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Manuscript additions in 'Parthenia' and other early English printed music in America.

One of the musical treasures in the Huntington Library is the sole surviving copy of the first edition of Parthenia, published c.1612-13 and containing keyboard music by Bull, Byrd and Gibbons. Apart from its intrinsic musical value, this collection is also important as the earliest example of engraved music printed in England, and its fine title-page has been reproduced many times.(1) Because of its rarity this first edition is known to most scholars only from the facsimile published in 1942.(2) It comes as a surprise, therefore, on looking at the original, to discover that the two pages on the reverse of the title-page and dedication that are blank in the facsimile are not blank at all, but contain several additional pieces entered by hand.

These pieces are discussed below, but they are mentioned here not just as a cautionary tale for users of facsimiles but also to illustrate the fact that the owners of early printed music sometimes wrote additional pieces into their copies, and that these are often overlooked by scholars, who naturally tend to consult printed sources for the printed music that they contain. The added material may be on blank pages, like the Parthenia addenda, or on extra leaves bound with the book, or in any empty spaces on the printed pages. Sometimes the blank staves inserted by printers to fill up a page at the end of a piece were pressed into service. Writing music into printed books was a convenient way of preserving favourite pieces without going to the trouble and expense of starting a separate manuscript collection.

Of course, this phenomenon is not unknown to musicologists, and it even earns a few lines in the article 'Sources, MS' in The New Grove.(3) But until recently there has been no attempt to survey such additions in a systematic way. The present writer is now engaged on a study of manuscript additions in English printed music up to 1650. In a previous article I surveyed manuscript additions in two major collections in Washington, DC, the Library of Congress and the Folger Shakespeare Library.(4) In this second article I cover other American libraries, thus completing the survey of the United States of America.

Before doing so, it will be as well to set out more precisely than in the previous article the scope of the survey. With a few exceptions, it takes in all music printed in England up to 1650.(5) The exceptions are: books of liturgical chant; metrical psalters, save for a few special ones which contain settings by an individual composer, or which are otherwise significant;(6) and books that are primarily theoretical works. The terminal date of 1650 needs some explanation. A more obvious date might have been 1640, thus staying within the limits of the Pollard and Redgrave Short-Title Catalogue (STC).(7) For music, however, 1650 is a more logical cut-off date since it takes us up to the arrival on the music-publishing scene of John and Henry Playford, an event which marked the beginning of a new era in English music publishing. The survey includes all copies listed in Pollard and Redgrave, supplemented by those in the Wing STC for the period 1641-50.(8) In addition, the entries in RISM have been consulted.(9) In all but a few instances I have inspected the music personally, the exceptions being a few isolated copies not in major research libraries. In such cases I have relied on information (and if necessary, photocopies) supplied by the library or private owner.

The list which follows records manuscript music found in printed music in the following libraries, following a survey of all the American copies listed in the two STC's and RISM: Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, California; New York Public Library; Newberry Library, Chicago, Illinois; University of California, Los Angeles, California; University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois; University of Rochester, Rochester, New York; and Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts. Apart from the intrinsic interest of some of the items, the survey illustrates how manuscript additions can shed light on more general matters. The handwriting of Nos. 9-10 forms part of the evidence which enables us to connect the New York copy of Alison's Psalmes of David with an important early seventeenth-century collection of lute-songs, British Library Add. MS 15117. No. 11 adds to the body of evidence on Conyers D'arcy as an important early collector of English music prints, and further exemplifies his penchant for recording additional music in his copies.(10) Nos. 12-13 and 56-57 provide material for the study of the ways in which early owners used their printed copies in performance. And No. 39 provides further reason for concluding that this famous canon is not by Byrd.

Musical incipits are given only for items which are not copies of known works. Abbreviations: A, Altus; B, Bassus; C, Cantus; M, Medius; Q, Quintus; S, Superius; Sx, Sextus; T, Tenor.

HENRY E. HUNTINGTON LIBRARY, SAN MARINO, CALIFORNIA

14176: Parthenia (music by John Bull, William Byrd and Orlando Gibbons). This unique copy of the first edition was formerly in the collection of Edward Francis Rimbault, who published an edition of it for the Musical Antiquarian Society in 1847. It then became part of the Britwell collection before going to the Huntington in 1919.(11) Seven additional keyboard pieces are entered on the verso of the title-page and dedication (reproduced in Plates I & II). All but the end of No. 1 is lost through cropping, as is the middle of No. 5 and much of No. 6. The beginnings of some pieces are also slightly cropped.

As stated at the beginning of this article, these additions are not present in the facsimile published in 1942. The reason is apparent from the note that Otto Erich Deutsch provided with the facsimile, in which he says: 'This, the first facsimile of PARTHENIA to be made, corresponds, except for the blank pages, with the original issue of 1612-13. The plates used for this facsimile were kindly lent by the Paul Hirsch Library at Cambridge.' It may well be that these photographic plates did not include the verso of the title-page and dedication, so that Deutsch was left in ignorance of their handwritten contents. However, there are other peculiarities about this facsimile. Some cleaning and retouching has evidently taken place, for two long ink stains in No. 14 in the original have been removed, and there is no sign on the title-page and dedication of the prominent show-through from the manuscript additions. Another feature of the title-page, as reproduced in the facsimile, leads us to conclude that the plate used for this page could not have been a direct copy of the original. In the original, the imprint at the foot of the title-page reads 'Lond: print: for M.ris Dor: Euans. Cum priuelegio'. But in the facsimile, the superscript letters of 'M.ris' are missing, so that the name reads 'M Dor: Euans'. This led Deutsch to remark in his note: 'The whole is engraved for a named but otherwise unknown lady, Dorethie Evans; even her status as Miss or Mistress is left to the imagination'. At first sight it seems likely that, in the process of cleaning and retouching, the superscript letters have been accidentally removed by Deutsch's printer. But when we examine the reproduction of the original title-page in Rimbault's 1847 edition we see that exactly the same discrepancy occurs there also. The explanation seems to be that the accident occurred in the printing of the 1847 reproduction, and that the plate used by Deutsch was based on the 1847 reproduction (perhaps because of its very clean appearance), rather than on the unique original at the Huntington.(12)

I am indebted to Virginia Brookes for the identifications of these keyboard pieces.

1. [The end of an unidentified piece] Verso of title-page

2. . . . vp of the Parlement Verso of title-page. Unidentified.

[Musical Expression Omitted]

3. Jemeco

Verso of title-page. A setting of the tune 'Jameko' (i.e., 'Jamaica') in the 1670 edition (and all subsequent editions) of John Playford's Dancing Master, p. 142. Concerning the history of the tune, see Claude M. Simpson, The British Broadside Ballad and its Music, New Brunswick, NJ, 1966, pp. 376-7.

[Musical Expression Omitted]

4. Noe I neuer was in Loue

Verso of title-page. There is a song by Henry Lawes beginning 'Noe, noe I never was in loue' in his autograph manuscript British Library Add. MS 53723, f. 138, as well as in John Playford's Select Ayres and Dialogues (1659), 65, but it bears little resemblance to this piece.

[Musical Expression Omitted]

5. alla mode france

The piece begins on the verso of the title-page and ends on the verso of the dedication. The middle is lost through cropping. It is a setting of the tune in John Playford's The English Dancing Master (1651), 49. (There is also a minor-key version known as 'Nonesuch': see Simpson, op. cit., pp. 516-17.)

[Musical Expression Omitted]

6. bore [i.e., bourree]

Verso of dedication. This piece is found in John Playford's Apollo's Banquet (1678), Part II, No. 9, entitled 'The Running Bore'. It is also in Musicks Hand-Maid (1678), No. 73, and in New York Public Library, Drexel MS 5609, p. 238 (taken from Musicks HandMaid). Much of the Parthenia version has been cropped.

7. rigbies rant

Verso of dedication. The key of this unidentified piece is uncertain, owing to the cropping of the page.

[Musical Expression Omitted]

20120: Nicholas Yonge, Musica Transalpina (1588). Six parts, with the bookplate of Thomas Gaisford. This is a mixed set, the C, A and Q belonging to the first printing of 1588, and the T, B and Sx belonging to a later printing (c.1589-96), though still bearing the date 1588.

8. [Unidentified piece in two sections, untexted]

Written on the blank staves used to fill up the end of a page: C, sig. C; A, sig. C3; Q, sig. B. The music appears to be a canzonet or light madrigal for five or six voices, of which only three are now present. Since the surviving parts occur in the three earlier partbooks of a mixed batch, the other voices were no doubt in the partbooks which once belonged with them.

[Musical Expression Omitted]

NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY

Drexel 4357: Richard Alison, The Psalmes of David in Meter (1599). This copy was formerly in the collection of Edward Francis Rimbault. It was purchased by Joseph Drexel at the Rimbault auction in 1877. A peculiarity of this copy is that the title-page is not that of Alison's Psalmes of David but of Part II of Sir Robert Brook's La graunde abridgement of 1573 (STC 3827), with the central compartment of Alison's title hinged over that of Brook's.

As well as the two additional items listed below, this copy contains much other manuscript material. This takes a number of forms: on sixteen pages extra verses have been written out in metrical form;(13) on seventeen pages the cittern part has been underlaid with text;(14) on four pages the Cantus part has been written out again so that it can be read by the cittern player with the page inverted;(15) on four pages the name of the tune has been supplied;(16) in the Table on sig. A4 the incipit of one of the extra items, 'O Lord I put my trust in thee', has been added at the foot of the page.

Several pieces of evidence indicate that this copy is closely connected with one of the most important lute-song manuscripts of the period, British Library Add. MS 15117, compiled c.1616.(17) Firstly, the addenda in the Alison are in the same hand as the pieces copied by Scribe A in the manuscript, that is, all the musical contents except for the items on folios 4v-6v and the first two systems on folio 7. Secondly, both the Alison and the manuscript bear the signature 'Hughe Floyd'/'Hugh: ffloyd' - on sig. Aii of the former and on folio 24v of the latter.(18) Thirdly, on folio 24 of the manuscript there is an index to the Alison, and this includes one of the added pieces, No. 10 below. Fourthly, preserved with the manuscript there is an old binding which has on its spine the words 'Psalmes Musicall by Allison'.(19) And fifthly, the Alison and the manuscript are of almost identical size - 296 x 198 mm. and 295 x 195 mm. respectively. In sum, it is not only certain that the New York copy of Alison's Psalmes of David and Add. 15117 formerly belonged together - they were almost certainly bound together.

Considerable importance attaches to the identity of Scribe A, who was responsible for most of the manuscript and all of the addenda in the Alison. In her dissertation, Julia Craig-McFeely makes the suggestion, based on analysis of the handwriting, that Scribe A was probably Richard Mynshall, the principal scribe in the Mynshall Lutebook.(20) There are indeed striking similarities. However, Scribe A seems also - on the basis of the handwriting - to have been responsible for the inscription 'Virtute decet non Sanguine Viti / Hughe Floyd' on sig. Aii of the Alison, suggesting that the scribe was one Hugh Floyd, whose identity is not otherwise known.(21)

The Psalmes of David / Add. 15117 connection may also shed some light on the identity of Scribe B, who was responsible for the entries on folios 4v-6v and the first two systems of folio 7 in the manuscript. Dr Craig-McFeely links this hand with entries in four other lute manuscripts and produces evidence to suggest that it may be that of Richard Alison.(22) The New York Psalmes of David does not contain any entries by Scribe B, but the simple fact that it is an Alison publication is, at the very least, an intriguing coincidence.

The two added pieces in the New York Psalmes of David are:

9. All people that on Earth do dwell

Sig. N2v. Texted Cantus with tablatures for lute and cittern. The tune is that of 'The Old 100th'.

[Musical Expression Omitted]

10. O Lord I put my trust in thee Sig. O2v. Texted Cantus with tablature for cittern.

NEWBERRY LIBRARY, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS

Case VM 1579 F 23f: John Farmer, The First Set of English Madrigals (1599). C only. The title-page bears the signature of Conyers D'arcy (1570-1653/4), providing further evidence of his status as an important early collector of music.

11. Sweet are the thoughts [y.sup.t] harbour full content. C only, incomplete, on a leaf of manuscript paper inserted at the front of the partbook. The text is written out under the staves, but music is entered only when parts of the text are repeated - perhaps to serve as an aide-memoire to an otherwise familiar piece. The poem is similar to Robert Greene's 'Sweet are the thoughts that savour of content' (Farewell to Folly, 1591, sig. Fv).

[Musical Expression Omitted]

WILLIAM ANDREWS CLARK MEMORIAL LIBRARY, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES

*M1578 R24 1618: Thomas Ravenscroft, Deuteromelia (1609). Bound with Pammelia (2nd edn., 1618), Melismata (1611) and A Briefe Discourse (1614). Notes in the volume indicate that it was formerly in the collections of William Gostling, William Shield and John Stafford Smith.

12. Wee be Souldiers three Sig. B3. B, untexted, of the partsong printed on the same opening. The part is transposed down a fifth, with some notes altered by an octave.

13. By a banke as I lay Sig. D4v. B, untexted, of the partsong printed on the same opening. The clef is changed from F3 to F4, and there are some changes of rhythm.

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, URBANA-CHAMPAIGN

x783.9/T136s/copy 2: Robert Tailour, Sacred Hymns (1615). The title-page is signed 'Geo: Iliffe. 1656'. An end flyleaf is inscribed 'Hilton upon Trent. / Quas sacras AEdes pietas construxit Avorum; / Has nunc Heredes divastant more Luporum' and 'Joseph Mead London draper'. The additional items of music, mainly settings for four voices of the common psalm tunes, are on pages bound in at the beginning and end of the book. In the following list the references to the metrical psalters of Thomas East (1592), William Barley (c.1598) and Thomas Ravenscroft (1621) are merely for purposes of identification, and are not intended to imply that these editions were the actual sources from which the psalms were copied.

At beginning of book. Ff. 1v-2:

14. The 100. Psalme John Dowland: East, 1592

15. The 113. Psalme. Ye Children which doe serve the Lord Richard Alison: East, 1592

16. Cheshire Tune. The 146. Psalme. J. ffarmer John Farmer: East, 1592

Ff. 2v-3:

17. Oxford tune. Tho: Ravens: B. of M. Thomas Ravenscroft: Ravenscroft, 1621

18. Glocester tune. Ioh: Tomkins B. of M. John Tomkins: Ravenscroft, 1621

19. Chichester Tune. Tho Ravens: B. of M. Thomas Ravenscroft: Ravenscroft, 1621

20. Winchester Tune. Tho Rav: B. of M. Thomas Ravenscroft: Ravenscroft, 1621

21. Rochester Tune. Rich: Allison Richard Alison: East, 1592

Ff. 3v-4:

22. Yorke Tune. John Milton John Milton: Ravenscroft, 1621

23. S.t Davids Tune. Tho: Rav: B. of M. Thomas Ravenscroft: Ravenscroft, 1621

24. Martyrs Tune. Symon Stubs Simon Stubbs: Ravenscroft, 1621

26. Windsor or Eaton Tune. Tho: Rav: B. of M. Thomas Ravenscroft: Ravenscroft, 1621

27. Dumfermeling Tune. Tho: Tomkins B. of M. Thomas Tomkins: Ravenscroft, 1621

Ff. 4v-5:

28. London Tune. Psal. 67 Thomas Ravenscroft: Ravenscroft, 1621

29. Psal." [another setting of No. 28] Unidentified

30. Chesshire Tune. John ffarmer John Farmer: East, 1592

31. Cheshire Tune. John Bennet John Bennet: Barley, c.1598

32. Dutch Tune. Psal. 4.th E. Blanks Edward Blancks: East, 1592. Repeated as No. 33

Ff. 5v-6:

33. Psal. 4.th Dutch Tune. E. Blanks As No. 32

34. Psal. 16.th Cambridge Tune. E. Hooper Edmund Hooper: East, 1592

35. Psal. 67 & 70. E. Hooper Edmund Hooper: East, 1592

36. Psal. 128. Cambridge Tune. Tho: Ravens: B. of M. Thomas Ravenscroft: Ravenscroft, 1621

37. Psal: 18. O God my strength & fortitude William Cobbold: East 1592. C and B only The same as No. 40

F. 6v:

38. Psal. 119. Giles Farnaby: East 1592

39. Non nobis Domine The absence of any composer's name against this piece, in a source which is otherwise conscientious and accurate in naming composers, reinforces the argument that this famous canon is not by Byrd: see The Byrd Edition, xvi, ed. Philip Brett, London, 1974, pp. viii-ix.

Verso of title-page:

40. Psal. 18. O God my strength &c. W. Cobbold William Cobbold: East 1592. See No. 37

At end of book. F. 1:

41. Psal. 1. The man is blest &c. Tho: Morley B: of M. Thomas Morley: Barley, c.1598

Ff. 1v-2:

42. Psal. 3. O Lord how are &c. Tho: Ravens: B: of M. Thomas Ravenscroft: Ravenscroft, 1621

43. Psal. 6. Lord in thy wrath &c. G: Kirby George Kirbye: East, 1592

Ff. 2v-3:

44. Psal. 14.th There is no God &c. Thos. Morley B: of M. Thomas Morley: Barley, c. 1598

Ff. 3v-4:

45. Psal. 21. O Lord how ioyfull &c. John Bennet John Bennet: Barley, c. 1598

F. 4v:

46. Psal. 18.th O God my strength &c. W. Cobbold William Cobbold: East, 1592

F. 5:

47. Psal. 81. R. Allison Richard Allison: East, 1592

Ff. 5v-6:

48. Psal. 51. O Lord consider &c. E. Blanks Edward Blancks: East, 1592

49. Psal. 59. Send aide and save &c. R. Allison Richard Alison: East, 1592

Ff. 6v-7:

50. Psal. 61. Regard O Lord &c. R. Allison Richard Alison: East, 1592

51. Psal. 68. Let God arise &c. R. Allison Richard Alison: East, 1592

Ff. 7v-8:

52. Psal. 69. Save mee O God &c. R. Allison Richard Alison: East, 1592

53. Psal. 72. Lord give thy judgm.ts &c. R. Allison Richard Alison: East, 1592

F. 8v:

54. Anthem. Behold it is Christ which was ordained by God. M.r E. Hooper M of the anthem by Edmund Hooper (c.1553-1621), printed in John Barnard's First Book of Selected Church Musick (1641); ed. Peter le Huray, London, 1961

Ff. 8v-9:

55. Lulla, lullaby, my sweet little baby Part 2, 'Be still my blessed babe', is headed 'Birds Lullaby. Superius. Second part.' and subscribed 'M.r W. Bird'. S of the piece printed in William Byrd's Psalmes, Sonets, & Songs (1588), No. 32.

UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER, ROCHESTER, NEW YORK

Vault/M/1490/A522: John Amner, Sacred Hymnes (1615). Six pans. As well as the additions listed below, these partbooks contain other indications of use, including some barring, tails added to the first and last minims in syncopated passages, and solmization syllables (C2, sig. B).

56. [No. xix, O yee little flocke] C1 (sig. Dii) and C2 (sig. Dii) both contain a line of untexted music which appears to be a revision of a passage in this piece

57. [No. xx, Feare not, for unto you] C1 (sig. Diii) and C2 (sig. Diiv) both contain a line of texted music which appears to be a revision of a passage in this piece

WILLIAMS COLLEGE, WILLIAMSTOWN, MASSACHUSETTS

Music/1: Bible: Thomas Ravenscroft, The Whole Booke of Psalmes (1621)

58. . . . sweet thoughts o rocke him asleepe, wth a delicious lullaby The closing section of this lullaby for voice and lute is written on a leaf inserted at the end of the book. The remainder of the song is missing. The whole of the surviving section is given below.

[Musical Expression Omitted]

1 Concerning the title-page and its model, see Otto Erich Deutsch, 'Cecilia and Parthenia', The Musical Times, c (1959), 591-2.

2 Harrow Replicas No. 3, with a note by Otto Erich Deutsch, London, 1942.

3 The New Grove, xvii. 702.

4 David Greer, 'Manuscript Additions in Early Printed Music', Music & Letters, lxxii (1991), 523-35. I am pleased to have this opportunity to correct an error in this article: in stating on page 523 that the British Library's Catalogue of Manuscript Music makes no reference to the manuscript additions in Pammelia (K.1.e.9) I overlooked Pamela Willetts's invaluable Handlist of Music Manuscripts Acquired 1908-67 (London, 1970), 89, where they are duly recorded.

5 In my 1991 article the scope was narrower, but a further review of the Washington, DC, collections in the light of the expanded time-frame has not produced any further additions. However, one item which was not available for inspection in 1991 should be added to the list of printed music containing manuscript additions. It is the second of the Folger's two copies of the Byrd-Tallis Cantiones of 1575 (shelfmark STC 23666, copy 2). Only the Superius is preserved, and this is bound with the Superius of Lassus's Recueil du mellange (1570). The volume formerly belonged to Thomas Hamond and contains many annotations by him. On sig. F3 he has written out (page inverted) the resolution of the retrograde canon in the Superius of Byrd's 'Diliges Dominum' with the comment: 'Sing this as 'tis heere prickt: or sing it backward as 'tis printed: wch you please. [Yo.sup.r]: friend T: H:'.

6 Ones included in the survey are: Richard Alison, The Psalmes of David in Meter (1599); William Barley, The Whole Booke of Psalmes (c.1598), John Cosyn, Musike of Six, and Five Partes (1585); Miles Coverdale, Goostly Psalmes and Spirituall Songes (c.1535); William Daman, The Psalmes of David in English Meter (1579); idem, The Former Booke of the Musicke (1591); idem, The Second Booke of the Musicke (1591); John Day, Whole Psalmes in Foure Partes (1563); Thomas East, The Whole Booke of Psalmes (1592); Henry Lawes, Choice Psalmes (1648); Matthew Parker, The Whole Psalter Translated into English Metre (c.1567); Thomas Ravenscroft, The Whole Booke of Psalmes (1621); George Sandys, A Paraphrase upon the Divine Poems (1638, 1648); Robert Tailour, Sacred Hymns (1615).

7 A. W. Pollard & G. R. Redgrave, Short-Title Catalogue . . . 1475-1640, 2nd edn. by W. A. Jackson, F. S. Ferguson & Katharine F. Pantzer, London, 1976-91.

8 Douglas Wing, Short-Title Catalogue . . . 1641-1700, 2nd edn., New York, 1972-88.

9 Repertoire internationale des sources musicales, A/I/1-12 (Kassel & c., 1971-92), B/I (Kassel & c., 1960). RISM has created a fair number of 'ghosts', usually through local reporters including photocopies and facsimiles in their listings.

10 See Greer, 'Manuscript Additions in Early Printed Music', pp. 525 ff. The following items (not containing added music) may now be added to the list of music formerly in his possession: Giovanni Croce, Musica sacra, 1608 (Library of Congress, M1490.C9L5.Case); Francis Pilkington, The First Set of Madrigals and Pastorals, 1613 (British Library, K.2.d.10); Thomas Watson, Italian Madrigalls Englished, 1590 (British Library, K.3.k. 12).

11 The Britwell Handlist, London, 1933, i. 155; Edythe N. Backus, Catalogue of Music in the Huntington Library Printed before 1801, San Marino, California, 1949, p. 61; A. Hyatt King, Some British Collectors of Music c.1600-1960, Cambridge, 1963, p. 19.

12 It cannot have been based on the second edition of c.1615 or any of the later editions, where the imprints are substantially different.

13 Sigs. Bv, B2v, C4v, D4v, Ev, E2v, E3v, F3v, G3v, G4v, Iv, I2v, K3v, Qv, Q3v, Rv.

14 Sigs. Bv, B2v, C4v, E2v, G4v, H2v, Iv, I2v, I3v, K3v, N4v, M4, M2v, N3v, Qv, Rv, T2v.

15 Sigs. C4v, E2v, F3v, Rv.

16 Sigs. S2v, S3v, S4v, T2v.

17 See Mary Joiner, 'British Museum Add. MS 15117: a Commentary, Index and Bibliography', R.M.A. Research Chronicle, vii (1969), 51-109; and Julia Craig-McFeely, English Lute Manuscripts and Scribes 1530-1630 (unpublished dissertation), University of Oxford, 1994. I am grateful to Dr Craig-McFeely for supplying me with a copy of her dissertation. A facsimile of Add. 15117 will be found in Elise Bickford Jorgens, English Song 1600-1675: Facsimiles of Twenty-six Manuscripts and an Edition of the Texts, New York & London, 1986-9, i.

18 I am indebted to Robert Spencer for drawing this connection to my attention.

19 This old binding is reproduced in Jorgens, op. cit.

20 Craig-McFeely, English Lute Manuscripts and Scribes 1530-1630, pp. 222-30.

21 I hope to pursue this matter in a forthcoming article.

22 Craig McFeely, op. cit., pp. 230-45.
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Date:May 1, 1996
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