Managerial characteristics and its impact on organizational performance: evidence from Syria.
In contemporary business environment, modern organisations are becoming more complicated. Organisations that can effectively use useful information and exploit the cognitive abilities of their human resources can assure their continuity and success. This requires innovation, creativity and strategic thinking in providing services and goods (Analoui et al. 2009). Noted Coleman (1990) that just as physical capital is created by making changes in materials in order to get on tools that facilitate production, while the human capital is created by changing individuals in order to giving them skills that enables them to work in better ways.
Human capital is socially embedded and is strongly influenced by social structures (Urban, Shree 2012). Noted McCarthy et al. (2011) that a focus on human capital development ensures that the right talent will be in place to achieve the organizational strategic aims by effective human resource management practices.
Strategic human capital is developed in time for need, not in times of need. Such strategic development must embody the range of management, leadership, entrepreneurship and professionalize those that work in between (CAPAM 2009).
Emphasizes McCarthy et al. (2011) that managerial ability is a main enabler of change, therefore the new human resource management needs to strengthen leadership and managerial abilities among managers to ensure delivery of better leadership.
Arguably, there is a need to understand of the different processes and different environments confronted by the organization, in order to be able to make appropriate decisions and do right actions.
Based on the expected impact of human capital on the performance, this study aims to explore impact of managerial human capital, through a various characteristics such as age, level of education, tenure and functional track, on the organization's performance. This study apply at the public sector represented by Directorate of Finance of province of Damascus, in an effort to contribute to improving performance of Syrian public sector.
We therefore will like to answer the following question in our study:
--What is the relationship between managerial humane capital and performance of Directorate of Finance of province of Damascus?
Where is divided into the following sub-questions:
--What is the relationship between age of manager and performance of Directorate of Finance of province of Damascus?
--What is the relationship between level of manager education and performance of Directorate of Finance of province of Damascus?
--What is the relationship between tenure of manager and performance of Directorate of Finance of province of Damascus?
--What is the relationship between functional track of manager and performance of Directorate of Finance of province of Damascus?
Thus, the overall aim is to provide empirical evidence in order to help experts and scholars to better understand to public service systems, the nature of reforms and the changes that are necessary. 1
1. Theoretical background and hypothesis development
1.1. Theoretical background
Human capital is the full range of knowledge, skills, and abilities an person can use to produce a set of outcomes (Harris 2009). Indicated Auw (2009) to human capital as consisting of the education, skills and experience at a given point in time. Noted Memon et al. (2009) that the human factor has long been ignored in the organization's strategies, in the recent times the organization's leadership began to realize that the human resource is critical in gain a sustained competitive advantage. Many studies suggest that the human capital should be taken into consideration when formulating the organization's strategy. Boxall (1998: 266) stated that "the fundamental priority of human resource strategy in an organization is to secure and maintain the kind of human resources that are necessary for the organization's viability". Top managers is develop an strategy of organization and midlevel managers is implement this strategy, but it is the employees who produce the services or goods that are ultimately responsible for the strategy's success (Harris 2009). A basic tenet of the human capital theory is that organizations do not own human capital, persons do. While organizations may have access to human capital, they often do not adequately deploy it to achieve strategic impact, due to the mismanagement of individuals or poor design of work (Hester 2005).
If human capital is the skills and knowledge embodied in individuals, then managerial human capital could be viewed as a specialized form of human capital that is the experience in how to organize production to achieve predictable outcomes (Radell 1997).
Adds Liu and Ravichandran (2007) that managerial human capital refers to the ability and knowledge embedded in the organization's managers, upper echelon perspective posits that managerial characteristics of top managers, such as education, age, and experiences, can predict the strategic outcomes of organization. Radell (1997) noted that when managers leaving an organization, they take with them their embodied skills, knowledge, and experience. Those skills, knowledge, and experience are accumulated, where, individuals is gain more experience in organizing and executing work.
Gupta, Govindarajan (1989) have argued for the need to link managerial characteristics with job requirements, where the empirical support for findings and the general similarity in the logic is noteworthy. In the same context, Umukoro (2009) emphasized that strategic decisions are related with the top managers' characteristics in an organization. Indicated Patterson et al. (1997) that previous studies show decisively that human resources management practices have a strong effect on performance, the effect is substantial whether in case that performance is measured in terms of productivity (which be expected to have stronger links with the way in which organizations manage their employees) or profitability.
The resource-based view of the firm drives one to made a distinction between core employees (who are main element to value creation), and peripheral groups (Hester 2005). Managerial human capital refers to the ability and knowledge embedded in the organization's managers. Managers represent a unique organizational resource, they can influence performance of organization, shape the organization's strategic choice, and interact with another strategy variables to impact on performance. Managers generally regarded as the most important member in the modern organization and can exert the greatest impact on the strategy of organization (Liu, Ravichandran 2007).
It is important to note that public organizations operate from a different pattern from their private counterparts. Due is they do not develop business strategies as private organizations, public organizations do not compete in a profit driven market. As well, most public organizations work within a centralized policymaking system, and do not have the discretion to change their own personnel policies. In addition to that most public organizations do not use performance-based appraisals or incentives to encourage their workers (Ma 2010).
Demmke (2010) have argued that public services should protect the population and serve society. In the field of public administration, reform language is continuous change and is subject to many styles. Where classical public service values such as hierarchy, stability, neutrality, impartiality, fairness and standardization are conservative and static, public management reform values are modern and fluent. In the future, public management will most likely become more contradictory and more complicated all the time. Public sector employees of the future will have to be at ease with more flexibility and complexity and with comfortable with change. Also, they will take more autonomous decisions, be more accountable, responsible, performance-oriented, and subject to new skill and competency requirements. The public service employees will be more diverse and better qualified than ever before. Also, good leadership will become more imp ortant than ever before. Moreover, individuals will become more sensitive towards poor performance of their managers. Human resources management is becoming more decentralized and flexible. Public servants' values are changing with increase value of dilemmas.
The public service needs to make better use of its most important resource (i.e. human resources) by providing the path of a career with a good employer, by developing their skills and abilities to meet the various challenges they face, offering reward and challenge, and by ensuring equality of opportunity for all employees of organization (UN 2005).
Indicated Simonova et al. (2011) that the concept of human capital is used in the public management in line with the understanding that the accessibility (quantity) of public services is largely affected by the financial capital, which is short-term resources, while the quality services is considerably affected by the employees of organization, which is a constant value and is therefore called the human capital.
In order to deliver high levels of service, the major personal characteristics of those who provide the service becomes vital and imperative. In the public management, it is no longer enough to have just the modern systems and best talent, there must be a combination of personal qualities, the strength of character, operating in a well enabled environment. When strength of character is developed in the public managers, accountability and integrity becomes the foundation of public service (CAPAM 2009).
Indicated AM (2010) to several attributes of the managerial work in public organizations: First, due stakeholders of public organizations are different from those of the private organizations, the public strategies will be more reflecting the political will of elected officials and other stakeholders. Second, although the significance of human resources managers> involvement in the strategic planning process, their training does not prepare them well enough to be qualified for this strategic work.
Also, noted Simonova et al. (2011) that in public sector, planned career development is limited and the opportunities of getting a promotion are low and remote. If an innovation fails in the private sector, it can harm the organization's reputation or influence on its profitability. While, in the public sector such failures have effect on all the citizens. The public organization' performance depends strongly on the skills knowledge, and personal attributes of the individuals. For that, the policies that increases the level of the human capital in the public sector is very important. This policies has to be clearly formulated and focused on recognition of the role of people and enhancement of the individuals' skills and knowledge.
Indicated McCarthy et al. (2011) that effective leadership is a key component of good public administration. It is an important variable that leads to improvement management capacity and performance in public organizations. That leadership and managerial capacity is a main enabler of change, therefore the new human resource management needs to strengthen leadership and managerial capabilities among managers to ensure the delivery of better leadership.
Leadership in the public service context would require commitment, respect and innovation. Further, the strength of personal character is the main characteristic of a successful leader. Moreover, it is one of their major responsibilities is to build character and integrity in the entire public service. That public service managers operate in an environment with divergent and competing priorities. There is a need in the public service to achieve an effective combination of both policy and civic oriented results which lead to competing demands on public service managers (CAPAM 2009).
Indicated McCarthy et al. (2011) that in age of globalization, decentralization, and knowledge-based economies, governments have to reshape public service leadership to face with challenges. The core of the leadership are the personal characteristics of the manager and leader. Moreover, that the successful leaders cannot be measured just by what they know and do, it is also about how much they can accomplish with and through other people. The defining elements of this domain are: for the leader to know themselves, be able to tolerate stress, have the capacity to practice clear thinking, tend to integrity, and demonstrate passion and personal energy to achieve results. The public service reform will rely on cultural change, cultural change is linked to leadership, the main role of leaders in defining visions and inspiring individuals to achieve them.
There is a significant correlation between employees' characteristics and organizational entrepreneurship in public social cultural organizations. Also, there is a direct relationship between managerial characteristics and organizational entrepreneurship (Analoui et al. 2009).
Also, Sebaa et al. (2009) found that alignment of several demographic characteristics with strategic orientation leading to improved performance. Whilst alignments of educational attainment and job tenure with strategy are desirable, age has no impact, in governmental work. Analoui et al. (2009) see that the decision to act entrepreneurially occurs as a result of interactions among individual characteristics, organizational characteristics and kind of precipitating event.
Indicated CAPAM (2009) that while formal learning is required, it is the working experience gained by public managers composes the basis for their effectiveness and actions. McCarthy et al. (2011) analysed results his study according to human capital variables, namely: age, gender, education, years in public service and in senior management positions, as well as department and management grade. He found that there were no significant differences in leadership domains across age, gender, education levels, or years in public service. While, the number of years the manager has been in a senior management position was an influencing on one of leadership domains is the Talent Manager domain, it appears that experience is necessary. At the competence level, he found leaders who were in the mid-level age brackets had the highest scores for the strengthen competence. Also, that leaders with higher levels of education were more concerned with their own technical proficiency and up-skilling in changing environmental situations.
1.2. Hypothesis development
Based on the above, and depending on the analysis of the reality of the chosen public organization. Following characteristics of managers will be tested in Directorate of Finance of province of Damascus.
Age: it is expected to impact age of manager on his way of working, through his dealing with employees, his behaviour in unexpected situations, his acceptance of the risks carried by some of the opportunities or openness to new ideas, and other aspects may be affected by the age of manager.
Age of manager is expected to influence strategic decision making choices and perspectives. Moreover, flexibility decreases and resistance to change and rigidity increase as people age. To older managers, security become very important. Thus, they might avoid risky decisions, especially those involving important changes in strategic of organization. On the other hand, younger managers tend to be more risk oriented. Also, older managers tend to have less confidence in their decisions, thus, such managers may lack the necessary conviction to provide the leadership for strategic change. Addition to that, age variable helps to predict person's non-work-related experiences, individuals of similar age have common experiences, which leads to shared beliefs and attitudes (Wiersema, Bantel 1992).
In the same context, indicate Taylor(1975) that older managers are less facile information processors and decision makers. Lee et al. (2008) think that the impact of aging could diminish a manager's cap acity to cope with the j ob of managing an organization. Thus we propose the following:
H1: Age of manager has a significant influence on organizational performance.
Level of Education: It is acceptable to say that the level of education is positively related to receptivity to innovation, where that, more educated managers have greater cognitive complexity, which will increase capacity to absorb new ideas, thus, the tendency to accept innovations will increase. Also, education level is as a proxy for cognitive skills, Education levels have positively associated to learning-bydoing performance of people (Liu, Ravichandran 2007).
Education level reflects person's skills and cognitive ability, high levels are related with high capacity to discriminate among a variety of stimuli and ability for information processing. Individuals with high level of education are likely to engage in tolerate ambiguity, boundary spanning, and show a capacity for integrative complexity. In addition, high level of education has been related with receptivity to inno vation (Wiersema, Bantel 1992). Noted Ahn et al. (2014) that a high level of CEO education can be considered as a measure of the initial human capital of the organizations, it can significantly effect on strategic decisions of organizations. High information processing ability enables a person to overcome information overload and analyze complex knowledge, where that good education enables this ability, which is necessary for appropriate decisions making. In same context, indicates Hatch and Dyer (2004) that human capital selection, development through training and deployment enhances learning by improves performance. Musso, Francioni (2012) found that there is a strong relationship between decision-maker education and two phases of international strategic decision-making process, that are international market selection and entry mode selection. Thus we propose the following:
H2: Level of manager education has a significant and positive influence on organizational performance.
Tenure: Tenure of managers reflect a time-based process of understanding the external and internal environment of organization. Thus, longer tenure yield more knowledge regarding the specific job and organization context. Also, when the managers' tenure increases, they tend to become more committed to implementing their own pattern of how the organization should be run (Liu, Ravichandran 2007). In same context, explained Simsek (2007) that short-tenured CEOs may lack sufficient awareness to evaluate strategic risks. Also, they are unknown, lacking legitimacy and untested, which might limit their performance. On the other hand, long tenured CEOs attain a deeper knowledge of the organization's environment, accumulate a track record, and acquire j ob skills. Moreover, a long tenure reflects the extent to which the CEOs has been integrated into the networks of main stakeholders and establishes the resources and coalitions that enable the CEOs to nurture, coordinate, and support risky initiatives. CEO tenure indirectly influences performance through its direct influences on top management team risk-taking tendency and the organization's pursuit of entrepreneurial initiatives.
Indicates Umukoro (2009) that managers' team with long tenure are expected to have great social cohesion and lessening the likelihood that individual members will challenge the present situations. Long tenure of manager provides a better understanding of organizational procedures and policies, and unwillingness to change past ways of working. Emphasized Barker and Mueller (2002) that CEO effects on R&D spending increase with longer CEO tenure, where that with over time, CEOs form R&D spending to suit their own priorities.
Likely to be long organizational tenure associated with higher commitment to the status quo and to the values of organization. In addition, long tenure probably reluctance to change structures existing and increases understanding of organizational procedures and policies (Wiersema, Bantel 1992). Indicated Scott (2010) that long tenure may lead to risk avoidance and aversion. Long tenured managers become committed to their model, and ignore calls for change. Thus we propose the following:
H3: Manager's tenure has a significant and positive influence on organizational performance.
Functional track: it is expected to impact the functional track of manager on his way of working. Perspective's manager formed as a result of his experience may lead to highlight on details more than others, thus tends to focus on some aspects more than other, which is reflect on organization's performance and level of service provided.
Indicated Lee et al. (2008) that increasing managerial longevity, as well as an extended career, will tend to improve a manager's ability to provide superior performance. Manager during his entire career not only accumulate knowledge about how manage the organization, but also the skills to cope with a changing environment. Indicated Scott (2010) that functional track influences the strategic leadership of top managers. The analysis of the strategic role through functional track's perspective may allow for a differentiation of performance based on time spent at different levels of the hierarchy. Noted Ahn et al. (2014) that work experience in functional areas, could effect on the way of identify and solve managerial problems in innovation. In a close context, indicates Umukoro (2009) that managers groups with diverse tenure distributions will be composed of persons probably have different attitudes toward an organization's strategy due their tenure-stage differences. Differences in cognitive structures will create more diverse information collection, interpretation, and solution generation among top management team members, thereby, will contribute for strategic and organizational change. Thus we propose the following:
H4: Functional track of manager has a significant and positive influence on organizational performance.
This study depend on the descriptive analytical method due to its relevance to the nature and objectives of the study. This study applied to employees in Directorate of Finance of province of Damascus. Where Directorate of Finance of province of Damascus is a government facility is based on tax collection, and is affiliated to Ministry of Finance. Sample of the study is convenience, where it includes all the managers (12 Manager) with regard to measurement managerial humane capital. As for the organizational performance, the sample includes (138) employees, according to the limitations of the study, given the unique focus of this study that contributes to our understanding of the role of Managerial humane capital on the performance, we deem the topic is worthy of exploration despite the limitations on the sample size.
Dependent Variable is the organizational performance. Indicated Becser (2007: 42) that organizational performance "described as the extent to which the organization is able to meet the needs of its stakeholders and its own needs for survival". He pointed out that organizational performance is influenced by several factors that may improve or reduce performance, such factors as customer satisfaction and service quality. Indicated Carton (2004) that the concept of organizational performance is based upon the idea that an organization is the voluntary association of productive assets, including physical, human, and capital resources, for achieving a shared purposes. Those the assets will only commit them to the organization as long as they are satisfied with the value that they receive in exchange relative to alternative uses of the assets. As a result, the core of performance is the creation of value. As long as the value created by the use of the assets is equal to or greater than the value expected by those the assets, the assets will continue to be made available to the organization and the organization will continue to exist.
Organizational performance is measured through instrument assesses perceptions of employees of an organization's performance with respect to customer satisfaction, employee productivity, service quality, and development of new products or services. This instrument selected because it is a popular measurement of organizational performance in strategic human resource management studies. Many studies provided evidence of the reliability of perception of an organization's performance. Moreover, this questionnaire be appropriate when standardized financial measures for organizations were unavailable for comparison (Hester 2005). Organizational performance's questionnaire was comprised of closed-ended questions. Each response was given a numerical score to reflect his degree of attitude. A five point Likert scale was used, where the ratings indicated 1 = strongly disagree, through to 5 = strongly agree. Instrument items are translated from English to Arabic, then back-translated from Arabic to English. Also, we asked academicians from the Department of Business Administration in Damascus University in Damascus to evaluate the Arabic working. Addition to that, our questionnaire is piloted before distribution. The pilot study involves (16) employees. The purpose of this is to guarantee a good understanding by respondents.
Independent variable: is managerial characteristics. Which is divided to four compensation measures for the dependent variable: age, level of educational, tenure and functional track.
Thus, in order to collect data, have use a two-part questionnaire, the first to measure managerial characteristics, distributed to the managers. The second to measure organizational performance, distributed to the employees. The questionnaire designed based on the works of Hester (2005) and Becser (2007).
Thus, a survey method (questionnaire) formed the main method for the generation of relevant data.
Data analysis and hypothesis testing is using a variety of statistical methods which are:
Cronbach alpha coefficient, distribution of sample through the number and percentage, descriptive statistics, linear regression analysis.
The internal consistency of organizational performance was assessed by computing the total reliability for the measure, the total reliability for it is 0.824. This reliability value is substantial considering the fact that the highest reliability that can be obtained is 1.0 and this is an indication that the items of organizational performance are accepted for analysis. Table 1 shows the corrected item-total correlation for organizational performance, it shows that value for each item increase (0.3), which means that each item are accepted for analysis.
Table 2 shows descriptive statistics for managerial characteristics.
Table 3 shows descriptive statistics for organizational performance.
From Table 3 above, it can be realized that almost all items show a lower value of 3, this is an indication that employees believe that quality of service is not at an appropriate level.
Hyp othesis 1 stated that age of manager has a significant influence on organizational performance. Table 4 shows results of linear regression for age and organizational performance.
From Table 4 above, it can be realized that age of manager doesn't have a significant influence on organizational performance.
Hypothesis 2 stated that level of manager education has a significant and positive influence on organizational performance. Table 5 shows results of linear regression for level of education and organizational performance.
From Table 5 above, it can be realized level of manager education doesn't have a significant influence on organizational performance.
Hypothesis 3 stated that manager tenure has a significant and positive influence on organizational performance. Table 6 shows results of linear regression for tenure and organizational performance.
From Table 6 above, it can be realized manager tenure has a significant and positive influence on organizational performance, where sig. below (0.05).
Hypothesis 4 stated that functional track of manager has a significant and positive influence on organizational performance. Table 7 shows results of linear regression for functional track and organizational performance.
From Table 7 above, it can be realized that functional track doesn't have a significant influence on organizational performance.
From the above, results of this study can be summarized as follows:
Age of manager doesn't have a significant influence on organizational performance in Directorate of Finance of province of Damascus.
Level of manager education doesn't have a significant influence on organizational performance in Directorate of Finance of province of Damascus.
Tenure of manager has a significant and positive influence on organizational performance in Directorate of Finance of province of Damascus.
Functional track doesn't have a significant influence on organizational performance in Directorate of Finance of province of Damascus.
This study apply in a highly bureaucratic public organization. As well as, the administrative side less than technical side of its work. In addition to that, the important decisions, which affect this organization, is made in other higher government facilities. All this, weakens impact of managerial characteristics on workflow. That's where the work often is routinely, the change depend on guidance from other government facilities. Which leads to making the work independently moves of changes in managerial characteristics. In other words, managerial characteristics doesn't play an important role in design and implementation work of organization. Which explains why age, level of education and functional track of managers does not influence on organizational performance in Directorate of Finance of province of Damascus. But, within nature of the work described above, when organization has a longer-tenured manager, he can influence on organizational performance. Manager who has long time in work, is earns moral stature allows him to influence at work. In addition to that experience that got it, make him a destination for advice and question. Which explains why tenure manager has a significant and positive influence on organizational performance in Directorate of Finance of province of Damascus.
This study contributes to identify impact managerial characteristics on performance of Syrian public organization. Where, found that managerial characteristics almost irrelevant with performance of organization. After that, we explained the results and showed basic features that should be considered by future studies.
Improving the work requires taking into account skills and capabilities and expertise which in possession of managers. The fact that managerial characteristics does not play an important role in organization, is leading to organization provides low levels of service and is far from the global level. Whereas, when managerial characteristics is isolated on performance, important gaps is appears in the chain: Vision-Strategy-Plan-Implementation. That lack of administrative capabilities that is capable of decision-making and correcting deviations, lead to obstructing smooth flow of work. Which explains, to some extent, why level of performance is not high.
According to the results of this study, Directorate of Finance of province of Damascus by and large has not been successful in using managerial characteristics. However, to improve benefits of managerial characteristics, there is a need for sustained managerial and structural reform. It is unlikely that the present situation can be improved unless efforts are invested in the formulation and implementation of human resource policies and procedures which can bring about effective change in the behaviour and attitude of the managers and employees.
The limitations of study
There are some limitations related with this study. The results of this study cannot be generalized to a wide range of similar situations concerning public organizations because of the sampling technique used, even though the methodology used in this study could be applied to these situations. Also, the issue of sample size, where, this study aims to identify the relationship between managerial human capital and the performance, taking into account the laws and regulations of Directorate of Finance of province of Damascus, and impact it on the study sample.
However, the above limitations are less significant compared to importance of carrying out this type of studies. Such a study should be carried out repeatedly in order to observe organisational performance, hence make necessary adjustments in case of any strengths or weaknesses.
Suggestions for further research
Further research should be carried out in order to enhance understanding of role of managerial characteristics in organization, which is very important in terms of profitability and growth. A similar studies could be conducted with a larger sample size so that results could be generalized to a larger population.
The study can be carried out in different areas in order to get the further results, and in countries with different level of development in order to knowledge of various aspects of effect of managerial characteristics on organizational performance.
The authors don't have any competing financial, professional, or personal interests from other parties.
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Elias MILANA. PhD candidate at Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Economics, Damascus University, Syria. Research interests: human resource management, total quality management.
Issa MALDAON. Associate Professor at Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Economics, Damascus University, Syria. The author of many research papers, books, and presented papers in regional and local conferences. Deputy Minister of Social Affairs and Labor (previously), Syria. Deputy Dean for Scientific Affairs at Faculty of Economics (previously), Damascus University. Research interests: human resource management, strategic management, leadership.
Elias MILANA , Issa MALDAON 
Department of Business Administration, Economics Faculty, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria
E-mails:  firstname.lastname@example.org (corresponding author);  email@example.com
Received 30 May 2014; accepted 06 April 2015
Table 1. Corrected item-total correlation for organizational performance Item Mean Std. Deviation The quality of services 2.8913 1.01605 The development of services 2.7391 1.08392 The ability to attract essential employees 3.3261 1.23025 The ability to retain essential employees 3.3913 1.45263 The satisfaction of customers 3.0000 1.22927 The satisfaction of employees 2.5652 .93457 Customers do not complain 2.9348 1.12353 Total 2.9783 .81202 Table 2. Descriptive statistics for managerial characteristics Characteristics Frequency Valid Percent Age below 40 years 2 16.7 40-45 years 3 25.0 46-50 years 3 25.0 51-55 years 2 16.7 Above 55 years 2 16.7 Total 12 100.0 Level education Institute 2 16.7 (two years after high school) Graduate 8 66.7 Diploma 2 16.7 Total 12 100.0 Years of work below 10 years 1 8.3 in the public 10-15 years 1 8.3 sector 16-20 years 1 8.3 21-25 years 4 33.3 Above 25 years 5 41.7 Total 12 100.0 Years of work below 10 years 2 16.7 in the 10-15 years 1 8.3 organization 16-20 years 3 25.0 21-25 years 1 8.3 Above 25 years 5 41.7 Total 12 100.0 Years of work below 3 years 4 33.3 in current 3-6 years 2 16.7 position 7-9 years 3 25.0 10-12 years 2 16.7 Above 12 years 1 8.3 Total 12 100.0 Times of work 1 6 50.0 at the 2 2 16.7 managerial 3 3 25.0 position 4 1 8.3 Total 12 100.0 Number of 1 7 58.3 agencies 2 3 25.0 3 1 8.3 4 1 8.3 Total 12 100.0 Managerial below 3 years 2 16.7 experience 3-6 years 2 16.7 7-9 years 2 16.7 10-12 years 2 16.7 Above 12 years 4 33.3 Total 12 100.0 Characteristics Cumulative Percent Age below 40 years 16.7 40-45 years 41.7 46-50 years 66.7 51-55 years 83.3 Above 55 years 100.0 Total Level education Institute 16.7 (two years after high school) Graduate 83.3 Diploma 100.0 Total Years of work below 10 years 8.3 in the public 10-15 years 16.7 sector 16-20 years 25.0 21-25 years 58.3 Above 25 years 100.0 Total Years of work below 10 years 16.7 in the 10-15 years 25.0 organization 16-20 years 50.0 21-25 years 58.3 Above 25 years 100.0 Total Years of work below 3 years 33.3 in current 3-6 years 50.0 position 7-9 years 75.0 10-12 years 91.7 Above 12 years 100.0 Total Times of work 1 50.0 at the 2 66.7 managerial 3 91.7 position 4 100.0 Total Number of 1 58.3 agencies 2 83.3 3 91.7 4 100.0 Total Managerial below 3 years 16.7 experience 3-6 years 33.3 7-9 years 50.0 10-12 years 66.7 Above 12 years 100.0 Total Table 3. Descriptive statistics on organizational performance Item Mean Std. Deviation The quality of services 2.8913 1.01605 The development of services 2.7391 1.08392 The ability to attract essential employees 3.3261 1.23025 The ability to retain essential employees 3.3913 1.45263 The satisfaction of customers 3.0000 1.22927 The satisfaction of employees 2.5652 .93457 Customers do not complain 2.9348 1.12353 Total 2.9783 .81202 Table 4. Linear regression for age and organizational performance Organizational performance Variables B t sig Constant 2.065 3.412 .007 Age .337 1.782 .105 Std. Error = 0.86462, R square = 0.241 F = 3.176, Sig = 0.105 Table 5. Linear regression for level of education and organizational performance Organizational performance Variables B t sig Constant 1.548 1.077 .307 Level of .500 1.063 .313 education Std. Error = 0.94076, R square = 0.102 F = 1.130, Sig = 0.313 Table 6. Linear regression for tenure and organizational performance Organizational performance Variables B t sig Constant .762 1.351 .214 Years of work in the public sector .925 2.849 .021 Years of work in the organization -.165 -.644 .538 Years of work in current position -.303 -2.019 .078 Std. Error = 0.56099, R square = 0.744 F = 7.767, Sig = 0.009 Table 7. Linear regression for functional track and organizational performance Organizational performance Variables B t sig Constant 2.025 2.872 .021 Times of work at the .295 .496 .634 managerial position Number of agencies -.102 -.194 .851 Managerial experience .188 .694 .507 Std. Error = 0.94147, R square = 0.280 F = 1.036, Sig = .427
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|Author:||Milana, Elias; Maldaon, Issa|
|Publication:||Business: Theory and Practice|
|Date:||Jun 1, 2015|
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