. 2: Research approach and interest in the natural sciences cluster. Clusters Of Pure Science EXPERIMENT/PROTOTYPE SIMULATION ANALYTIC MODELING DEVELOPMENT --The most realistic --Characterization of --Done when the approach and impact the ideal conditions process of --High cost of that will be a benchmark characterization implementation and for other approaches by simulation suitable for --Used as a validation and experimental large-sponsored grants of the other approaches methods --Usually, for a small --Moderate cost of --Low cost of number of model implementation and implementation and development studies suitable for a suitable for a (less than 5) medium-sponsored grants small-sponsored --Usually, for a medium grant number of model --Usually, for a development studies large number of (less than 10 model development studies (more than 10) --Review the maximum level (boundary) system developed Fig. 3: Research approach and interest in the social sciences cluster. CLUSTERS OF SOCIAL SCIENCE Content Form analysis of printed materials or electronic media Analysis to produce content that is explicit in it and analyze them according to the understanding and knowledge of researchers that aimed to study of the terms, words, concepts, themes, phrases, or sentences in the media. Statistical A method for controlling and presenting data and Data Analysis statistical procedures. A data analysis is based on the hypothesis or research question set itself to be investigated. Typically, statistical data analysis is used after data collection. Questionnaires Techniques that use forms or documents to get feedback from the respondents. It is suitable as sources of information in various places and regions. Involvement of Reducing the gap between researchers and respondents Respondent which involves the participation of respondents in the research process In-Depth Is the most in-depth approach in providing Interview opportunities for researchers faced the problems on their own. Discussion Used to obtain an in-depth understanding about a Focused topic, such as motivation, behaviour, emotions, decision strategies, or opinions of certain people on an issue or topic. It aims to study a research topic, in-depth and intensively. It is a strategy to understand the participants or their attitudes and behaviours of consumers.
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|Title Annotation:||Original Article|
|Author:||Ab-Rahman, Mohammad Syuhaimi|
|Publication:||Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences|
|Date:||Nov 1, 2011|
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