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Mapping the core journals of the physical therapy literature.

INTRODUCTION

According to the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA), physical therapy (referred to as physiotherapy in many other countries) is "a dynamic profession with an established theoretical and scientific base and widespread clinical applications in the restoration, maintenance, and promotion of optimal physical function" [1]. One of APTA's "Goals That Represent the Priorities of the American Physical Therapy Association" states that "Research advances the science of physical therapy and furthers the evidence-based practice of the physical therapist" [2].

The physical therapy profession is constantly growing, with employment expected to grow by 30% from 2008 to 2018, faster than the average for health care professions [3]. Physical therapy practice is evolving in response to new research [4], an aging population, and a more health-conscious society. A search of MEDLINE on the subject "Physical Therapy" for a 10-year period (2000-2009) indicates a growing knowledgebase, with the number of articles indexed each year more than doubling. However, this growth has often occurred without translation into clinical practice [5-9]. Knowing which journals and databases are the most efficient and most utilized sources of information relevant to patient management and care can help physical therapists incorporate more evidence into their practice. It is also important to document the currency of the cited articles as a part of practicing evidence-based rehabilitation that is most up to date. Knowledge of core journals in a discipline is also helpful to librarians so

that a collection can be developed that will meet the needs of the users.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Wakiji performed a bibliometric analysis of the core literature of physical therapy in 1997 as part of a larger project to map the literature of allied health [10]. Wakiji analyzed 22,945 citations from the reference lists of all articles in the journals, Physical Therapy and Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (APMR), between the years 1991 and 1993. MEDLINE was determined to provide the best access to these cited articles, when compared to the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (referred to as Allied Alternative Medicine Database in the Wakiji study), CINAHL, and EMBASE.

Bohannon performed a similar citation analysis for seven physical therapy journals published between 1997 and 1998--Physical Therapy, Physiotherapy, Physiotherapy Canada, Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, Physiotherapy Research International, and Journal of Physical Therapy Practice--and found forty-seven core titles [11]. The database EMBASE was determined to provide more comprehensive coverage of core journals than either MEDLINE or CINAHL.

Maher et al. conducted a study in 2001 to identify core journals of evidence-based physical therapy by analyzing contributions to the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) [12]. Forty-nine journals out of the 519 analyzed were designated as core journals.

The science of physical therapy has expanded tremendously, as evidenced by an increased number of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for physical therapy, randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews related to physical therapy in PEDro [13], increasing complexity of practice and clinical decisions [4], and growth in physical therapy journal publications. Because several years have passed since the most recent analysis of the core journals of physical therapy was published, a reanalysis of the core physical therapy literature was needed to aid physical therapy professionals in performing literature searches that are optimally efficient and facilitate evidence-based practice. With tighter budgets and increased costs of resources, librarians are faced with the task of optimizing the collection for a discipline. An update of the previous studies can help in this collection development task.

METHOD

The study involved four main steps: (1) select key analysis journals for bibliometric study; (2) analyze each citation from all articles in the key journals over a three-year period (journal title, type of literature, and date of publication) and enter data into a database for analysis; (3) calculate descriptive statistics, including frequency of each type of literature (e.g., journals, books, etc.) for comparisons and frequency of each specific cited journal title for ranking of the core journals; and (4) compare database coverage for articles published in the most frequently cited journals.

1. Select analysis journals

To select the journals to undergo bibliometric analysis, several sources were reviewed. Physical therapy faculty members were consulted, as were the ranked lists of cited journals from the Wakiji [10], Bohannon [11], and Maher [12] studies and physical therapy journals with high impact factors, as identified by the science edition of Journal Citation Reports [14]. After considering these sources, four journals with broad, global approaches that concentrated on physical therapy clinical practice were targeted for analysis: Physical Therapy (the APTA journal), Physiotherapy (journal of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy, England), Physiotherapy Canada (journal of the Canadian Physiotherapy Association), and Australian Journal of Physiotherapy (journal of the Australian Physiotherapy Association). Miller et al. selected these same four journals for an analysis of rigor of published articles in physical therapy journals [15].

2. Analyze and categorize each citation

For citation analysis, the study employed the same methodological foundation as the Wakiji [10] article, which is the model used by similar articles devoted to mapping the literature of various fields of allied health [16]. Each of these bibliometric studies used Bradford's Law of Scattering, which states that "a relatively small core of journals can be expected to account for a disproportionate amount of the literature" for any specialty [17]. The underlying assumption of Bradford's law is that, for any given topic, a small core of journals publishes most of the articles on that topic [18].

The title of the cited journal, the type of literature (journal articles, books, or miscellaneous, such as letters to the editor, conference papers, etc.), and year of publication were recorded for each cited reference in each article published between the years 2005 and 2007 in the four journals. Inclusion criteria (what would be recorded as a book, journal, or miscellaneous) for cited references were determined by the researchers prior to the study. Cited references for Physical Therapy, Physiotherapy, and Australian Journal of Physiotherapy were downloaded electronically through Scopus. Cited references for Physiotherapy Canada, which was not indexed in Scopus, were manually categorized by a member of the research team using electronic copies of the articles and were manually loaded into the database. Any cited journal with multiple titles was recorded under the most current 2007 title. All data from all sources were combined into a single database for descriptive analysis.

3. Perform descriptive or frequency analysis

The total number of citations for each journal in the entire data set and the total number of citations for each year of citation publication were determined. The cited journals were then ranked in descending order according to the number of times they were referenced in the data set. Finally, the ranked list of journals was divided into three zones according to the frequency of citation, with each zone containing approximately one-third of the total journal citations and categorized according to Bradford's law as either Zone 1, a small group of core journals in physical therapy with the highest productivity (approximately one-third of the total citations); Zone 2, a larger set including the next most productive journals (approximately one-third of the total citations); and Zone 3, the largest group of journals including many journals that were not cited frequently [16].

4. Compare database coverage

Coverage of the AMED, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and

Scopus databases was then analyzed and rated using the 0-5 scale shown in Table 1, based on coverage of articles published by the Zone 1 journals in the year 2007. Zone 2 was analyzed in the same manner. The scale was developed by Schloman to rate database coverage to allow comparison of multiple allied health journals regardless of the number of articles published each year [16].

RESULTS

The 4 selected journals contained a total of 857 articles published between 2005 and 2007, and 20,027 citations from all the reference lists were included in the analysis for this study. The most frequently cited type of literature was journal article, making up 83% of total citations. The books and miscellaneous categories accounted for approximately 8% each, with specific results displayed in Table 2. Books included books and book chapters. Miscellaneous included non-journal, nonbook resources, including web pages.

Table 3 shows that when the date of publication of citations was analyzed, the most recent 8 years (2000-2007), even though not a complete decade, contained more cited references (45.5% of total citations from the study) than any previous full decade, with another 39.5% coming from the prior decade of 1990-1999.

As shown in Table 4, Zone 1 journals, accounting for one-third of the 16,518 cited journal references, consisted of only 16 highly cited journals, or 0.98% of the total cited journals. Zone 2 consisted of 96 journals (5.86% of the total journals), and Zone 3 consisted of 1,527 journals (93.17% of the total journals). The top three Zone 1 journals, in order, were Physical Therapy, APMR, and Spine. Table 5 (online only) contains a complete list of Zone 1 and Zone 2 journal titles as determined in the current study.

Of the databases analyzed, CINAHL provided the highest coverage rate (total database average coverage score=4) for Zone 1 journals published in 2007. To determine the database coverage score, the number of articles published in each journal for 2007 was compared to the number of those articles indexed in the database. The scale noted in Table 1 was used.

For the sixteen journals in Zone 1, the coverage rate score for each of the four databases is illustrated in Table 6. For the Zone 2 journals (ninety-six titles), Scopus provided the best coverage as illustrated in Table 7 (online only). MEDLINE also provided strong coverage. Databases varied in their indexing depth.

Results of this study (Table 8) were similar to those found by Wakiji [10]. The majority of citations from both studies were journal articles published within the most recent decade. Approximately 50% of the Zone 1 journals were included in Zone 1 of both studies, despite the fact that different target journals were selected to study the cited references. Wakiji's highest ranked titles--APMR, Physical Therapy, and Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery--ranked number 2, 1, and 10, respectively, in this study. A major difference in the 2 studies was that MEDLINE provided the most effective indexing coverage of the physical therapy literature in the Wakiji study [10], while CINAHL had the best coverage in this present study.

Bohannon [11] divided his data into 2 groups, each with approximately one-half of the citations. Ten of those core titles accounted for 54.6% of the citations, with Physical Therapy, Physiotherapy, and APMR as the 3 most-cited titles. These titles ranked number 1, 6, and 2, respectively, in this current study. Bohannon found EMBASE to have the strongest indexing coverage, with MEDLINE and CINAHL also strong. He noted that using both MEDLINE and CINAHL would provide indexing coverage for 95.7% of the core journals.

Maher's study [12] resulted in a list of the top 49 journals, based on a citation analysis of the PEDro database, which includes clinical trials and systematic reviews. The top 3 journals in his study were APMR and British Medical Journal/BMJ tied with Spine. These titles ranked number 2, 8, and 3, respectively, in the current study.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

Even though category criteria were discussed and determined in advance, citations were subjectively assigned to categories by the researchers, allowing potential error. The results might have been biased because of the source journals selected for analysis and/or the tendency for articles in a given journal to cite other articles from the same journal. Also, journals that publish more articles per year might be more likely to have articles cited in published works. The study methodology was also biased against journals published in languages other than English, because all source journals analyzed were in English. Because two of the four source journals were based in North America (Physical Therapy and Physiotherapy Canada), there could be a bias toward American-published literature.

Interpretation of the research results should consider the perspective of journals published by professional associations. Some associations might have a greater focus on a particular area of practice than others. Journals that focus on a specialized practice setting or patient population will probably be cited less frequently in the total collection of physical therapy citations than those with a broader scope.

DISCUSSION

It is interesting that while both Wakiji [10] and Maher [12] both found APMR to be the most frequent journal source of cited articles, the current study, a decade later, determined APMR as second most common, with Physical Therapy being most common. This could reflect the increasing number of publications that are specifically physical therapy-related in physical therapy journals. It is notable that APMR is still the second most frequently cited journal among the four target journals, even though it was not used as one of the source journals analyzed in this study.

Differences in the findings could be related to the journals utilized for the analysis. Future bibliometric research could focus more specifically on the indexing coverage and factors that increase coverage. The therapist clinician or researcher should consider that a database that is less inclusive might still be valuable in that it may provide a stronger search system, with matching to Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), which improves the efficiency and specificity of the search.

The category of "books," which includes chapters in books, had a total number of citations significantly less than that found for journal articles. Wakiji [10] also found fewer book citations than journals articles. Bohannon [11] and Maher [12] did not analyze book citations for their study. This is a promising development, suggesting that researches are citing the journal literature, which is usually considered to be more evidence based than books, book chapters, or the Internet.

In an update of the occupational therapy citation mapping study, Potter [19] found that the discipline's association journal, American Journal of Occupational Therapy, remained the strongest in the field. Similarly, the current study found the physical therapy association journal, Physical Therapy, to be the strongest in the field. However, Potter found that newer journals have begun to encroach on that journal's supremacy. The top journals in the present study remained constant, although with a slight rearrangement in ranking. Potter also found that coverage of occupational therapy journals by major health sciences databases had improved. CINAHL has improved coverage of the core journals of physical therapy, especially for those in Zone 1. However, when looking at the coverage for Zones 1 and 2 in the current study, Scopus provided the strongest cover age, with MEDLINE also providing strong coverage. For comprehensive coverage of the physical therapy literature, use of multiple databases provides the best results.

Burtis and Taylor [20], in an update of the mapping of the health education literature, found that percentages of journals in the core (Zones 1 and 2) remained stable. The present study, likewise, was comparable with the percentage in each zone in the Wakiji study [10]. The core dispersion for the occupational therapy, health education, and physical therapy disciplines is similar.

CONCLUSION

As noted by Potter [20], updates of previous bibliometric studies give a "fresh snapshot, a redrawn map" for a discipline's literature. In journal publications in the field of physical therapy, journals were cited (83% of citations) more frequently than books or other types of documents. The physical therapy literature does rely heavily on recent publications, with almost half of the citations published in the most recent 8-year period. The study revealed that CINAHL provided the best indexing of the core physical therapy literature, with MEDLINE and Scopus also providing strong coverage, indicating the need to access multiple databases.

Knowing which journals are considered core journals for a particular discipline and which databases provide the most comprehensive indexing of those journals can help the health sciences librarian develop a core collection in the discipline. It can also help the clinician to search for and obtain articles to promote evidence-based practice and to decide which journals to target for publication. Areas for future study include examining the core physical therapy literature using physical therapy specialty journals or broader physical therapy-related journals, with comparison between core journal lists determined by using each of the core journals from this article individually. Replicating the Wakiji [10] study and the Bohannon [11] study, using the same source journals, would help determine if a shift in the core titles had occurred or if the difference in the source journals selected had influenced the differences in this study.

Highlights

* More cited references were published in the last eight years studied than in any previous full decade.

* Physical Therapy, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (APMR), and Spine were the most frequently cited titles. Previous studies found APMR to be the most cited journal.

* CINAHL provided the highest coverage rate for the most commonly cited titles, with MEDLINE and EMBASE providing the best coverage for the next group of titles.

Implications

* Health sciences librarians and clinicians can use these results to identify important journals for developing collections and determining the need for access to back issues of journals.

* Multiple databases are needed for comprehensive coverage of the physical therapy discipline

DOI: 10.3163/1536-5050.99.3.007

Received October 2010; accepted February 2011

REFERENCES

[1.] American Physical Therapy Association. Guide to physical therapist practice. 2nd ed. Alexandria, VA: The Association; 2001.

[2.] American Physical Therapy Association. Goals that represent the priorities of the American Physical Therapy Association [Internet]. The Association [cited 16 Feb 2011]. <http://www.apta.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Vision_20201& CONTENTID=67228&TEMPLATE=/CM/ContentDisplay .cfm>.

[3.] US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Occupational outlook handbook, 2010-11 edition: physical therapists [Internet]. The Department [cited 29 Jan 2011]. <http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos080.htm>.

[4.] Jensen GM, Gwyer J, Shepard KF, Hack LM. Expert practice in physical therapy. Phys Ther. 2000 Jan;80(1): 28-43.

[5.] Glasgow RE, Emmons KM. How can we increase translation of research into practice? types of evidence needed. Annu Rev Public Health. 2007 Apr;28:413-43. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.28.021406.144145.

[6.] Korner-Bitensky N, Menon-Nair A, Thomas A, Boutin E, Arafah AM. Practice style traits: do they help explain practice behaviours of stroke rehabilitation professionals? J Rehabil Med. 2007 Nov;39(9):685-92. DOI: 10.2340/ 16501977-0106.

[7.] Naylor MD, Feldman PH, Keating S, Koren MJ, Kurtzman ET, Maccoy MC, Krakauer R. Translating research into practice: transitional care for older adults. J Eval Clin Pract. 2009 Dec;15(6):1164-70. DOI: 10.1111/ j.1365-2753.2009.01308.x.

[8.] Titler MG. Methods in translation science. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs. 2004 Mar;1:38-48. DOI: 10.1111/j.17416787.2004.04008.x.

[9.] Rye CB, Kimberly JR. The adoption of innovations by provider organizations in health care. Med Care Res Rev. 2007 Jun;64(3):235-78. DOI: 10.1177/1077558707299865.

[10.] Wakiji EM. Mapping the literature of physical therapy. Bull Med Libr Assoc. 1997 Jul;85(3):284-8.

[11.] Bohannon R. Core journals of physiotherapy. Physiotherapy. 1999 Jun;85(6):317-21. DOI: 10.1016/S0031-9406(05) 67135-0.

[12.] Maher C, Moseley A, Sherrington C, Herbert R. Core journals of evidence-based physiotherapy practice. Physi other Theory Pract. 2001 Sep;17(3):143-51. DOI: 10.1080/ 095939801317077600.

[13.] Maher CG, Sherrington C, Etkins M, Herbet RD, Moseley AM. Challenges for evidence-based physical therapy: accessing and interpreting high quality evidence on therapy. Phys Ther. 2004 Jul;84(7):644-54.

[14.] Thomson Reuters. Journal citation reports-science edition. [Internet]. Thomson Reuters [cited 26 Mar 2010]. <http://admin-apps.isiknowledge.com/JCR/JCR?PointOf Entry=Home&SID=3Akcni2PJJgL1JKDDNm>.

[15.] Miller PA, McKibbon KA, Haynes RB. A quantitative analysis of research publications in physical therapy journals. Phys Ther. 2003 Feb;83(2):123-31.

[16.] Schloman BF. Mapping the literature of allied health: project overview. Bull Med Libr Assoc. 1997 Jul;85(3):271-7.

[17.] Bradford S. Documentation. London, UK: Crosby, Lockwood; 1948.

[18.] Bensman S. Bradford's law and fuzzy sets: statistical implications for library analyses. IFLA J. 2001Aug;27(4): 238-46. DOI: 10.1177/034003520102700406.

[19.] Potter J. Mapping the literature of occupational therapy: an update. J Med Libr Assoc. 2010 Jul;98(3):235-42. DOI: 10.3163/1536-5050.98.3.012.

[20.] Burtis AT, Taylor MK. Mapping the literature of health education: 2006-2008. J Med Libr Assoc. 2010 Oct;98(4): 293-9. DOI: 10.3163/1536-5050.98.4.005.

Dennis W. Fell, PT, MD; Judy F. Burnham, MLS, AHIP; Melanie J. Buchanan, DPT; Heidi A. Horchen, DPT; Joel A. Scherr, DPT

AUTHORS' AFFILIATIONS

Dennis W. Fell, PT, MD, dfell@jaguar1.usouthal.edu, Chair, Physical Therapy Department, University of South Alabama, 2011 HAHN, Mobile, AL 36688; Judy F. Burnham, MLS, AHIP (corresponding author), jburnham@jaguar1.usouthal.edu, Director, Biomedical Library, University of South Alabama, 316 CBBL, Mobile, AL 36688; Melanie J. Buchanan, DPT, ([dagger]) Doctor of Physical Therapy Student (at the time of the research); Heidi A. Horchen, DPT, ([double dagger]) Doctor of Physical Therapy Student (at the time of the research); Joel A. Scherr, DPT,1 Doctor of Physical Therapy Student (at the time of the research); Physical Therapy Department, University of South Alabama, 2011 HAHN, Mobile, AL 36688

([dagger]) Current contact information: Melanie Buchanan, melaniejoybuchanan@gmail.com, 23095 Kennedy Road, Athens, AL 35613

([double dagger]) Current contact information: Heidi A. Horchen, hhorchen @hotmail.com, 11940 Lexington Street, Huntingdon, TN 38344.

([section]) Current contact information: Joel A. Scherr, jas606@jaguar1 .usouthal.edu, Physician's Choice Physical Therapy of Livingston Parish, 29419 Walker South Road, Walker, LA 70785.

* Based on a presentation at MLA '09, the 109th Annual Meeting of the Medical Library Association; Honolulu, HI; May 2009.
Table 1
Database coverage scale

    Rating percentage coverage of articles

5                 (95%-100%)
4                 (75%-94%)
3                 (50%-74%)
2                 (25%-49%)
1                  (1%-24%)
0                   (<1%)

Table 2
Cited format types by source journal and total frequency

                                 Source journal citations

                           Physical Therapy        Physiotherapy

Cited format type            No.         %         No.         %

Journal articles           10,088      85.9%      2,190      74.1%
Books                         909       7.7%        330      11.2%
Miscellaneous                 752       6.4%        435      14.7%
Total citations            11,749     100.0%      2,955     100.0%
Total source articles,
  2005-2007                   452                   123

                                 Source journal citations

                                                 Australian Journal
                         Physiotherapy Canada     of Physiotherapy

Cited format type            No.         %         No.         %

Journal articles            2,115      80.0%      2,233      83.3%
Books                         337      12.7%        195       7.3%
Miscellaneous                 192       7.3%        251       9.4%
Total citations             2,644     100.0%      2,679     100.0%
Total source articles,
  2005-2007                   107                   175

                         Source journal citations

                                 Totals

Cited format type            No.         %

Journal articles           16,626      83.0%
Books                       1,771       8.9%
Miscellaneous               1,630       8.1%
Total citations            20,027     100.0%
Total source articles,
  2005-2007                   857

Table 3
Cited format types, as total number and
percentage of the type, by publication period

                                Journal                       Total
                     Books      articles    Miscellaneous   citations
Publication year   (n=1,771)   (n=16,626)     (n=1,630)     (n=20,027)

2000-2007           32.18%       44.81%        69.74%         45.54%
1990-1999           46.25%       40.49%        21.04%         39.54%
1980-1989           14.57%       10.74%         6.44%         10.75%
1970-1979            4.57%       2.58%          1.99%         2.71%
1960-1969            1.13%       0.82%          0.20%         0.80%
Pre-1960             1.13%       0.53%          0.46%         0.58%
Not available        0.17%       0.03%          0.53%         0.09%

Table 4
Distribution by zone of cited journals and references

           Cited journals         Cited journal references

                                                   Cumulative
Zone        No.         %        No.        %        total

Zone 1       16       0.98%     5,531    33.48%        5,531
Zone 2       96       5.86%     5,514    33.38%       11,045
Zone 3    1,527      93.17%     5,473    33.13%       16,518
Total     1,639     100.00%    16,518    99.99%

Table 5
Complete ranked list of Zone 1 (providing
top third of citations) and Zone 2 journals

                                                     Number of
Source title                                         citations

Zone 1
1. Phys Ther                                             1,106
2. Arch Phys Med Rehabil                                   798
3. Spine                                                   739
4. J Am Geriatr Soc                                        299
5. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther                               275
6. Physiotherapy                                           253
7. Stroke                                                  247
8. BMJ                                                     238
9. Med Sci Sports Exerc                                    234
10. J Bone Joint Surg Am                                   206
11. Aust J Physiother                                      202
12. Clin Rehab                                             193
13. Pain                                                   190
14. Physiother Can                                         190
15. Clin Orthop Relat Res                                  185
16. JAMA                                                   176
Zone 1: citations from 16 journals                       5,531
Zone 2
17. Am J Sports Med                                        159
18. J Applied Physiol                                      139
19. Dev Med Child Neurol                                   128
20. Chest                                                  127
21. Am J Phys Med Rehabil                                  125
22. J Rhematol                                             122
23. New Engl J Med                                         118
24. J Manipulative Physiol Ther                            112
25. Arthritis Rheum                                        110
26. J Gerentol                                             108
27. Ann Int Med                                            106
28. Neurology                                              103
29. J Clin Epidemiol                                        98
30. Scand J Rehabil Med                                     97
31. Exp Brain Res                                           95
32. Brain                                                   94
33. J Biomech                                               93
34. Arthritis Care Res                                      91
35. Lancet                                                  91
36. Med Care                                                90
37. Physiother Theory Pract                                 90
38. Am J Respir Crit Care Med                               89
39. Ann Rheum Dis                                           89
40. Disabil Rehab                                           89
41. Manual Ther                                             87
42. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry                           85
43. Clin Biomech                                            84
44. Age and Aging                                           76
45. J Neurophysiol                                          76
46. Neurorehabil Neural Repair                              76
47. Gait Posture                                            72
48. European J Applied Physiol                              67
49. Can Med Assoc J/CMAJ                                    57
50. Muscle and Nerve                                        57
51. European Respir J                                       55
52. J Rehabil Med                                           55
53. Move Disord                                             55
54. Physiother Res Int                                      53
55. Thorax                                                  53
56. J Physiology                                            52
57. Spinal Cord                                             52
58. Sports Med                                              52
59. J Phys Ther Educ                                        50
60. Pediatr Phys Ther                                       49
61. J Orthopaedic Res                                       45
62. Am J Occup Ther                                         43
63. J Rehabil Res Develop                                   43
64. J Shoulder Elbow Surg                                   43
65. Rheumatology                                            41
66. Am Rev Respir Dis                                       40
67. Circulation                                             40
68. Acta Orthopaedica Scand                                 39
69. J Motor Behav                                           39
70. Scand J Med Sci Sports                                  39
71. Arch Int Med                                            38
72. J Electromyogr Kinesiol                                 38
73. British J Sports Med                                    37
74. Int J Rehabil Res                                       37
75. Neurol Report                                           36
76. Perceptual Motor Skills                                 35
77. Res Q Exercise Sport                                    35
78. J Cardiopulm Rehabil                                    34
79. J Hand Ther                                             34
80. Pediatrics                                              34
81. Soc Sci Med                                             34
82. Clin Sports Med                                         33
83. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct                  33
84. Am J Obstet Gynecol                                     32
85. Ergonomics                                              32
86. Human Move Sci                                          32
87. J Advanced Nurs                                         32
88. J Neurol Sci                                            32
89. Knee Surg Sports Trauma Arthroscopy                     32
90. Arch Neurol                                             31
91. Clin J Pain                                             31
92. Science                                                 31
93. Ann Neurol                                              29
94. Acta Physiol Scand                                      28
95. Crit Care Med                                           28
96. Electroencephalo Clin Neuro Phys                        28
97. Nature                                                  28
98. Nurs Res                                                28
99. Orthopaedics                                            28
100. Am J Public Health                                     27
101. European Spine J                                       27
102. J Continuing Educ Health Prof                          27
103. Arthroscopy                                            26
104. J Neurosci                                             26
105. J Pediatrics                                           26
106. Neurosci Letters                                       26
107. Phys Ther Rev                                          26
108. Brain Res                                              25
109. British J Rheumatol                                    25
110. Clin J Sports Med                                      25
111. J Athletic Training                                    25
112. Obstetr Gynecol                                        25
Zone 2: citations from 96 journals                       5,514
Zone 3: citations from 1,527 journals (not listed)       5,473
Total journal citations                                 16,518

Table 6
Zone 1 titles, number of cited references, indexing coverage

                                              Coverage *

                                  Allied and
                                 Complementary
                                   Medicine
                        Total      Database
Cited journals        citations     (AMED)      CINAHL  MEDLINE  Scopus
Zone 1
1. Phys Ther              1,106       ss          4        3       4
2. Arch Phys Med            798        2          2        2       2
  Rehabil
3. Spine                    739        1          4        4       5
4. J Am Geriatr Soc         299        1          5        5       5
5. J Orthop Sports          275        3          5        4       5
  Phys Ther
6. Physiotherapy            253        3          3        0       3
7. Stroke                   247        0          4        5       4
8. BMJ                      238        0          5        4       2
9. Med Sci Sports           234        1          4        0       4
  Exerc
10. J Bone Joint            206        0          4        0       5
  Surg Am
11. Aust J                  202        5          5        5       1
  Physiother
12. Clin Rehab              193        3          5        3       1
13. Pain                    190        1          0        5       4
14. Physiother Can          190        4          5        0       0
15. Clin Orthop             185        1          4        5       0
  Relat Res
16. JAMA                    176        1          5        5       2
Zone 1 total                          29          64      50       47
Zone 1 average                       1.81         4      3.13     2.94

* Indexing coverage scale: 5 (95%-100%); 4 (75%-94%);
3 (50%-74%); 2 (25%-49%); 1 (1%-24%); 0 (<1%).

Table 7
Coverage rate scores for four databases
regarding the Zone 1 and Zone 2 journals

                                     No. of       Allied and
                                    articles     Complementary
                                    published      Medicine
Cited journals                       in 2007    Database (AMED)

Zone 1
1.  Phys Ther                             231                 3
2.  Arch Phys Med Rehabil                 781                 2
3.  Spine                                 725                 1
4.  J Am Geriatr Soc                      453                 1
5.  J Orthop Sports Phys Ther             104                 3
6.  Physiotherapy                          66                 3
7.  Stroke                                709                 0
8.  BMJ                                 2,216                 0
9.  Med Sci Sports Exerc                  328                 1
10. J Bone Joint Surg Am                  512                 0
11. Aust J Physiother                      28                 5
12. Clin Rehab                            190                 3
13. Pain                                  351                 1
14. Physiother Can                         32                 4
15. Clin Orthop Relat Res                 547                 1
16. JAMA                                  229                 1
Total indexing coverage score:
Zone 1                                                       29

Zone 2 (alphabetical order)
  Acta Orthopaedica Scand/Acta
  Orthopaedica                            130
  Acta Physiol Scand                      132                 1
  Age (J Am Aging Assoc)                  248
  Am J Obstet Gynecol                     705
  Am J Occup Ther                         132                 3
  Am J Phys Med Rehabil                   177
  Am J Public Health (1971)               425
  Am J Respir Crit Care Med/Am
    Rev Respir Dis                        490
  Am J Sports Med                         296
  Ann Intern Med                          575
  Ann Rheumatic Dis                       612
  Arch Intern Med                         491
  Arch Neurol                             264
  Arthritis Care Res                      245                 1
  Arthritis Rheum                         549                 1
  Arthroscopy                             310
  Brain                                   354                 1
  Brain Res                             1,417
  British J Rheumatol                     442
  British J Sports Med                    316                 1
  Can Med Assoc J/CMAJ                  1,202                 0
  Chest                                   758                 1
  Circulation                           1,228
  Clin Biomech                            154                 2
  Clin J Pain                             119                 1
  Clin J Sports Med                       122
  Clin Sports Med                          65
  Crit Care Med                           868
  Dev Med Child Neurol                    241                 1
  Disabil Rehabil                         208
  Electroencephalo Clin Neurol
    Physio (now Clin
    Neurophysiol)                         940
  Ergonomics                              153
  European J Applied Physiol              265                 1
  European Respir J                       428                 1
  European Spine J                        332                 1
  Exp Brain Res                           469
  Gait Posture                            197                 4
  Human Move Sci                           62
  Int J Rehabil Res                        58                 5
  Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor
    Dysfunct                              288
  J Advanced Nurs                         397                 1
  J Appl Physiol                          717                 1
  J Athletic Training                      72                 2
  J Biomech                             1,281                 1
  J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev               179
  J Clin Epidemiol                        201
  J Continuing Educ Health Prof            59
  J Electromyogr Kinesiol                  80                 4
  J Geront: Series A and Series B         321
  J Hand Ther                              91
  J Manipulative Physiol Ther             115
  J Motor Behavior                         48                 4
  J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry           680                 1
  J Neurophysiol                          753
  J Neurol Sci                            417
  J Neurosci                            1,611
  J Orthopaedic Res                       191                 1
  J Pediatrics                            605
  J Phys Ther Educ                         36                 3
  J Physiol                               739
  J Rehabil Med                           129                 3
  J Rehabil Res Dev                       114
  J Rheumatology (APLAR)                  485
  J Shoulder Elbow Surg                   337
  Knee Surgery Sports Trauma
    Arthroscopy                           269                 1
  Lancet (British edition)              1,886                 0
  Manual Ther                              84                 3
  Med Care Res Rev                         49
  Move Disord                             572
  Muscle Nerve                            229                 0
  Nature                                3,719                 0
  Neurology                             1,273                 1
  Neurol Rep                                0
  Neurorehabil Neural Repair               62                 3
  Neurosci Letters                      1,002
  New Engl J Med                        1,363                 0
  Nurs Res                                 71                 1
  Obstetr Gynecol                         681
  Orthopaedics                            251
  Pediatr Phys Ther                        50                 3
  Pediatrics                              874                 0
  Perceptual Motor Skills Located
    @ UL                                  322                 1
  Phys Ther Rev                            41                 4
  Physiother Res Int                       33                 2
  Physiother Theory Pract                  32
  Res Q Exercise Sport                    350
  Rheumatology                            480                 1
  Scand J Med Sci Sports                  110                 2
  Scand J Rehabil Med (now J
    Rehabil Med)                          119                 5
  Soc Sc Med                              449                 1
  Spinal Cord                             134                 1
  Sports Med                              106
  Thorax                                  330                 0
Total indexing coverage score:
Zone 2                                                       80

Cited journals                      CINAHL   MEDLINE   Scopus

Zone 1
1.  Phys Ther                            4         3        4
2.  Arch Phys Med Rehabil                2         2        2
3.  Spine                                4         4        5
4.  J Am Geriatr Soc                     5         5        5
5.  J Orthop Sports Phys Ther            5         4        5
6.  Physiotherapy                        3         0        3
7.  Stroke                               4         5        4
8.  BMJ                                  5         4        2
9.  Med Sci Sports Exerc                 4         0        4
10. J Bone Joint Surg Am                 4         0        5
11. Aust J Physiother                    5         5        1
12. Clin Rehab                           5         3        1
13. Pain                                 0         5        4
14. Physiother Can                       5         0        0
15. Clin Orthop Relat Res                4         5        0
16. JAMA                                 5         5        2
Total indexing coverage score:
Zone 1                                  64        50       47

Zone 2 (alphabetical order)
  Acta Orthopaedica Scand/Acta
  Orthopaedica                           4
  Acta Physiol Scand
  Age (J Am Aging Assoc)
  Am J Obstet Gynecol                    4         4        5
  Am J Occup Ther                                  3        3
  Am J Phys Med Rehabil                  5         4        4
  Am J Public Health (1971)              4         4        5
  Am J Respir Crit Care Med/Am
    Rev Respir Dis                       4         4        5
  Am J Sports Med                        4         4        5
  Ann Intern Med                         4         4        4
  Ann Rheumatic Dis                                         3
  Arch Intern Med                        4         4        5
  Arch Neurol                                      5        5
  Arthritis Care Res                                        5
  Arthritis Rheum                        5         5        1
  Arthroscopy                                      4
  Brain                                  4         4        4
  Brain Res                                        4        4
  British J Rheumatol
  British J Sports Med                   3                  4
  Can Med Assoc J/CMAJ                   3         2        3
  Chest                                  5         5        5
  Circulation                            4         4        5
  Clin Biomech                           4         5        5
  Clin J Pain                            5         5        5
  Clin J Sports Med                                5        5
  Clin Sports Med                        3         3        4
  Crit Care Med                          4         4        4
  Dev Med Child Neurol                             4        5
  Disabil Rehabil                        5         5        5
  Electroencephalo Clin Neurol
    Physio (now Clin
    Neurophysiol)                                  2        1
  Ergonomics                             4         4        4
  European J Applied Physiol                       5        5
  European Respir J                                4        5
  European Spine J                                 4        4
  Exp Brain Res                                    5        5
  Gait Posture                                     4        4
  Human Move Sci                                   4        4
  Int J Rehabil Res                                5        5
  Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor
    Dysfunct                                       5        5
  J Advanced Nurs                        5         3        3
  J Appl Physiol                                   5        5
  J Athletic Training                              5        5
  J Biomech                                        2        2
  J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev              2         2        2
  J Clin Epidemiol                                 4        5
  J Continuing Educ Health Prof          5         3        4
  J Electromyogr Kinesiol                          5        5
  J Geront: Series A and Series B        5         5        5
  J Hand Ther                            3         2        2
  J Manipulative Physiol Ther            4         4        5
  J Motor Behavior                                 4        4
  J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry          3         3        3
  J Neurophysiol                                   5        5
  J Neurol Sci                                     4        4
  J Neurosci                                       5        5
  J Orthopaedic Res                                5        5
  J Pediatrics                           3         3        4
  J Phys Ther Educ                       4
  J Physiol                                        5        5
  J Rehabil Med                                    4        4
  J Rehabil Res Dev                      5         4        3
  J Rheumatology (APLAR)                 4         4        5
  J Shoulder Elbow Surg                            3        3
  Knee Surgery Sports Trauma
    Arthroscopy                                    5        5
  Lancet (British edition)               2         4        4
  Manual Ther                            3         4        4
  Med Care Res Rev                       5         5        5
  Move Disord                                      5        5
  Muscle Nerve                                     5        5
  Nature                                                    3
  Neurology                              4         4        5
  Neurol Rep
  Neurorehabil Neural Repair             5         5        5
  Neurosci Letters                                 4        4
  New Engl J Med                         4         5        5
  Nurs Res                               5         4        5
  Obstetr Gynecol                        4         4        4
  Orthopaedics                           5         5        5
  Pediatr Phys Ther                      5         4        4
  Pediatrics                             5         4        5
  Perceptual Motor Skills Located
    @ UL                                 4         4        4
  Phys Ther Rev                          5
  Physiother Res Int                     5         4        4
  Physiother Theory Pract                5                  5
  Res Q Exercise Sport                             1        1
  Rheumatology                                     4        4
  Scand J Med Sci Sports                 5         5        4
  Scand J Rehabil Med (now J
    Rehabil Med)                         5         5        3
  Soc Sc Med                             5         5        5
  Spinal Cord                            4         4        5
  Sports Med                             5         5        5
  Thorax                                           4        4
Total indexing coverage score:
Zone 2                                 215       330      356

Indexing coverage scale: 5 (95%-100%); 4 (75%-94%);
3 (50%-74%); 2 (25%-49%); 1 (1%-24%); 0 (<1%).

Table 8
Core journals in physical therapy: rank comparison with previous
studies

Rankings from current study          Rankings from Wakiji [14]
2005-2007 (total # of citations)     1991-1993 (# of citations)

1. Phys Ther (1,106)                           2       (1.205)
2. Arch Phys Med Rehabil (798)                 1       (1.654)
3. Spine (739)                                 4         (323)
4. J Am Geriatr Soc (299)                     33          (87)
5. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther (275)            24         (125)
6. Physiotherapy (253)                        34          (87)
7. Stroke (247)                               25         (121)
8. BMJ (238)                                  27         (103)
9. Med Sci Sports Exerc (234)                 17         (159)
10. J Bone Joint Surg Am (206)                 3         (372)
11. Aust J Physiother (202)                   85          (34)
12. Clin Rehabil (193)                    Zone 3
13. Pain (190)                                16         (166)
14. Physiother Can (190)                      38          (81)
15. Clin Orthop Rel Res (185)                  5         (323)
16. JAMA (176)                                 8         (249)

Rankings from current study          Rankings from Bohannon [19]
2005-2007 (total # of citations)     1997-1998 (# of citations)

1. Phys Ther (1,106)                      1              (553)
2. Arch Phys Med Rehabil (798)            3              (189)
3. Spine (739)                            4              (176)
4. J Am Geriatr Soc (299)                14               (64)
5. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther (275)        9               (87)
6. Physiotherapy (253)                    2              (244)
7. Stroke (247)                          27.5             (36)
8. BMJ (238)                             12               (71)
9. Med Sci Sports Exerc (234)            20               (53)
10. J Bone Joint Surg Am (206)            6             (98) *
11. Aust J Physiother (202)               8               (91)
12. Clin Rehabil (193)                   34               (29)
13. Pain (190)                           11               (74)
14. Physiother Can (190)                  7               (96)
15. Clin Orthop Rel Res (185)            10               (86)
16. JAMA (176)                           19               (54)

Rankings from current study          Rankings from Maher [20]
2005-2007 (total # of citations)     2001 PEDro (# of citations)

1. Phys Ther (1,106)                      4               (73)
2. Arch Phys Med Rehabil (798)            1              (109)
3. Spine (739)                           2.5              (82)
4. J Am Geriatr Soc (299)               18                (24)
5. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther (275)      10.5              (32)
6. Physiotherapy (253)                   7.5              (49)
7. Stroke (247)                         15.5              (26)
8. BMJ (238)                             2.5              (82)
9. Med Sci Sports Exerc (234)           31.5              (15)
10. J Bone Joint Surg Am (206)          44.5              (10)
11. Aust J Physiother (202)             31.5              (15)
12. Clin Rehabil (193)                  10.5              (32)
13. Pain (190)                           6                (51)
14. Physiother Can (190)                19.5              (23)
15. Clin Orthop Rel Res (185)           29.5              (16)
16. JAMA (176)                          15.5              (26)

* As American and British volumes were not always
differentiated among citations, they are combined.
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Author:Fell, Dennis W.; Burnham, Judy F.; Buchanan, Melanie J.; Horchen, Heidi A.; Scherr, Joel A.
Publication:Journal of the Medical Library Association
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jul 1, 2011
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