Printer Friendly

Manejo del acaro Aceria litchii (Acari: Eriophyidae) en Litchi chinensis.

Management of Aceria litchii (Acari: Eriophyidae) on Litchi chinensis


The litchi, Litchi chinensis Sonn. (Sapindaceae) is a tropical plant native to Southeast Asia that produces climacteric fruits (Cabral et al. 2014) and is cultivated in several countries (Gontier et al. 2008; Jiang et al. 2013). It is widely sought after on the international market (Yang et al. 2016). China and India are the largest producers (Ranjan and Ran 2015). In Brazil, the litchi was introduced in 1810 and by 1970 commercial production began in Sao Paulo (Yamanishi et al. 2010). Currently, it is one of the most popular exotic fruits in the country (Alves et al. 2016), with the "Bengal" variety being the most consumed (Suguino 2006). Harvesting is carried out between November and January (Martins et al. 2001; Yamanishi et al. 2001), when the demand for fruit is high and there is no competition from other countries (Lins et al. 2015). The fruit has a red epicarp surrounding the mesocarp consisting of a white layer, with tasty pulp and high nutritional value (Bhoopat et al. 2011). The fruits of this plant can be eaten fresh and used to manufacture juices, vinegar, marmalades and fermented alcoholic beverages (Alves et al. 2011; Saxena et al. 2011). Bioactive compounds such as lignans and flavonoids are present in large quantities in L. chinensis leaves and epicarp (Wen et al. 2014). In addition, consumption of lychee fruits and seeds can prevent cancer cell growth (Bhat and AlDaihan 2014; Wen et al. 2015).

Among the main L. chinensis pests, the mite Aceria litchii (Keifer) (Acari: Eriophyidae) stands out (Lall and Rahman 1975; Hameed et al. 1992; Huang 2008), having been reported in Australia, Brazil, China, Hawaii, India and Pakistan (Jeppson et al. 1975; Sabelis and Bruin 1996; Hong et al. 2006, Huang 2008). The lesions caused by A. litchii were detected on litchi plants in Sao Paulo state, Brazil in January 2008, being the first report of this pest in South America (Raga et al. 2010). Espirito Santo was the second Brazilian state where infestation was confirmed (Fornazier et al. 2014). Aceria litchii is located and feeds on the leaves, flowers and underside of young L. chinensis fruits (Nishida and Holdaway 1955; Butani 1977; Sharma et al. 1986). Abiotic factors such as temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and precipitation affect the population growth of this mite (Singh et al. 1987). The symbiotic relationship between A. litchii and the algae Cephaleuros virescens Kunze (Tentrepohliaceae) favors the formation of erineos (trichomes developed abnormally) (Saha et al. 1996). The erineo generates an adequate environment for mites, protecting them from precipitation, temperature, wind (Sharma 1984; Sharma et al. 1986; Thakur and Sharma 1990) and the action of chemical products (Jeppson et al. 1975; Westphal and Manson 1996). Colonization by these algae causes detrimental effects to the plant through stomatal blockage and hinders photosynthesis (Alam and Wadud 1963). Initially, the erineo is silvery white, changing to light brown, dark reddish brown and black as the infestation advances (Waite 2005). The leaves affected turn thick and wavy, wither and finally fall. Damaged shoots do not produce flowers or fruits (Lall and Rahman 1975).

Practices for litchi mite control should be adopted throughout most of the year (Azevedo et al. 2014) mainly in the development of the inflorescence and the expansion of new leaves when the mites migrate to young organs to take refuge, feed themselves and multiply by establishing new erineos (Arthur and Machi 2016). Several chemical products are widely used to control the mite (Azevedo et al. 2013), but the adoption of other control methods is desirable.

This review aims to present the main control methods, their advances and propose management techniques for the litchi mite, A. litchii.


The behavior and small size of A. litchii hampers the verification of population density. This mite lives in erineos, which impedes direct observation (Azevedo et al. 2014). Methods to estimate lychee mite populations and others insects that form erineos have been adapted from one used to evaluate nematode densities in plant roots (Coolen and D 'Herde 1972) consisting of blending litchi infested leaves in a blender for 1 min in 250 ml distilled water and screening the material with a set of sieves with openings of 2, 0.2 and 0.037 mm, respectively, from top to bottom. Larger particles of leaves are retained in the two larger aperture screens, while smaller ones and mites are retained in the screen with a smaller aperture. The mite passage through the upper screens is driven by a jet of tap water for a few seconds. The material retained in the lowest sieve is transferred to a 25 ml cylinder, using sucrose solution (density of 1.15 g/ml, corresponding to 400 g of commercial sucrose dissolved in 750 ml of water). The material should be shaken several times and left to rest for 15 hours allowing the mites to concentrate near the solution surface. The supernatant is poured through a 0.037 mm opening screen and the material retained (mainly mites) is washed with distilled water to remove excess sucrose. The mites should be transferred to a bottle with 15 ml of 70% ethanol. Mites are counted in Peters sheets, commonly used in nematode counts. The estimate is made by extrapolating the count of three aliquots of 1 ml. This procedure is progressive with higher precision as the A. litchii infestation level increases (Azevedo et al. 2014). The highest A. litchii density on plants in Brazil is recorded at the beginning of the rainy season (October) and in the middle of the dry season (May-June) (Azevedo et al. 2014). Aceria litchii density can also be determined by stirring 2 [cm.sup.2] leaf pieces with erineos in a 0.5% neutral detergent solution for five seconds to dislodge this mite from the erineos. The counting of mites present in the solution is done with a stereoscopic microscope (Picoli 2010).

Chemical control

Pesticides must be applied before and/or during the emergence of the inflorescence and leaf expansion of L. chinensis (Picoli 2010). Spraying outside this range has unsatisfactory results (Waite 2005). The main problem with Eriophyidae mite control is its hidden lifecycle. Pesticide application should occur during the stages when the mites temporarily leave the erineos. Control is better provided with acaricides with long residual effect, since the transfer (erine exit) of mites to new leaves extends over several days or weeks (Van Leeuwen et al. 2010).

Three preventative dimethoate or sulfur applications in soluble powder at two to three weeks intervals are recommended in Thailand (Waite and Hwang 2002). Dichlorvos, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate and isocarbophos are effective and used in China (Waite 2005). The fenpyroxime, sulfur, abamectin and hexythiazox application cause high A. litchii mortality. However, these insecticides were considered harmful to the predator Phytoseius intermedius Evans & MacFarlane (Acari: Phytoseiidae) (Azevedo et al. 2013). The complete elimination of A. litchii was achieved with a double application of espiromesifeno at a concentration of 0.144 g a.i. L-1 in Thailand (Schulte et al. 2007).

When effectively used, sulfur presents low toxicity to mammals, but has an impact on natural enemies (Prischmann et al. 2005) such as P intermedius (Azevedo et al. 2013); Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt, 1951) (Beers et al. 2009); Euseius victoriensis (Womersley, 1954) (Bernard et al. 2010) and Typhlodromus pyri (Scheuten, 1857) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) (Gadino et al. 2011). Sulfur is inorganic and ineffective against Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836) (Acari: Tetranychidae) (Auger et al. 2003).

The development of resistance by Eriophyidae mites to pesticides has been reviewed (Messing and Croft 1996). Resistance to organophosphate by Aculus cornutus and A. lycopersici (Acari: Eriophyidae) was confirmed in the laboratory (Abou-Awad and El-Banhawy 1995), but products with different action mechanisms can reduce the development of resistance in mite pests (Azevedo et al. 2013).

Azadirachtin causes low A. litchii mortality but has low effect on the predator P intermedius (Azevedo et al. 2013). This insecticide is toxic to phytophagous and predatory mites (Castagnoli et al. 2000; Brito et al. 2006; Duso et al. 2008).

In Australia, the management of A. litchii consists of three acaricide applications during shoot formation at intervals of 10 to 14 days if erineos on most plants. Satisfactory control has been achieved with successive sprays alternating sulfur and dimethoate, the first performed at the beginning of shoot formation, if the mite is present during L. chinensis flowering (Waite 2011). However, there is no pesticide registered for litchi cultivation in Brazil (Brasil 2016).

The chemical control of Eriophyidae mites was reviewed (Childers et al. 1996), but the efficiency of other chemical compounds to control these mites requires further study. The main reason for lacking information on the toxicity of new compounds is the lower economic importance of these mites compared to others such as Tetranychidae mites (Van Leeuwen et al. 2010).

Biological control

Predatory mites. Aceria litchii can be transported by bees from the flowers of infested plants (Waite and Mcalpine 1992; Waite 1999) and can be preyed upon when migrating to new leaves, before forming the erineo (Azevedo et al. 2013). Predators attack A. litchii when the mite leaves the erineo (Azevedo et al. 2014). The main predators of phytophagous mites are Phytoseiidae species (Gerson et al. 2003; McMurtry et al. 2015). The natural presence and periodic releases of predatory mites has been used to control pests (Moraes and Lima 1983; Momen and Hussein 1999). Phytoseiids are associated with A. litchii in India (Thakur and Sharma 1989), Australia, China (Waite and Gerson 1994) and Brazil (Picoli 2010; Azevedo et al. 2013). The predator Amblyseius compositus (Denmark and Muma, 1973) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) (42.6%) predominated in Casa Blanca, Sao Paulo state, Brazilian plantations followed by the other predatory mite P intermedius (31.2%) (Picoli 2010), but in Limeira, Sao Paulo, A. compositus corresponded to 10% of phytoseids observed (Azevedo et al. 2014). The highest predator population densities generally coincide with the presence of A. litchii between October and December (Picoli 2010; Azevedo et al. 2014).

Aceria litchii is suitable prey for P intermedius (Azevedo et al. 2016). This predator was found on plants with leaves covered with trichomes, such as Helicteres brevispira SaintHilaire and Helicteres lhotzkyana (Schott & Endlincher) (Malvaceae), Guazuma ulmifolia Lamarck (Sterculiaceae), Miconia sp. (Melastomataceae) and Cordia sellowiana Chamisso (Boraginaceae) in Sao Paulo state, Brazil (Demite et al. 2008). However, the erineos on A. litchii on litchi leaves reduces the action of the predatory mites. Eight phytoseiid species are associated with A. litchii in India (Thakur and Sharma 1990) and A. compositus, Euseius concordis (Chant, 1959) and Iphiseiodes zuluagai (Denmark & Muma, 1972) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) are positively correlated and promising for the biological control of A. litchii (Picoli 2010).

Entomopathogenic fungi. Entomopathogenic fungi can regulate arthropod populations by penetrating their cuticle and destroying internal tissues (Kurtti and Keyhani 2008; Rossoni et al. 2014; Costa et al. 2015). The ease of dispersion of these microorganisms in the field justifies research to investigate their potential for biological control (Meyling et al. 2009; Costa et al. 2015).

Entomopathogenic fungi (Acari: Eriophyidae) have been reported on mites (Tanzini et al. 2000; Demite and Feres 2008); and the erineos conserving the humidity inside the gills providing a favorable microclimate for growth of these microorganisms (Picoli and Vieira 2013). Hirsutella thompsonii (Fischer) (Ascomycota: Ophiocordycipitaceae) is the most commonly found fungus on Eriophyidae (McCoy 1996). This fungus is an alternative to control A. litchii (Picoli and Vieira 2013). The H. thompsonii infestation was higher during rainy periods with a positive correlation with rainfall and relative humidity (Demite and Feres 2008) simultaneously with the population density growth of A. litchii on litchi plants in Brazil (Azevedo et al. 2014).

Entomopathogenic fungi are recommended for the biological control of other mites (Sreerema Kumar and Singh 2002, 2008; Alves et al. 2005; Fernando et al. 2007; Paz et al. 2007; Edgington et al. 2008; Gerson et al. 2008). Entomopathogenic fungi presence and impacts on Eriophyidae mites were reviewed (McCoy 1996; Van der Geest et al. 2000; Balazy et al. 2008) and they can contribute to A. litchi management programs.

Cultural control

Branch and leaf pruning of erineos and resultant damage is an effective measure to manage mites in litchi plantations. A. litchii populations are higher in the lower third of the plants and pruning of symptomatic branches in this region should be complete (Raga et al. 2011). However, A. litchii management with pruning and acaricide spraying increases production costs for this crop, therefore, litchi plants should be inspected in nurseries to prevent or reduce the spread of this mite (Raga et al. 2010).

Final considerations

Aceria litchii is the most important litchi pest in the world. Chemicals are the main control measure for this mite. However, adverse effects of pesticides justify the search for ecologically sustainable pest control strategies (Khederi et al. 2014). The combination of biological, cultural and chemical methods (Timprasert et al. 2014) make the production system more promising over the long term and can reduce pesticide dependence (Hashemi et al. 2008). The natural biological control of Eriophyidae mites is based mainly on predators and, to a lesser degree, on pathogens. However, the implementation of this control method presents difficulties. Predatory thrips are commercialized to manage Tetranychidae mites (Gerson et al. 2003; de Faria and Wraight 2007). They are are also natural enemies of Eriophyidae mites but none of them is sold specifically to control these mites (Van Leeuwen et al. 2010). Few studies have investigated the efficiency of new chemical compounds to control A. litchii. Therefore, research into control methods, with special attention on the tritrophic complex (cultural, natural enemies and pests) is fundamental to achieve integrated control and reduce the possibilities of A. litchi propagation and establishment.

DOI: 10.25100/socolen.v44i1.6528


To "Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Coordenado de Aperfeigoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES), Fundagao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG)" and "Programa Cooperativo sobre Protegao Florestal/PROTEF of the Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais/IPEF". Dr. Phillip John Villani (University of Melbourne, Australia) revised and corrected the English language used in this manuscript.

Literature cited

ABOU-AWAD, B. A.; EL-BANHAWY, E. M. 1995. Susceptibility of the tomato russet mite, Aculops lycopersici in Egypt to methamidiphos, pyridaphenthion, cypermethrin, dicofol and fenarimol. Experimental and Applied Acarology 1 (1): 11-15.

ALAM, M. Z.; WADUD, M. A. 1963. On the biology of litchi mite, Aceria litchi Keifer (Eriophyidae, Acarina) in east Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Science 15 (5): 232-240.

ALVES, S. B.; TAMAI, M.S.; ROSSI, L. S.; CASTIGLIONO, E. 2005. Beauveria bassiana pathogenicity to citris rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora. Experimental and Applied Acarology 37 (1-2): 117-122.

ALVES, J. A.; DE OLIVEIRA, L. L. C.; NUNES, C. A.; DIAS, D. R.; SCHWAN, R. F. 2011. Chemical, physical-chemical, and sensory characteristics of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) wines. Journal of Food Science 76 (5): 330-336.

ALVES, E. C.; GUIMARAES, J. E. R.; FRANCO, C. K. B.; MARTINS, A. B. G. 2016. Number of leaflets on rooting of lychee herbaceous cuttings. Ciencia Rural 46 (6): 1003-1006.

ARTHUR, V; MACHI, A. R. 2016. Development of phytosanitary irradiation against Aceria litchii (Trombidiformes: Eriophyidae) on lychee. Florida Entomologist 99 (2): 143-149.

AUGER, P.; GUICHOU, S.; KREITER, S. 2003. Variations in acaricidal effect of wettable sulfur on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae): effect of temperature, humidity and life stage Pest Management Science 59 (5): 559-565.

AZEVEDO, L. H.; DE MORAES, G. J.; YAMAMOTO, P. T.; ZANARDI, O. Z. 2013. Development of a methodology and evaluation of pesticides against Aceria litchii and its predator Phytoseius intermedius (Acari: Eriophyidae, Phytoseiidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 106 (5): 2183-2189.

AZEVEDO, L. H.; MAEDA, E. Y; INOMOTO, M. M.; MORAES, G. J. 2014. A method to estimate the population level of Aceria litchi (Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) and a study of the population dynamics of this species and its predators on litchi trees in southern Brazil. Journal of Economic Entomology 107 (1): 361-367.

AZEVEDO, L. H.; CASTILHO, R. D.; DE MORAES, G. J. 2016. Suitability of the litchi erineum mite, Aceria litchii (Keifer), as prey for the mite Phytoseius intermedius Evans & MacFarlane (Acari: Eriophyidae, Phytoseiidae). Systematic and Applied Acarology 21 (3): 270-278.

BALAZY, S.; MIETKIEWSKI, R.; THACZUK, C.; WEGENSTEINER, R.; WRZOSEK, M. 2008. Diversity of acaropathogenic fungi in Poland and other European countries. Experimental and Applied Acarology 46 (1-4): 53-70.

BEERS, E. H.; MARTINEZ-ROCHA, L.; TALLEY, R. R.; DUNLEY, J. E. 2009. Lethal, sublethal and behavioral effects of sulfur-containing products in bioassays of three species of orchard mites. Journal of Economic Entomology 102 (1): 324-335.

BERNARD, M. B.; COLE, P.; KOBELT, A.; HORNE, P. A.; ALTMANN, J.; WRATTEN, S. D.; YEN, A. L. 2010. Reducing the impact of pesticides on biological control in Australian vineyards: pesticide mortality and fecundity effects on an indicator species, the predatory mite Euseius victoriensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 103 (6): 2061-2071.

BHAT, R. S.; AL-DAIHAN, S. 2014. Antimicrobial activity of Litchi chinensis and Nephelium lappaceum aqueous seed extracts against some pathogenic bacterial strains. Journal of King Saud University-Science 26 (1): 79-82.


H. 2011. Hepatoprotective effects of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.): A combination of antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 136 (1): 55-66.

BRASIL. 2016. Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento. Instruido Normativa 52. Dez 2007. Available in: [Review date: 13 April 2018].

BRITO, H. M.; GONDIM J. R., M. G. C.; OLIVEIRA, J. V; CAMARA, C. A. G. 2006. Toxicity of the natuneem over the Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and mites predators from the family Phytoseiidae. Ciencia e Agrotecnologia 30 (4): 685-691.

BUTANI, D. K. 1977. Pests of litchi in India and their control. Fruits 32 (1): 269-270.

CABRAL, T. A.; CARDOSO, L. M.; PINHEIRO-SANT'ANA, H. M. 2014. Chemical composition, vitamins and minerals of a new cultivar of lychee (Litchi chinensis cv. Tailandes) grown in Brazil. Fruits 69 (6): 425-435.

CASTAGNOLI, M.; SIMONI, S.; GOGGIOLI, D. 2000. Attivita biologica di sostanze vegetali nei confronti di Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) e del suo predatore Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Redia 83 (1): 141-150.

CHILDERS, C. C.; EASTBROOK, M. A.; SOLOMON, M. G. 1996. Chemical control of eryophyoid mites. pp. 695-726. In: Lindquist, E. E.; Sabelis, M. W.; Bruin, J. (Eds.). Eryophyoid mites--their biology, natural enemies and control. Vol. 6. Elsevier Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 690 p.

COOLEN, W. A.; D'HERDE, C. J. 1972. A method for the quantitative extraction of nematodes from plant tissue. State Agriculture Research Center. Ghent, Belgica. 77 p.

COSTA, V H. D.; SOARES, M. A.; RODRIGUEZ, F. A. D.; ZANUNCIO, J. C.; SILVA, I. M.; VALICENTE, F. H. 2015. Nomuraea rileyi (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae in Brazil. Florida Entomologist 98 (2): 796-798.

DE FARIA, M. R.; WRAIGHT, S. P. 2007. Mycoinsecticides an mycoacaricides: a comprehensive list with worldwide coverage and international classification of formulation types. Biological Control 43 (3): 237-256.

DEMITE, P. R.; FERES, R. J. F. 2008. Seasonality of pathogenic fungi in mites of rubber tree plantations adjacent to fragments of Cerrado. Brazilian Journal of Biology 68 (3): 535-538.

DEMITE, P. R.; LOFEGO, A. C.; FERES, R. J. F. 2008. Three new species of Phytoseius ribaga (Acari: Phytoseiidae), and a new record from Brazil. Zootaxa 1909: 16-26.

DUSO, C.; MALAGNINI, V.; POZZEBON, A.; CASTAGNOLI, M.; LIGUORI, M.; SIMONI, S. 2008. Comparative toxicity of botanical and reduced-risk insecticides to Mediterranean populations of Tetranychus urticae and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae). Biological Control 47 (1): 16-21.

EDGINGTON, S.; FERNANDO, L. C. P.; JONES, K. 2008. Natural incidence and environmental profiling of the mitepathogenic fungus Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher for control of the coconut mite in Sri Lanka. International Journal of Pest Management 54 (2): 123-127.

FERNANDO, L. C. P.; MANOJ, P.; HAPUARACHCHI, D. C. L.; EDINGTON, S. 2007. Evaluation of four isolates of Hirsutella thompsonii against coconut mite (Aceria guerreronis) in Sri Lanka. Crop Protection 26 (7): 1062-1066.

FORNAZIER, M. J.; MARTINS, D. S.; FORNAZIER, D. L.; AZEVEDO, L. H.; ZANUNCIO J. R., J. S.; ZANUNCIO, J. C. 2014. Range expansion of the litchi erinose mite Aceria litchii (Acari: Eriophyidae) in Brazil. Florida Entomologist 97 (2): 846-848.

GADINO, A. N.; WALTON, V M.; DREVES, A. J. 2011. Impact of vinegard pesticides on a beneficial arthropod, Typhlodromus yri (Acari: Phytoseiidae), in laboratory bioassays. Journal of Economic Entomology 104 (3): 970-977.

GERSON, U.; SMILEY, R. L.; OCHOA, R. 2003. Mites (Acari) for pest control. Oxford, Blackwell Sciences. 539 p.

GERSON, U.; GAFNI, A.; PAZ, Z.; SZTEJNBERG, A. 2008. A tale of three acaropathogenic fungi in Israel: Hirsutella, Meira and Acaromyces. Experimental and Applied Acarology 46 (1-4): 183-194.

GONTIER, E.; BOUSSOUEL, N.; TERRASSE, C.; JANNOYER, M.; MENARD, M.; HUANG, K. 2008. Aceria (Acarina: Eriophyoidea) in Taiwan: five new species and plant abnormalities caused by sixteen species. Zootaxa 1829: 1-30.

HAMEED, S. F.; SHARMA, D. D.; AGRAWAL, M. L. 1992. Integrated pest management in litchi. Proceedings of National Seminar on Recent Development in Litchi production held in 1992 at RAU, Pusa. 38 p.

HASHEMI, S. M.; MOKHTARNIA, M.; ERBAUGH, J. M.; ASADI, A. 2008. Potential of extension workshops to change farmers' knowledge and awareness of IPM. Science of the Total Environment 407 (1): 84-88.

HONG, X. Y; WANG, D. S.; ZHANG, Z. Q. 2006. Distribution and damage of recent invasive eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) in mainland China. International Journal of Acarology 32 (3): 227-240.

HUANG, K. W. 2008. Aceria (Acarina: Eriophyoidea) in Taiwan: five new species and plant abnormalities caused by sixteen species. Zootaxa 1829: 1-30.

JEPPSON, L. R.; KEIFER, H. H.; BAKER, E. W. 1975. Mites injurious to economic plants. Berkeley, University of California. 641 p.

JIANG, G.; LIN, S.; WEN, L.; JIANG, Y; ZHAO, M.; CHEN, F.; PRASAD, K. N.; DUAN, X.; YANG, B. 2013. Identification of a novel phenolic compound in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) pericarp and bioactivity evaluation. Food Chemistry 136 (2): 563-568.

KHEDERI, S. J.; LILLO, E.; KHANJANI, M.; GHOLAMI, M. 2014. Resistance of grapevine to the erineum strain of Colomerus vitis (Acari: Eriophyidae) in western Iran and its correlation with plant features. Experimental and Applied Acarology 63 (1): 15-35.

KURTTI, T. J.; KEYHANI, N. O. 2008. Intracellular infection of tick cell lines by the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. Microbiology 154 (6): 1700-1709.

LALL, B. S.; RAHMAN, M. F. 1975. Studies on the bionomics and control of Erionose mite, Eriophyes litchii Keifer, Acarina: Eriophyidae. Pesticides 9 (11): 49-54.

LINS, L. C. R.; SALOMAO, L. C. C.; CECON, P. R.; SIQUEIRA, D. L. 2015. The lychee tree propagation by layering. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura 37 (2): 480-487.

MARTINS, A. B. G.; BASTOS, D. C.; SCALOPPI JUNIOR, E. J. 2001. Lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). Sociedade Brasileira de Fruticultura, Jaboticabal, Brasil. 48 p.

McCOY, C. W. 1996. Pathogens of Eriophyoids. pp. 481-490. In: Lindquist, E. E.; Sabelis, M. W.; Bruin, J. (Eds.). Eriophyoid mites--their biology, natural enemies and control. Vol. 6. Elsevier Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 690 p.

McMURTRY, J. A.; SOURASSOU, N. F.; DEMITE, P R. 2015. The Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) as biological control agentes. pp. 133-150. In: Carrillo, D.; Moraes, G. J.; Pena, J. E. (Eds.). Prospects for biological control of plant feeding mites and other harmful organisms. Suiza, Springer.

MESSING, R. H.; CROFT, B. A. 1996. Pesticide resistance in eriophyoid mites, their competitors and predators. pp. 689-694. In: Lindquist, E. E.; Sabelis, M. W.; Bruin, J. (Eds.). Vol. 6. Elsevier Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 690 p.

MEYLING, N. V; LUBECK, M.; BUCKLEY, E. P; EILENBERG, J.; REHNER, S. A. 2009. Community composition, host range and genetic structure of the fungal entomopathogen Beauveria in adjoining agricultural and seminatural habitats. Molecular Ecology Resources 18 (6): 1282-1293.

MOMEN, F. M.; HUSSEIN, H. 1999. Relationships between food substances, developmental success and reproduction in Typhlodromus transvaalensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Acarologia 40 (2): 108-111.

MORAeS, G. J.; LIMA, H. C. 1983. Biology of Euseius concordis (Chant) (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) a predator of the tomato russet mite. Acarologia 24 (3): 251-255.

NISHIDA, T.; HOLDAWAY, F. G. 1955. The erinose mite of lychee. Agricultural Experiment Station, Hawaii. 48 p.

PAZ, Z.; GERSON, U.; SZTEJNBERG, A. 2007. Assaying three new fungi against citrus mites in the laboratory, and a field trial. Biocontrol 52 (6): 855-862.

PICOLI, P. R. F. 2010. Aceria litchii (Keifer) em lichia: ocorrencia sazonal, danos provocados e identificado de possiveis agentes de controle biologico. Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira (Dissertajao), Ilha Solteira, Brasil. 75 p.

PICOLI, P. R. F.; VIEIRA, M. R. 2013. First report of pathogenic activity of Hirsutella thompsonii (Fischer) on the litchi erineum mite Aceria litchii (Keifer). Semina: Ciencias Agrarias 34 (1): 187-190.

PRISCHMANN, D.A.; JAMES, D. G.; WRIGHT, L. C.; TENEYCK, R. D.; SNYDER, W. E. 2005. Effects of chlorpyrifos and sulfur on spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) and their natural enemies. Biological Control 33 (3): 324-334.

RAGA, A.; MINEIRO, J. L. C.; SATO, M. E.; MORAES, G. J.; FLECHTMANN, C. H. W. 2010. Primeiro relato de Aceria litchii (Keifer) (Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) em plantas de lichia no Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura 32 (2): 628-629.

RAGA, A.; MINEIRO, J. L. C.; SILOTO, R. C.; BERTON, L. H. C. 2011. Registros do acaro-da-erinose Aceria litchii (Keifer) (acari: Trombidiformes) no Estado de Sao Paulo. In: Simposio Brasileiro de Acarologia, 3. Campinas. Anais. Campinas: Instituto Biologico.

RANJAN, R.; RAY, R. 2015. Effect of abiotic factors on the incidence of litchi mite, Aceria litchii Keifer. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems 21 (2): 225-227.

ROSSONI, C.; KASSAB, S. O.; LOUREIRO, E. S.; PEREIRA, F. F.; COSTA, D. P.; BARBOSA, R. H.; ZANUNCIO, J. C. 2014. Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) are compatible with Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Florida Entomologist 97 (4): 1794-1804.

SABELIS, M. W.; BRUIN, J. 1996. Evolutionary ecology: life history patterns, food plant choice and dispersal. pp. 329-365. In: Lindquist, E. E.; Sabelis, M. W.; Bruin, J. (Eds.). World crop pests: Eriophyoid mites their biology, natural enemies and control. Vol. 6. Elsevier Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 690 p.

SAHA, K.; SOMCHOUDHURY, A. K.; SARKAR, P. K. 1996. Structure and ecology of Cephaleuros virescens Kunze and its relationship with Aceria litchii Keifer (Prostigmata: Acari) in forming litchi erineum. Journal of Mycopathological Research 34 (2): 159-171.

SAXENA, S.; HA JARE, S. N.; MORE, V; KUMAR, S.; WADHAWAN, S.; MISHRA, B. B.; PARTE, M. N.; GAUTAM, S. ; SHARMA, A. 2011. Antioxidant and radioprotective properties of commercially grown litchi (Litchi chinensis) from India. Food Chemistry 126 (1): 39-45.

SCHULTE, M. J.; MARTIN, K.; SAUERBORN, J. 2007. Efficacy of spiromesifen on Aceria litchii (Keifer) in relation to Cephaleuros virescens Kunze colonization on leaves of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 114 (3): 133-137.

SHARMA, D. D. 1984. Control of litchi mite. Indian Horticulture 29 (1): 27-28.

SHARMA, D. D.; SINGH, S. P.; AKHAURI, R. K. 1986. Relationship between the population of Aceria litchii Keifer on litchi and weather factors. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 56 (1): 59-63.

SINGH, P.; SOMCHOUDHARY, A. K.; MUKHERJEE, A. B.; SARKAR, P. K. 1987. Susceptibility of different varieties of litchi to Aceria litchii Keifer (Acarina: Eriophyidae). Proceedings of 1st National Seminar on Agril. Acarology, held at Kalyani, pp. 35.

SREEREMA KUMAR, P. S.; SINGH, L. 2002. Development of 'Mycohit', the first mycoacaricide based exclusively on Hirsutella thompsonii, for suppressing the coconut mite in

India. pp. 209-213. In: Reddy, S. M.; Redy, S. R.; Singarachary, M. A.; Girisham, S. (Eds.). Proceedings, national symposium on bioinoculants for sustainable agriculture and forestry. India.

SREEREMA KUMAR, P S.; SINGH, L. 2008. Enabling mycelia application of Hirsutella thompsonii for managing the coconut mite. Experimental and Applied Acarology 46 (1-4): 169-182.

SUGUINO, E. 2006. Influencia dos substratos no desenvolvimento de mudas de plantas frutiferas. Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", Universidade de Sao Paulo (Tese), Piracicaba, Brasil.

TANZINI, M. R.; ALVES, S. B.; TAMAI, M. A.; MORAES, G. J.; FERLA, N. J. 2000. An epizootic of Calacarus heveae (Acari: Eriophyidae) caused by Hirsutella thompsonii on rubber trees. Experimental and Applied Acarology 24 (2): 141-144.

THAKUR, A. P.; SHaRMa, D. D. 1989. New records of predatory mites on mite pests of economic crops in Bihar. Bioiournal 1 (1): 155-156.

THAKUR, A. P; SHARMA, D. D. 1990. Influence of weather factors and predators on the populations of Aceria litchii Keifer. Indian Journal of Plant Protection 18 (1): 109-112.

TIMPRASERT, S.; DATTA, A. A.; RANAMUKHAARACHCHI, S. L. 2014. Factors determining adoption of integrated pest management by vegetable growers in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Crop Protection 62 (1): 32-39.

VAN DER GEEST, L. P S.; ELLIOT, S. L.; BREEUWER, J. A. J.; BEERLING, E. A. M. 2000. Diseases of mites. Experimental and Applied Acarology 24 (7): 497-560.

VAN LEEUWEN, T.; WITTERS, J.; NAUEN, R.; DUSO, C.; TIRRY, L. 2010. The control of eriophyoid mites: state of the art and future challenges. Experimental and Applied Acarology 51 (1-3): 205-224.

WAITE, G. K. 1999. New evidence further incriminates honeybees as vectors of lychee erinose mite Aceria litchii (Acari: Eriophyiidae). Experimental and Applied Acarology 23 (2): 145-147.

WAITE, G. K. 2005. Pests. pp. 237-259. In: Menzel, C. M.; Waite, G. K. (Eds.). Litchi and Longan, Botany, Production and Uses, CAB International, Wallingford, Reino Unido.

WAITE, G. 2011. Lychee erinose mite in lychees. Queensland: Department of Plant Industries and Fisheries. Available in: [Review date: 13 April 2018].

WAITE, G. K.; GERSON, U. 1994. The predator guild associated with Aceria litchii (Acari: Eriophyidae) in Australia and China. Entomophaga 39 (3): 275-280.

WAITE, G. K.; HWANG, J. S. 2002. Pests of litchi and longan. pp. 331-359. In: Pena, J. E.; Sharp, J. L.; Wysoki, M. (Eds.). Tropical fruit pests and pollinators: biology economic importance, natural enemies and control. Wallingford: CABI.

WAITE, G. K.; McALPINE, J. D. 1992. Honey bees as carriers of lychee erinose mite Eriophyes litchii (Acari: Eriophyiidae). Experimental and Applied Acarology 15 (4): 299-302.

WEN, L.; WUA, D.; JIANGA, Y.; PRASADD, K. N.; LINA, S.; JIANGA, G.; HEA, J.; ZHAOB, M.; LUOB, W.; YANGA, B. 2014. Identification of flavonoids in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) leaf and evaluation of anticancer activities. Journal of Functional Foods 6 (1): 555-563.

WEN, L.; YOU, L.; YANG, X.; YANG, J.; CHEN, F.; JIANG, Y; YANG, B. 2015. Identification of phenolics in litchi and evaluation of anticancer cell proliferation activity and intracellular antioxidant activity. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 84 (1): 171-184.

WESTPHAL, E.; MANSON, D. C. M. 1996. Feeding effects on host plants: gall formation and other distortations. pp. 231-242. In: Lindquist, E. E.; Sabelis, M. W.; Bruin, J. (Eds.). World crop pests: Eriophyoid mites--their biology, natural enemies and control. Vol. 6. Elsevier Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 690 p.

YAMANISHI, O. K.; MACHADO, J. A.; KAWATI, R. 2001. Overview of litchi production in Sao Paulo state Brasil. Acta Horticulturae 558 (1): 59-62.

YAMANISHI, O. K.; PIRES, M. C.; ALMEIDA, L. F. P. 2010. The Brazilian lychee industry--present and future. Acta Horticulturae 863 (1): 59-65.

YANG, B.; PRASAD, K. N.; JIANG, Y 2016. Structure identification of a polysaccharide purified from litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) pulp. Carbohydrate Polymers 137 (1): 570-575.

Received: 11-Oct-2016 * Accepted: 16-Feb-2018

Suggested citation:

CASTRO, B. M. C.; PLATA-RUEDA, A.; SILVA, W. M.; MENEZES, C. W. G.; WILCKEN, C. F.; ZANUNCIO, J. C. 2018. Management of Aceria litchii (Acari: Eriophyidae) on Litchi chinensis. Revista Colombiana de Entomologia 44 (1): 2-7. Enero--Junio 2018.


(1) M. Sc. Estudiante de doctorado, Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal de Vitcosa, 36571-900, Vitcosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, barbaramcastro@ (2) Pos-Doc. Pos-Doctor, Departamento de Agronomia, Campus de Rio Paranaiba, Universidade Federal de Vitcosa, 38810-000, Rio Paranaiba, Minas Gerais, Brazil, (3) M. Sc. Estudiante de doctorado, Departamento de Ciencia Florestal, Universidade Federal de Vitcosa, 36570-900, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, (4) D. Sc. Professor del Departamento de Ciencias Agrarias, Instituto Federal do Norte de Minas Gerais, 39480-000, Januaria, Minas gerais, Brazil, (5) D. Sc. Professor del Departamento de Protecao Vegetal, Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), 18610-307, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil, (6) Ph. D. Professor del Departamento de Entomologia/BIOAGRO, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, 36570-900, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Corresponding author: Barbara Monteiro de Castro e Castro. M. Sc. Estudiante de doctorado, Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, 36571-900, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil,
COPYRIGHT 2018 Sociedad Colombiana de Entomologia
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2018 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Seccion Agricola / Articulos de revision
Author:De Castro E Castro, Barbara Monteiro; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Silva, Wiane Meloni; Menezes, Claubert
Publication:Revista Colombiana de Entomologia
Date:Jan 1, 2018
Previous Article:EDITORIAL.
Next Article:Impacto de diferentes densidades de cochinilla de la pina en un cultivo de mani.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2022 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |