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Maps as commodities in modern world history.

One of the easiest and most effective ways to teach students about commodities in world history is to use maps. Maps are world historians' and world history teachers' stock-in-trade. They cover the wall space of K-12 classrooms, decorate the dust jackets of monographs, illustrate as well as interrupt the narrative within those monographs, and remain standard features of world history textbooks at all grade levels. Such maps are usually commissioned by an author or publisher to reinforce or illustrate textual information in an accessible and readily understood visual medium. They are sources that generally align in deliberately uncomplicated ways with authorial narrative or state curricular standards, and it is this view of maps as transparent, relatively uncomplicated media that makes them an essential part of classroom decor, textbooks, monographs, and articles. (1)

It is likely that every teacher reading this article has used maps in this way, as a visual aid constructed in the present to help clarify a point in a lesson or lecture (like the creation and circulation of commodities). However, historic maps, maps produced in past eras, often make better teaching tools because they have lost their once-transparent quality. More "opaque" than "transparent" (2) to students' modern (or post-modern) gaze, historic maps are not straightforward or self-explanatory visual aids but visual puzzles that call for deciphering. Historic maps are rich sources of information. When students engage historic maps they engage visually dense primary sources that kindle interest and imagination, promote individual insights, hone critical-thinking skills, advance thoughtful group interactions, and encourage thoughtful essays. Their opacity means world historians and teachers should treat such maps differently from the usual didactic maps found in classrooms, textbooks, and monographs; that is, not as transparent and readily understood adjuncts to lesson plans, lectures, and textual arguments, but as cultural objects produced, circulated, and embedded in a specific time and place that need to be unpacked and interpreted. Particularly helpful in students learning about the creation and circulation of commodities in modern world history are the early eighteenth-century maps which the prolific Anglo-German cartographer, Herman Moll (ca. 1654-1732), compiled, engraved, and published. Consistent with the mercantilist ethos of his era, Moll regarded his maps as commodities whose market value depended on their aesthetic beauty and the thoroughness with which they identified and located commodities which British (and European) merchants and consumers desired. While deriving new information from French and Dutch maps and English privateers, Moll published his maps in English only and sold them in central London and Westminster and by subscription to market-oriented nobility, gentry, merchants, and print--and book-sellers. As Geographer to the King after 1714, he had a ready market for his cartographic products and a "royal seal of approval" that only increased his reputation and sales. The general reading public became familiar with his engraving style once he created the maps for Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe (1719) and Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels (1726). It is not known whether his original maps became "collectibles" during his lifetime but his maps' value seem to be confirmed by the fact that they continued to be a "hot commodity" and were republished unchanged until the early 1780s. (3)

Case Study of Maps as Commodities: The Maps of Herman Moll

Of course, to interpret any primary source fruitfully, a student or historian needs to place it within its historical context. While my discussion below derives from college courses I teach, the general process should be applicable, with appropriate modifications, to other grade levels. I spend some initial time in class having students identify, based on course readings and lectures, key features of mercantilism, (4) commodities and the commodity form, (5) and maps. (6) From course readings and lectures, students learn that economic developments in Western Europe led to the increasing commodification of many goods and services after 1450 with the decline of rural subsistence economies (7) and that English philosophers, "economists," and journalists in the 17th and 18th centuries (William Petty, John Locke, and Daniel Defoe) began to define what a commodity was based on its possible uses ("advantages") and market value ("price"). (8) As a case study of this process I explain to students how a market in maps developed, and how maps became objects of international economic exchange. I have students analyze Moll's cartography because he was very conscious of his maps' commodified nature, and expressed it proudly in their content. As a cartographic entrepreneur who was sensitive to market trends, Moll's cartographic output was impressive: he produced over two dozen geographies, atlases, and histories in a forty-year period (ca. 1690-1732). (9)

The Assignment

I ask students to analyze Moll's cartographic representations of the whole globe and one region within it of particular concern to British mercantile and imperial interests, the East Indies, from his most famous atlas, The World Described (1715). The maps' short titles are "Anew and correct map of the world, laid down according to the newest discoveries, and from the most exact observations" and "A map of the East-Indies and the adjacent countries." Once students understand the historical context of the maps and their cartographer, we scrutinize the maps. The maps are digitized so students need access to a computer or smart phone with Internet connection. Access can take a number of forms. In onsite classes I can take them to a computer lab and break them into small groups to examine the maps. Alternately, I can let students have the questions and URLs for the maps ahead of time and have them examine the maps on their own as homework or I can use the classroom's computer to bring up the images from the Web and project the maps onto a screen for all students to see. In online classes students can view the maps on their own and then discuss them in synchronous or asynchronous discussion boards or live in a virtual meeting space. Whichever method I use, it culminates in a class discussion of the maps based on questions I posed to the students to guide their initial analysis. The questions are broad and open-ended to encourage critical analysis, synthesis, and connections with the course readings, lectures, and discussions. They are questions that could be asked of any map, not just maps as commodities. It is critical that the maps students analyze are available in digital format (10) which allows students to "zoom" in and see features in extremely magnified detail.

I pose the following questions to students as they examine the maps: 1) Who is the mapmaker, and what do we know about the person? 2) What is the complete title of the map? What does it tell you about the cartographer's purpose in creating the map? 3) Who do you think was the audience for the map? 4) What features do you notice first on the map? 5) What features do you notice subsequently? 6) How do the map's features create the map's meaning? 7) In what ways does the map relate to what you know about the time and place in which it was produced?

The Discussion

I will reprise the main elements of atypical discussion with my students. To answer the first question, they rely on a brief reading (11) and a short lecture I give on Moll. I tell them enough to get started but not enough to answer the other questions. If needed, I fill in more details about him and his oeuvre as the discussion develops. I do let them know that London was one of four centers of the early-modern European map trade which included Paris, Amsterdam, and Nuremberg, (12) and that the market for printed maps was quite competitive in early 18th-century Europe. (13)

The world map I have students analyze is a large double-hemisphere map entitled, "A New and Correct Map of the World Laid Down according to the Newest Discoveries, and from the Most exact Observations, By Herman Moll Geographer." Students comment that the title appears to be a marketing device, with accuracy and immediacy as the map's selling points. In thinking about question 2, they notice that, visually, the world ocean dominated the map. In looking more closely at the world ocean they comment on the arrows and lines etched across its surface and wonder what they are. After scanning the map further usually one or more students notice that Moll explained in along note to the west (left) of the North Pole that the arrows and lines represented the general or prevailing trade-winds of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn while in the Indian Ocean they represented the monsoons or the shifting trade winds. Near the arrows indicating the direction of the monsoons he wrote the months in which they blow northward and the months in which they blow southward.

After some discussion, students usually conclude that the inscription of "trade winds" conveyed the impression that the world's oceans, while separating major land masses, also facilitated connections and commerce between them. They notice that the imagery surrounding the dedicatory cartouche (at the bottom of the map between the two hemispheres) reinforced this idea. From their readings, the students know that trade generally meant armed trade in the age of mercantilism, which they see in the spaces around the dedicatory cartouche. (14) In the background a strong wind drove two fleets away from the viewer and towards the horizon. Blowing into large conches, sea sprites in the foreground celebrated the mass departure of British merchant ships and men-of-war to the far reaches of the world. On the left side of the cartouche stood Poseidon, mythical lord of the sea, holding a standard emblazoned with English, French, Scottish, and Irish royal symbols. Some students figure out the imagery on their own while others need some assistance. Even though the song "Britannia Rules the Waves" was still decades away, the cartouche conveyed the sentiment.

After the expanse of ocean, trade winds, and dedicatory cartouche, the students notice the colorful boundary lines etched across the hemispheres. In its design, the map proclaimed the eminence of the sovereign territorial state, a vital component of mercantilist doctrine. As we discuss the map and what students know about the period, they conclude that the map promoted the idea that oceans were conduits for moving commodities great distances, and that knowledge of wind patterns and trade routes was crucial for merchants, investors and insurers to understand how, when, and where commodities could move.

Students are a little surprised when they find a notation underneath the western hemisphere that condemned the longitudinal reckonings of renowned French royal cartographer Nicholas Sanson (1600-1667). According to Moll, Sanson's longitude was off between 10 and 25 degrees. Students conclude that Moll's audience for the map, anyone conducting, insuring or investing in trade, understood the message: one's cargo would likely never reach its destination, or end up at the wrong destination, with potentially ruinous consequences in either case. Glancing up at the map's very large title, it dawns on students that Moll's map was a cartographic commodity asserting its greater value due to its superior integrity, quality, and exactitude. Moll reinforced this idea in a related notation under the eastern hemisphere where he condemned Dutch cartographers who copied his maps and sold their "inferior copies" in Britain for their own profit and to his financial harm ("defrauding of us"). He asked his map readers to subscribe to him directly to guarantee that they received excellent quality maps that were "correct" and without parallel and to help him uphold his reputation, his business, and the market value of his maps.

With some insights gained from analyzing Moll's world map, we turn to "A Map of the East-Indies and the adjacent Countries; with the Settlements, Factories and Territories, explaining what belongs to England, Spain, France, Holland, Denmark, Portugal, etc., with many remarks not extant in any other Map. By H. Moll, Geog." Under the title Moll inscribes the following dedication: "Toye Directors of ye Honorable United East-India Company. This Map is most Humbly Dedicated by your most Obedient Servant Herman Moll Geographer." The first things that grab students' attention are the cartouches containing the map's title and dedication, the views of harbors, and the numerous notations written across the Indian Ocean. Showing where his and his customers' sympathies lay, Moll dedicated the map to the United East India Company (UEIC), an aggressive British mercantilist company. Sitting atop the cartouche was the UEIC coat of arms. I translate the Latin inscription on the coat of arms for students (Auspicio Regis et Senatus Anglia), "By the Command of the King and Parliament of England." As students work to reduce the opacity of the map, what usually emerges in memorable visual form is the nexus between map, mercantilist imperative, and willingness of the English to use state power for economic ends.

Along the left-hand side of the map Moll placed inset views of major European strongholds or "factories" in India and Indonesia: Bantam (Dutch), Goa (Portuguese), Madras (British), and Batavia (Dutch). The views of these enclaves occupy nearly one fourth of the map's surface area. Students notice them immediately and conclude that their prominence is a strong clue that Moll meant them to be a major focal point of the map. Students generally interpret the prominence of large European ships in the estuaries and ports as signifying great commercial activity as well as prosperity and profit, and they interpret the fortifications as assuring Moll's merchant-adventurer customers that trade was secure, lively, and lucrative.

As students read Moll's notations on the map, they note that he indicated the location of major European and indigenous emporia (trading centers with warehouses) and production or extraction centers of East Indian commodities. For instance, to the west of the Indian subcontinent he wrote: "The Town of Surat is of ye Greatest Trade and Note in India. The Staple for all the Commodities of Europe, India, and China, and has English, French, and Dutch Factories. "Students count forty-four European enclaves that dotted India's shoreline from the Indus to the Ganges and another seven that stretched up the Ganges.

I ask students why India and Indonesia (Dutch East Indies) dominated the map visually. Their response is that these two areas were sources of high-value commodities in Europe: cotton, silk, indigo dye, saltpeter, and tea. They also notice that Moll located the commodities desired by the British (and their competitors) on the map of the Indian subcontinent with notations regarding the sites of gold, diamonds, copper, tin, silver, iron, sugar, silk, pepper, pearls, fish, and tropical hardwoods. Moll also made notations across Southeast Asia, Indonesia, New Guinea, and the Philippines. In Southeast Asia, he indicated the location of iron, lead, and tin mines, red amber, musk, silk, and forests (wood); in Indonesia he inscribed the known locations of gold, diamonds, pepper, cinnamon, ginger, sugar, nutmeg, cloves, rice, diamonds, sulfur, frankincense, ambergris, birds, and fish. He noted the location of these commodities, and the forts of the Dutch and other European powers, with great exactitude. It dawns on students that no one reading the map has to guess where to find these commodities. They conclude that Moll's map of the East Indies is an elegant depiction of early modern political economy: its cartography of commodities and strongholds could be used by investors in the UEIC or by private merchants or shippers to gauge key aspects of the India-to-Britain or intra-Indian-Ocean trade. Students come away with little doubt that access to Indian Ocean commodities and commodity circuits animated the map, and that the map highlighted production and commodity zones and the competitive territorial claims of European companies and states in the region.

What students begin to understand from these two maps is that Moll placed commodities and the overseas territorial claims of Europe's imperial powers in relation to each other so that groups promoting British political-economic expansion could readily grasp its dimensions. (15) They appreciate that placing commodities in such a geo-political framework would increase the use and exchange values of the commodity that Moll values most, his maps. I ask students to comment on the maps' aesthetic appeal. Most find his engraving style clean and elegant and his placement of cartouches and views effective. The consensus is that images, map, and text are nicely balanced. Students relate Moll's aesthetic sense to his ability to sell maps. (16) Students also learn the dangers--particularly problematic in Moll's day--of necessarily associating beautiful imagery with accurate and intelligible geography.

Students come away from our discussion understanding that Moll's atlases and maps were highly marketable commodities which compiled and presented a vast array of knowledge. As large-sheet maps with images, notations, and places on Mercator and other projections, they were the ultimate geographical commodity: a comprehensive, portable, beautiful, reproducible, updatable, and revisable geographic reference work. (17) Moll's maps were multilayered, which make them excellent primary sources for students to analyze.

There are, of course, other ways to interpret Moll's maps. That is part of their beauty (and utility). Students can play with these maps for hours and come up with new insights and conclusions regarding their purpose, design, and inter-textual complexity I encourage them to do so. I frame the exercise to encourage individual insights, hone critical-thinking skills, promote group discussion, and encourage thoughtful essays. When I create an essay assignment to analyze a historic map, I always have some preliminary discussion in class to prime students' analytical interests and provide a modicum of direction. All of the assignments ask students to compare what they are learning in their readings with the information displayed on historic maps. The exercise in primary-source analysis of the map outlined in this article can be replicated using maps from the 17th to the 21st centuries in Europe, including other maps by Moll. There are a couple of limitations to keep in mind, however. First, not all maps were commodities. Many manuscript maps were not produced, and did not generally circulate, as commodities. A teacher can still use many parts of the above analysis for manuscript maps but a second hindrance might be language. Most maps manuscript and printed from the 10th to the 16th centuries in Europe have Latin place names and text. Maps from other parts of the world have vernacular languages as text so students need a reading knowledge of those languages (or translated text and place names) to participate in the analysis of such maps. Finally, as I indicated earlier, it is critical that the maps students analyze be available in a digital format which allows students to "zoom" in and see features in extremely magnified detail. Below, I list some of the map libraries that scan their maps into a digital format with a "zoom" feature. (18)

Selected Online Map Libraries ("zoomable" digital maps)

Bodleian Library Map Room at Oxford University

Temporal scope: 14th-century to 20th century. Geographic focus: comprehensive cartographic collection of most world regions with emphasis on British Isles, British Empire and Commonwealth, Europe, the Americas, and the World.

http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/guides/maps/mapcase.htm

Boston Public Library Norman B. Leventhal Map Center

Temporal scope: 15th century to 19th century. Geographic focus: New England, American Revolutionary Warperiod, and world urban centers.

http://maps.bpl.org/

British Library Maps and Views

Temporal scope: 11th century to 1950. Geographic focus: comprehensive cartographic collection of most world regions with emphasis on British Isles, Europe, South and East Asia, Africa, the Americas, and the World.

http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/onlineex/mapsviews/

California State University, Fullerton, Roy V. Boswell Collection for the History of Cartography

Temporal scope: 16th through the 19th centuries. Geographic focus: North America, Europe, Asia, South America, the Mediterranean, Africa, Australia, the Pacific Ocean, and California as an island.

http://boswell.library.fullerton.edu/default.php

David Rumsey Map Collection

Temporal scope: 17th through 19th centuries. Geographic focus: North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and the World.

http://www.davidrumsey.com/

James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota

Temporal scope: 16th century through 18th century. Geographic focus: World, Europe, Asia, and Africa.

http://www.lib.umn.edu/bell

Harvard Map Collection: Digital Maps

Temporal scope: 16th century to 20th century. Geographic focus: New England, the United States, England, China, world urban centers, and geographic information systems (GIS)layers.

http://hcl.harvard.edu/libraries/maps/digitalmaps/

Library of Congress Map Collections

Temporal scope: 14th century to 20th century. Geographic focus: comprehensive cartographic collection of most world regions with emphasis on North and South America and the World.

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gmdhtml/

National Library of Australia

Temporal scope: 17th century to mid-20th century. Geographic focus: Australia/Oceania, British Empire and Commonwealth, Pacific Ocean, Asia, and World.

http://www.nla.gov.au/what-we-collect/maps

Perry-Castaneda Map Library University of Texas

Temporal scope: 17th century to mid-20th century. Geographic focus: Texas, U.S. Southwest, the United States, Africa, the Americas, Asia, Australia and the Pacific, Europe, Middle East, Polar Regions, Russia and Former Soviet Republics, and World.

http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/

University of Alabama Map Library

Temporal scope: 16th century to mid-20th century. Geographic focus: Alabama, the United States, Canada, World, Western Hemisphere, Eastern Hemispere, and Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans.

http://alabamamaps.ua.edu/index.html

University of Georgia: The Hargrett Library Rare Map Collection

Temporal scope: 16th century to mid-20th century. Geographic focus: Georgia, U.S. South, the United States, World, and Europe. http://www.libs.uga.edu/hargrett/maps/index.html

University of Southern Maine, Osher Map Library

Temporal scope: 16th through the 20th century. Geographic focus: Maine, New England, North America, World, and Europe.

http://www.usm.maine.edu/maps/

Yale Map Collection: Online Maps

Temporal scope: 16th through the 19th century. Geographic focus: the United States, New England, the Americas, Middle East, Far East and Pacific, Africa, Europe, and World.

http://www.library.yale.edu/MapColl/oldsite/map/online.html

Selected Map Meta-Websites

Map History/History of Cartography http://www.maphistory.info/sitemap.html

Maps GPS Info

http://www.maps-gps-info.com/

(1) See, for example, the statement on page xviii of Jerry H. Bentley and HerbertF. Ziegler's Traditions & Encounters, 4th ed., v. 1 (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008): "The entire map program has been revised for clarity, greater detail, and more topographical information." [emphasis in original]

(2) My use of the terms "transparent" and "opaque" derive from Christian Jacob, "Toward a Cultural History of Cartography," Imago Mundi, 48 (1996): 191-198."To understand the concept of a transparent map," Jacobs wrote, "think of the screen in a film theatre. Like the screen on to which the film is projected, a map vanishes behind the information it displays... It involves a belief in the map as a neutral, purely informative device." An opaque map, however, calls attention to "the way it displays information. Such a perspective opens a wide range of research opportunities." (191-192).

(3) For a detailed analysis of Moll's maps as commodities, including who bought them and why, see Alex Zukas, "Commodities, Commerce and Cartography in the Early-Modern Era: Herman Moll's World Maps, 1700-1730," in Global Economies, Cultural Currencies of the Eighteenth Century, AMS Studies in the Eighteenth Century, No. 64, ed. Michael Rotenberg-Schwartz (New York: AMS Press, 2012), 1-35.

(4) For background on the period see David R. Ringrose, Expansion and Global Interaction, 1200-1700 (New York: Longman, 2001) and the first half of Robert B. Marks, The Origins of the Modern World: A Global and Ecological Narrative (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002). On the role of European mercantilism in the formation of the modern world economy see Immanuel Wallerstein, The Modern World-System II: Mercantilism and the Consolidation of the European World Economy, 1600-1750 (New York: Academic Press, 1980). On the importance of maps for understanding and organizing long-distance commodity trade in the early-modern period, and on the extensive commodity trade itself, see Jerry Brotton, Trading Territories: Mapping the Early Modern World (London: Reaktion Books, 1997). On maps as commodities in the early modern period see Mary Sponberg Pedley, The Commerce of Cartography: Making and Marketing Maps in Eighteenth Century France and England (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005).

(5) As I note in a recent article, "In the simplest terms, a commodity is anything produced for sale or exchange that has at least two properties: it satisfies some human want or need (it is useful or has use value) and commands other commodities (or money) in return (it has exchange or market value)." See Zukas, "Commodities, Commerce and Cartography," 2. On commodity forms and definitions, see Howard J. Sherman, et al. Economics: An Introduction to Traditional and Progressive Views, 7th ed. (Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 2008), chapters 8, 10 and 20, as well as the entries by Duncan Fahey on "Commodity," "Money," and "Use Value" and the entry by Simon Mohun on "Value" in A Dictionary of Marxist Thought, Tom Bottomore, ed. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983), 86-87, 337-340, 504, and 505-511. See also the extensive discussion of the commodity form in the classic study by Ronald L. Meek, Studies in the Labor Theory of Value (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1956) and in the more recent study by Moishe Postone, Time, Labor and Social Domination: A Reinterpretation of Marx's Critical Theory (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993).

(6) Jacob, "Toward a Cultural History of Cartography," has a good discussion of principles of map analysis.

(7) Chapters 22 and 23 in Jerry H. Bentley and Herbert F. Ziegler's Traditions & Encounters, 5th ed., v. 1(New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010) and Chapter 17 in Richard W. Bulliet, et al., The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History, 5th ed., v. II (Boston: Wadsworth, 2010) help students broadly understand these changes. Depending on grade level, some of the works in note 4 could be assigned as well.

(8) For extensive discussions of numerous commodities and how they were defined as useful or "advantageous," and how they were exchanged in the early-modern world see Kenneth Pomeranz and Steve Topik, The World That Trade Created: Society, Culture, and the World Economy, 1400 to the Present (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1999), esp. xiv-xvi, 6, 78-80, 84-86, 109-116.

(9) The best book on Moll is Dennis Reinhartz, The Cartographer and the Literati: Herman Moll and his Intellectual Circle (Lewiston, N.Y.: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1997).

(10) Digital versions of the maps referenced in this article, "A new and correct map of the world, laid down according to the newest discoveries, and from the most exact observations" and "A map of the East-Indies and the adjacent countries," are readily available online. Typing the map's short name into a search engine is all one needs to do. A quick search using Yahoo turned up digital versions at the California State University, Fullerton, Roy V. Boswell Collection for the History of Cartography, http://boswell.library.fullerton.edu/detail. php?Databasenumber=1373 and http://boswell.library.fullerton. edu/detail.php?Databasenumber=67 and The National Library of Australia http://nla.gov.au/nla.map-nk4625 and http://nla.gov.au/ nla.map-rm285, respectively.

(11) Dennis Reinhartz, "Cartography, Literature, and Empire: Herman Moll, His Maps, and His Friends," Mercator's World 4, no. 2(March/April 1999): 32-39.

(12) J. B. Harley, "Power and Legitimation in the English Geographical At lases of the Eighteenth Century" (1997) in J. B. Harley, The New Nature of Maps: Essays in the History of Cartography, ed. Paul Laxton (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001), 124; Pedley, Commerce of Cartography, 14, 201.

(13) On competition within the London map trade, see Sarah Tyacke, London Map sellers, 1660-1720 (Tring, Hertfordshire: Map Collectors Publications Ltd., 1978), xi-xxiv, and Catherine Delano-Smith and Roger J. P. Kain, English Maps: A History (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999), 101-109. On the competitive nature of the European map trade, see Pedley, Commerce of Cartography, 9-10.

(14) Cartouches often expressed relationships of power and assumptions about the natural and cultural attributes of geographic regions. See C. N. G. Clarke, "Taking Possession: The Cartouche as Cultural Text in Eighteenth-Century American Maps," Word and Image 4 (1988): 455-474. In terms of maps as commodities, Pedley observed that "The choice of a well-known designer for a cartouche could only add to the value and attractiveness of the map" but the cost of a cartouche ranged from 25% to 65% of the cost of engraving the whole plate. See Pedley, Commerce of Cartography, 59, 63.

(15) Chandra Mukerji, From Graven Images: Patterns of Modern Materialism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1983), 81, argues that European maps were a special kind of commodity. As "innovations in material culture" they were economic tools, a form of capital good like ships, wharves, navigational charts, and compasses. On the specific demands of "commercial cartography" and the intentional creation of maps as commodities for the marketplace, see Pedley, The Commerce of Cartography, 9-10.

(16) Delano-Smith argues that even the most useful, utilitarian maps held "value" or could be "esteemed" in non-utilitarian terms, that is, in terms of aesthetics or "commodiousness." While commodiousness could be seen as a form of use value (it satisfies a human need or want), her expansion of use value beyond strict utility helps explain the wide appeal of Moll's maps where their commodious, non-instrumental aspects also helped him make a sale and turn a profit in an internationally competitive map market. See Catherine Delano-Smith, "The Map as Commodity," in Plantejamentsi Objectius d'una Historia Universal de la Cartografia [Approaches and Challenges in a Worldwide History of Cartography]eds., David Woodward, Catherine Delano-Smith, and Cordell D. K. Yee (Barcelona: Institut Cartografiade Catalunya, 2002), 91-108. On Moll's entrepreneurial and personal success, see Reinhartz, The Cartographer, 23-25.

(17) For a good discussion of the atlas as the consummate cartographic commodity and cartographers' awareness of its tremendous marketability, see Brotton, Trading Territories, 38-42, 170-177. On at lases as significant reference works, see Delano-Smith and Kain, English Maps, 105.

(18) On the pedagogic possibilities of "next generation" 3D GIS mapping for the classroom see David Rumsey and Meredith Williams, "Historical Maps in GIS, "in Past Time, Past Place: GIS for History, ed. Anne Kelly Knowles (Redlands, CA: ESRI Press, 2002), available online at http://www.davidrumsey.com/ gis/ch01.pdf (accessed April 30, 2012). While 3D GIS mapping is expensive for classroom use, and requires specific software as well as training and skill to master, David Rumsey's Map Collection website has excellent demonstrations of how 3D GIS mapping can be used to bring new interest and interpretive dimensions to historic maps. Teachers can link to these demonstrations to show students how new technology like 3D GIS is changing an old discipline like cartography and creating new primary sources for students to interrogate.

Alex Zukas

National University
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Title Annotation:Special Section: Commodities in World History
Author:Zukas, Alex
Publication:World History Bulletin
Article Type:Essay
Date:Sep 22, 2012
Words:5106
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