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Mamiferos de medio e grande porte do Parque Estadual Chandless, Acre, Brasil.

LARGE AND MEDIUM-SIZED MAMMALS FROM CHANDLESS STATE PARK, ACRE, BRAZIL

INTRODUCTION

The Neotropical region is home to the largest diversity of mammals in the world (Brown 2014). Near 701 out of the 5487 known mammal species (Schipper et al., 2008) are found in Brazil. The Amazon region is the most diverse one in the country, with 399 species, of which 57.8% are endemic to the region (Paglia et al., 2012). Western Amazon, where the state of Acre is located, is one of world's richest areas, housing approximately 40% of Brazil's mammals; 4.5% of the world's mammals are known to occur in the state (Acre, 2010).

Many mammal species play fundamental roles in structuring and regulating forest ecosystems, driving a variety of ecological processes, including seed dispersal, seed predation and pollination, whereas others are apex predators (Wright, 2003). Despite their importance, the knowledge on mammalian species is still very limited. Paglia et al. (2012) show a surprising increase in the new species discovery rate in Brazil in the last 20 years, with approximately 34% increase in the number of known species, including large species, such as the tapir (Tapirus kabomani; Cozzuol et al., 2013). Surveys and inventories are important tools to describe the species habitat, to expand the known distribution of species and to record rare and even new species.

Studies on the diversity of medium and large-sized mammals have focused on the eastern and central Amazon regions, mainly in the Solimoes River tributaries (Voss and Emmons, 1996; Patton et al., 2000; Pitman et al., 2003; Trolle and Kerry 2003; Tobler et al., 2008). Most studies on western Amazonian medium and large mammal assemblages were performed in the Great Basin of Rio Madre de Dios (Peru), mostly in areas within or nearby the Manu National Park and adjacent protected areas. Studies on medium and large mammal assemblages in Acre, Brazil, have focused on rapid inventories (Calouro, 1999; Botelho et al., 2012), hunting effects (e.g. Calouro and Marinho-Filho, 2005; Rosas and Drumond, 2007; Constantino et al., 2008) and primate autecology (e.g. Peres, 1988, 1993; Bicca-Marques and Garber, 2003; Regh, 2005) and habitat preference (Borges et al., 2014). However, as Tobler et al. (2008) have correctly stated, knowledge on the presence and distribution of mammal species is essential in order to plan and evaluate regional biodiversity conservation strategies.

Within this context, the current study aims at listing the medium and large-sized mammal species in Chandless State Park, as well as highlighting the endangered species and the role played by the Park regarding regional conservation strategies.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Study site

PEC is located in southwestern Acre State (Fig. 1) on the Brazilian border with Peru, and it has an area of 695 303 ha (SEMA, 2010). The Park is located in the Purus River basin. This region is composed of an array of Brazilian and Peruvian protected areas that together form a large block of approximately 40 000 [km.sup.2]. These areas are very important because they occur in a region that is extremely diverse in biological, ethnic and cultural terms. The annual precipitation is 1900-2000 mm, and the least rainy period extends from June to September (SEMA, 2010; Acre, 2010). The altitude ranges from 180 to 370 m a.s.l. (SEMA, 2010).

Sixty-seven people from 11 families live in the Park, distributed along the banks of the Chandless River, in its northern-central portion. In addition to a relatively concentrated distribution, the hunting pressure is probably of low overall impact, because the Park has less than 0.5 inhabitants/[km.sup.2]. According to Robinson and Bennett (2000), the subsistence-hunting activity may be considered sustainable in the Amazon when human density does not exceed 1 human resident/[km.sup.2].

The Park has a mosaic of vegetation types, mostly forests with more open canopy (e.g. Deciduous Open Forest with Bamboo and/or Palm trees). The dynamic nature of Chandless River shows extensive forest areas in different successional stages along the riverbank (Open Evergreen Forest on flooded terraces, Evergreen Rainforest, Deciduous Forest--sometimes with either dominant bamboo or palm tree) with areas at different successional stages due to bamboo post-fruiting death (SEMA, 2010).

One of the main determinants of vegetation successional gradients in Acre State is the predominance of bamboo (species from genus Guadua) in open forests. The Park is located in the center of the largest patch of Guadua sp. in Amazonia (McMichael et al., 2013), and much of the vegetation mosaic and different successional stages of the vegetation in the area result from the dynamics exerted by the presence of bamboo. The species from this genus are clonal, with opportunistic growth and pronounced capacity to invade disturbed areas. These factors, along with a life cycle with synchronized mortality and mast flowering and fruiting, have direct impact on the forest dynamics, thus affecting the appearance and structure of the forest, as well as reducing the abundance and richness of tree species (Silveira, 2005; Griscom and Ashton, 2006; Smith and Nelson, 2011).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Mammalian sampling

Data collection was conducted during the dry and wet seasons to create a list of medium and large-sized mammals found in Chandless State Park. A Rapid Ecological Assessment was done in February and August 2008, in order to prepare the park management plan (RAP: Sobrevilla and Bath, 1992). The RAP was conducted on previously cleared 1-km transects, sampled at least for five times each. Transects were distributed along the Chandless River, in the different vegetation types within the landscape. Transects were walked at the standard average speed of 1.25 km/h, usually between 06:30 and 11:30 h. In 2010, data was supplemented with observations performed along the riverbanks near the sampled transects. The observations were conducted in flying boats with the engine off. Direct sightings and indirect evidence of the species occurrence (vocalizations, tracks, feces, bones and hair) were recorded. Concurrently, interviews were conducted with residents to investigate the existence of undetected species during transect and riverbank search. As part of the research, residents were shown pictures of mammals taken from Emmons and Feer (1997) and Eisenberg and Redford (1999).

From April to November 2013, four 5-km transects were surveyed using direct observation and camera trap (Fig. 1). Transects were traveled at the standard average speed of 1.25 km/h, usually at 06:30 h. Each transect was sampled at least twelve times, throughout five months. Tracks and other indirect evidences were opportunistically recorded when the census was conducted. Indirect records were identified using field guides (Becker and Dalponte, 1999). Six camera traps were installed in each of the four transects to record the most cryptic species (Trophy Cam Bushnell USA). The traps were installed within 1-km interval from each other. A total of 24 camera traps was used to monitor all trails from April to November 2013.

Data analysis

The species accumulation curve was developed according to the number of species recorded on the line transect and camera trap, to quantify the relation between species richness and sampling effort in the 2013 survey. The curve was done in the R software (R Core Development Team 2011). A Jackknife first order richness estimator was calculated using specpool function (package Vegan) to predict the total number of potentially detectable species in the Park using the two sampling methods in 2013.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Fifty-one species of mammals were recorded, distributed in 10 Orders and 27 families after a total effort of 691-walked km, 3213 trapping nights and 12 interviews with local residents (Table 1; Fig. 2). Forty-nine species were recorded in 2008, and 44 in 2013. Two aquatic species were recorded on both occasions. Forty two direct records of occurrence were achieved. The most species-rich Orders were: Primates (n = 11), Carnivora (n = 9) and Rodentia (n = 8).

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

The species richness curve based on the line-transect data did not reach an asymptote and it indicates that the number of species could increase with further sampling effort (Fig. 3). The effort curve with camera traps tended to stabilize at 190 days or 2500 trapping nights (Fig. 3). Based on the first-order Jackknife species richness estimator, the number of species that could be potentially recorded by camera traps was 27, based on the 24 species photographed, and the number of species that could be potentially recorded by the linear-transect method was 29, based on the 24 species sighted.

According to the literature, 53 medium and large-sized Neotropical mammals were expected to be found in the region (Einsenberg and Redford, 1999; Wilson and Reeder, 2005). The orders Didelphimorphia and Cetacea, as well as small rodent families (except for Sciuridae), were not considered in both the species and the review list because our methods will not document them properly.

This high species richness followed the pattern observed in this region of the Amazon, such as Manu National Park and Park of Alto Purus, both in Peru, and is similar to sites in Acre, such as Serra do Divisor National Park and Resex Cazumba-Iracema (Table 2), in spite of differences in the survey methods. Oliveira (2012), for instance, recorded the species number and composition in Resex Cazumba-Iracema (Brazil) species lists, which are very similar to that from Chandless; probably due to the geographical contiguity of the two sites and the similarity of the. All protected areas listed in Table 2 occur in a region considered to have the highest diversity of terrestrial and arboreal mammals in the Amazon basin (Emmons and Voss, 1996).

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

Chandless State Park is home to 11 primate species distributed in five families, of which Cebidae and Callitrichiidae are the most species-rich ones (Table 1). The presence of two large species, Ateles chamek (Fig. 2H) and Alouatta puruensis is very important to the ecosystem structure and to the mammal community in the Park. Both species are targeted by hunters in the Amazon, and they are susceptible to local extinction under strong hunting pressure areas (Peres and Lake, 2003). This is especially true for Ateles spp., which have the lowest reproductive rate among all Amazonian primates (Redford and Robinson, 1986). Peres (1987 apud Boubli et al., 2008) suggested that Pithecia spp. and Lagothrix cana do not occur in the Purus-Iaco interfluve, although the distribution of these species includes much of Acre State (Iwanaga and Ferrari, 2002). Fieldwork and interviews with local residents confirmed that these species are not found in the study area. Further research is needed to assess the species' distribution and use of habitats in Acre and how they are affected by abundant bamboo forests (tabocais). Regh (2005) found that Callimico goeldii (Goeldi's monkey) occurs mainly in bamboo forests in Acre. The species always forages in "tabocais" when it is searching for fungi and insects, a fact that was also observed in other southwestern Amazonian areas (Ferrari et al., 1999; Porter et al., 2007). We associate the occurrence of C. goeldii in Chandless State Park to the presence of bamboo patches within the park.

Four recorded rodent species deserve special attention; three of them were first recorded in the park area (two species of squirrel, and one agouti species that was not known to occur in Brazil). The agouti species occurring in the Park is not Dasyprocta fuliginosa, as described in this region of Acre State. According to the features described by Gilson Iack-Ximenes (pers. comm.) and Bonvicino et al. (2008), it may instead be D. cf. punctata. (Fig. 2F), given the color pattern observed in specimens recorded by the camera traps and sighting. However, the collection of specimens is required to a more accurate identification. Two squirrel species (Notosciurus pucheranii and Microsciurus flaviventer) were observed in the Park, even though their known distributions do not include this area. Notosciurus pucheranii's distribution ranges from the Colombian Central and Eastern Andean forests to the Western Peruvian Andes, and from the lowlands in Peru to the Western Brazilian and Bolivian Amazon, as well as to the Northwestern Argentina (Panton et al., 2015). This species is just found in the west of Acre State, in the upper Jurua River. It is also possibly found in the Northwest of Mato Grosso State, according to Bonvicino et al. (2008). There are records of M. flaviventer in the west of Amazonas State and Northwest of Acre and Rondonia States (Bonvicino et al., 2008; Patton et al., 2015). The record of both species in Chandless State Park region extends their distribution to the eastern region of Acre State. At least one species of Dactylomys occurs in the Park. Species identity is currently unresolved but, based on the known distribution, it could be either D. dactylinus or D. boliviensis.

The ungulates, tapir (Tapirus terrestris) (Fig. 2G), red brocket deer (Mazama americana) and collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), were all visually recorded. This fact highlights the rareness of white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), since the species was only indirectly recorded, and its presence was indicated via tracks, skulls of hunted specimens and residents' reports. According to residents, T. pecari were abundant throughout the Park five years prior to 2008. Possible factors associated with T. pecari local population decline include changes in the dominant vegetation type, the species' migratory habits and the species' association with a wide variety of forest types, and diseases (Bodmer, 1990; Altrichter et al., 2002; Altrichter and Boaglio, 2004; Fragoso, 2004). As noted by Keuroghlian and Eaton (2008), the patchy availability of food and water in naturally heterogeneous landscape leads to the use of extensive home ranges by T. pecari. Considering the factors likely to affect T. pecari s distribution and the species requirement of large home ranges, we suggest that their presence and eventual migration in Southwestern Amazonia is related to the bamboo presence and fruiting dynamics. Guadua spp.'s death and regrowth drastically change the local habitat structure, since it has strong impact on vegetation density and species richness (Silveira, 2005). Guadua spp. dynamics drastically changes local food resources, such as seeds, fruits and rhizome, thus forcing species with broad home ranges, such as the white-lipped peccary, to move among different areas.

The Order Carnivora is represented by eleven species, distributed in three families. Felidae was the most species-rich family, with three species (Table 1). Members of this Order are often considered to be key species for ecosystem functioning. They are essential to keep ecosystem services, mainly to control prey populations.

Thirteen out of the 51 mammal species recorded in the Park are listed as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN, 2014), and eight of them are listed by the Brazilian Ministry of Environment (Machado et al., 2008) (Table 1). Dinomys branickii and Callimico goeldii are listed as Vulnerable by the IUCN (IUCN, 2014), because they are naturally rare and suffer from habitat loss and fragmentation in several locations within their ranges. Once combined, these factors enhance the possibility of local population extinction. The Brazilian Ministry of Environment lists six species of the Order Carnivora as vulnerable. It underscores the importance of Chandless State Park as a protected area, reinforcing the conservation and protection of a high diversity of species, including many endangered species.

CONCLUSIONS

Only three out of the 21 Conservation Units in Acre are strictly protected: Chandless State Park, Serra do Divisor National Park and Rio Acre Ecological Station. Together, these reserves represent approximately 10% of the total state territory. On a regional scale, they comprise, together with other Brazilian and Peruvian parks, extractive reserves, communal and indigenous lands, a large mosaic of protected areas that is extremely important for biodiversity conservation. The Chandless State Park region harbors high richness of mammal species. The low human population density and the almost irrelevant hunting pressure in Chandless State Park may be the main factors leading to this high richness of species, compared to protected areas with more hunting pressure. Thus, the Park helps conserving a diverse mammal assemblage and protecting endangered species.

Recibido 17 marzo 2015. Aceptado 29 septiembre 2015. Editor asociado: F Umetsu

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We thank Secretaria Estadual de Meio Ambiente (SEMA) for the financial support, Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES), Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ecologia e Manejo de Recursos Naturais (PPGEMRN) and especially Dr. Elder Ferreira Morato (Coordinator of the program during the study), Programa de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade Nucleo Regional Acre (PPBio) for the logistic support. We also thank Valfredo and Cristiano (Mandiin), tireless boatmen, as well as all Chandless State Park residents.

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Luiz H. M. Borges (1), Armando M. Calouro (2), and Jesus R. D. de Sousa (3)

(1) Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ecologia e Manejo de Recursos Naturais, Universidade Federal do Acre, Campus Universitario. Rodovia BR 364, km 04, no. 6637. Distrito Industrial. Caixa Postal 500. CEP: 69915-900. Rio Branco, Acre, Brasil. [Correspondence: Luiz H. M. Borges <borges.lhm@gmail.com>].

(2) Universidade Federal do Acre, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Natureza, Campus Universitario. Rodovia BR 364, km 4, no. 6637, Distrito Industrial. Caixa postal 500. CEP: 69915-900. Rio Branco, Acre, Brasil.

(3) Secretaria Estadual de Meio Ambiente, SEMA, Acre, Departamento de Areas Protegidas da Amazonia. Rua Benjamin Constant, 856, Centro. CEP 69900-062. Rio Branco, Acre, Brasil.
Table 1
Mammals of Chandless State Park, Acre, Brazil. Methods used in both
years of the survey. VC= Visual Contact=; CT = Camera Trap,
T = Track; V = Vocalization; F = Feces; B = bones; I = Interview.
Status of mammal species in the Chandless State Park present on the
two main lists of endangered animal species. Categories according
to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural
Resources (IUCN--acronym in English), Ministry of Environment
(MMA): EN = Endangered, VU = Vulnerable, NT = Near Threatened,
LC= Least Concern.

Order/Family        Scientific Name        Common Name       Method

                                                              2008
DIDELPHIMORPHIA

Didelphidae           Didelphis          Common Opossum        VC
                      marsupialis
                   Micoeurus regina       Mouse Opossum        VC

PILOSA

Bradypodidae      Bradypus variegatus   Three-toed Sloth       VC
Megalonychidae      Choloepus spp.       Two-toed Sloth         B
Myrmecophagidae   Cyclopes didactylus    Silky Anteater         I
                     Myrmecophaga        Giant Anteater
                      tridactyla
                       Tamandua             Tamandua           VC
                     tetradactyla
CINGULATA

Dasypodidae        Dasypus kappleri       Greater Long-
                                         nosed Armadillo
                       Dasypus            Nine-banded           T
                     novemcinctus           Armadillo
                      Cabassous          Southern Naked-        I
                      unicinctus        tailed Armadillo
                  Priodontes maximus     Giant Armadillo        T

PERISSODACTYLA

Tapiridae         Tapirus terrestris          Tapir         VC, T, B

ARTIODACTYLA

Cervidae           Mazama americana     Red Brocket Deer      VC, T

Tayassuidae          Pecari tajacu      Collared Peccary     VC, F,
                                                              B, T
                    Tayassu pecari        White-lipped        B, T
                                             Peccary
CETACEA

Iniidae            Inia geoffrensis           Boto             VC
Delphinidae        Sotalia fluvialis         Tucuxi            VC

PRIMATES

Aotidae             Aotus nigriceps       Night Monkey        V, VC

Callitrichidae     Callimico goeldii     Goeldi's Monkey      V, VC
                   Saguinus weddelli    Weddell's Saddle-     V, VC
                                         backed Tamarin
                  Saguinus imperator     Emperor Tamarin      V, VC

Pitheciidae       Callicebus cupreus       Titi Monkey        V, VC

Cebidae            Cebuella pygmaea      Dwarf Marmoset         I
                  Saimiri boliviensis    Squirrel Monkey       VC
                    Cebus unicolor       White-fronted         VC
                                            Capuchin
                       Sapajus           Robust Capuchin      VC, V
                     macrocephalus

Atelidae          Alouatta puruensis      Howler Monkey     B, CT, V,
                                                              VC, F
                     Ateles chamek        Spider Monkey       VC, V

CARNIVORA

Felidae              Panthera onca           Jaguar           F, T
                     Puma concolor           Cougar
                  Leopardus pardalis         Ocelot             T
                   Leopardus wiedii          Margay             T
                   Puma yagouaroundi        Jagarundi           I

Canidae           Atelocynus microtis    Small-eared Dog        i
                  Speothos venaticus         Bushdog            I

Mustelidae           Eira barbara             Tayra            VC
                  Lontra longicaudis     Southern River         I
                                              Otter
                      Pteronura            Giant Otter         VC
                     brasiliensis

Procyonidae       Procyon cancrivorus     Crab-eating           T
                                             Racoon
                      Nasua nasua             Coati            VC

RODENTIA

Erethizontidae    Coendou prehensilis       Porcupine           I

Echimyidae            Dactylomys           Bamboo Rat         V, VC
                      dactylinus

Sciuridae           Guerlinguetus       Variable Squirrel      VC
                        ignitus
                     Microsciurus         Amazon Dwarf         VC
                      flaviventer           Squirrel
                      Urosciurus        Southern Amazon        VC
                       spadiceus          Red Squirrel

Dasyproctidae       Dasyprocta cf.           Agouti           VC, T
                       punctata
                   Myoprocta pratti          Agouchi          VC, T

Caviidae             Hydrochoerus           Capibara          VC, T
                     hydrochaeris

Cuniculidae         Cuniculus paca            Paca              T

Dinomyidae         Dinomys branickii        Pacarana            I

LAGOMORPHA

Leporidae             Sylvilagus         Brazilian Wild        VC
                     brasiliensis            habbit

Order/Family        Scientific Name      Method     MMA 2014

                                          2013
DIDELPHIMORPHIA

Didelphidae           Didelphis          VC, CT
                      marsupialis
                   Micoeurus regina

PILOSA

Bradypodidae      Bradypus variegatus       I
Megalonychidae      Choloepus spp.
Myrmecophagidae   Cyclopes didactylus
                     Myrmecophaga        VC, CT        VU
                      tridactyla
                       Tamandua            CT
                     tetradactyla
CINGULATA

Dasypodidae        Dasypus kappleri       T, CT

                       Dasypus            T, CT
                     novemcinctus
                      Cabassous
                      unicinctus
                  Priodontes maximus      T, CT        VU

PERISSODACTYLA

Tapiridae         Tapirus terrestris    VC, T, CT      VU
                                        VC, T, CT
ARTIODACTYLA

Cervidae           Mazama americana     VC, T, CT

Tayassuidae          Pecari tajacu      VC, T, CT

                    Tayassu pecari          T

CETACEA

Iniidae            Inia geoffrensis        VC          VU
Delphinidae        Sotalia fluvialis       VC

PRIMATES

Aotidae             Aotus nigriceps        VC

Callitrichidae     Callimico goeldii      VC, V
                   Saguinus weddelli      VC, V

                  Saguinus imperator       VC

Pitheciidae       Callicebus cupreus      VC, V

Cebidae            Cebuella pygmaea         I
                  Saimiri boliviensis   VC, V, CT
                    Cebus unicolor      VC, V, CT

                       Sapajus          VC, V, CT
                     macrocephalus

Atelidae          Alouatta puruensis      VC, V

                     Ateles chamek        VC, V        VU

CARNIVORA

Felidae              Panthera onca      T, F, CT       VU
                     Puma concolor      T, F, CT       VU
                  Leopardus pardalis    T, F, CT
                   Leopardus wiedii        CT          VU
                   Puma yagouaroundi                   VU

Canidae           Atelocynus microtis     I, CT        VU
                  Speothos venaticus        I          VU

Mustelidae           Eira barbara        VC, CT
                  Lontra longicaudis

                      Pteronura             I          VU
                     brasiliensis

Procyonidae       Procyon cancrivorus     T, CT

                      Nasua nasua        VC, CT

RODENTIA

Erethizontidae    Coendou prehensilis

Echimyidae            Dactylomys
                      dactylinus

Sciuridae           Guerlinguetus          CT
                        ignitus
                     Microsciurus
                      flaviventer
                      Urosciurus           CT
                       spadiceus

Dasyproctidae       Dasyprocta cf.      VC, T, CT
                       punctata
                   Myoprocta pratti      VC, CT

Caviidae             Hydrochoerus       VC, T, CT
                     hydrochaeris

Cuniculidae         Cuniculus paca        T,CT

Dinomyidae         Dinomys branickii        I

LAGOMORPHA

Leporidae             Sylvilagus           CT
                     brasiliensis

Order/Family        Scientific Name     IUCN 2015

DIDELPHIMORPHIA

Didelphidae           Didelphis            LC
                      marsupialis
                   Micoeurus regina

PILOSA

Bradypodidae      Bradypus variegatus      LC
Megalonychidae      Choloepus spp.         LC
Myrmecophagidae   Cyclopes didactylus      LC
                     Myrmecophaga          VU
                      tridactyla
                       Tamandua            LC
                     tetradactyla
CINGULATA

Dasypodidae        Dasypus kappleri        LC

                       Dasypus             LC
                     novemcinctus
                      Cabassous
                      unicinctus
                  Priodontes maximus       VU

PERISSODACTYLA

Tapiridae         Tapirus terrestris       VU

ARTIODACTYLA

Cervidae           Mazama americana

Tayassuidae          Pecari tajacu         LC

                    Tayassu pecari         VU

CETACEA

Iniidae            Inia geoffrensis        DD
Delphinidae        Sotalia fluvialis       DD

PRIMATES

Aotidae             Aotus nigriceps        LC

Callitrichidae     Callimico goeldii       VU
                   Saguinus weddelli       LC

                  Saguinus imperator       LC

Pitheciidae       Callicebus cupreus       LC

Cebidae            Cebuella pygmaea        LC
                  Saimiri boliviensis      LC
                    Cebus unicolor

                       Sapajus             LC
                     macrocephalus

Atelidae          Alouatta puruensis

                     Ateles chamek         EN

CARNIVORA

Felidae              Panthera onca         NT
                     Puma concolor         LC
                  Leopardus pardalis       LC
                   Leopardus wiedii        NT
                   Puma yagouaroundi       LC

Canidae           Atelocynus microtis      NT
                  Speothos venaticus       NT

Mustelidae           Eira barbara          LC
                  Lontra longicaudis       NT

                      Pteronura            EN
                     brasiliensis

Procyonidae       Procyon cancrivorus      LC

                      Nasua nasua          LC

RODENTIA

Erethizontidae    Coendou prehensilis      LC

Echimyidae            Dactylomys           LC
                      dactylinus

Sciuridae           Guerlinguetus
                        ignitus
                     Microsciurus
                      flaviventer
                      Urosciurus
                       spadiceus

Dasyproctidae       Dasyprocta cf.         LC
                       punctata
                   Myoprocta pratti        LC

Caviidae             Hydrochoerus          LC
                     hydrochaeris

Cuniculidae         Cuniculus paca         LC

Dinomyidae         Dinomys branickii       VU

LAGOMORPHA

Leporidae             Sylvilagus           LC
                     brasiliensis

Table 2
Number of species recorded in different protected areas in the main
basins of southwestern Amazonia. Area in hectares (ha), methods
used in the study: C = Census (km traveled), P = Photos (Trap
effort nights = TN), TC = Track Count, I = Interview (number of
residents interviewed), HC = Hunting Calendar number (calendars),
and their respective sampling efforts, respectively.

                                                   No. of species

Location area                    River Basin    Primates     Non
                                                           primates

Chandless State Park (AC)           Purus          11         40
Resex of Cazumba Iracema (AC)    Caete/Purus       11         41
Cosha Cashu, Pakitza                Purus          15         44
  and National Park of
  Alto Purus (Peru)
Lake Uauacu (AM)                    Purus          13         *
Lake Uauacu (AM)                    Purus          12         32
Humaita Reserve Forest (AC)      Acre/Purus        9          16
Middle Jurua River(AM)              Jurua          21
Serra do Divisor                    Jurua          14         29
  National Park(AC)
Manu National Park(Peru)        Madre de Dios      1          20
Los Amigos Conservation         Madre de Dios      10         27
  Concession (Peru)
Bonanza, Manu National          Madre de Dios      12         38
  Park(Peru)

Location area                     Method            Effort

Chandless State Park (AC)        C/P/TC/I     691 km/3213 TN/11 I
Resex of Cazumba Iracema (AC)   C/P/TC/I/HC      956 km/24 HC
Cosha Cashu, Pakitza              C/P/TC              --
  and National Park of
  Alto Purus (Peru)
Lake Uauacu (AM)                     C              4600 km
Lake Uauacu (AM)                     C              2192 km
Humaita Reserve Forest (AC)         C/P          220 km/850 TN
Middle Jurua River(AM)               C              1564 km
Serra do Divisor                  C/TC/I             33 I
  National Park(AC)
Manu National Park(Peru)             P              3780 TN
Los Amigos Conservation              C              1495 km
  Concession (Peru)
Bonanza, Manu National              C/I             270 km
  Park(Peru)

Location area                            Study

Chandless State Park (AC)       This study
Resex of Cazumba Iracema (AC)   Oliveira (2012)
Cosha Cashu, Pakitza            Pitman et al. (2003)
  and National Park of
  Alto Purus (Peru)
Lake Uauacu (AM)                Haugaasen & Peres (2005b)
Lake Uauacu (AM)                Haugaasen & Peres (2005a)
Humaita Reserve Forest (AC)     Botelho et al. (2012)
Middle Jurua River(AM)          Peres (1997)
Serra do Divisor                Calouro (1999)
  National Park(AC)
Manu National Park(Peru)        Tobler et al. (2008)
Los Amigos Conservation         Endo et al. (2010)
  Concession (Peru)
Bonanza, Manu National          Salvador et al. (2010)
  Park(Peru)
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Title Annotation:texto en ingles
Author:Borges, Luiz H.M.; Calouro, Armando M.; de Sousa, Jesus R.D.
Publication:Mastozoologia Neotropical
Date:Dec 1, 2015
Words:5693
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