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Manpower: capturing monthly availability of the KATUSA soldier: analysis of the effect of the Korean Augmentation to the United States Army (KATUSA) program on Manpower Management within the Eighth United States Army.

The KATUSA Program enables Korean soldiers to become more acquainted with United States military customs and traditions. This program focuses heavily on the cross-cultural interchange of ideas and values and moves to promote a spirit of cooperation and trust between the Republic of Korea and U.S. military personnel in the defense of South Korea.

Traditionally, Eighth United States Army (EUSA) manpower analysts have used the standard Army availability factors published in Army Regulation (AR) 570-4, "Manpower Management," to calculate the amount of effort a KATUSA solider contributes to an organization's armistice workload. However, U.S. units in Korea have convincingly argued that the published availability factors overstate the level of support that an organization receives from KATUSA soldiers.

For example, KATUSA military personnel dedicate 5 hours a week for directed ROK Army and English proficiency training. This time is not captured in the published Army-wide availability factors. If the amount of effort that an organization can expect from its KATUSA soldiers is overstated, then that organization potentially could receive less staffing against requirements recognized to accomplish validated workload demands.

To this extent, EUSA manpower and force development professionals have developed a command-unique availability factor of 102 hours per month to account for the workload efforts contributed by KATUSA soldiers.

This paper outlines the methodology used to develop the KATUSA availability factor. With this as our starting point, let's briefly discuss the KATUSA soldier program.

The KATUSA Program

The birth of the KATUSA Program can be traced back to an informal agreement in July 1950 between the Honorable Syngman Rhee, President of the Republic of Korea, and General Douglas MacArthur, Commander in Chief, United Nations Command. The concept of this program was to supplement the understrength U.S. Forces with Korean soldiers. KATUSA soldiers began integration into U.S. units in August 1950. At its peak in 1952, 27,000 KATUSA soldiers served with U.S. military forces.

After the armistice in 1953, KATUSA soldiers remained with EUSA units to receive training not readily available within the ROK Army and to enhance EUSA's mission capability. Following the reduction of U.S. troops in Korea in the 1970s, the number of KATUSA soldiers assigned to serve with U.S. Army units stabilized at about 7,000 personnel.

Currently, some 5,000 KATUSA soldiers serve proudly alongside their American counterparts in the defense of freedom in the Republic of Korea. They augment the military strength of EUSA units with ready-to-fight Korean soldiers to increase the Republic of Korea/United States combined defense capability on the Korean peninsula. KATUSA soldiers are normally assigned to U.S. Army units for approximately 2 years, providing a basis for the continuity of operations and expertise that might be lost as a result of 1-year rotations by U.S. military personnel.

The KATUSA Program is significant both because of the supplemental military manpower it provides to EUSA and its ability to create and maintain an important bond---a commitment forged in warfare and sealed in blood and sweat between the Republic of Korea and the United States of America--to deter aggression on the Korean peninsula.

Additionally, the KATUSA Program enables an essential cross-cultural exchange of ideas, traditions, and customs between Korean and U.S. soldiers, thereby building an atmosphere of trust and cooperation between the two allied countries in defense of the peninsula. Furthermore, this viable program is symbolic of the enduring friendship between the Republic of Korea and the United States.

Computing the KATUSA Availability Factor

The standard Army monthly allowances for unproductive/unavailable time (in hours) published in the U.S. Army Manpower Analysis Agency Workload Based Manpower Analysis Handbook (March 2000) served as the starting point to develop the EUSA-unique KATUSA availability factor. Coordination with the KATUSA Program administrator in the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G3 (Operations), revealed that KATUSA unavailable time can be separated into three categories: same as U.S. Forces, higher than U.S. Forces, and KATUSA-unique.

Some of the monthly allowances given to U.S. personnel were also applicable to KATUSA soldiers. Specifically, the published allowances for monthly unavailable times to account for medical leave (3.61 hours), ancillary training (4.31 hours), organizational duties (3.99 hours), in- and out-processing (1.26 hours), and miscellaneous unproductive time (0.8 hour) were valid for KATUSA soldiers.

The EUSA manpower specialists analyzed the amount of time KATUSA soldiers were unavailable for duty. In addition to the directed ROK Army and English proficiency training, KATUSA personnel are entitled to additional holidays (KATUSA personnel are granted both U.S. and Korean holidays), leave, and mandatory separation training. Table 1 presents a comparison of the standard monthly unavailable hours and the computed unavailable hours for KATUSA soldiers.

At this point, you may be wondering how we arrived at KATUSA computed times. Table 2 explains the calculations.

Table 2 on page 10 illustrates the logic used to compute the KATUSA-unique availability factor. Generally, prorating 16 Korean holidays over a year comes to 10.67 hours per month. KATUSA personnel receive 24.5 days off each year, which equates to 16.33 hours per month. Mandatory weekly training expends a total of 21.74 hours a month. The Republic of Korea Army requires 3 days for end-of-service/ separation training, which equates to 1 hour per month. The remaining standard unavailable times are applicable to U.S. and KATUSA soldiers. As you can see, the computed KATUSA unavailable time (in hours/month) agrees with the hours given in Table 1 (63.71 hours).

Applying the Unavailable Time to Arrive at an Availability Factor

Given the congressionally mandated work year (2087 hours), less 10 U.S. federal holidays, yields 2007 hours per year, or 167.25 hours per month. Deducting the standard unavailable time for U.S. personnel (22.25 hours) generates the standard availability factor of 145 hours per month, or 1,740 hours per year. This represents the time, in hours, that an individual is available to contribute to the workload efforts of an organization; it is also known as productive time.

Given 167.25 payroll hours per month, it follows that KATUSA personnel are available for duty 103.54 hours (167.25 -63.71). This is further reduced by 2 hours for an OCONUS (overseas) allowance, leaving 101.54, or 102 hours a month, available for duty--the KATUSA availability factor. In those rare situations where the KATUSA availability factor is greater than Army-wide availability factors for enlisted personnel, the established standard should be used in lieu of the KATUSA availability factor.

By accurately capturing the amount of time that a KATUSA is available for duty, the EUSA is able properly to program its human resource requirements. The command then can effectively dedicate its personnel assets to accommodate average workload demands using minimal resources.
Table 1. U.S. Army Standard and Computed KATUSA Unavailable Hours.

Comparison of U.S. Army Standard and
Computed KATUSA Unavailable Hours

Unavailable Hours Activity Standard Computed

Holiday 0 10.67
Medical Leave 3.61 3.61
Leave 8.28 16.33
Training (Ancillary) 4.31 4.31
ROK Army Training 0 21.74
Organizational Duties 3.99 3.99
Miscellaneous 0.80 0.80
In/Out-Processing 1.26 1.26
Separation (ETS) Training 0 1.00

Total 22.25 63.71

Table 2. KATUSA Monthly Unavailable Time.

1. KATUSA-Unique Unavailable Time

 Unavailable/Unproductive Time Frequency
 Time Deduction (a) (b)

 Holiday 16 days/yr
 Leave (Nonmedical)
 Ordinary Leave 35 days/2-yr
 Official Leave 2 days/yr
 Reward Leave 5 days/yr
 Total Leave
 ETS/Separation Seminar (1) 3 days/2-yr
 English 3 hours/wk (2)
 ROK Army 2 hours/wk (2)
 Total Training
Total KATUSA-Unique Unavailable Time/Month
2. Army Standard Unavailable Times Applied
 To KATUSA Soldiers (3)
 Medical Leave
 Ancillary Training
 Organization Duties
Total Army Standard Unavailable Time/Month
3. Total KATUSA Monthly Unavailable Time

 Unavailable/Unproductive Conversion Time
 Time Deduction Factor (Hours) (a X c)
 (c) (d)
 Leave (Nonmedical) 8 128
 Ordinary Leave
 Official Leave 8 280
 Reward Leave 8 16
 Total Leave 8 40
 ETS/Separation Seminar (1)
 Training 8 24
 ROK Army 4.348 13.044
 Total Training 4.348 8.696
Total KATUSA-Unique Unavailable Time/Month
2. Army Standard Unavailable Times Applied
 To KATUSA Soldiers (3)
 Medical Leave
 Ancillary Training
 Organization Duties
Total Army Standard Unavailable Time/Month
3. Total KATUSA Monthly Unavailable Time

 Unavailable/Unproductive Prorated
 Time Deduction Hours Calculation
 (e) (f)
 Leave (Nonmedical) 10.67 (d)/12
 Ordinary Leave
 Official Leave 11.67 (d)/24
 Reward Leave 1.33 (d)/12
 Total Leave 3.33 (d)/12
 ETS/Separation Seminar (1) 16.33
 Training 1.00 (d)/24
 ROK Army 13.04 (a X c)
 Total Training 8.70 (a X c)
Total KATUSA-Unique Unavailable Time/Month 21.74
2. Army Standard Unavailable Times Applied 49.74
 To KATUSA Soldiers (3)
 Medical Leave 3.61
 Ancillary Training 4.31
 Organization Duties 3.99
 In/Out-Processing 1.26
 Miscellaneous 0.80
Total Army Standard Unavailable Time/Month 13.97
3. Total KATUSA Monthly Unavailable Time 63.71


(1) ROK Army requires mandatory 3-day end-of-service training/seminar.

(2) Conversion factor of 4.348 is from AR 570-5, Manpower Staffing
Standards System.

(3) Army Standard Deductions from U.S. Army Manpower Analysis Agency
publication, Workload Based Manpower
Analysis Handbook (March 2000).

John Di Genio is a management analyst with the Installation Management Agency Korea Regional Office, Yongsan Garrison, Seoul, Korea. A member of the Korea Chapter, he is a frequent contributor to Armed Forces Comptroller.
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Author:Di Genio, John
Publication:Armed Forces Comptroller
Geographic Code:9SOUT
Date:Mar 22, 2003
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