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Maternal gambling, parenting, and child behavioral functioning in native American families.

Using data from a sample of 150 Native American mothers of a child 6 to 15 years old, this study examined the relations between and among mothers' gambling, parenting in the home environment, social supports, and child behavior problems. Respondents were recruited from a tribal casino on a Great Lakes Indian reservation. Results indicate that behavior problems in Native American children in the context of maternal gambling were associated with greater financial strain, less adequate parenting in the home environment, and the child's age. However, these results were conditioned by frequency of mother's gambling, amount of social support from family available to the mother, and child's gender. Implications of these findings for policy, practice, and future research are discussed.

KEY WORDS: casino gambling; child behavior problems; children's development; Native American mothers; parenting

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Since the passage of the 1988 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, Native American tribes have set up gaming operations in large numbers. Financial proceeds from these operations are enormous, reaching by some estimates as much as $14.5 billion (National Indian Gaming Association, 2005). Although increased revenues from gambling have benefited tribes (see, for example, Costello, Compton, Keeler, & Angold, 2003), problem gambling among Native Americans has increased, especially among Native American women (Volberg & Abbott, 1997).There is evidence that parental problem gambling has negative effects on children. For example, studies have shown that children of problem gamblers experience a loss of emotional and financial support and have inadequate coping skills, poor interpersonal relationship skills, and serious behavior problems (Custer & Milt, 1985; Darbyshire, Oster,& Carrig, 2001; Ladouceur, Boisvert, Pepin, Loranger, & Sylvain, 1994; Lorenz, 1987). However, because none of these studies included Native Americans in their samples, little is known about the associations between and among mothers' gambling, parenting in the home environment, and child outcomes in Native American families. Using data gathered at a tribal casino on a Great Lakes Indian reservation, this study attempts to reduce this deficit in the literature. Four questions were addressed:

1. Is maternal gambling associated with Native American children's behavioral functioning?

2. Are access to helpful social support and more adequate parenting in the home environment associated with children's behavioral functioning in Native American families in which mothers gamble?

3. Is the effect of maternal gambling on children's behavioral functioning moderated by mothers' access to helpful social support and more adequate parenting in the home environment?

4. Is the child's gender a factor in the relationships between maternal gambling and parenting and children's behavioral functioning?

We were also interested in the mothers' perceptions of financial strain because even though the casino has helped this Great Lakes tribe gain revenue, the tribe remains the poorest in the state (Jensen-DeHart, 1999).These issues were examined using the ecological theoretical perspective as an overarching framework.

THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS

Because Native Americans practice balance in their ecosystems and place a great deal of importance on human ecology through tribal structures, clan formation, and family interdependence (Good Tracks, 1973; Joe, 1989; Red Horse, 1980), the ecological theoretical perspective--encompassing microsystems, mesosystems, exosystems, and macrosystems (Bronfenbrenner & Ceci, 1994)--is particularly appropriate as an overarching framework for this investigation. More explicitly, some have posited that Native American children are born into two relational systems, a biological family and a kinship network such as a clan or band (Blanchard & Barsh, 1980). The first of these consists of a microsystem (for example, the home environment and family relationships); the second, a mesosystem consisting of processes between or among two or more microsystems, both of which contain the child (for example, the home environment and the kinship network). An exosystem consists of processes between or among two or more settings, only one of which contains the child (for example, the home environment is a microsystem involving both the child and the mother, whereas the gambling casino is a setting involving the mother, but not the child). In this study, influences of the broader cultural or socioeconomic environments--that is, the macrosystem--include the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, the reservation casino, and economic conditions on the reservation (including mothers' income sources and perceptions of financial strain). Concerning the latter, the Bureau of Indian Affairs has reported that unemployment on reservations is high (approximately 80%). As a result, more than 600,000 Native Americans live below the poverty line (Trosper, 1996).A number of studies have reported associations between financial strain, less competent parenting, and poorer child outcomes (Conger et al., 1992; Elder, Eccles, Ardelt, & Lord, 1995; Jackson, Brooks-Gunn, Huang, & Glassman, 2000; McLoyd, 1998). In addition, a recent study of Native Americans found that those who moved out of poverty because of the opening of a reservation gambling casino scored significantly higher on a measure of parenting adequacy and had children with fewer behavior problems than their counterparts who remained poor (Costello et al., 2003).

There is also evidence demonstrating an association between maternal social support and better child developmental outcomes, especially in low income populations (Alesch, 1997; Jackson et al.; MacPhee, Fritz, & Miller-Heyl, 1996; McLoyd & Wilson, 1991). Indeed, in one of a few studies of Native Americans, MacPhee and colleagues found that frequent contact with an interconnected web of kin was significantly associated with more competent parenting. Others believe that such support can serve as a protective factor in difficult social contexts (see, for example, McLoyd, 1990).

Given the evidence on parenting, social support, and child outcomes, we expected that more adequate parenting in the home environment and greater access to helpful social support in a sample of Native American mothers who gamble might be associated with fewer child behavior problems. There is also considerable evidence demonstrating an association between financial strain and less nurturant parenting and, thereby, less optimal child outcomes (Conger et al., 1992; Jackson et al., 2000; McLoyd, 1990). Given this evidence, we expected that the socioeconomic circumstances of Native American mothers might predict child behavioral outcomes as well. Because the ecological theoretical perspective posits that individuals interact with their environments and individual characteristics filter the experience of risks (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1988; McLoyd), we included two child characteristics in our analyses: gender and age. We included gender because studies have suggested that family processes and particular external environments differentially influence boys and girls (for example, Elder & Caspi, 1988; Jackson, 2003; Jackson et al.), age because younger and older children have different parenting needs (see, for example, Conger et al., 1992, 1993; Deater-Deckard, Dodge, Bates, & Pettit, 1998). (In the discussion that follows, Native American mothers and caretakers are referred to as "mothers" and Native American children are referred to as "children.")

METHOD

Sample and Procedure

Prospective respondents were 150 mothers with a child between six and 15 years of age who spent time (during May-June 2004) at a tribal casino on a Great Lakes Indian reservation. The tribe manages social services, natural resources, education, health, housing, legal issues, and the casino. Profits from the casino are used to fund tribal social services and educational programs. The first author (who is Native American) met with the tribal council and obtained permission to conduct this study. An elder tribal member was hired and trained as a research assistant to help in carrying out the structured interviews. We were stationed at a table near the casino entrance with flyers describing the study. Every woman who appeared to be older than 18 was approached. We introduced ourselves, described the study, and invited those who met selection criteria to participate. Informed consent was explained and questions were encouraged and answered. At the table near the casino door, respondents completed a questionnaire consisting of self-report measures and were paid $20 for their time. Inasmuch as Native American children are often part of two relational systems, a biological family and a kinship network (Blanchard & Barsh, 1980), the final sample included biological mothers as well as grandmothers and stepmothers who were primary caretakers. The inclusion of primary caretakers was considered culturally appropriate. Although no one who was approached refused to participate in the study, this must be considered a sample of convenience given that mothers who did not visit the casino during the recruitment times might be different from those who did.

Measures

Child Behavior Problems. Behavior problems were assessed with a 30-item Behavior Problem Index (BPI) developed by Peterson and Zill (1986) for children age 4 and older. Mothers indicated on a three-point scale, ranging from 1 = often true to 3 = not true, the extent to which statements such as the following described the child's behavior during the past three months: "bullies or is cruel or mean to others" or "is unhappy, sad, or depressed." Higher scores indicate more behavior problems. This scale--which has been used with Native Americans (see, for example, Oesterheld & Haber, 1997)--attained a Cronbach's alpha of .92 in this study.

Gambling Behaviors. Two scales measured gambling: the Pathological Gambling Diagnostic Scale (PGDS) and a measure of gambling frequency. The PGDS, developed by Stinchfield and Winters (2001) from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria for pathological gambling, is a 10-item measure of gambling over the past year. Response options are "yes" (score = 1) or "no" (score = 0). The 10 binary-coded items were summed to create a total score. A score of five or more indicates a diagnosis of pathological gambling (Stinchfield, 2003). The following is a sample question: "In the past year, have there been periods when you spent a lot of time thinking about past gambling experiences, thinking about future gambling ventures, or thinking about ways of getting money with which to gamble?" This scale attained a Cronbach's alpha of .87 in the present study.

Gambling frequency was assessed by mothers' answers to the following question: "On average, how often would you say you typically gamble at the casino?" Response options were 0 = hardly ever, 1 = once a month, 2 = 1-3 days a month, 3 = 1-2 days a week, 4 = 3-6 days a week, 5 = daily. A higher score indicated more frequent gambling.

Parenting in the Home Environment. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) is designed to measure the quality and quantity of emotional support, cognitive stimulation, and structure parents provide to a child in the home environment (Bradley & Caldwell, 1984).The self-report Mother Supplement version of the 24-item Middle Childhood (MC) HOME (6 to 10 years) and the 23-item Early Adolescent (EA) HOME (10 to 15 years) were used in this study. All items were recoded into dichotomous zero--one variables and summed to construct a total score. Higher scores indicated more adequate parenting in the home environment. Sample questions were "About how often do you read aloud to your child?" and "Does your family encourage your child to start and keep doing hobbies?" The HOME was chosen for this study because it is reported to be a useful screening tool for diverse populations (Bradley et al., 2000), was previously used successfully in a Minnesota Department of Health (2002) study of Chippewa Indians, and has consistently been found to be associated with child outcomes (Bradley, 1995). Although the Cronbach's alphas in this study of .52 for the MC HOME and .67 for the EA HOME were somewhat low, other studies have reported alphas of from .52 to .80 and .53 to .75, respectively, for the same scales (Bradley; Bradley, Caldwell, & Rock, 1988).

Social Support. Two social support scales were used. To assess emotional support from family and emotional support from friends, mothers were asked to respond "yes," "no," or "don't know" to 20 declarative statements regarding support received from family and 20 comparable statements regarding support received from friends (Procidano & Heller, 1983). Scale scores are the total of item scores, and higher scores reflected more perceived social support. Sample items included "My family (friends) give me the emotional support I need" and "My family (friends) are good at helping me solve problems" In this study, these scales attained Cronbach's alphas of .88 and .90, respectively, for perceived social support from family and perceived social support from friends.

Financial Strain. Financial strain was measured on a four-point scale developed by McLoyd and colleagues (1994) that asked mothers three questions: (1) "How often in the last 2 years to make ends meet have you borrowed money from family/friends to help pay bills?" (2) "How often in the last 2 years have you decided not to buy something you really needed because you couldn't afford it?" (response options ranged from 1 = not at all to 4 = a lot), and (3) "How difficult is it to pay bills lately?" (response options ranged from 1 = not difficult at all to 4 = very difficult). Higher scores indicated more financial strain. In this study, this scale attained a Cronbach's alpha of .83.

Background Variables. The following background variables were included in analyses: child's age and gender (0 = boy, 1 = girl); mother's educational attainment (five-point scale: 1 = grade school, 2 = some high school, 3 = GED, 4 = high school diploma, 5 = some education beyond high school; coded as 0 = GED/high school or less and 1 = greater than high school); marital status (married, cohabitating, or single; coded as 0 = not cohabitating, 1 = cohabitating, 0 = not single, and 1 = single); and household income (10 categories, coded as less than $5,000 or $80,000 and above). We reasoned that married and single mothers might be different; thus, we controlled for marital and cohabiting statuses in our analyses.

Data Analysis

First, bivariate correlations were conducted to evaluate relations among the study variables. To reduce the likelihood of multicollinearity, the independent and moderating variables and the interaction terms were centered (Aiken &West, 1991).Then, after controlling for the background variables, a series of multiple regression analyses investigated the relationships between and among mothers' gambling behaviors, parenting in the home environment, social support from friends and family, and child behavior problems, both additively and with tests of a series of interactions involving cross-product terms representing gambling times, respectively, social support, parenting in the home environment, and child's age and gender. The tests for interactions were conducted one at a time by introducing individual cross-product terms to the additive model .The multiple regression diagnostics suggested no violations of assumptions; that is, residuals were normally distributed, and a residual analysis revealed no apparent violations of normality, homoscedasticity, or linearity. Variation inflation factors of less than 2 suggested no multi-collinearity. An alpha of .05 (two-tailed) was used for all statistical tests.

RESULTS

Description of the Respondents

Of the 150 respondents, 110 were biological mothers and 40 were nonbiological mothers. The mothers ranged in age from 22 to 82, with a mean of 41.0 and a median of 40.0; the children (81 girls and 69 boys) ranged in age from 6 to 15, with a mean and median of 10.5. Close to a third of the mothers (27.3%) had completed high school; more than half (53.3%) had some education beyond high school, and, of these, 6.0% had a bachelor's degree. The majority were single (58.7%), 25.3% were married, and the rest (16.0%) were cohabitating. About one-fourth of the mothers had a total yearly household income of between $20,000 and $30,000 (26.0%). (Total yearly household income was reported as follows: 8.0%, $1 to $5,000; 15.3%, $5,001 to $10,000; 22.7%, $10,001 to $20,000; 26.0%, $20,001 to $30,000; 6.7%, $30,001 to $40,000; 8.7%, $40,001 to $50,000; 3.3%, $50,001 to $60,000; 3.3%, $60,001 to $70,000; and 6.0%, don't know.)

Descriptive Analyses

The analyses revealed that pathological gambling was associated significantly with more frequent gambling (r = .43,p [less than or equal to] .01), less adequate parenting in the home environment (r = -.29,p < .01), and more child behavior problems (r = .25, p < .01) (Table 1). Parenting in the home environment was associated with the social support variables and child behavior problems in the expected directions. Specifically, more adequate parenting was associated with greater access to social support from family and friends (rs = .25 and .37, ps < .01, respectively) and fewer child behavior problems (r = -.37, p < .01). As expected, higher household income was associated with less financial strain (r = -.24, p < .01); greater financial strain was associated, in turn, with less adequate parenting (r = -.23,p < .05) and more child behavior problems (r = .29,p < .01).

Multiple Regression Analyses

The multiple regression equations tested the additive and interactive effects of the predictors on the children's behavioral functioning (Table 2).The first equation (model 1) tested the additive effects on child behavior problems of the background variables (mothers' educational attainment and marital status; children's age and gender), the gambling variables, the parenting variable, the social support variables, and the economic variables (household income, financial strain). Because the gambling and social support variables were highly correlated (rs = .43 and .48, ps < .01, respectively), separate regressions for these variables were run to rule out main effects; the results were nonsignificant. Most of the cross-product terms, added one at a time to the additive model, were nonsignificant as well. Two achieved significance (gambling frequency x social support from family and gambling frequency x the child's gender) and are depicted in models 2 and 3.

Results in the additive model (column 1 of Table 2) demonstrate that 19% of the variance in child behavior problems was accounted for. Child's age, financial strain, and parenting in the home environment were significant predictors in this model. More explicitly, older children of mothers who experienced greater financial strain and who were less adequate parents experienced more behavior problems. The gambling variables were nonsignificant in this model. However, interactions involving gambling and, respectively, social support, parenting, and child's age and gender were tested, and although most were nonsignificant, two achieved significance.

Model 2 shows that the interaction between gambling frequency and social support from family, together with child's age, financial strain, and parenting in the home environment achieved significance and accounted for 24% of the variance in child behavior problems (Table 2). To better illuminate these results, a simple slopes analysis was conducted using variables of gambling frequency, social support, and childhood behavior problems from family interaction effect at low, average, and high values of each measure. These results indicate that more frequent gambling was predictive of more behavior problems in children of mothers who received less social support from family (Figure 1). Conversely, greater access to social support from family was a protective factor that buffered the relationship between mothers' more frequent gambling and child behavior problems.

Model 3 shows that the interaction between child's gender and frequency of mother's gambling, together with child's age, financial strain, and parenting in the home environment, achieved significance that accounted for 22% of the variance in child behavior problems (Table 2). A simple slopes analysis was again conducted at low, average, and high values of gambling frequency for mothers of boys and girls (Figure 2). Results indicated that boys had more behavior problems than girls when mothers gambled more frequently. Thus, being female served a protective (or buffering) function for children of mothers in this study who gambled more frequently.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

DISCUSSION

Using data from a sample of Native American mothers with a child between the ages of 6 and 15, who visited a casino on an Indian reservation, we examined the relations between and among maternal gambling, parenting in the home environment, and child behavior problems. We wondered whether access to helpful social support from family and friends and more adequate parenting in the home environment might moderate the possible negative effects of mothers' gambling on Native American children. On the basis of past research (and the ecological theoretical perspective), we also wondered whether child's gender might be a factor in these relationships. We expected fewer behavior problems in children of mothers who gambled less frequently, who had a network of supportive relationships with family and friends, who were higher on an indicator of parenting behavior, and who were better off economically. Some of these expectations were supported by the findings; some were not.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

The results revealed that children's behavior problems were predicted by greater financial strain (an economic circumstance), less adequate parenting in the home environment, and the child's age, not by gambling per se. This is consistent with earlier studies suggesting that financial strain is associated with less adequate parenting and less optimal child outcomes (Conger et al., 1992; Elder et al., 1995; Jackson et al., 2000; McLoyd, 1998), as well as with those reporting higher levels of behavior problems in older as opposed to younger children (Deater-Deckard et al., 1998; Farrington, 1997; Tolan, Guerra, & Kendall, 1995). However, even though the gambling measures were nonsignificant in the main effects model, in accord with our initial expectation, the relationship between mothers' gambling and child behavior problems was conditioned by the availability of social support from family (but not friends) and the child's gender in the interaction models. More explicitly, negative effects of frequent gambling on the children's behavioral functioning were moderated by the availability of social support from family (a protective factor). Our results revealed further that Native American boys might be more negatively affected by their mothers' frequent gambling than girls; in short, that in the present context being male was a risk factor, whereas being female was a protective factor. Again, these findings are consistent with studies cited earlier suggesting that family processes and particular external environments differentially influence boys and girls (Crijinen, Achenback, & Verhulst, 1997; Elder & Caspi, 1988; Furstenberg, Morgan, & Allison, 1987;Jackson, 2003;Jackson et al., 2000), as well as with the ecological theoretical notions that individual characteristics filter the experience of risks (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1988) and that the developmental influences of exosystems (in this case, the gambling casino) consist of processes between at least two settings, only one of which (for example, the home, not the gambling casino) contains the child (Bronfenbrenner & Ceci, 1994).

The finding in this study that gambling was associated with fewer behavior problems in children when their mothers had greater access to social support from family (that is, a mesosystem) is consistent with previous reports linking helpful social support to more adequate parenting in the home environment and the latter to more optimal child outcomes (see, for example, Elder et al., 1995; Jackson et al., 2000; MacPhee et al., 1996). It also is consistent with the notion--posited by some (MacPhee et al.)--that parenting behavior among Native Americans on reservations is often regulated by tribal members (see also Harrison, Wilson, Pine, Chan, & Buriel, 1990).

Surprisingly, social support from family and friends was not significant in the multivariate models in this study, although such support from family in combination with gambling frequency (gambling frequency x social support from family) was a significant predictor of fewer child behavior problems. Because many Native Americans believe that all tribal members are family, whether biologically related or not, it is possible that our measures of social support from family and friends were not sensitive enough to capture the distinction between family and friends in this population. Likewise, although correlational analyses showed a significant and positive relationship between pathological gambling and child behavior problems, this relationship also failed to achieve significance in the multivariate models. Recall that scores on the PGDS range from 0 to 10, with a score of 5 indicating pathological gambling. The average mother in this study--with a mean on this measure of 1.49 (SD = 2.28)--was not a pathological gambler. Only 11% of the mothers scored in the pathological range. Given that the present sample was both small and nonrandom, it is not known whether only nonpathological gamblers came to the casino on the days the data were collected, whether pathological gambling among mothers is not a problem on the reservation we visited, or whether the PGDS is not sufficiently sensitive to distinguish between pathology and nonpathology among Native American women. These are matters for future research using larger samples, multiple sources of data, and, perhaps, more than one reservation.

CONCLUSION

Some believe that on reservations, social support from family is routinely provided because of living arrangements that often include family members living nearby or in the home (Williams, 1980; Yee, 1990). In this study, there was variation in the mothers' perception of the amount of social support available to them from family. This variation, moreover, was associated significantly with the behavioral functioning of their children when they gambled more frequently, whether pathologically or not. If our findings are valid--and replication is warranted--then programs that enhance supportive and child care resources for parents on reservations with gambling operations might serve to counteract the negative consequences of maternal gambling for Native American children, particularly children of mothers who might not be connected to a supportive family network.

Another line of reasoning concerns our finding that financial strain may be more detrimental than (nonpathological) gambling with respect to the children of mothers who gamble frequently. The 1988 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act encourages gambling to foster economic development and to raise the standard of living on poverty-stricken reservations, that is, those whose per capita income and poverty rates are, respectively, 40% of or three times the national average (Cornell, Kalt, Krepps, & Taylor, 1998). Some believe that reservation casinos offer economic opportunities for Native American women who, along with their children, are one of the poorest groups in the nation (Brzuzy, Stromwall, Sharp, Wilson, & Segal, 2000). Also, although organized gaming on reservations can have negative consequences for families and children (Custer & Milt, 1985; Darbyshire et al., 2001; Ladouceur et al., 1994), it represents, some believe, a mechanism whereby tribal governments can begin to alleviate the dire economic conditions that have existed on reservations for centuries (Cornell et al., 1998). These are macrosystemic (Bronfenbrenner & Ceci, 1994) issues. Indeed, in the present study, 111 of the 150 participants were employed. Fully 89% of those who were employed worked on the reservation in some capacity related to the organized gaming enterprise. Not surprisingly, working mothers reported higher household incomes, which were associated with less financial strain and more adequate parenting in the home environment. The latter was associated with fewer child behavior problems. Thus, the issue of organized gambling on reservations is complex. A balance needs to be established between the positive economic benefits of Indian gaming versus the negative effects of more frequent gambling among Native American women. As Indian gaming is relatively new, more studies are needed to further investigate these effects on Native communities.

Finally, this study is limited in several ways that should be acknowledged. First, the results of a study on one reservation cannot be generalized beyond the sample, setting, and population. Second, the data are cross-sectional and, as such, provide no basis for inferences about causality. Third, the data were obtained from maternal self-reports, and the extent to which they correspond to actual behaviors is not known. Fourth, the alphas for the MC HOME (.52) and the EA HOME (.67) were somewhat low. Although other studies have reported similar Cronbach's alphas for HOME scales when used with poor and minority populations (Bradley, 1995; Bradley et al., 1988; Jackson et al., 2000), the reliabilities in this study must be acknowledged as a possible limitation vis-a-vis the present data. Still, there are few such data on maternal gambling, parenting in the home environment, and child behavioral functioning in Native American families. Replicated studies using probability sampling procedures on more than one reservation are needed. Achieving a better understanding of the conditions and processes whereby parental gambling on reservations influences different parenting and child outcomes could assist in the design of programs that might buffer negative effects.

Original manuscript received June 12, 2006 Final revision received March 8, 2007 Accepted May 25, 2007

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Sandra L. Momper, PhD, is a postdoctoral fellow, University of Michigan Substance Abuse Research Center, 2025 Traverwood Drive, Suite C, Ann Arbor, MI 48105-2194; e-mail: smomper@umich.edu. Aurora P. Jackson, Phil, is professor, School of Public Affairs, Department of Social Welfare, University of California, Los Angeles. This research was assisted by grants to Sandra L. Momper from the Newberry Library and the National Institute of Mental Health (no. 1R36 MH071136-01A1).
Table 1: Native American Mothers' Gambling, Parenting, Social
Supports, and Children's Behaviorial Problems: Means, Standard
Deviations, and Correlations between Variables

Variable M SD 1 2

1 Mother's education 0.53 0.50 --
2 Child's gender 0.54 0.50 -0.11 --
3 Child's age 10.52 3.14 -0.01 -.00
4 Cohabitating 0.16 0.37 .04 .04
5 Single 0.59 0.49 -0.11 -.01
6 Household income (a) 3.68 1.70 .27 ** -.03
7 Financial strain 2.47 1.03 .12 0.11
8 Pathological 1.49 2.28 .03 -.03
 gambling
9 Gambling frequency 1.95 1.50 .05 0.07
10 Parenting (HOME) 16.35 3.12 .15 -.03
11 Support--family 15.03 4.65 .01 0.02
12 Support--friends 14.83 4.99 .02 -.06
13 Behavior problems 1.36 0.30 .08 -.03

Variable 3 4 5 6

1 Mother's education
2 Child's gender
3 Child's age --
4 Cohabitating -.07 --
5 Single -.10 -.52 ** --
6 Household income (a) .22 ** .02 -.41 ** --
7 Financial strain -.09 .04 .22 ** -.24 **
8 Pathological -.00 .02 .05 .03
 gambling
9 Gambling frequency .11 .06 -.12 .1
10 Parenting (HOME) -.04 .09 -.31 ** .26 **
11 Support--family .13 -.00 -.10 .25 **
12 Support--friends .08 .00 -.14 .21 *
13 Behavior problems .18 * -.O1 .11 .05

Variable 7 8 9 10

1 Mother's education
2 Child's gender
3 Child's age
4 Cohabitating
5 Single
6 Household income (a)
7 Financial strain --
8 Pathological .28 ** --
 gambling
9 Gambling frequency -.02 .43 ** --
10 Parenting (HOME) -.23 * -.29 ** -.03 --
11 Support--family -.07 -.07 .13 .25 **
12 Support--friends -.12 -.08 -.05 .37 **
13 Behavior problems .29 ** .25 ** .12 -.37 **

Variable 11 12 13

1 Mother's education
2 Child's gender
3 Child's age
4 Cohabitating
5 Single
6 Household income (a)
7 Financial strain
8 Pathological
 gambling
9 Gambling frequency
10 Parenting (HOME)
11 Support--family --
12 Support--friends .48 ** --
13 Behavior problems -.09 -.12 --

Notes. N = 150. Dummy codes for education GED/high school or less; =
0. greater than high school= 1; for gender, 0 = boy; 1 = girl; for
cohabitating; 0 = not cohabitating; 1 = cohabitating, ; for single:
0 = not single; 1 = single. HOME = Home Observation for Measurement
of the Environment.

(a) Household income is based on 10 categories ranging from less than
$5,000 to $80,000 and above. A mean of 3.68 would be less than
$20,000 per year.

* p<.05.

** p<.01.

Table 2: Multiple Regression of Child Behavior
Problems among Native American Mothers 0

 Additive
 Model 1

Variable B SE [beta]

Child behavior problems (constant) 1.38 .03
Mothers education 0.03 .05 .04
Child's gender -0.04 .05 -.07
Child's age 0.01 .01 .19 *
Cohabitating 0.05 .08 .07
Single 0.05 .07 .09
Household income 0.03 .02 .17
Financial strain 0.06 .03 .21 *
Pathological gambling 0.01 .01 .05
Gambling frequency 0.01 .02 .04
Parenting (HOME) -0.03 .01 -.32 **
Social--family -0.04 .01 -.06
Social--friends -0.00 .01 -.O1
Gambling frequency x social
 support--family
Gambling frequency x gender
F 3.79 ***
[R.sup.2] .26
Adjusted [R.sup.2] .19

 Interactive
 Model 2

Variable B SE [beta]

Child behavior problems (constant) 1.39 .03
Mothers education 0.02 .05 .03
Child's gender -0.04 .05 -.07
Child's age 0.02 .01 .20 *
Cohabitating 0.09 .07 .11
Single 0.09 .06 .14
Household income 0.03 .02 .18
Financial strain 0.06 .02 .22 *
Pathological gambling 0.00 .01 -.O1
Gambling frequency 0.02 .02 .09
Parenting (HOME) -0.03 .01 -.30 **
Social--family -0.01 .01 -.13
Social--friends 0.00 .00 -.00
Gambling frequency x social -0.01 .00 -.24 **
 support--family
Gambling frequency x gender
F 4.47 ***
[R.sup.2] .31
Adjusted [R.sup.2] .24

 Interactive
 Model 3

Variable B E [beta]

Child behavior problems (constant) 1.31 .03
Mothers education 0.02 .05 .03
Child's gender -0.05 .05 -.08
Child's age 0.02 .01 .20 *
Cohabitating 0.08 .08 .09
Single 0.07 .06 .11
Household income 0.03 .02 .17
Financial strain 0.07 .02 .22 *
Pathological gambling 0.00 .01 .04
Gambling frequency 0.05 .02 .23 *
Parenting (HOME) -0.03 .01 -.29 **
Social--family -0.00 .01 -.05
Social--friends -0.00 .01 -.02
Gambling frequency x social
 support--family
Gambling frequency x gender -0.08 .03 -.26
F 4.07 ***
[R.sup.2] .29
Adjusted [R.sup.2] .22

Notes: N= 150. Dummy codes for education, GED/high school or less =
0, greater than high school = 1; for gender, 0 = boy, 1 = girl; for
cohabitating, 0 = not cohabitating, 1 = cohabitating; for single,
0 = not single, 1 = single. HOME = Home Observation for Measurement
of the Environment.

* p<.05.

** p<.01.

*** p<.001.
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Author:Momper, Sandra L.; Jackson, Aurora P.
Publication:Social Work Research
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Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Dec 1, 2007
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