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Mamiferos terrestres da bacia do Rio Jequitinhonha, Brasil: uma area de transicao entre a Floresta Atlantica e o Cerrado.

Terrestrial mammals of the Jequitinhonha River Basin, Brazil: A transition area between Atlantic Forest and Cerrado

INTRODUCTION

Brazil is the largest country in the Neotropics and it has the largest mammal diversity in the world, with over 700 known species, a number that has been steadily increasing in the past decades (Costa et al., 2005; Paglia et al., 2012). Estimates from nearly 20 years ago had already predicted that the actual richness of Brazilian mammal species, given the extension of the country, was by far underestimated (Vivo, 1997). These facts only strengthen the importance of comprehensive and exhaustive surveys, particularly in those regions that have been poorly sampled, in order to accurately evaluate their species composition (Patterson, 2002; Costa et al., 2005; Lessa et al., 2008).

Not only is the Brazilian mammal fauna highly diverse, but also the country various biomes lead to varying levels of endemism, with different levels of threat to their mammals. Approximately 11% of the Brazilian mammal species are listed by the IUCN as globally threatened (IUCN, 2015) and 15% as nationally threatened by the Brazilian National Red List (MMA, 2014). Levels of endemism in Brazil are high, with ca. 30% of the recorded mammal species being endemic (Paglia et al., 2012). As a consequence of their high endemism and human pressure, two important Brazilian biomes, Atlantic Forest and Cerrado, were designated as global hotspots (Myers et al., 2000).

The Jequitinhonha River Basin appears to be a particularly interesting region because it runs into both Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. The vegetation along the Jequitinhonha River Basin changes along the river path. The region is formed by a mosaic of vegetal physiognomies presented in two biomes (Cerrado and Atlantic Forest), with the northwest part also close to the Caatinga, a uniquely Brazilian biome. Thus, such an environmental heterogeneity is likely to reveal a peculiar mammalian fauna composition, as it is surrounded by regions that harbor each a distinct mammal composition (Lessa and Paula, 2014). Additionally, this sequence of vegetation also includes contact zones, where several mammal species from more than one of these biomes can be found in sympatry (Geise and Astua, 2009). However, the actual knowledge of mammals in the Jequitinhonha River Basin is still limited (Lessa et al., 2008). Thus, its mammal fauna needs to be properly diagnosed (Drumond et al., 2005) to provide a robust biogeographic data to further studies and more knowledge about the biodiversity of that region.

In this paper we report an extensive survey for non-volant mammals in both riverbanks of the Jequitinhonha River Basin, representing formations from two biomes (Cerrado and Atlantic Forest), along with karyotypic analyses. We also indicate how the Jequitinhonha River Basin region can be considered as an important ecotone discontinuity area.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study area

According to the document "Regiao Hidrografica do Atlantico Leste", organized by the Brazilian Ministry of Environment (MMA, 2006), the Jequitinhonha and Pardo rivers include four sub-basins: Jequitinhonha 1, Jequitinhonha 2, Jequitinhonha 3 and Pardo. Here we consider the area including three sub-basins (Jequitinhonha 1, 2 and 3) following the denomination provided by Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE, 1997), Ferreira (2011), Ferreira and Saadi (2011), Silva and Ferreira (2011) and Ferreira and Silva (2012), that includes part of the northeastern portion of the Minas Gerais state and a small portion of the southeast part of Bahia state. The basin is located between 16[grados] - 18[grados]S and 39[grados] - 44[grados]W, for a total area of 70 315 [km.sup.2]. Of these, 66 319 [km.sup.2] are in Minas Gerais (MG) and 3996 [km.sup.2] in Bahia (BA) state (IBGE, 1997). In the North, the Jequitinhonha River Basin borders the sub-basin of Pardo River, and in the South, the sub-basins of the Mucuri River and the South Bahia Coast (MMA, 2006). The source of the Jequitinhonha River lies near Serro City (MG), at an elevation of 1300 m and drains into the Atlantic Ocean at Belmonte City (BA). Some of the sampled localities are located outside the limits of the Jequitinhonha River drainage basin because for data collection and field work we included all municipalities that according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE, 2016) are completely or partially inside the basin limits.

Along the 920 km path of the Jequitinhonha River, 760 are in the Minas Gerais state and 160 in the state of Bahia (Ferreira, 2009). From the river source in the Cerrado down to its mouth in the Atlantic Forest, the climatic characteristics are variable, from humid to semiarid climates, and different vegetational formation are recorded (IBGE, 1997). Rains are usually concentrated from October to March, with 50% of all the rain occurring from December to February (Goncalves, 1997). According to Silva and Ferreira (2011), in three localities, precipitation occurs in a very irregular pattern, Aracuai, in the middle region of the basin, with an annual average of 766 mm, in Itamarandiba, closer to the source of the river, with 1050 mm, and in Pedra Azul, closer to the river mouth, with 860 mm. The social and environmental scenario of Jequitinhonha River Basin presents a dispersed population; the State interventions based on economic reorientation, focusing on technology and competitiveness, induce environmental degradation and generate economic, social and cultural negative consequences (Ferreira and Saadi, 2009).

As a whole, 75 localities were considered in this study; of these, 30 are in the Cerrado, while 45 are in the Atlantic Forest (Fig. 1). Eleven phytophysiognomies are found along the Jequitinhonha River Basin (IBGE, 2012) (Appendix I); two of them are non-natives as a consequence of the anthropic impact. Agrarian Activities (originally Savanna, Steppic Savanna/Seasonal Forest or Savanna/Broadleaf Forest) are present in 12 localities, and Secondary Vegetation and Agrarian Activities (originally Seasonal Deciduous Forest, Seasonal Semideciduous Forest or Broadleaf Forest) occur in 23 localities (IBGE, 2012). For original phytophysiognomy of each of these localities see Appendix I. The phytophysiognomies, Seasonal Decidual Submontante Forest, Moist Broadleaf Forest of Lowlands, Mangroves, Upper Montane Vegetational Refuges, Arboreous Steppic Savanna and Savanna/Broadleaf Forest are found at a single locality each. Four localities were at Arboreous Savanna, five Grassy-Woody Savanna, 25 Savanna/ Seasonal Forest (IBGE, 2012) (Appendix I).

Field work

From those 75 localities where mammals were recorded in this study (see above), small mammals were trapped in 13. These localities were chosen to cover both left (localities 2, 5, 44, 45, and 73) and right (localities 6, 7, 8, 9, 43, 49, 53 and 75) banks of the Jequitinhonha River (Fig. 1, Appendix I), were vegetation was more preserved or where field activities could be carried on without security problems for researchers. Traps were set differently according to topography and presence of trees (arboreal traps set at up to 3 m high), mostly placed in lines ca. 15 to 20 m apart one from another. Three live traps models were used (Sherman[R], Tomahawk[R] and pitfall) with banana and manioc pieces, peanut butter and bacon bits as bait in live-traps in areas of Atlantic Forest, and peanut butter, orange or pineapple pieces and cotton wool soaked in cod liver oil in dryer areas in Cerrado. In addition to the collected specimens of small mammals (marsupials and rodents), we also collected road-killed animals, obtained skulls from farmers, searched for tracks and made visualization in the field. Table 1 indicates the name, coordinates and trapping effort for each locality. Tissue (liver) samples, fixed in ethanol, were collected from all specimens, as well as ectoparasites. All specimens were prepared as skins, skulls, and partial skeletons. Specimens were collected under sample permits from ICMBio granted to L. Geise (IBAMA 0201.009374/02-86 and SISBIO 598633), to L.G. Lessa (SISBIO 19790-1 and 42892-1) and to C.E.L. Esberard (SISBIO 10356-1).

Below we provide a short description of those localities we surveyed. Localities are numbered according to Appendix I.

Locality #2-Pousada Rural Recanto do Vale (Fig. 2A). The vegetation is Grassy-Woody Savanna, in the Cerrado (IBGE, 2012). Traps were set in lines along a small creek, on sandy ground and near a small waterfall, on the rocks ("lajeiro").

Locality #5-Parque Nacional das Sempre Vivas (PARNASV). The vegetation is Upper Highlands Vegetational Refuges, in the Cerrado (IBGE, 2012). Traps were set in lines along a rupestrian fields area interspersed with forest patches in the southern part of the PARNASV.

Locality #6-Fazenda Santa Cruz (Fig. 2B). The vegetation is Grassy-Woody Savanna, in the Cerrado (IBGE, 2012). Traps were set in open grasslands with rocky outcrops, in gallery forests and open vegetation formations. Some trapping lines were along characteristic Cerrado formation, with many pequi trees (Caryocar brasiliense, Caryocaraceae).

Locality #7-Parque Estadual do Rio Preto (PERP) (Fig. 2C). The vegetation is Grassy-Woody Savanna, in the Cerrado (IBGE, 2012). The PERP is located in the southern area of the Espinhaco Mountain Range with a mosaic of vegetation physiognomies. Traps were settled in areas of riparian savanna, Cerrado stricto sensu and open grasslands.

Locality #8-Fazenda Sumidouro (Fig. 2D). The vegetation is Savanna/Seasonal Forest, in the Cerrado (IBGE, 2012). Traps were set in fragments of forest formation surrounded by pasture, some lines along the Aracuai River.

Locality #9-Pousada Agua Quente (Fig. 2E). The vegetation is Savanna/Seasonal Forest, in the Cerrado (IBGE, 2012). Trapping was carried out in Gallery Forest, with traps along the river, over rocks or sand and some in the river. Other lines were set in a Forest, at the slope of a small hill, a very humid area. Grasses covered the beginning of the line. The "campo sujo" was at another slope, with rocky and sandy soil, some areas recovering from fire.

Locality #43-Fazenda Ilha (Fig. 2F). The vegetation is Savanna/Seasonal Forest, in the Atlantic Forest according to the map (IBGE, 2012), but local observation showed that it is clearly in the Cerrado. Lines were set in typical arboreal vegetation (close thorny arbustive vegetation, with small sparse trees), with sandy soil.

Locality #44-Fazenda Dona Marilia (Fig. 2G). The vegetation is Savanna/Seasonal Forest, in the Atlantic Forest according to the map (IBGE, 2012), but local observation showed that it is clearly in the Cerrado. Trapping lines were in open arboreal vegetation with an open bush formation. Trapping lines were along the Jequitinhonha River.

Locality #45-Fazenda Galileia (Fig. 2H). The vegetation is Savanna/Seasonal Forest, in the Atlantic Forest according to the map (IBGE, 2012), but local observation showed that it is clearly in the Cerrado. General vegetation where lines were mounted is arboreal vegetation (close thorny arbustive vegetation, with sparse low trees), with sandy soil. Trapping was carried out during the rainy season, so vegetation was green.

Locality #49-Fazenda Palmares (Fig. 2I). The vegetation is Secondary Vegetation and Agrarian Activities (originally Seasonal Semideciduous Forest), in the Atlantic Forest (IBGE, 2012). Traps were set in disturbed forest fragments located on mountaintops surrounded by pastures.

Locality #53-Fazenda Anga Pehy (Fig. 2J). The vegetation is Secondary Vegetation and Agrarian Activities (originally Seasonal Deciduous Forest), in the Atlantic Forest (IBGE, 2012). Traps were set in disturbed forest fragments located on mountaintops surrounded by pastures, one along a creek, another around a swampy area covered by graminae. Another vegetation was a dry altered forest, locally called "Mata da Chapada".

Locality #73-Fazenda Futurosa. The vegetation is Agrarian Activities (original vegetation was Savanna/ Broadleaf Forest), in the Atlantic Forest (IBGE, 2012). The sampled area is a forest fragment surrounded by eucalyptus plantations and the "Cabruca", a cacao trees plantation grown under the Atlantic Forest canopy, also surrounded by pasture.

Locality #75-Reserva Particular do Patrimonio Natural (RPPN), Estacao Veracel. The vegetation is Moist Broadleaf Forest of Lowlands, in the Atlantic Forest. All trapping occurred in the preserved forest area.

Small mammal species identification (karyotypes and morphology)

Karyotypes were prepared in the field for all rodent specimens and at least one specimen of each collected species of marsupial. Metaphases were obtained with in vitro bone marrow culture according to Geise (2014). Conventional coloration with Giemsa 5% was used to observe diploid (2n) and fundamental (FN, excluding sexual chromosomes) numbers and chromosome morphology. Rodents were identified to species level by comparison with voucher specimens deposited in collections, species descriptions, and karyological analysis. Morphological characters (skin and skull) were considered for species identification in comparison to previous descriptions for Didelphimorphia. Nomenclature follows Wilson and Reeder (2005), Gardner (2008), Melo and Sponchiado (2012), Gurgel-Filho et al. (2015) and Patton et al. (2015).

Museum collections and literature review

Medium and large mammal (Cingulata, Pilosa, Primates, Lagomorpha, Carnivora, Perissodactyla, and Cetartiodactyla) records, in addition to other small mammal species, were obtained from museum collections (Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Museu de Zoologia da USP, Colecao do Laboratorio de Mastozoologia e Manejo da Fauna do Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Museu de Ciencias Naturais da PUC Minas, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade Federal de Vicosa and Colecao de Mastozoologia da Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri).

Literature review was carried out to complete all mammal species occurrence. We do not consider specimens of Akodon cursor that were not identified through genetic techniques, as identification based solely on skull and skin morphology is not reliable for this species (Geise, 2012).

Localities characterization, species geographic pattern distribution and classification of endangered species

Coordinates and altitude for each locality were obtained at each capture location and gazetteers online (www.geonames.org, www.falingrain.com/ world andwww.splink.cria.org.br/geoloc), using SAD 69 23 K Datum. Vegetation classification of each locality is according to the IBGE (2012).

For geographic range increase of species, we searched each species known geographic distribution provided by Gardner (2008), Geise and Astua (2009), Caceres (2012), Gurgel-Filho et al. (2015) and Patton et al. (2015). For biome endemism, we used Paglia et al. (2012). Classification of endangered species (Vulnerable, Endangered and Critically Endangered) is according to IUCN (2015) and MMA (2014). Near Threatened (NT) and Data Deficient (DD) are according to ICMBio (2014) and IUCN (2015).

RESULTS

Our collecting effort in 13 localities and with the inclusion of museum specimens and literature information resulted in a list of 91 mammal species in 75 localities along the Jequitinhonha River Basin (Appendices I and II); 15 species belong to the Order Carnivora, four to Cetartiodactyla, six to Cingulata, 14 to Didelphimorphia, one to Lagomorpha, one to Perissodactyla, three to Pilosa, 11 to Primates, and 36 species to Rodentia. We trapped 33 species of small mammals (13 marsupials and 20 rodents), three species were visualized (Cabassous unicinctus, Callithrix geoffroyi and Guerlinguetus brasiliensis), one was recorded from footprints (Procyon cancrivorus) and two species of medium sized-mammal were recovered as road-kills (Cerdocyon thous and Sylvilagus minensis) (Table 2).

According to the IUCN (2015) 20 out of the 91 species recorded for the Jequitinhonha River Basin are threatened, while according to the MMA (2014) and ICMBio (2014) 27 species are threatened. For IUCN (2015), the most endangered species are Brachyteles hypoxanthus and Sapajus xanthosternos (with the status of Critically Endangered), and Leontopithecus chrysomelas and Sapajus robustus (with the status of Endangered). According to the MMA (2014) and ICMBio (2014) the worst cases are B. hypoxanthus as Critically Endangered, and L. chrysomelas, S. robustus, S. xanthosternos, Leopardus guttulus, Thalpomys lasiotis and Trinomys mirapitanga with the status of Endangered (Table 2).

We increased the known distribution for eight species. The record of Calomys mattevii increases the species distribution eastwards in 190 km from Juramento, MG (Gurgel-Filho et al., 2015) to Fazenda Dona Marilia-Itinga, MG (locality 44). Galea spixii distribution increased southwards in 178 km from Campos Gerais de Sao Felipe, BA (Dunnum, 2015) to Aracuai municipality (locality 34). The record of Kerodon rupestris in the Parque Estadual do Rio Preto, Sao Goncalo do Rio Preto municipality (locality 7) increases the species distribution to the southeast in 330 km from Riacho da Cruz, MG (Dunnum, 2015). The record of Sooretamys angouya in Distrito Carne Seca, Fazenda Corredor, MG (locality 12) increases the species distribution to the northwest in 450 km from Rio Sao Jose, ES (Percequillo, 2015b). Thylamys velutinus was recorded in Rio do Pardo de Minas municipality, MG (locality 48), which increases the species distribution to the east in 150 km from Lagoa Santa, MG (Creighton and Gardner, 2008). The record of Monodelphis scalops at the Parque Nacional das Sempre Vivas, Diamantina municipality, MG (locality 5) increases the species distribution to the northwest in 400 km from Santa Teresa, ES (Pine and Handley, 2008). Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos had a distribution increase to the south in 145 km from Juramento, BA (Bonvicino, 2015) to Pousada Agua Quente, Felicio dos Santos municipality, MG (locality 9).

We obtained karyotype for 26 species (11 Didelphimorphia and 15 Rodentia; Table 3). Eight rodent species presented karyotype variation--Akodon cursor, Cerradomys scotti, Cerradomys subflavus, Cerradomys vivoi, Nectomys squamipes, Rhipidomys mastacalis, Trinomys albispinus and Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos (Table 3). Undescribed chromosomal variation was found in C. scotti, C. subflavus, T. albispinus and W. pyrrhorhinos. Cerradomys scotti specimens, collected in Fazenda Santa Cruz (locality 6) presented two distinct fundamental numbers, 68 (MN82753, Fig. 3) and 72 (MN82752). The karyotype with FN=68 is composed by six pairs of biarmed and 22 acrocentric chromosomes. The karyotype of C. subflavus (MN82759, collected also in locality 6) presented variation in the sexual pair, in which the X chromosome is a large submetacentric and the Y is a small acrocentric (Fig. 4). Trinomys albispinus was collected only in locality 45 (MN82935, from Fazenda Galileia), the fundamental number (FN) 108, with 25 pairs of biarmed and four pairs of acrocentric chromosomes (Fig. 5). Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos presented two different fundamental numbers, FN=98 (MN82944, from Fazenda Ilha, locality 43; MN82938 and 82939 from Fazenda Galileia, locality 45; MN82940, 82941, 82942 from Pousada Agua Quente, locality 9), with 19 pairs of biarmed and 11 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes (Fig. 6A) and FN=99 (MN82943, from Fazenda Ilha, locality 43) composed by 19 pairs of biarmed and 10 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes, and a heteromorphic pair of small chromosomes (Fig. 6B).

DISCUSSION

Our trapping efforts, coupled with all the information obtained from museums and the literature, provided a comprehensive view of the non-volant mammal diversity along the Jequitinhonha River Basin. Terrestrial mammal species richness recorded in Jequitinhonha River Basin represents 17% of all known terrestrial species in Brazil, not considering Calassomys apicalis, described after Paglia et al. (2012). Most recorded species (91) have a wide geographical distribution range and may occur in more than one biome in South America (Bonvicino et al., 2002; Geise and Astua, 2009; Pereira and Geise, 2009; Carmignotto et al., 2012; Costa and Leite, 2012; Paglia et al., 2012); however, we collected 19 species only in Atlantic Forest localities and 26 in Cerrado localities.

Currently, 32 of 251 (not including C. apicalis) and 90 of 298 species of mammals occur/are endemic and registered in the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest, respectively (Carmignotto et al., 2012; Costa and Leite, 2012; Paglia et al., 2012). We trapped a considerable portion of this diversity, and recorded 28.7% (6.3% endemic) of all Cerrado and 21.5% (22.2% endemic) of all Atlantic Forest species, thus showing the biological importance of the surveyed area. We recorded species considered to be restricted to the Cerrado and Caatinga in the Atlantic Forest (Calomys mattevii, Didelphis albiventris, Gracilinanus agilis, Rhipidomys macrurus, Thrichomys apereoides and Wiedomyspyrrhorhinos), as well as species considered restricted to the Atlantic Forest in Cerrado areas (Callithrix geoffroyi, Dasyprocta leporina, Gracilinanus microtarsus, Guerlinguelus brasiliensis, Monodolphis scalops, Oxymycterus dasytrichus, Phyllomys lamarum, Sapajus robustus, Sooretamys angoya and Trinomys setosus) (Table 2). Such records show the need of carefully reassess the scheme of biome endemicity provided by Paglia et al. (2012).

Habitat and vegetation characteristics were observed during field work, differing from biome and vegetation maps (IBGE 2012), showing that the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest borders are not precisely delimited, either due to the low resolution of IBGE data or accelerated rates of deforestation. This could be seen in localities 43, 44 and 45, which are not Atlantic Forest, but dry vegetation of Cerrado (for a better conclusion, see Figs. 2F, 2G and 2H) or Fazenda Palmares (locality 49), according to Fig. 1 in the Atlantic Forest (Secondary Vegetation and Agrarian Activities, originally Seasonal Semidecidous Forest; IBGE, 2012), but according to fieldwork, a transition area between both biomes.

The importance of the species survey increases when the conservation status is considered. Eight major protected areas are located along the basin, three of them surveyed by us. Seven protected areas are in Minas Gerais state (six in Cerrado biome: Parque Nacional Sempre Vivas, Parque Estadual do Rio Preto, Parque Estadual de Biribiri, Parque Estadual do Pico do Itambe, Parque Estadual da Serra Negra, Parque Estadual de Grao Mogol; and one in Atlantic Forest biome: Reserva Biologica [REBIO] Mata Escura), and one in Bahia State (Atlantic Forest Biome: Reserva Particular de Protecao Natural [RPPN] Estacao Veracel). In those protected areas, according to the information provided by environmental government agencies (ICMBio, 2016 and IEF/MG, 2016 accessed August/2016) 14 endangered taxa may occur (Alouatta spp., Brachyteles hypoxanthus, Callicebus spp., Callithrix geoffroyi, Chaetomys subspinosus, Chrysocyon brachyurus, Leopardus pardalis, Lontra longicaudis, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Panthera onca, Priodontes maximus, Puma concolor, Sapajus robustus and Tapirus terrestris), all medium or large mammals. However, we have in our list three species of small mammals under conservation threat (Thalpomys lasiotis, Thylamysvelutinus and Trinomys mirapitanga), with only few occurrences in protected areas. The sum of all those eight protected area is 2570 [km.sup.2], which represents only a small fraction (3.7%) of the whole basin (70 315 [km.sup.2]). Most of the protected areas are in the Cerrado, even when a larger area of the basin lies in the Atlantic Forest (Fig. 1).

All collected marsupial species, a group known to have a very conservative chromosomal composition (Svartman and ViannaMorgante, 1998; Astua, 2015), showed diploid and autosomal numbers already described in the literature (Yunis et al., 1973; Carvalho et al., 2002; Paresque et al., 2004; Pereira et al., 2008).

We obtained new karyotypes for Cerradomys scotti, C. subflavus, Trinomys albispinus and Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos. The fundamental number described in the present paper for C. scotti is lower, with an increase of acrocentric chromosomes, than those previously reported (Bonvicino et al., 1999). The sexual pair here reported for one specimen of C. subflavus differs from the previously described karyotype (Bonvicino et al., 1999). The fundamental number of T. albispinus presented here (FN = 108) differs because of the presence of 25 biarmed pairs instead of 29 as described by Pessoa et al. (2015). The published karyotypes for W. pyrrhorhinos show that the species is highly variable (2n=62, FN=86, 90 and 104; Maia and Langguth, 1987; Goncalves et al., 2005; Pereira and Geise, 2007). The karyotype presented here (2n=62, FN=98/99), with another different autosomal number, increases the known intraspecific variation.

Chromosome data available for Brazilian populations of squirrels are scarce (Fagundes et al., 2003), with most species presenting a similar karyotype, 2n=40, FN=74 (Sciurus aestuans ingrami) and 2n=40, FN=76 (S. a. alphonsei and S. a. spadiceus, described by Lima and Langguth 2002); both karyomorphs differ in the 19th pair, with metacentric chromosomes in the former and acrocentric in the second one. The specimens we collected match the description of Vivo and Carmignotto (2015) and Vivo (personal communication) for Guerlinguelus brasiliensis brasiliensis, which currently include S. a. alphonsei and S. a. spadiceus as synonyms. So, we conclude that the karyotype observed by us for our sample of G. brasiliensis is the same of those described by Lima and Langguth (2002).

The area surveyed and studied here shows few particular patterns of species distribution occurrence. Some are already known in literature, such as the rodent species Akodon cursor (Geise, 2012) and Cerradomys spp., where C. subflavus occurs only on the right side of the river as opposed to C. vivoi, which occurs north of the left side (Bonvicino et al., 1999; Weksler et al., 2006; Percequillo, 2015a). Leite et al. (2016) presented a complete explanation about the Rio Doce as a discontinuity area. Further extensive collecting effort in the Jequitinhonha River Basin may provide future basis to discuss if this region represents another area of faunal discontinuity for some lineages of small mammals.

Our study showed a high diverse terrestrial mammal fauna, with relevant records of new karyotypes, endangered fauna and sympatric occurrence of species of both adjacent biomes --Cerrado and Atlantic Forest. A continuity of trapping effort is necessary to further characterize (e.g., phylogeography) the registered species.

Recibido 23 marzo 2016. Aceptado 23 febrero 2017. Editor asociado: G D'Elia

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We are thankful to Julia Lins Luz, Maira de Godoy SantAna, Luciana de Moraes Costa, Thais Lira and Vera de Ferran for fieldwork help; to Heitor Bispo, Fabio Henrique Alves Bispo, Luiz Carlos da Silva, Rita de Cassia de Melo Tolentino and Georg Marksteinr (Pousada Agua Quente and Fazenda Sumidouro), Sueli Vieira (Fazenda Ilha), Mr. Tulio (Fazenda Palmares), Mr. and Mrs. Guimaraes (Fazenda Anga-Pehy) and all the staff of the Reserva Particular do Patrimonio Natural, Estacao Veracel, for lodging and permission to work within their properties. Leila Maria Pessoa helped in the identification of Trinomys spp. Fabiano Rodrigues de Melo was of great help providing information about all Primates species; R. Moratelli kindly assessed Oxymycterus dasytrichus specimens in the Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC. Field work was carried out with funding provided by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq, Edital Universal # 473596/2006-7 and 472909/2009-6 andComCerrado#563134/2010-0 Edital no. 47/2010-Chamada 2), Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ), Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG -# APQ01034/09) and Programa SISBIOTA/CNPq (# 56314/2010.0). L. Geise receives productive grants from CNPq (# 306161/2016-8) and UERJ/Prociencia, C.E.L. Esberard received a CNPq productive grant (# 151029/2004-0) and financial support from FAPERJ to "Young Scientist of Our State" (E-16/170.449/2007 and E-26/102.201/2009). D. Astua was supported by FAPERJ (E-26/150.353/2005) and by a CNPq fellowship (306647/2013-3). Marcia Aguieiras had fellowship from FAPERJ (E-26/102.327/2011) and has a doctoral scholarship from CAPES. Paulo H. Asfora had a fellowship from FAPERJ (E-26/100.331/2007) and Fundacao de Amparo a Ciencia e Tecnologia do Estado de Pernambuco (FACEPE-DCR-0053-2.04/11, Bolsa DCR e APQ-0020-2.04/12). F. Dourado receives financial support from FAPERJ to "Young Scientist of Our State" (E-16/203.218/2015). We are grateful to all comments made by two anonymous reviewers.

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APPENDIX I

Gazetteer with geographical and vegetation information for localities from Jequitinhonha River Basin with mammal registers, arranged from the source to the mouth region of the river. Underlined names = municipalities. Number before locality name corresponds to localities plotted in Fig. 1. Localities with our collecting effort are in bold. nln = no locality name. When coordinates of a locality were not found we used coordinates of the municipality. After coordinates, vegetation type (IBGE 2012): Agrarian Activities (originally Savanna, Steppic Savanna/Seasonal Forest or Savanna/ Broadleaf Forest) = AA; Arboreous Savanna = AS; Arboreous Steppic Savanna = ASS; Grassy-Woody Savanna = GWS; Mangroves = MA; Moist Broadleaf Forest of Lowlands = MBFL; Savanna/ Broadleaf Forest = S/BF; Savanna/Seasonal Forest = S/SF; Seasonal Decidual Submontante Forest = SDSF; Secondary Vegetation and Agrarian Activities (originally Seasonal Decidual, Semideciduous or Moist Broadleaf Forests) = SV/AA; Upper Montane Vegetational Refuges = UMVR.

MINAS GERAIS STATE: Serro, 1--nln (18[degrees]36'10"S, 43[degrees]22'45"W, SV/AA, originally SSF); Diamantina, 2-Pousada Rural Recanto do Vale (18[degrees]23'43.2"S, 43[degrees]32'25.5"W, GWS), 3-Lavrinha, Mineracao Tejucana (18[degrees]14'58"S, 43[degrees]36'01"W, GWS), 4-Conselheiro Mata (18[degrees]14'44"S, 43[degrees]54'02"W, GWS), 5--Parque Nacional das Sempre Vivas (17[degrees]55'02"S; 43[degrees]47'11"W, UMVR), 6-Fazenda Santa Cruz (18[degrees]16'16.2"S, 43[degrees]23'18.8"W, GWS); Sao Goncalo do Rio Preto, 7-Parque Estadual do Rio Preto (18[degrees]05'20"S, 43[degrees]20'25"W, GWS); Felicio dos Santos, 8-Fazenda Sumidouro (18[degrees]11'34.4"S, 43[degrees]14'35.2"W, S/SF), 9-Pousada Agua Quente (18[degrees]05'32.5"S, 43[degrees]10'26.2"W, S/SF); Bocaiuva, 10-nln (17[degrees]06'59"S, 43[degrees]49"58"W, S/SF), 11-Mineracao SADA (17[degrees]06'54"S, 43[degrees]49'16"W, S/SF), 12-Distrito Carne Seca, Fazenda Corredor (17[degrees]02'14"S, 43[degrees]52'16"W, AA, originally S); Botumirim, 13- Veredas de Botumirim, 32 km NW Cacaratiba (17[degrees]07'S, 43[degrees]02'W, S/SF); Turmalina, 14-nln (17[degrees]17'30"S, 42[degrees]43'05"W, S/SF), 15-Road close to Corrego Divisao, 1 km SW Peixe Cru and Alambique do Joel, 800 m Peixe Cru (17[degrees]16'56"S, 42[degrees]44'07"W, S/SF), 16-Usina Hidreletrica de Santa Rita (17[degrees]17'08"S, 42[degrees]43'48"W, S/SF), 17-Leme do Prado, Estacao Ecologica de Acaua, 17 km N from Turmalina (17[degrees]08'S, 42[degrees]46'W, S/SF), 18-Rodovia MG 367, km 405 (17[degrees]13'07"S, 42[degrees]35'25"W, S/SF); Minas Novas, 19-nln (17[degrees]12'05"S, 42[degrees]36'07"W, S/SF), 20-Corrego da Chacara (17[degrees]45'S, 42[degrees]30'W, SV/AA, originally SSF); Cristalia, 21-nln (16[degrees]49'S, 42[degrees]41'W, S/SF), 22-Corrego Contendas (16[degrees]45'S, 42[degrees]52'W, AS), 23-Left margin of Jequitinhonha River (16[degrees]43'S, 42[degrees]37'W, S/SF); Berilo, 24-Buriti, margin of Jequitinhonha River (16[degrees]49'S, 42[degrees]41'W, S/SF), 25-Buriti, Fazenda Irmaos Atachi (16[degrees]51'S, 42[degrees]38'W, S/SF); Grao Mogol, 26-Fazenda Giro (16[degrees]34'S, 43[degrees]02'W, AS), 27-Usina Hidreletrica Presidente Juscelino Kubitschek (UHE Irape) (16[degrees]33'26"S, 42[degrees]53'38"W, AS), 28-Fazenda Curral Velho, 28 km E from Grao Mogol, Fazenda Maria das Neves and Fazenda do Matao (16[degrees]33'34"S, 42[degrees]53'23"W, AS); Chapada do Norte, 29-Rio Capivari (17[degrees]06'S, 42[degrees]32'W, S/SF); Francisco Badaro, 30 (16[degrees]58'52"S, 42[degrees]20'45"W, S/SF); Coronel Murta, 31-Ponte do Colatino, left margin of Jequitinhonha River (16[degrees]36'S, 42[degrees]12'W, AA, originally SS/SF); Virgem da Lapa, 32-Fazenda Mandacaru (16[degrees]42'S, 42[degrees]13'W, S/SF), 33-Fazenda Paiol (16[degrees]50'S, 42[degrees]13'W, AA, originally SS/SF); Aracuai, 34-nln (16[degrees]51'20"S, 42[degrees]03'25"W, AA, originally SS/SF), 35-Jenipapo de Minas, 50 km from Aracuai (17[degrees]04'39"S, 42[degrees]15'25"W, SV/AA, originally SSF), 36-Baixa Quente (16[degrees]57'00"S, 42[degrees]04'00"W, AA, originally SS/SF), 37-Chapada do Lagoao, Serra do Tombo and Calhaquizinho (16[degrees]51'00"S, 42[degrees]04'13"W, AA, originally SS/SF), 38-Trilha do Rio Piaui (16[degrees]49'15"S, 41[degrees]52'47"W, AA, originally SS/SF), 39-Fazenda Arqueana, Piaui river (16[degrees]43"S, 41[degrees]53'W, S/SF); Itinga, 40-Taquaral (16[degrees]43'S, 41[degrees]52'W, S/SF), 41-Fazenda Santana (16[degrees]40'S, 41[degrees]59'W, AA, originally SS/SF), 42-Fazenda Santa Maria (16[degrees]36'S, 41[degrees]56'W, AA, originally SS/SF), 43-Fazenda Ilha (16[degrees]39'42.6"S, 41[degrees]52'5.1"W, S/SF), 44-Fazenda Dona Marilia (16[degrees]36'46.1"S, 41[degrees]49'35.5"W, S/SF), 45-Fazenda Galileia (16[degrees]34'56.4"S, 41[degrees]47'23.4"W, S/SF); Salinas, 46-Fazenda Bamburral, Fazenda Umburana and Ribeirao Bananal (16[degrees]10'15"S, 42[degrees]17'26"W, AA, originally SS/SF); Taiobeiras, 47-nln (15[degrees]46'06"S, 42[degrees]14'33"W, SV/AA, originally SDF); Rio Pardo de Minas, 48-nln (15[degrees]36'02"S, 42[degrees]32'22"W, S/SF); Padre Paraiso, 49-Fazenda Palmares 17[degrees]07'18.6"S, 41[degrees]36'48.6"W, SV/AA, originally SSF); Itaobim, 50-Galery forest from the Piaui river, BR367 road (16[degrees]33'42"S, 41[degrees]30'12"W, ASS); Joaima, 51-Joaima Santana de Aracuai road (16[degrees]45'24.6"S, 41[degrees]26'47.5"W, SSF), 52-Fazenda Anta Podre (16[degrees]40'S, 41[degrees]59'W, AA, originally SS/SF), 53-Fazenda Anga Pehy (16[degrees]43'7.6"S, 41[degrees]14'57.6"W, SV/AA, originally SDF); Jequitinhonha, 54-Mata da Torre da Telemig (16[degrees]21'S, 41[degrees]05'W, SV/AA, originally SSF), 55-Reserva Biologica Federal da Mata Escura (16[degrees]24'28"S, 41[degrees]02'05"W SV/AA, originally SDF), 56-nln (16[degrees]25'56"S, 41[degrees]00'06"W, SV/AA, originally SSF); Almenara, 57-Fazenda Limoeiro (16[degrees]02'57"S, 40[degrees]51'02"W, SV/AA, originally SSF), 58-nln (16[degrees]03'31"S, 40[degrees]39'26"W, SV/AA, originally SSF), 59-Fazenda Estancia Betania (16[degrees]01'S, 40[degrees]51'W, SV/AA, originally SSF), 60-Copasa (15[degrees]51'19"S, 40[degrees]38'55"W, SV/AA, originally SSF); Bandeira, 61-Fazenda Serra Azul (15[degrees]48'64.4"S, 40[degrees]30'86.1"W, SV/AA, originally SSF), 62-nln (15[degrees]52'59"S, 40[degrees]34'00"W, SV/AA, originally SSF); Jordania, 63-nln (15[degrees]54'00"S, 40[degrees]10'59"W, SV/AA, originally SDF); Santa Maria do Salto, 64-Fazenda Duas Barras (16[degrees]14'03"S, 40[degrees]08'42"W, SV/AA, originally SSF), Salto da Divisa, 65-Fazenda Santana (15[degrees]57'S, 40[degrees]05'W, SV/AA, originally SDF), 66-nln (16[degrees]00'57"S, 39[degrees]56'53"W, SDSF). BAHIA STATE; Itarantim, 67-Fazenda Boa Vista (15[degrees]53'S, 40[degrees]09'W, SV/AA, originally SDF), 68-Fazenda Bom Jardim (15[degrees]39'15"S, 40[degrees]03'48"W, SV/AA, originally SDF), 69-Fazenda Alsacea (15[degrees]30'S, 40[degrees]04'W, SV/AA, originally); Itapebi, 70-Fazenda Santa Ines (15[degrees]46'S, 39[degrees]40'W, SV/AA, originally SSF), 71-nln (15[degrees]57'03"S, 39[degrees]32'02"W, SV/AA, originally MBF); Mascote, 72-Fazenda Sao Jose (15[degrees]34'05"S, 39[degrees]17'07"W, S/BF); Belmonte, 73-Fazenda Futurosa, Santa Maria Eterna (15[degrees]51'28"S, 39[degrees]24'38.2"W, AA, originally S/ BF); Passui, 74-nln (15[degrees]51'S, 38[degrees]54'W, MA); Santa Cruz de Cabralia, 75-Reserva Particular do Patrimonio Natural Estacao Veracel (16[degrees]21'11.6"S, 39[degrees]06'49.6"W, MBFL).

APPENDIX II

Mammal species from the Jequitinhonha River Basin. Species are listed in alphabetic order. Specimens captured by us are indicated by a star (*), specimens recovered from roads (road kill) are indicated by (RK) and karyotyped are indicated by a letter K (K). Localities are numbered as in Appendix I and Fig. 1, and specimens are ordered by sex. F = females, M = males, U shows a specimen of undetermined sex. Acronyms are: Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro (MN), Museu de Zoologia da USP (MZUSP), Colecao do Laboratorio de Mastozoologia e Manejo da Fauna do Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG and CC), Museu de Ciencias Naturais da PUC Minas (MCN-M), Museu de Zoologia da Universidade Federal de Vicosa (MZUFV) and Colecao de Mastozoologia da Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (MDIA)). Field number acronyms are LG (L. Geise). After first citation of an acronym, only the number is given.

Akodon cursor-17 (F-UFMG2668, 2669K); 49 (M-[MN82750.sup.*K]); 53 (F-[MN82738.sup.*K], [82741.sup.*K], [82742.sup.*K], 82743*K, 82744*K, 82745*K, 82746*K, 82748*K; M-MN82739*K, 82740*K, 82747*K, 82749*K).

Alouatta guariba-33-(U-UFMG1473).

Callithrix penicillata-46 (M-MCN-M38); 74 (M-MN23794).

Calomys mattevii-37 (U-MN42843); 44 (F-MN81105*K, 81106*K, 81107*K, 81109*K, 81110*K, 81113*, 81114*, 81115*; M-MN81108*K, 81111*K; U-MN81112*).

Calomys tener-3 (M-UFMG1608); 12 (F-UFMG2454; M-UFMG2452, 2453); 27 (F-MCN-M1105); 34 (F-MCNM1089, 1106; M-MCN-M1094); 46 (M-MN42840); 47 (F-MCN-M732); 48 (F-MCN-M728, U- MCN-M727).

Caluromys philander-7 (M-MDIA43*); 8 (M-MN82751*K);

Cavia aperea-5 (F-MCN-M1046; M-MDIA52*).

Cerdocyon thous-43 (F-LG 1167RK); 50 (U-UFMG 3078).

Cerradomys scotti-5 (M-MDIA24*); 6 (F-MN82753*K; M-MN82752*K); 7 (M-MDIA49*).

Cerradomys subflavus-3 (U-UFMG1609, 1610, 1611); 5 (M-MDIA51*, 57*); 6 (F-MN82759*K); 7 (F-MDIA16*; M-UFMG2852, 2853; MDIA23*); 9 (F-MN82758*); 11 (M-MCN-M1); 12 (M-UFMG2457, 2458); 22 (F-UFMG1459); 27 (F-MCN-M1075); 35 (M-MZUFV1877, 1923); 45 (M-UFMG1453, 1454); 46 (F-MN42841, MCN-M332; M-MN42844); 48 (M-MCN-M725); 50 (F-UFMG907); 53 (F-MN82754*K, 82757*K; M-MN82755*K, 82756*K).

Cerradomys vivoi-45 (F-MN82762*, 82763*K, 82764*K, 82765*K; M-MN82760*K, 82761*K, 82766*K); 54 (M-UFMG1458).

Conepatus semistriatus-19 (M-MCN-M99); 36 (U-MN43924); 46 (U-MN42855).

Dasypus novemcinctus-3 (U-UFMG3085, 3086);

Dasyprocta leporina-18 (M-UFMG1565)

Didephis albiventris-2 (F-MN82769*); 5 (M-MDIA50*); 9 (F-MN82770*K); 33 (F-UFMG1471; M-UFMG1472); 38 (U: UFMG1566); 43 (M-MN82771*); 45 (F-MN82767*); 46 (M-MN42834); 49 (F-MN82772*); 53 (F-MN82768*); 56 (F-UFMG905).

Didelphis aurita-49 (F-MN82777*); 75 (F-MN82774*, 82775*; M-MN82773*, 82776*).

Euphractus sexcinctus-15 (U-UFMG1105); 16 (U-UFMG3093); 46 (U-MN42849, 42851, 42852).

Euryoryzomys russatus-53 (M-MN82778*K); 54 (M-UFMG1457); 72 (M-CC37).

Euryzygomatomys spinosus-5 (M-MDIA78*; 84*).

Gracilinanus agilis-2 (F-MN72692*); 3 (U-MCN-M315); 7 (M-MDIA06*; 14*, 19*; F-MDIA15*, UFMG2493, 2494); 9 (M-MN72693*K); 12 (F-UFMG2433, 2434, 2435); 31 (F-UFMG2495); 37 (M-MN42842; U-MN42845); 43 (F-MN82782*K, 82783*K, 82784*K, 82785*K, 82786*K; M-MN82779*K, 82780*K, 82781*K); 45 (F-MN72687*, 72690*, 72691*; M-MN72686*K, 72688*, 72689*; U-UFMG1464); 47 (F-MCN-M734).

Gracilinanus microtarsus-2 (F-MN72702*K); 6 (F-MN82788*K); 7 (F-MDIA44*); 9 (F-MN82787*K; M-MN72701*K); 60 (U-UFMG1465).

Galea spixii-34 (U-MCN-M989); 48 (F-MCN-M735, M-MCN-M761).

Guerlinguetus brasiliensis-49 (F-MN82791*K; M-MN82790*K, 82792*K); 75 (F-MN82789*).

Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris-71 (U-UFMG1048).

Hylaeamys seuanezi-72 (M-CC35).

Kerodon rupestris-13 (U-UFMG1101).

Leopardus wiedi-50 (U-UFMG3076).

Metachirus nudicaudatus-7 (F-MDIA12*; M-MDIA13*); 17 (U-UFMG2654, 2655); 54 (F-UFMG1462; M-UFMG1568; U-UFMG1567); 75 (F-MN82847*; M-MN82846*K).

Marmosa paraguayana-7 (M-UFMG2648); 8 (F-MN82795*K; M-MN82794*K, 82796*K, 82797*K); 9 (M-MN82799*K, 82800*K); 17 (F-UFMG2611; M-UFMG2612, 2613); 30 (F-MCN-M36); 46 (F-MCN-M26); 75 (M-MN82798*).

Marmosa murina-75 (M-MN82793*K).

Marmosops incanus-2 (F-MN82812*K, 82814*K, 82815*K; M-MN82813*K); 3 (F-UFMG1607); 5 (M - MDIA69*, 85*); 6 (F-MN82820*K, 82821*, 82822*K, 82823*K); 7 (M-MDIA04*; UFMG2601); 8 (M-MN82808*K, 82809*K, 82810*K); 9 (F-MN82817*K, 82818*K; M-LG596*K, MN82816*K, 82819*K); 11 (F-MCN-M326); 12 (F-UFMG2436, 2440, 2441, 2442; M-UFMG2437, 2438); 14 (U-MN33840, 34426); 17 (F-UFMG2605); 27 (F-MCN-M1078, 1111); 28 (F-UFMG1102); 30 (F-MCN-M46; M - MCN-M318); 31 (U-UFMG2610); 33 (M-UFMG1468, 1469, 1470); 45 (M-MN82801*, 82802*K, 82803*); 49 (F - MN82824*K, 82828*K, 82829*K, 82830*, 82831*, 82835*, 82838*, 82839*K, 82840*K, 82842*, 82843*; M-MN82825*K, 82826*K, 82827*K, 82832*, 82833*, 82834*, 82836*, 82837*, 82841*, 82844*, 82845*); 53 (F-MN82804*; M-MN82805*, 82806*, 82807*K); 60 (M-UFMG1466, 1467).

Monodelphis americana-9 (M-MN82848*K); 49 (M-MN82849*K, 82850*K).

Monodelphis domestica-5 (M-MDIA47*; U-MCN-M1042); 6 (F-N82866*K, 82867*K); 9 (F-MN82863*, 82864*K; M-MN82868*, 82865*K); 12 (F-UFMG2439); 30 (M-MCN-M41); 35 (M-MZUFV1925, 1926); 45 (F-MN82851*, 82852*K, 82856*, 82857*K, 82860*, 82861*, UFMG1463; M - MN82853*K, 82854*, 82855*, 82858*, 82859*, 82862*); 46 (U-MN46588, 46589; F-MCN-M24).

Monodelphis scalops-5 (M-MDIA86*).

Necromys lasiurus-5 (M-MDIA53*); 27 (M-MCN-M1079); 30 (F-MCN-M334); 46 (F-MCN-M35).

Nectomys squamipes-5 (M-MDIA75*); 7 (M-UFMG2984, 2985); 8 (F-MN82881*K; M-MN82880*K, 82882*K); 9 (M-MN82883*K, 82884*K); 24 (M-UFMG1451, 1452); 49 (F-MN82886*K); 53 (F-MN82869*K, 82872*K, 82876*, 82877*; M - MN82870*K, 82871*K, 82873*K, 82874*K, 82875*, 82878*, 82879*); 75 (F-MN82885*K; M-MN82887*K). Oecomys catherinae-54 (M-UFMG1455); 72 (M-CC36).

Oligoryzomys nigripes-5 (F-MDIA60*); 7 (M-MDIA11*); 9 (M-MN82888*K); 12 (F-UFMG2456, 2455); 31 (F-UFMG2743); 33 (F-UFMG1479); 47 (F-MCN-M733).

Oxymycterus dasytrichus-5 (M-MDIA63*); 54 (F-UFMG1476; M-UFMG1475).

Philander frenatus-9 (F-MN82889*K, 82890*, 82891*, 82892*).

Phyllomys lamarum-17 (U-UFMG3016); 33 (M - UFMG1491).

Rhipidomys macrurus-6 (M-MN82893*K); 12 (F-UFMG2460, 2461, 2462, 2463, 2464, M-UFMG2465), 31 (F-UFMG2934).

Rhipidomys mastacalis-3 (U-UFMG1605, 1606); 4 (U-MCN-M49); 5 (M-MDIA76*, 77*); 6 (M-MN82896*K); 7 (F-UFMG2926, 2927, 2928, M-UFMG2925, 2929); 9 (M-MN82895*K), 17 (F-UFMG2930); 33 (F-UFMG1450); 46 (F-MN30021, U-MN30015); 49 (F-MN82897*K, 82900*K; M-MN82898*K, 82899*K); 54 (F-UFMG1461; M-UFMG1456, 1460); 73 (F-MN82894*K).

Sapajus robustus-74 (F-MN23230, 23233, M-MN23228, 23229, 23232, 23234).

Sooretamys angouya-12 (M-MCN-M1100).

Sylvilagus minensis-48 (M-MCN-M860); 51 (M-MN82901RK).

Thalpomys lasiotis-6 (M-MDIA9*).

Thrichomys apereoides-2 (F-MN82914*K, 82915*K, 82916*K, 82917*, 82921*K, 82922*; M-MN82913*K, 82918*K, 82919*K, 82920*K); 5 (M-MDIA54*, 55*, 56*); 6 (F-MN82932*, 82934*K; M-MN82933*K); 7 (F-UFMG3005, 3006, 3007); 8 (F-MN82908*K, 82910*K, 82912*; M-MN82909*K, 82911*K); 9 (F-MN82923*K, 82927*K, 82928*K; M-MN82924*K, 82925*, 82926*K, 82929*K, 82930*K, 82931*K); 12 (F-UFMG2467, M-UFMG2468, 2469, 2472); 15 (U-UFMG1096); 24 (F-UFMG1489, 1490); 27 (U-MCN-M1065); 28 (M-UFMG1098, 1482, 1486, 1487; MCNM1044; F-UFMG1480, 1481, 1483, 1484, 1485, 1488); 31 (U-UFMG3009); 35 (U-MZUFV1929, 1930, 1934; F-MZUFV1927; M-MZUFV1928); 44 (F-MN82903*K, 82904*K, 82905*K, 82906*K, 82907*K); 45 (F-MN82902*K); 47 (M-MCN-M762, 763).

Thylamys velutinus- 48 (F-MCN-M724).

Trinomys albispinus-5 (F-MCN-M1132, M-MCN-M1033, 1131); 10 (MN 73436); 12 (F-UFMG2478, 2479, 2480, M-UFMG2473, 2474, 2475, 2476); 22 (F-UFMG1445, 1446, 1447; M-UFMG1441); 23 (F-UFMG1439, M-UFMG1442, 1448); 27 (F-MCN-M1073, 1076; M-MCN-M1050, 1067, 1068, 1074; U-MCN-M1039, MN73429); 28 (U-UFMG1103, F-MCN-M1036); 45 (M-MN82935*K); 54 (M-UFMG1440); 65 (F-MCN-M972); 66 (F-MCN-M993, 994, 996; M-MCN-M992, 995, 997).

Trinomys setosus-9 (F-MN82937*K); 12 (M-UFMG2477); 17 (F-UFMG3036, 3037, 3038); 23 (M-UFMG1436); 53 (M-MN82936*K); 54 (F-UFMG1437, 1438, M-UFMG1449); 58 (MNRJ 73409); 60 (U-UFMG1443, 1444).

Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos-7 (M-MDIA80*); 9 (F-MN82940*K, 82942*K; M-MN82941*K); 11 (F-MCN-M3); 12 (F-UFMG2466); 28 (F-UFMG1100; U-MCN-M1052); 34 (M-MCN-M1054); 43 (F-MN82943*K, 82944*K); 45 (F-MN82938*K, 82939*K, M-UFMG1474).

Lena Geise (1), Luciana G. Pereira (1), Diego Astua (2), Marcia Aguieiras (1), Leonardo G. Lessa (3), Paulo H. Asfora (1,2), Francisco Dourado (4), and Carlos E. L. Esberard (5),

(1) Laboratorio de Mastozoologia, Departamento de Zoologia, IB, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. [Correspondence: <lenageise@gmail.com>]

(2) Laboratorio de Mastozoologia, Departamento de Zoologia, CB, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco Recife, PE, Brazil.

(3) Laboratorio de Ecologia, Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Diamantina, MG, Brazil.

(4) Centro de Pesquisas e Estudo em Desastres, Departamento de Geologia Aplicada, FGEL, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

(5) Laboratorio de Diversidade de Morcegos, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Seropedica, RJ. Brazil.

Caption: Fig. 1. Mammal recording localities in the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest within and surrounding areas in the Jequitinhonha River Basin. Biome boundaries are according to IBGE (2016). White triangles indicate localities where trapping effort was carried out during the present study. For number of localities see Appendix I.

Caption: Fig. 2. Views of some surveyed localities: A) Pousada Rural Recanto do Vale (Locality 2)-Grassy-Woody Savanna; B) Fazenda Santa Cruz (Locality 6)-Grassy-Woody Savanna, where a Campo Limpo can be observed; C) Parque Estadual do Rio Preto (Locality 7)-Grassy-Woody Savanna with an overview of Cerrado lato sensu; D) Fazenda Sumidouro (Locality 8)-Savanna/Seasonal Forest, where a rocky margin of a small creak with arbustive vegetation can be observed; E) Pousada Agua Quente (Locality 9)-Savanna/Seasonal Forest, depicting characteristic seasonal forest; F) Fazenda Ilha (Locality 43)-Savanna/Seasonal Forest, showing an arbustive and thorny vegetation; G) Fazenda Dona Marilia (Locality 44)-Savanna/Seasonal Forest, showing an arbustive and thorny vegetation with some cactus; H) Fazenda Galileia (Locality 45)-Savanna/Seasonal Forest-with the same vegetation observed in locality 44; I) Fazenda Palmares (Locality 49)-Secondary Vegetation and Agrarian Activities (originally Seasonal Semideciduous Forest), showing a pasture, with forest on the top of the hill; J) Fazenda Anga-Pehy (Locality 53)-Secondary Vegetation and Agrarian Activities (originally Seasonal Semideciduous Forest) = with the same vegetation observed in locality 49. All photos taken by Lena Geise, except that of locality 7, taken by Leonardo G. Lessa.

Caption: Fig. 3. Karyotype in conventional staining of a female Cerradomys scotti (MN82753), collected at Fazenda Santa Cruz (locality 6), showing 2n=58, FN=68, with six pairs of biarmed and 22 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes. X chromosome as a medium biarmed chromosome.

Caption: Fig. 4. Karyotype in conventional staining of male Cerradomys subflavus (MN82759), collected at Fazenda Santa Cruz (locality 6), showing 2n=54, FN=62, with five pairs of biarmed and 21 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes. X chromosome as a medium biarmed, and Y chromosome as a small acrocentric.

Caption: Fig. 5. Karyotype in conventional staining of Trinomys albispinus (MN82935) collected at Fazenda Galileia (locality 45) showing 2n=60, FN=108, with 25 pairs of biarmed and four pairs of acrocentric chromosomes; male individual, X chromosome as a large biarmed, and Y a small acrocentric chromosome.

Caption: Fig. 6. Karyotypes in conventional staining of Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos collected at Fazenda Ilha (locality 43). A) MN82944, 2n=62, FN=98, with 19 pairs of biarmed and 11 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes; female individual, X chromosome as a medium acrocentric. B) MN82943, with 2n=62, FN=99, with 19 pairs of biarmed and 10 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes, and a heteromorphic pair of small chromosomes; female individual, X chromosome as a medium autosomal.
Table 1 Trapping localities of the present study, including
locality name, number (see Appendix I), coordinates, altitude or
altitude range where traps were settled, pe of the fieldwork and
trapping effort.

Locality Name /                   Coordinates        Altitude
Number (#)                                             (m)

Pousada Rural                18[degrees]23'43.2"S,   823-920
  Recanto do Vale / #2       43[degrees]32'25.5"W
Parque Nacional das           17[degrees]55'02"S,      1200
  Sempre Vivas                43[degrees]47'11"W
  (PARNASV) / #5
Fazenda Santa Cruz / #6      18[degrees]16'16.2"S,     1105
                             43[degrees]23'18.8"W
Parque Estadual do            18[degrees]05'20"S,      875
  Rio Preto (PERP) / #7       43[degrees]20'25"W
Fazenda Sumidouro / #8       18[degrees]11'34.4"S,   756-785
                             43[degrees]14'35.2"W
Pousada Agua Quente / #9     18[degrees]05'32.5"S,   788-802
                             43[degrees]10'26.2"W
Fazenda Ilha / #43           16[degrees]39'42.6"S,     278
                              41[degrees]52'5.1"W
Fazenda Dona Marilia / #44   16[degrees]36'46.1"S,   250- 263
                             41[degrees]49'35.5"W
Fazenda Galileia / #45       16[degrees]34'56.4"S,   487-529
                             41[degrees]47'23.4"W
Fazenda Palmares / #49       17[degrees]07'18.6"S,     796
                             41[degrees]36'48.6"W
Fazenda Anga Pehy / #53      16[degrees]43'7.6"S,    771-923
                             41[degrees]14'57.6"W
Fazenda Futurosa / #73        15[degrees]51'28"S,      150
                             39[degrees]24'38.2"W
Reserva Particular do        16[degrees]21'11.6"S,      90
  Patrimonio Natural         39[degrees]06'49.6"W
  Estacao Veracel
  (RPPN Veracel) / #75

Locality Name /                 Period of         Trapping
Number (#)                      fieldwork          Effort
                                                (trap-nights)

Pousada Rural                 September 2007         620
  Recanto do Vale / #2
Parque Nacional das            February to          1200
  Sempre Vivas                December 2014
  (PARNASV) / #5
Fazenda Santa Cruz / #6      March-April 2011       1125
Parque Estadual do           November 2009 to       9216
  Rio Preto (PERP) / #7        January 2014
Fazenda Sumidouro / #8        September 2007         360
Pousada Agua Quente / #9      September 2007      720 1325
                                March 2011
Fazenda Ilha / #43              March 2012          1250
Fazenda Dona Marilia / #44      March 2005           105
Fazenda Galileia / #45          March 2005           724
Fazenda Palmares / #49          March 2012          1370
Fazenda Anga Pehy / #53         March 2005           683
Fazenda Futurosa / #73          March 2008           200
Reserva Particular do           March 2008           878
  Patrimonio Natural
  Estacao Veracel
  (RPPN Veracel) / #75

Table 2 Registered mammal species, with their locality numbers
(for localities name see Appendix I), type of record, biome,
vegetation and conservation status. Type of record: F = footprint;
R = References: 1. Chiarello et al. (2006), 2. Falcao et al. (2012),
3. Leal et al. (2008), 4. Lessa et al. (2008), 5. Lessa and Paula
(2014), 6. Melo (2005), 7. Melo et al. (2004), 8. Oliveira and
Goncalves (2015), 9. Oliveira et al. (2013), 10. Pardinas et al.
(2014), 11. Pessoa et al. (2015), 12. Pinto and Rylands (1997), 13.
Rylands et al. (1988), 14. Voss (2015); RK = Road killed animals; V
= visualization; VS = voucher specimens. Biome according to IBGE
(2012): CE = Cerrado and AF = Atlantic Forest. Vegetation according
to IBGE (2012): a = Grassy-Woody Savanna; b = Upper Montane
Vegetational Refuges; c = Savanna/Seasonal Forest; d = Agrarian
Activities (originally Savanna, Steppic Savanna/Seasonal Forest or
Savanna/Broadleaf Forest); e = Secondary Vegetation and Agrarian
Activities (originally Seasonal Decidual, Semideciduous or Moist
Broadleaf Forests); f = Arboreous Savanna; g = Arboreous Steppic
Savanna; h = Seasonal Decidual Submontante Forest; i =
Savanna/Broadleaf Forest; j = Mangroves; k = Moist Broadleaf Forest
of Lowlands. Legend for Conservation Status: LC = Least Concern, NT
= Near Threatened, E = Endangered, CE = Critically Endangered, V =
Vulnerable, according to International Union for Conservation of
Nature (IUCN), Ministeriodo Meio Ambiente (MMA), Instituto Chico
Mendes de Conservacao da Biodiversidade (ICMBio).

                                Localities          Type of Record
                                                    and Reference
                                                        number
DIDELPHIMORPHIA GILL
  Caluromys                    7, 8, 57, 64            R(1), VS
    philander
    Linnaeus
  Didelphis                     2, 5, 7, 9,            R(5), VS
    albiventris               33, 38, 43, 45,
    Lund                      46, 49, 53, 56
  D. aurita                   49, 61, 68, 75           R(1), VS
    (Wied-Neuwied)
  Gracilinanus                2, 3, 7, 9, 12,             VS
    agilis                  31, 37, 43, 45, 47
    (Burmeister)
  G. microtarsus              2, 6, 7, 9, 60              VS
    (Wagner)
  Marmosa murina                   7, 5                   VS
    Linnaeus
  M. paraguayana               7, 8, 9, 17,            R(1), VS
    (Tate)                    30, 46, 64, 75
  Marmosops                   2, 3, 5, 6, 7,           R(1), VS
   incanus (Lund)              8, 9, 11, 12,
                              14, 17, 27, 28,
                              30, 31, 33, 45,
                              49, 53, 60, 65
  Metachirus                 7, 17, 54, 64, 75         R(1), VS
    nudicaudatus
    (E. Geoffroy)
  Monodelphis                      9, 49                  VS
    americana
    Muller
  M. domestica                  5, 6, 7, 9,            R(4), VS
    (Wagner)                  30, 35, 45, 46
  M. scalops Thomas                  5                    VS

  Philander                          9                    VS
    frenatus (Olfers)
  Thylamys                          48                    VS
    velutinus (Wagner)
CINGULATA Illiger
  Cabassous tatouay                5, 7                R(3, 4)
    (Desmarest)
  C. unicinctus                5, 7, 45, 75         R(2, 3, 4), V
    (Linnaeus)
  Dasypus                       3, 5, 7, 75          R(2, 3), VS
    novemcinctus
    Linnaeus
  D. septemcinctus                 5, 7                 R(3,9)
    Linnaeus
  Euphractus                     5, 7, 15,          R(1, 3, 4), VS
    sexcinctus                  16, 46, 65
    Linnaeus
  Priodontes                     5, 7, 65             R(1, 3, 4)
    maximus (Kerr)
PILOSA Flower
  Bradypus                    64, 65, 68, 75           R(1, 2)
    variegatus Schinz
  Myrmecophaga                     5, 7                R(3, 9)
    tridactyla Linnaeus
  Tamandua                     5, 7, 65, 75         R(1, 2, 3, 4)
    tetradactyla
    (Linnaeus)
PRIMATES Linnaeus
  Alouatta caraya                    5                   R(3)
    Humboldt
  A. guariba                  33, 41, 42, 52,      R(1, 6, 13), VS
    Humboldt                    55, 57, 65
  Brachyteles                     55, 64                 R(7)
    hypoxanthus (Kuhl)
  Callicebus kuhlii           57, 61, 63, 65           R(1, 13)
    (Coimbra-Filho)
  C. melanochir                     65                   R(1)
    (Wied-Neuwied)
  Callithrix                     7, 9, 29,        R(1, 2, 4, 13), V
    geoffroyi                   39, 40, 52,
    (Humboldt)                  58, 64, 75
  C. penicillata              5, 21, 22, 25,         R(3, 13), VS
    (E. Geoffroy)             26, 32, 33, 41,
                                46, 59, 74
  C. personatus                     20                  R(13)
    Geoffroy
  Leontopithecus                69, 70, 71              R(12)
    chrysomelas Kuhl
  Sapajus xanthosternos           55, 57,              R(1, 6)
    (Wied-Neuwied)                65, 68
  S. robustus (Kuhl)            5, 25, 33,        R(1, 2, 3, 13), VS
                                64, 74, 75
LAGOMORPHA Brandt
  Sylvilagus                     5, 7, 9,           R(1, 3, 4), RK
    minensis (Thomas)           48, 51, 57
CARNIVORA Bowdich
  Cerdocyon                      5, 7, 43,          R(1, 3, 4), RK
    thous (Linnaeus)              50, 65
  Chrysocyon                       5, 7                R(3, 4)
    brachyurus Illiger
  Conepatus                      5, 7, 19,          R(1, 3, 4), VS
    semistriatus                36, 46, 57
    (Boddaert)
  Eira Barbara                     5, 7                R(3, 4)
    Linnaeus
  Leopardus pardalis               5, 7                R(3, 4)
    Linnaeus
  L. guttulus                    5, 7, 64             R(1, 3, 4)
    Hensel
  L. wiedi (Schinz)              5, 50, 75               R(2)
  Lontra longicaudis                 7                   R(4)
    Olfers
  Nasua nasua Linnaeus             5, 75               R(2, 3)
  Panthera onca Linnaeus             5                   R(3)
  Potos flavus Schreber             64                   R(1)
  Puma concolor Linnaeus         5, 7, 57,          R(1, 2, 3, 4)
                                  61, 75
  P yagouaroundi E.                  5                   R(3)
    Geoffroy
    Saint-Hilaire
  Procyon cancrivorus            5, 7, 9,           F, R(1, 3, 9)
    G. [Baron] Cuvier           57, 64, 66
  Pseudalopex                      5, 7                 R(3-4)
    vetulus (Lund)
PERISSODACTYLA Owen
  Tapirus terrestris           5, 7, 57, 75         R(1, 2, 3, 4)
    Linnaeus
CETARTIODACTYLA
Montgelard,
  Catzeflis
    and Douzery
  Mazama                             5                   R(3)
    americana Erxleben
  M. gouazoubira G.              5, 7, 75             R(2, 3, 4)
    Fischer [von
    Waldeheim]
  Ozotocerus                         5                   R(3)
    bezoarticus
    Linnaeus
  Pecari tajacu                  5, 7, 57,            R(1, 2, 4)
    Linnaeus                    64, 65, 75
RODENTIA Bowdich
  Akodon cursor (Winge)         17, 49, 53                VS
  Calassomys apicalis                5                  R(10)
    Pardinas, Lessa,
    Teta, Salazar-Bravo
    and Camara
  Calomys mattevii                37, 44                  VS
    (Lund)
  C. tener (Winge)           3, 5, 12, 27, 34,         R(1), vs
                              46, 47, 48, 65
  Cavia aperea Erxleben            5, 7                R(4), VS
  Cerradomys scotti               5, 6, 7                 VS
    (Langguth and
    Bonvicino)
  C. subflavus (Wagner)     3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11,         R(1), vs
                            12, 22, 27, 35, 45,
                            46, 48, 50, 53, 61
  C. vivoi Percequillo,           45, 54                  VS
    Hinst-Zaher
    and Bonvicino
  Chaetomys                       61, 62               R(1, 14)
    subspinosus Olfers
  Coendou insidiosus                63                  R(14)
    Olfers
  Cuniculus paca                 5, 7, 57,          R(1, 2, 3, 4)
    (Linnaeus)                    64, 75
  Dasyprocta azarae                5, 7                R(3, 4)
    Lichtenstein
  D. leporina                     18, 75               R(2), VS
    (Linnaeus)
  Euryoryzomys                  53, 54, 72                VS
    russatus
    (Wagner)
  Euryzygomatomys                    5                    VS
    spinosus
    (G. Fischer)
  Galea spixii                    34, 48                  VS
    (Wagler)
  Guerlinguetus              5, 7, 9, 49, 57,     R(1, 3, 4), V, VS
    brasiliensis              61, 64, 65, 68,
    (Gmelin)                   75, 5, 7, 13
  Hydrochoerus                                       R(3, 4), VS
    hydrochaeris
    (Linnaeus)
  Hylaeamys seuanezi              64, 72               R(1), VS
    (Weksler, Geise
    and Cerqueira)
  Kerodon rupestris              5, 7, 13            R(3, 4), VS
    (Wied-Neuwied)
  Necromys lasiurus            5, 27, 30, 46              VS
    (Lund)
  Nectomys squamipes          5, 7, 8, 9, 24,          R(1), VS
    (Brants)                  53, 57, 64, 75
  Oecomys                         54, 72                  VS
    catherinae
    Thomas
  Oligoryzomys                 5, 7, 9, 12,               VS
    nigripes                    31, 33, 47
    (Olfers)
  Oxymycterus                    1, 5, 54              R(8), VS
    dasytrichus
    (Schinz)
  Phyllomys                       17, 33                  VS
    lamarum (Thomas)
  Pseudoryzomys                      5                   R(3)
    simplex (Winge)
  Rhipidomys                     6, 12, 31                VS
    macrurus
    (Gervais)
  R. mastacalis               3, 4, 5, 6, 7,              VS
    (Lund)                    9, 17, 33, 45,
                                46, 49, 73
  Sooretamys                        12                    VS
    angoya
    (Fischer)
  Thalpomys                        5, 6                R(3), VS
    lasiotis
    (Thomas)
  Thrichomys                 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,            VS
    apereoides                12, 15, 24, 27,
    (Lund)                  28, 31, 44, 45, 47
  Trinomys                    5, 10, 12, 22,          R(ll), VS
    albispinus                  23, 27, 28,
    (I. Geoffroy              45, 54, 65, 66
    St.-Hilaire)
  T. mirapitanga                  61, 68                 R(1)
    Lara, Patton and
    Hingst-Zaher
  T. setosus                9, 12, 17, 23, 53,       R(1, 11), VS
    (Desmarest)             54, 57, 58, 65, 68
  Wiedomys                   7, 9, 11, 12, 28,            VS
    pyrrhorhinos                34, 43, 45
    (Wied-Neuwied)

                            Biome     Vegetation Type

DIDELPHIMORPHIA GILL
  Caluromys                 CE/AF         a, c, e
    philander
    Linnaeus
  Didelphis                 CE/AF      a, b, c, d, e
    albiventris
    Lund
  D. aurita                  MA            e, k
    (Wied-Neuwied)
  Gracilinanus              CE/AF       a, c, d, e
    agilis
    (Burmeister)
  G. microtarsus            CE/AF         a, c, e
    (Wagner)
  Marmosa murina             CE            a, b
    Linnaeus
  M. paraguayana            CE/AF      a, c, d, e, k
    (Tate)
  Marmosops                 CE/AF    a, b, c, d, e, f
   incanus (Lund)

  Metachirus                CE/AF       a, c, e, k
    nudicaudatus
    (E. Geoffroy)
  Monodelphis               CE/AF          c, e
    americana
    Muller
  M. domestica              CE/AF      a, b, c, d, e
    (Wagner)
  M. scalops Thomas          CE              b

  Philander                  MA              c
    frenatus (Olfers)
  Thylamys                   CE              c
    velutinus (Wagner)
CINGULATA Illiger
  Cabassous tatouay          CE            a, b
    (Desmarest)
  C. unicinctus             CE/AF       a, b, c, k
    (Linnaeus)
  Dasypus                   CE/AF         a, b, k
    novemcinctus
    Linnaeus
  D. septemcinctus           CE            a, b
    Linnaeus
  Euphractus                CE/AF      a, b, c, d, e
    sexcinctus
    Linnaeus
  Priodontes                CE/AF         a, b, e
    maximus (Kerr)
PILOSA Flower
  Bradypus                   MA            e, k
    variegatus Schinz
  Myrmecophaga               CE            a, b
    tridactyla Linnaeus
  Tamandua                  CE/AF       a, b, e, k
    tetradactyla
    (Linnaeus)
PRIMATES Linnaeus
  Alouatta caraya            CE              b
    Humboldt
  A. guariba                 MA            d, e
    Humboldt
  Brachyteles                MA              e
    hypoxanthus (Kuhl)
  Callicebus kuhlii          MA              e
    (Coimbra-Filho)
  C. melanochir              MA              e
    (Wied-Neuwied)
  Callithrix                CE/AF      a, c, d, e, k
    geoffroyi
    (Humboldt)
  C. penicillata            CE/AF    b, c, d, e, f, j
    (E. Geoffroy)

  C. personatus              MA              e
    Geoffroy
  Leontopithecus             MA              e
    chrysomelas Kuhl
  Sapajus xanthosternos      MA              e
    (Wied-Neuwied)
  S. robustus (Kuhl)        CE/AF      b, c, d, e, k

LAGOMORPHA Brandt
  Sylvilagus                CE/AF       a, b, c, e
    minensis (Thomas)
CARNIVORA Bowdich
  Cerdocyon                 CE/AF      a, b, c, e, g
    thous (Linnaeus)
  Chrysocyon                 CE            a, b
    brachyurus Illiger
  Conepatus                 CE/AF      a, b, c, d, e
    semistriatus
    (Boddaert)
  Eira Barbara               CE            a, b
    Linnaeus
  Leopardus pardalis         CE            a, b
    Linnaeus
  L. guttulus               CE/AF         a, b, e
    Hensel
  L. wiedi (Schinz)         CE/AF         b g, k
  Lontra longicaudis         CE              a
    Olfers
  Nasua nasua Linnaeus      CE/AF          b, k
  Panthera onca Linnaeus     CE              b
  Potos flavus Schreber      MA              e
  Puma concolor Linnaeus    CE/AF       a, b, e, k

  P yagouaroundi E.          CE              b
    Geoffroy
    Saint-Hilaire
  Procyon cancrivorus       CE/AF       a, b, e, h
    G. [Baron] Cuvier
  Pseudalopex                CE            a, b
    vetulus (Lund)
PERISSODACTYLA Owen
  Tapirus terrestris        CE/AF       a, b, e, k
    Linnaeus
CETARTIODACTYLA
Montgelard,
  Catzeflis
    and Douzery
  Mazama                     CE              b
    americana Erxleben
  M. gouazoubira G.         CE/AF         a, b, k
    Fischer [von
    Waldeheim]
  Ozotocerus                 CE              b
    bezoarticus
    Linnaeus
  Pecari tajacu             CE/AF       a, b, e, k
    Linnaeus
RODENTIA Bowdich
  Akodon cursor (Winge)     CE/AF          c, e
  Calassomys apicalis        CE              b
    Pardinas, Lessa,
    Teta, Salazar-Bravo
    and Camara
  Calomys mattevii           ma            c, d
    (Lund)
  C. tener (Winge)          CE/AF      a, b, d, e, f

  Cavia aperea Erxleben      CE            a, b
  Cerradomys scotti          CE            a, b
    (Langguth and
    Bonvicino)
  C. subflavus (Wagner)     CE/AF   a, b, c, d, e, f, g

  C. vivoi Percequillo,      ma            c, e
    Hinst-Zaher
    and Bonvicino
  Chaetomys                  ma              e
    subspinosus Olfers
  Coendou insidiosus         ma              e
    Olfers
  Cuniculus paca            CE/AF       a, b, e, k
    (Linnaeus)
  Dasyprocta azarae          CE            a, b
    Lichtenstein
  D. leporina               CE/AF          c, k
    (Linnaeus)
  Euryoryzomys               MA            e, i
    russatus
    (Wagner)
  Euryzygomatomys            CE              b
    spinosus
    (G. Fischer)
  Galea spixii              CE/AF          c, d
    (Wagler)
  Guerlinguetus             CE/AF      a, c, d, e, k
    brasiliensis
    (Gmelin)
  Hydrochoerus               CE           a, b, c
    hydrochaeris
    (Linnaeus)
  Hylaeamys seuanezi         MA            e, i
    (Weksler, Geise
    and Cerqueira)
  Kerodon rupestris          CE           a, b, c
    (Wied-Neuwied)
  Necromys lasiurus         CE/AF       b, c, d, f
    (Lund)
  Nectomys squamipes        CE/AF      a, b, c, e, k
    (Brants)
  Oecomys                    MA            e, i
    catherinae
    Thomas
  Oligoryzomys              CE/AF      a, b, c, d, e
    nigripes
    (Olfers)
  Oxymycterus               CE/AF          b, e
    dasytrichus
    (Schinz)
  Phyllomys                  CE            c, d
    lamarum (Thomas)
  Pseudoryzomys              CE              b
    simplex (Winge)
  Rhipidomys                CE/AF          a, d
    macrurus
    (Gervais)
  R. mastacalis             CE/AF      a, b, c, d, e
    (Lund)

  Sooretamys                 CE              d
    angoya
    (Fischer)
  Thalpomys                  CE            a, b
    lasiotis
    (Thomas)
  Thrichomys                CE/AF    a, b, c, d, e, f
    apereoides
    (Lund)
  Trinomys                  CE/AF      b, c, e, f, h
    albispinus
    (I. Geoffroy
    St.-Hilaire)
  T. mirapitanga             MA              e
    Lara, Patton and
    Hingst-Zaher
  T. setosus                CE/AF       a, c, d, e
    (Desmarest)
  Wiedomys                  CE/AF       a, c, d, f
    pyrrhorhinos
    (Wied-Neuwied)

                            Conservation Status

                            IUCN   MMA ICMBio
DIDELPHIMORPHIA GILL
  Caluromys
    philander
    Linnaeus
  Didelphis
    albiventris
    Lund
  D. aurita
    (Wied-Neuwied)
  Gracilinanus
    agilis
    (Burmeister)
  G. microtarsus
    (Wagner)
  Marmosa murina
    Linnaeus
  M. paraguayana
    (Tate)
  Marmosops
   incanus (Lund)

  Metachirus
    nudicaudatus
    (E. Geoffroy)
  Monodelphis
    americana
    Muller
  M. domestica
    (Wagner)
  M. scalops Thomas

  Philander
    frenatus (Olfers)
  Thylamys                             Vu
    velutinus (Wagner)
CINGULATA Illiger
  Cabassous tatouay                    DD
    (Desmarest)
  C. unicinctus
    (Linnaeus)
  Dasypus
    novemcinctus
    Linnaeus
  D. septemcinctus
    Linnaeus
  Euphractus
    sexcinctus
    Linnaeus
  Priodontes                           Vu
    maximus (Kerr)
PILOSA Flower
  Bradypus
    variegatus Schinz
  Myrmecophaga                         Vu
    tridactyla Linnaeus
  Tamandua
    tetradactyla
    (Linnaeus)
PRIMATES Linnaeus
  Alouatta caraya                      NT
    Humboldt
  A. guariba
    Humboldt
  Brachyteles                CE        CE
    hypoxanthus (Kuhl)
  Callicebus kuhlii          NT        NT
    (Coimbra-Filho)
  C. melanochir              Vu        Vu
    (Wied-Neuwied)
  Callithrix
    geoffroyi
    (Humboldt)
  C. penicillata
    (E. Geoffroy)

  C. personatus              Vu        Vu
    Geoffroy
  Leontopithecus             En        En
    chrysomelas Kuhl
  Sapajus xanthosternos      CE        En
    (Wied-Neuwied)
  S. robustus (Kuhl)         En        En

LAGOMORPHA Brandt
  Sylvilagus
    minensis (Thomas)
CARNIVORA Bowdich
  Cerdocyon
    thous (Linnaeus)
  Chrysocyon                 NT        Vu
    brachyurus Illiger
  Conepatus
    semistriatus
    (Boddaert)
  Eira Barbara
    Linnaeus
  Leopardus pardalis
    Linnaeus
  L. guttulus                Vu        En
    Hensel
  L. wiedi (Schinz)          NT        Vu
  Lontra longicaudis         NT        NT
    Olfers
  Nasua nasua Linnaeus
  Panthera onca Linnaeus     NT        Vu
  Potos flavus Schreber
  Puma concolor Linnaeus               Vu

  P yagouaroundi E.                    Vu
    Geoffroy
    Saint-Hilaire
  Procyon cancrivorus
    G. [Baron] Cuvier
  Pseudalopex                          Vu
    vetulus (Lund)
PERISSODACTYLA Owen
  Tapirus terrestris         Vu        Vu
    Linnaeus
CETARTIODACTYLA
Montgelard,
  Catzeflis
    and Douzery
  Mazama                     DD        DD
    americana Erxleben
  M. gouazoubira G.
    Fischer [von
    Waldeheim]
  Ozotocerus                 NT        Vu
    bezoarticus
    Linnaeus
  Pecari tajacu
    Linnaeus
RODENTIA Bowdich
  Akodon cursor (Winge)
  Calassomys apicalis
    Pardinas, Lessa,
    Teta, Salazar-Bravo
    and Camara
  Calomys mattevii
    (Lund)
  C. tener (Winge)

  Cavia aperea Erxleben
  Cerradomys scotti
    (Langguth and
    Bonvicino)
  C. subflavus (Wagner)

  C. vivoi Percequillo,
    Hinst-Zaher
    and Bonvicino
  Chaetomys                  Vu        Vu
    subspinosus Olfers
  Coendou insidiosus
    Olfers
  Cuniculus paca
    (Linnaeus)
  Dasyprocta azarae          DD
    Lichtenstein
  D. leporina
    (Linnaeus)
  Euryoryzomys
    russatus
    (Wagner)
  Euryzygomatomys
    spinosus
    (G. Fischer)
  Galea spixii
    (Wagler)
  Guerlinguetus
    brasiliensis
    (Gmelin)
  Hydrochoerus
    hydrochaeris
    (Linnaeus)
  Hylaeamys seuanezi         NT
    (Weksler, Geise
    and Cerqueira)
  Kerodon rupestris
    (Wied-Neuwied)
  Necromys lasiurus
    (Lund)
  Nectomys squamipes
    (Brants)
  Oecomys
    catherinae
    Thomas
  Oligoryzomys
    nigripes
    (Olfers)
  Oxymycterus
    dasytrichus
    (Schinz)
  Phyllomys                  DD        DD
    lamarum (Thomas)
  Pseudoryzomys
    simplex (Winge)
  Rhipidomys
    macrurus
    (Gervais)
  R. mastacalis
    (Lund)

  Sooretamys
    angoya
    (Fischer)
  Thalpomys                            En
    lasiotis
    (Thomas)
  Thrichomys
    apereoides
    (Lund)
  Trinomys
    albispinus
    (I. Geoffroy
    St.-Hilaire)
  T. mirapitanga             DD        En
    Lara, Patton and
    Hingst-Zaher
  T. setosus
    (Desmarest)
  Wiedomys
    pyrrhorhinos
    (Wied-Neuwied)

Table 3 Species karyotyped with locality number (for name
of locality see Appendix I). Diploid number (2n) and
fundamental number (FN). * Indicates those species with
new karyotype variation.

Species                        Locality      2n           FN
                                number

Didelphimorphia
  Caluromys philander             8          14           24
  Didelphis albiventris           9          22           20
  Gracilinanus agilis         9, 43, 45      14           20
  G. microtarsus               2, 6, 9       14           20
  Marmosa murina                  75         14           20
  M. paraguayana                 8, 9        14           20
  Marmosops incanus          2, 6, 8, 9,     14           24
                              45, 49, 53
  Metachirus nudicaudatus         75         14           20
  Monodelphis americana         9, 49        18           22
  M. domestica                 6, 9, 45      18           22
  Philander frenatus              9          22           20
Rodentia
  Akodon cursor               17, 49, 53    14/16   18/19/20/21/26
  Calomys mattevii                44         66           68
  Cerradomys scotti *             6          58         68/72
  C. subflavus *                6, 53        54           62
  C. vivoi                        45         50         64/66
  Euryoryzomys russatus           53         80           84
  Guerlinguetus                   49         40           76
    brasiliensis
  Nectomys squamipes          8, 9, 49,     56/57    56/57/58/60
                                53, 75
  Oligoryzomys nigripes           9          62           82
  Rhipidomys macrurus             6          44           48
  R. mastacalis              6, 9, 49, 73    44         72/74
  Thrichomys apereoides        2, 6, 8,      28           50
                              9, 44, 45
  Trinomys albispinus *           45         60          108
  T. setosus                    9, 53        56          108
  Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos *     9, 43, 45      62         98/99
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Author:Geise, Lena; Pereira, Luciana G.; Astua, Diego; Aguieiras, Marcia; Lessa, Leonardo G.; Asfora, Paulo
Publication:Mastozoologia Neotropical
Date:Jun 1, 2017
Words:12592
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