Management of black scurf of potato caused by Rhizoctonia solani with organic amendments and their effect on different parameter of potato crop.
Black scurf is one of the most wide spread disease and found in all potato growing areas of the world. The typical symptoms are characterized by appearance of black coloured sclerotia on the tuber surface and brownish necrotic lesions on stem and stolon which can kill the eyes, delay in emergence, increases tuber defects (cracks, misshapen, netted skin with reduced quality and market value (Fig. no. 7. B). The Black scurf and stem canker (Fig. no. 7. D) or stolon canker of potato caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn [also known by the name of its sexual stage Thanetophorus cucumeris (Frank) Donk] is a serious disease of potato worldwide and distributed in India in different regions in low to severe form. Biocontrol agents like Trichoderma and Pseudomonas are antagonistic to the Rhizoctonia solani and have been widely used to manage the disease (Elad, Y. et. al., 1983). The organic amendments such as Vermicompost, Neem cake, FYM and many more organic agricultural byproducts have been used to manage the diseases in plants. In hills as well as in plains major damage to yield is by stem canker. In recent year the fungus causes significant yield reduction. It can cause a significant change in size distribution of tubers (too small or too large). As a result, farmers have to bear 5-7% economic loss (Shekhawat, et. al., 1993, Singh and Shekhawat, 1994a).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present investigation on "Role of Organic amendments for the management of Black Scurf of Potato caused By Rhizoctonia solani (Kuhn)" was carried out Crop Research Center, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology, Modipuram, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh. The black scurf susceptible variety Kufri Bahar was selected for the study of black scurf disease. The seed tubers were already infected with sclerotia of R. solani and germinated. The plot size was 5x4 m. with nine rows. The row to row space was maintained at 60 cm and plant to plant space was maintained at 20 cm. Central seven rows were used to record the observations. The organic amendments (Vermicompost, Farm Yard Manure and Neem cake) were applied as soil treatment and the chemicals (Bavistin and Boric acid) and biocontrol agent (Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescence) were used as tuber treatment. The Trichoderma harzianum was also used in combination with each of organic amendment and with the Bavistin too, a treatment of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescence were also used as combination of both. The observation of Black Scurf disease Index (BSDI) were calculated on the basis of rating system as given below:
Black scurf disease index
Five plants were selected randomly in each plot before cutting of stem of plant in field. The tubers were collected in polyethylene begs. Then the visual observation was taken to observe the black scurf incidence and severity.
Black scurf disease severity and incidence was expressed as Black Scurf Disease Index (BSDI) and was calculated with following formula;
BSDI = 0(n1)+1(n2)+2(n3) + 3(n4) + 4(n5) + 5(n6) x100 N (Total number of tubers) 5
n1= Numbers of tuber in 0 rating
n2= Numbers of tuber in 1 rating
n3= Numbers of tuber in 2 rating
n4= Numbers of tuber in 3 rating
n5= Numbers of tuber in 4 rating
n6= Numbers of tuber in 5 rating
Disease severity was assessed on a visual disease rating scale 0-5 based on per cent tuber surface showing disease showing disease symptom as described by Ahmad et. al., (1995). Where:
0= no symptoms on tuber present
1= less than 1% tuber area affected
2= 1-10% tuber are affected
3= 11 -20% tuber are affected
4= 21-50% tuber are affected
5= 51% or more tuber area affected
Results indicate that there was no significance effect of different treatments on the plant emergence. While in the case of tillers per mother tuber per plot there was significant effect of different treatments over check. Maximum number of tillers per mother tuber per plot was observed when the Vermicompost was applied as soil application followed by the neem cake. It was found that plant obtained maximum shoot length (23.05 cm) when vermicompost was applied in soil with combination of Trichoderma harzianum while in case of vermicompost alone it was 20.18 cm. in case of neem cake alone it was 19.72 cm and in case of neem cake with combination of Trichoderma harzianum it was 19.80 cm as shown in figure six.
As compared to all treatments plant obtained better shoot length in case of vermicompost and neem cake when applied alone or combination with Trichoderma harzianum. The observation on tuber per plant indicates that vermicompost and neem cake also gave better performance in formation of tubers per plant when applied alone and combination with Trichoderma harzianum. In the case of seed size there was no significance difference among the treatments as well as over control maximum tuber size of progeny 4.53 (in inches) was observed when vermicompost was applied alone as soil application (figure. 2).
The stolon canker incidence was also minimum (22.54 and 18.77%) as in Fig. no.7 (C). when vermicompost was applied as alone and in combination with Trichoderma harzianum respectively. Maximum stolon canker (42.07%) was observed in the case of T. harzianum + P. flourescens and minimum was when Bavistin was applied with combination of Trichoderma harzianum as seed treatment. The sclerotia formation (Black Scurf) on tuber were higher (1.82 and 1.15 BSDI) when FYM was applied alone and in combination with Trichoderma harzianum. The table indicates that Neem cake has synergistic effect in reducing the sclerotia formation (0.27 BSDI) when applied in combination with soil environment i.e. Physical, chemical and biological changes. These changes influence many plant diseases due to decomposition of organic matter present in amendments. Organic amendments may influence the soil and the incidence of the soil borne diseases in one or more way like alternation of soil structure, biotic environment and biochemical effect on the plant
Trichoderma harzianum as compared to applied alone (0.53 BSDI).
Application of organic amendments is old practices for the management of plant diseases. The use of organic amendments allows changes in pathogens as Scholte et al., (1998) Used the Farm Yard Manure (FYM) alone and with a combination of white mustard as a soil amendment in already infested soil and found that organic amendment reduced the disease severity and increased the population of mycophagous soil organisms. Effect of different treatments on different growth parameter of potato crop in field condition. Results indicates that the application of biological agents, chemicals and organic amendments alone or in combination with Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens have no effect on sprouting of tubers and while the vermicompost alone and in combination with T. harzianum has batter in improving tuber formation, increasing the size of the tubers as well as reducing the incidence of stolon canker as well as sclerotia formation on tuber. Neem cake obtained second position in improving the growth parameter as well as crop health in field trial over other treatment. Several study of researcher were found to similar as described by Singh et al., (1972) Used various oil cakes with the combination of fertilizers and reported that all the treatments which used as the organic amendments caused significance reducing in black scurf of potato caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Hazarika et al., (2000), Rauf et al., (2003), Dey et al., (2004), Mamta et al., (2005), AlMughrabi (2006), Larkin et al., (2008).
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Siddarth N. Rahul, Kamal Khilari, Sachin K. Jain, R. K. Dohrey  and Ashish Dwivedi 
Department of Plant Pathology,  Department of Agronomy Sardar; Vallabhbhai Patel Uni. of Ag. & tech. Meerut--250110, India.
 Department of Extension Education, N.D.U.A. &T., Narendra Nagar (Kumarganj), Faizabad (U.P.)--224 229, India.
(Received: 10 March 2016; accepted: 02 May 2016)
* To whom all correspondence should be addressed.
Caption: Fig. 7. Different plant parts of potato crop form the infected field; (A) Infected and healthy plant with the stem canker, (B) Tuber showing the typical symptoms of Black Scurf with the whitish growth of fungus, (C) Stolon canker and (D) Canker on stem
Fig. 1. Effect of different treatment on formation of tubers per plant Neem cake 16.46 Vermicompost 18.26 FYM 15.93 Boric acid 13.86 Bavistin 14.93 Trichoderma harzianum 12.93 Pseudomans fluorescents 15.8 FYM + T. harzanium 14.2 Neem cake + T. harzanium 17.46 Vermicompost + T. harzianum 18.13 T. harzianum + P. flourescens 15.2 Bavistin + T. harzianum 14.53 Control 12.46 Note: Table made from bar graph. Fig. 2. Effect of different treatments on seed size of progeny tubers Neem cake 3.9 Vermicompost 4.53 FYM 3.8 Boric acid 3.55 Bavistin 3.56 Trichoderma harzianum 3.73 Pseudomans fluorescents 3.8 FYM + T. harzanium 3.65 Neem cake + T. harzanium 4.25 Vermicompost + T. harzianum 4.26 T. harzianum + P. flourescens 3.7 Bavistin + T. harzianum 3.63 Control 3.11 Note: Table made from bar graph. Fig. 3. Effect of different treatments on stolon canker incidence Neem cake 31.97 Vermicompost 22.54 FYM 41.76 Boric acid 26.45 Bavistin 20.76 Trichoderma harzianum 29.76 Pseudomans fluorescents 37.16 FYM + T. harzanium 42.66 Neem cake + T. harzanium 28.79 Vermicompost + T. harzianum 18.77 T. harzianum + P. flourescens 42.07 Bavistin + T. harzianum 17.97 Control 56.37 Note: Table made from bar graph. Fig. 4. Effect of different treatments on black scurf in field Neem cake 0.53 Vermicompost 0.47 FYM 1.82 Boric acid 0.43 Bavistin 0.31 Trichoderma harzianum 0.6 Pseudomans fluorescents 0.9 FYM + T. harzanium 1.15 Neem cake + T. harzanium 0.27 Vermicompost + T. harzianum 0.49 T. harzianum + P. flourescens 0.3 Bavistin + T. harzianum 0.29 Control 2.22 Note: Table made from bar graph. Fig. 5. Effect of different treatments on yield Neem cake 176.66 Vermicompost 188.33 FYM 171.66 Boric acid 146.66 Bavistin 153.33 Trichoderma harzianum 156.66 Pseudomans fluorescents 131.6 FYM + T. harzanium 165 Neem cake + T. harzanium 175 Vermicompost + T. harzianum 178.33 T. harzianum + P. flourescens 118.33 Bavistin + T. harzianum 128.33 Control 126.54 Note: Table made from bar graph. Fig. 6. Effect of different treatments shoot length Neem cake 19.72 Vermicompost 20.18 FYM 19.85 Boric acid 15.36 Bavistin 15.15 Trichoderma harzianum 17.13 Pseudomans fluorescents 15.91 FYM + T. harzanium 18.46 Neem cake + T. harzanium 19.2 Vermicompost + T. harzianum 23.05 T. harzianum + P. flourescens 16.21 Bavistin + T. harzianum 16.85 Control 14.11 Note: Table made from bar graph.
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|Author:||Rahul, Siddarth N.; Khilari, Kamal; Jain, Sachin K.; Dohrey, R.K.; Dwivedi, Ashish|
|Publication:||Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology|
|Date:||Sep 1, 2016|
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