Management style and job satisfaction: is there any relationship?
Nowadays the importance of secondary education for the country's development goals has proven to politicians. However, Secondary Education in Iran in providing qualitative and quantitative aspects of the educational services faces difficulties. Research has shown that most of these difficulties are: domination of bureaucracy on schools , inefficient teachers , low motivation of teachers to teach , lack of proper planning and presenting lessons during the semester . Considering these problems, presence of efficient managers in Iranian education system is under question. The question arises here is that: what is the distinction between non-efficient managers and efficient ones? Adeyemi  distinguishes educational management from effective educational management. Educational management refers to the use of human and financial resources to achieve the school's educational purposes. While the effective educational management means effective and optimized use of human and material resources in schools and society to further the educational goals (ibid.). In Hersi and Blanchard's  view Successful and effective management results in achieving organizational goals or something more. Luthans  distinguishes the effective management from the successful one. He believes that the index of successful managers in the organization is profitability. On the other hand the effectiveness of managers is determined by employee's satisfaction and their commitment to the organization. From his view point, managers, to be effective, must have the professional skills. Whetten and Cameron  believe that the most important management skills are 1) communication skills (listening skills) 2) time management and stress management skills 3) Individual management decisions making skills 4) problem diagnosis, problem definition, problem solving skills 5) influencing and impressing skills 6) delegating authority skills 7) providing a whole vision according to organization goals 8) self- consciousness 9) Providing and supporting teamwork skills 10) conflict resolution skills in the organization. Latif  believes that management skills vary based on different approaches and theories. But what is important is the emphasis on effective management skills; this means that which organizational skills are useful and effective. For example, having a high IQ for managers does not mean they are well knowable. But it means how the manager handles the crisis. Latif  showed that for any organization those skills and qualifications which are essential for organization's effectiveness should be developed and taught. Findings of research conducted by Hooijberg et al.  are in harmony with Latifs theory. Results of research conducted in educational institutions in Iran also stated that there is a relationship between managers' skills and their effectiveness [11-13].
Luthans  believes that the most effective management skills are human and leadership skills. Research results also suggest that leadership skill is one of the characteristics of effective managers [10, 14]. About the concept of leadership, differences of opinions and theories abound. Some people consider leadership as a part of manager's duty, while others extend the meaning of "leadership" beyond the concept of management. Leadership means influencing others to achieve a goal, if this influence is to achieve organizational goals it is called management. While for a manager organizational goals is a priority, the leader may have many and varied purposes . So leadership is synonymous with "influence" and one ways of exerting an influence is using "power". Manager should benefit from a variety of sources of power to attract the cooperation of others. Power resources can be divided into two major categories: Resources that result from the position of the manager and Resources that comes from the manager specific power. So power of position refers to extent to which others are authorized by instructions given by the leader. In organizations, power comes from official position and power of position largely is determined by the leader ability to reward and punish members of the group. Power along with position can facilitate leader's duty but it doesn't guarantee the effectiveness.
Fidler  identifies three dimensions of position determining position desirability as follow: leader member relation, duties' construction and leader power of position. Leader - member relations are the most important aspect of position and refer to the extent to which the leader is supported and accepted by members. Fidler, in this regard, suggests two basic styles of leadership: task-oriented and relationship-oriented. Task-oriented behavior - refers to the extent that a leader organizes and defines the role of members of a group (subordinates), Explains what activities each is to do and when, where, and how tasks are to be implemented. Relation-oriented behavior refers to the extent that it is likely a leader establishes personal relationships between group members and him in order to use potential power of members by opening channels of communication, delegating responsibility and giving opportunities to subordinates. This behavior is determined by social emotional support, friendship and mutual trust . In support of the above mentioned, Sharif et al.  investigated the relationship between managers efficiency and three factors of position in Fidler's leadership model . The results showed that the power of position, duty's construction and leader-member relations are correlated with efficiency of managers. The results of Torabiyan's study  suggested that from teacher's view point If managers use an appropriate power source it will gain great acceptance of teachers . Accordingly, research hypotheses are proposed as follow:
* There is a relationship between principals' task-oriented style in secondary schools and job satisfaction of teachers.
* There is a relationship between principal's relation-oriented style in secondary schools and job satisfaction of teachers.
* Task-oriented level of principals in secondary schools is higher than relation-oriented level of principals in secondary schools
* Female principals are more task-oriented compare to male principals
* Male teachers' job satisfaction is different from female teachers' job satisfaction
Theoretical Base and Research Background:
Types of styles:
* Norm-oriented style: is concerned with the expectations of the organization, and it is based on the assumption that for achieving the organization's goals, appropriate guidelines and regulations could be combined with responsibilities and Organizational roles expectations and the organization's members should be urged to adhere strictly to their duties.
* Individual-oriented style: This style has an emphasis on personal dimension and considers motivation and personal needs of organization's members. It is based on the assumption that Organizational success depends on the people who work there instead of being dependent on strict enforcement of regulations and full compliance with the expectations.
* Position-oriented style: this style moves the emphasis from one dimension to another due to the condition and will act according to situation. This style reveals the extent to which directing and controlling administrative behavior depends on the principal diagnosis. None of the styles seem dominant. Instead, there are different combinations. Leadership styles (management styles) are not limited to task-oriented or relation-oriented styles .
Department of Commerce research in Ohio State University began studies to identify various dimensions of leader behavior in 1945. Researchers in this center defined leadership as an individuals' behavior when they are conducting activities of a group in order to achieve goals and described Manager Behavior (leader) briefly in two dimensions, structuring (task-oriented behavior) and compliance (relationship-oriented behavior). Structuring refers to leader behavior in defining the relationship between the leader and group members and his effort to create accurate models of organization, channels of communication, and the procedures and methods. On the other hand, compliance refers to behavior indicative of friendship, mutual trust, respect and cores in the relationship between manager and team members'. Researchers at Ohio State found that the task-oriented and relationship-oriented manager behaviors are two distinct and separate dimensions. Being strong in one aspect doesn't mean being week in another. Task-oriented behavior refers to the degree and extent of the likely that a manager will organize and define roles of group members (subordinates) or explain what activities each is supposed to do and when, where, and how tasks are to be performed. The attempts that manager makes in establishing precise patterns of organization, channels of communication and ways of performing tasks, specify this behavior. Relation-oriented behavior refers to the extent to which it is likely a leader establishes personal relationships between group members and him in order to use potential power of members by opening channels of communication, delegating responsibility and giving opportunities to subordinates. This behavior is determined by social--emotional support, friendship and mutual trust .
History of Job Satisfaction:
Job satisfaction is one of the important factors in job status. Job satisfaction is a factor that can increase the efficiency and personal satisfaction. Every manager attempts to increase the job satisfaction of employees in his organization. Ginzberg and colleagues refer to two types of job satisfaction:
* Internal satisfaction: is achieved in two ways. First feeling of the joy just through working and activities, second the joy of achievement or doing some social responsibility in order to maximize individual abilities and willingness.
* External satisfaction: this factor is related to conditions of employment and work environment and it is variable at any time. Its factors are: work environment, labor laws, wage rate, the relationship between employee and employer (director) and so on.
Theories of Job Satisfaction:
Brufi categorizes job satisfaction theories into three groups and each of the theories and researches is in these categories:
1- Theory of Needs: Job satisfaction of each person, results from employment, depends on two factors: First: how much of the needs are provided thorough working and work condition; Second: How much of the needs remain unprovided in recent situations and work condition.
2- Theory of expectations: Individual expectations are effective in determining the type and level of job satisfaction. A person with great expectations will achieve job satisfaction with delay and vice versa.
3- Role theory: In this theory, both social and psychological aspects are considered. In social aspects the impact of factors such as organizational system and workshop and environmental conditions on job satisfaction are considered. Psychological aspects of job satisfaction are related to individuals' expectations .
In a study in Andimeshk, The Relationship between Leadership Style and Job Satisfaction of boys and girls high school teachers in, Mowlayi  achieved the following: there is no significant relationship between task- oriented female principals' leadership style and Job satisfaction of female teachers. There is a significant relationship between relation-oriented female principals' leadership style and Job satisfaction of female teachers. There is a significant relationship between relation-oriented male principals' leadership style and Job satisfaction of male teachers. There is a significant relationship between task-oriented male principals' leadership style and Job satisfaction of male teachers (ibid.). On a study, Razavipour (2008) tried to investigate the relationship between management style and job satisfaction of NIDC employees in Ahvaz. She achieved these results: there is a relationship between relation-oriented style and job satisfaction even at the level of [alpha] = 0.01. Kaladi and Asgari  conducted a research on Job satisfaction among elementary school teachers in Tehran. In this study variables such as educational level of teachers and teachers' intent to stay in the current location are predictable variables in teachers' job satisfaction. Aspects related to the highest level of job satisfaction include community service, ethics, creativity, activity, diversity and using ability and aspects related to the lowest level of job satisfaction include compensation, Educational policies ,advancement and job security. Teachers in higher age groups, higher education and higher income and therefore higher social status had greater job satisfaction. Finally, in this study, 5.76% of teachers were satisfied or very satisfied and 9% were dissatisfied or very dissatisfied (ibid.). About the relationship between management styles and job satisfaction, Mitchell (1987) believes that there is a positive relationship between styles related to Interrelation between individuals and job satisfaction, while the task-oriented styles are not very effective in this case. He concluded that considerations expressed by the manager may lead to higher job satisfaction of subordinates.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study was a survey. The study population consisted of all public boys' and girls' secondary schools in Andimeshk in the 2012-13 academic years. The total number of public schools was 20. To increase the accuracy of this study all 20 secondary schools were selected 10 boy's high schools and 10 girl's high schools. For collecting information on management style of school principals LBDQ, or behavior resourceful leader behavior description questionnaire was used. The scale consisted of 35 combined statements on task-oriented and relationship-oriented management style. Each part assessed one aspect of principal's behavior, relationship-oriented or task-oriented behavior. To collect data about teacher job satisfaction Minnesota questionnaire was used. This questionnaire along with LBDQ questionnaire was distributed among 10 teachers from each school. For statistical analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics mean, standard deviation, Pearson test, and paired T test was used. For data analysis the Pearson correlation coefficient between the management styles and job satisfaction at the significant level of [alpha] = 0.05 was used. To assess the relationship-oriented and task-oriented styles of managers and Job satisfaction of male and female teachers independent and paired t-test at a significance level of [alpha] = 0.05 are used.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Hypothesis 1: There is a relationship between task-oriented principals and job satisfaction of teachers.
Given the significant level of [alpha] = 0.05 and df = 20 degrees of freedom, Pearson correlation between two variables was calculated -0.201 and in comparison with observed (r) = 0.423 it can be concluded that as calculated r is less than observed r with 95% confidence then the hypothesis is rejected. It means that there is no significant relationship between task-oriented behaviors of secondary school principals and job satisfaction of teachers and the observed relationship is accidental.
Hypothesis 2: There is a relationship between relation-oriented behaviors of principals and job satisfaction of teachers.
Given the significant level of [alpha] = 0.05 and df = 20 degrees of freedom, Pearson correlation between two variables was calculated 0.052 and in comparison with observed (r)=0.423 it can be concluded that as calculated r is less than observed r with 95% confidence then the hypothesis is rejected. It means that there is no significant relationship between relation-oriented behaviors of secondary school principals and job satisfaction of teachers and the observed relationship is accidental.
Hypothesis 3: The level of task-oriented style of management is higher than that of relationship-oriented style.
In light of this hypothesis, the difference between task-oriented and relationship-oriented management style was assessed and with a total number of 20 male and female, SD = 2.094 and mean = 6.7 and 19 degree of freedom and significance level of [alpha] = 0.05, T was calculated 2.278, and observed T with 95% of confidence was 1.729. It can be concluded the level of task-oriented style of management is higher than that of relationship-oriented style.
Hypothesis 4: female managers are more task-oriented than male managers
According to Table 4.5, in this hypothesis, the task-orientation of male and female principals was assessed and with a total number of 10 male and 10 female principals and with the average task-orientation of 44.9, 38.4 respectively, and with df = 18 degree of freedom and with 95% of confidence, T was calculated 1.850. Considering the observed T=1.725 we can concluded that female principals are more task-oriented than male principals and the hypothesis 4 is proven.
Hypothesis 5: The level of job satisfaction of male and female teachers is different.
In the fifth hypothesis job satisfaction of male and female teachers were assessed that the mean job satisfaction for men and women, respectively, are 6.57 and 2.52. According to significance level of [alpha] = 0.05, and with df = 18 degree of freedom, T was calculated 0.154 and compare to observed T = 2.086 it can be concluded that as calculated T is less than observed T with 95% of confidence, the fifth hypothesis is rejected. The observed difference is accidental.
At first it is necessary to say that there is no relationship and no correlation between management styles (task-oriented and relationship-oriented) and job satisfaction of teachers. This may be due to a change in job satisfaction criteria of teachers in their work environment. According to Hypothesis 3, most managers try to impose task-oriented management style and rarely use relation-oriented style. They are engaged in implementing administrative circulars and hierarchies and just think about performing administrations quickly and indisputable responding to their superiors. In Hypothesis 4 it was demonstrated that there is no difference between task-oriented male and female managers as it was told for managers it is more important to receive a citation and do things formally and keep their superiors satisfied. In the fifth hypothesis it was proven that there was no difference between male and female teachers' job satisfaction. In modern society, women as well as men are the breadwinners and criteria of job satisfaction of both are the same, providing costs of living and welfare of their wives and children. Finally we should find job satisfaction of most of them in changing their financial situation not in behavior style of the principal or colleagues or their work environment. Finally, the study concluded that principals must provide the welfare of their teachers at the authorities should think about livelihoods and improve their financial condition and make great efforts to the training of school principals as implementation of the administrative process at the end causes stagnation in human relationships and a closed atmosphere in schools and as a result the students, the next generation of the society, will suffer from it.
Received 11 August 2014
Received in revised form 21 August 2014
Accepted 25 September 2014
Available online 16 November 2014
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(1) Warideh Tahmasebi, (2) Hossein Ortogoli, (3) Amineh Ahmadi
(1,2) PHD Student in Curriculum Development, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
(3) Associate Professor, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
Corresponding Author: Farideh Tahmasebi, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. E-mail: email@example.com
Table 1: The basic styles of manager behavior. Strong Strong Strong [down arrow] relation-oriented relation-oriented and poor task-oriented and Strong Relation oriented task-oriented behavior [up arrow] poor Strong Poor task-orientation task-oriented and poor and poor relation-oriented relation-oriented Poor [left arrow] task-oriented [right arrow] Strong behavior Source: Alaghe Band  Table 2: Effective or ineffective behavior of the basic styles manager. Basic styles Effective(efficient) Ineffective(inefficient) Often it is seen that: Often it is seen that: Strong Knows what he wants Does not trust task-oriented and in achieving others, is and poor this goal applies inconsistent relation-oriented his methods without and considers resistance only the early results Strong Satisfies requirements Deals with relation-oriented of group in terms of structuring more and Strong determining goals and than group task-oriented organizing works but requirements and provides many spends times for social--emotional social and emotional support support more than what is needed Strong Trust people implicitly Is interested in relation-oriented and potentially and being like a and poor Primarily focuses on "good person" and task-oriented nurturing capabilities refuses to cut relationship for the sake of performing a task poor Allows subordinates to Does not intervene task-orientation make decisions about in the affairs, is and poor work methods passive, doesn't give relation-oriented appropriately and plays much value to the only a minor role in task and the people their social interaction involved in it Source: Alaghe Band  Table 3: Task-based behaviors of male and female principals. M R df [alpha] N Task-oriented Job observed calculated satisfaction 20 0.05 20 41.65 57.4 0.423 -0.201 Table 4: Relation-oriented behaviors of principals and job satisfaction of teachers. df [alpha] N Relation-oriented 20 0.05 20 33.55 M R df Job observed calculated satisfaction 20 57.4 0.423 -0.052 Table 5: The level of task-oriented style of management and relationship-oriented style. N S[bar.D] [bar.D] 20 2.94 6.7 Table 6: Results. T df [alpha] Observed Calculated 19 0.05 1.729 2.278 Table 7: Female and male managers' task-oriented conditions. [bar.X] T N Male Female df a Observed Calculated 10 44.9 3804 18 0.05 1.725 1.850 Table 8: The level of job satisfaction of male and female teachers. [bar.X] T N Male Female df a observed calculated 10 52.2 57.6 18 0.05 2.086 0.154
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|Author:||Tahmasebi, Farideh; Ortogoli, Hossein; Ahmadi, Amineh|
|Publication:||Advances in Environmental Biology|
|Date:||Nov 1, 2014|
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