Mark each numbered statement as true (A) or false (B).
1. The maxillary sinus is the first paranasal sinus to develop from the ethmoid sinuses.
2. Aeration of the sphenoid sinuses usually begins at about age 3 years, with aeration beginning anteriorly and progresses in an inferior posterolateral direction and with the sinus attaining its mature size by the age of 14 years.
3. The ostiomeatal complex (OMC) is a functional entity of the anterior ethmoid complex that represents the final common pathway for drainage and ventilation of the frontal, maxillary and anterior ethmoid cells.
4. The maxilla is the most frequent facial bone affected by fibrous dysplasia.
5. An antrochoanal polyp refers to a solitary lesion that arises in the maxillary antrum of an atopic person, increases in size to widen the sinus ostium, and then extends into the nasal cavity.
Regarding quality management systems in radiology:
6. Quality management of patient radiation dose monitoring is fundamental to safety and quality improvement of radiological services.
7. The radiologists or medical practitioners in charge should oversee the establishment of local quality systems, guided by local practice as well as international standards that are currently available in most developed countries.
Regarding the face of the giant panda sign in Wilson disease:
8. When patients with Wilson disease have predominant hepatic involvement, T2 hyperintensity is noted in the globus pallidus, putamen and mesencephalon.
9. In neurologically symptomatic patients, T1 hyperintensity is noted in the putamina, caudate nuclei, thalami, midbrain and pons.
10. The face of the giant panda sign is produced as a result of high signal intensity in the tegmentum with preserved normal signal intensity in the red nuclei and lateral portion of the pars reticulata of the substantia nigra as well as hypointensity of the superior colliculi.
Regarding extramedullary haematopoiesis: an uncommon posterior mediastinal mass:
11. Extramedullary haemotopoiesis is seen in a variety of haematological disorders, including severe haemolytic anaemias (thalassaemia, Sickle-cell anaemia, spherocytosis), leukaemia, lymphoma, myelodysplasia and myelofibrosis.
12. Main considerations in the differential diagnosis of EMH are tumours of the middle and posterior mediastinum, including neurogenic masses, lymphoma, paravertebral abscesses, pleural cysts, lateral meningoceles, mediastinal lymph node hyperplasia, and primary and metastatic malignant neoplasms.
Regarding imaging of disease progression in a case of idiopathic moyamoya:
13. Disorders associated with secondary moyamoya include Down syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1, tuberous sclerosis and sickle cell disease.
14. The typical angiographic appearance is narrowing of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery, proximal anterior cerebral artery and proximal middle cerebral artery.
Regarding thymic masses: a radiological review:
15. Normal thymic thickness should be <13 mm before 20 years of age and <18 mm after 20 years of age.
16. True thymic hyperplasia is diagnosed when there is >50% increase in thymic volume over baseline, usually within a year of the stress period, with preserved microscopic features.
17. Lymphoma is the most common cause of an anterior mediastinal mass in children and the most common cause of an anterior mediastinal mass in adults.
18. Thymomas are classified into noninvasive (benign) or invasive (malignant), and are usually seen in adults in the 5th - 6th decade and commonly seen in children.
Regarding nasolabial cysts - a rare case:
19. Nasolabial cysts comprise approximately 0.6% of all jaw cysts, most commonly affect patients in the 4th and 5th decades of life, and have a male predominance.
20. Nasolabial cysts are benign, slow-growing developmental cysts occurring in the nasolabial folds below the alae nasi and are nonodontogenic, extraosseous and locally expansile.