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Making history by making identity and institutions: the emergence of Post Keynesian-heterodox economics in Britain, 1974-1996.

Abstract: The complexity of the history of heterodox economics combined with the lack of extensive detailed studies on components of the history means that it is not yet possible to produce a general history of heterodox economics or a generalised historical identity of heterodox economists. Some detailed studies have been produced on specific heterodox theories and on the organisational and institutional components of the history and thereby have contributed to creating a historical identity for heterodox economists. This paper is a further contribution to this agenda in that it reconstructs the historical emergence of Post Keynesian-heterodox economics in terms of identity, institutions, and organisations in Britain from 1974 to 1996. It deals with the non-Cambridge and Cambridge efforts to create a Post Keynesian-heterodox identity and institutional and organisational support for that identity from 1974 to 1988, the fruits of these efforts and the development of various publishing outlets from 1988 to 1996.

1 Introduction

The complexity of the history of heterodox economics combined with the lack of extensive detailed studies on components of the history means that it is not yet possible to produce a general history of heterodox economics or a generalised historical identity of heterodox economists. Some detailed studies have been produced on specific heterodox theories and on the organisational and institutional components of the history and thereby have contributed to creating a historical identity for heterodox economists. This article is a further contribution to this agenda in that it reconstructs the historical emergence of Post Keynesian-heterodox economics in terms of identity, institutions and organisations in Britain from 1974 to 1996. In 1970 the Conference of Socialist Economists (CSE) was formed with the purpose of developing a Marxian-heterodox economics. Although initially successful, by 1975 it was split by disagreement over the validity of Marxian economic theory, with a number of economists leaving the CSE. But outside the CSE circa 1974 was an intellectual wilderness--and this is where the story starts. Thus the first section deals with the non-Cambridge and Cambridge efforts to create a Post Keynesian-heterodox identity and institutional and organisational support for that identity from 1974 to 1988. The second section deals with the fruits of these efforts; that is, the creation and activity of the Post-Keynesian Economics Study Group, of the Malvern conferences and of the development of various publishing outlets from 1988 to 1996, when the community of Post Keynesian-heterodox economists was well established. The final section concludes the article with a discussion of the organisation and identity of the community of Post Keynesian-heterodox economists.

2 Creating Post Keynesian-Heterodox Identity, 1974-1988

Outside of the CSE in the early 1970s there were no national academic organisations that heterodox economists could identify with and be drawn to; there were no academic economic journals to which to submit papers; and there were no annual economic conferences or nationally-oriented seminars to attend. In short, there were, outside CSE and with the exception of Cambridge, almost no local and no regional and national organisations in place in the early 1970s that could contribute to the creation of a Post Keynesian-heterodox identity. Thus, to pursue the type of economics they found interesting, heterodox economists outside of CSE found it necessary to build the institutions and organisations step-by-step and in this process the foundations for a Post Keynesian-heterodox identity were laid. And this difficult task was made much harder because, except for a significant concentration at Cambridge and a smaller concentration at Manchester, Post Keynesian-heterodox economists were sparsely spread throughout the old university sector while the majority of them were located in the poorer, less reputable polytechnic sector.

2.1 Building Institutions and Organisation Outside of Cambridge

In the 1970s, economists not engaged with the CSE also became sceptical of neoclassical economics and were, in hindsight, groping their way towards a Post Keynesian-heterodox approach. (2) Because their scepticism often prevented them from obtaining employment in the university sector, many of them became employed in the polytechnic sector. Thus it is not surprising that the first attractor of sceptical qua heterodox economists outside of Cambridge was the polytechnic-based Thames Papers in Political Economy. It was a series of occasional papers appearing three times a year, co-produced at Thames Polytechnic (now University of Greenwich) and at North East London Polytechnic (now University of East London), which was started in 1974 by Thanos Skouras. (3) The purpose of the Thames Papers was to stimulate public discussion of practical issues in political economy and to bring to the notice of a wider audience of economists controversial questions in economic theory. (4) This meant that papers presenting non-neoclassical approaches to both theoretical and policy questions of political economy dominated its publications since they had no easy access to publication otherwise. (5) The early publications reflected the broadly heterodox perspectives of Skouras and the early members of the editorial board, such as George Hadjimatheou and Yannis Kitromilides, as not any one particular theoretical viewpoint was championed (for example, see Robinson 1974; Harcourt 1975; Nore 1976; Green 1977).

In 1978 there was a major change in the composition of the editorial board with Philip Arestis, Sami Daniel and Klaus Heidensohn becoming members. (6) This change coincided with a perceptible shift towards publishing Post Keynesian-oriented papers, beginning with Victoria Chick's 1978 paper, 'Keynesians, Monetarists and Keynes: the end of the debate--or a beginning?' (1978a). In particular, Arestis became increasingly attracted to Post Keynesian economics as well as active on the editorial board. When Skouras returned to Greece in 1983 to advise the Deputy Minister of National Economy, Arestis became co-editor (and eventually editor) and took charge of the editorial duties. By this time he was in contact with Alfred Eichner and had become a Post Keynesian economist with missionary zeal. (7) Consequently, the shift to Post Keynesian papers became noticeable. In 1982 the first paper with 'Post-Keynesian' in the title was published (see Harcourt 1982) and that was quickly followed by four similar titles over the next four years (see Eichner 1983; Moore 1984; Arestis and Driver 1984; Davidson 1986). (8) In addition, nearly all the papers after 1986 until 1990, when Thames Papers ceased publication, were written by Post Keynesian economists. (9) Thus for the 1980s Thames Papers was an important 'local' publishing outlet for British Post Keynesians but more importantly it provided an institutional anchor for the development of Post Keynesian economics (Daniel 1999; Driver 1999; Skouras 1999).

A second development in this area was the establishment of the British Review of Economic Issues in 1977 by the Association of Polytechnic Teachers in Economics, which itself was established in 1972. The aims of the Association were to promote the development of economics teaching and to encourage research into economics in polytechnics and other institutions of higher education and the Review was started with this in mind. Skouras (1977-84) was the first editor and almost immediately he was publishing papers of interest to Post Keynesian-heterodox economists (see Chick 1978b; Arestis and Riley 1980). In 1983 the first paper with 'Post-Keynesian' in the title was published (Dabysing and Jones 1983). In 1985 Arestis (1985-88) became editor and the number of papers by and/or of interest to Post Keynesian-heterodox economists increased. Thus in a very short time, the Review became identified as a journal that would publish heterodox articles, with the result that by 1988 virtually every issue of the Review carried a heterodox-oriented article. (10)

In addition to journal publications, there were other activities that promoted Post Keynesian economics. First there were conferences, such as the one on 'The Economics of Michal Kalecki: A Symposium' in November 1979, (11) and in 1982 Arestis put on a Post Keynesian Conference at Thames Polytechnic at which Eichner gave a keynote address. Moreover, there was the Keynes Seminar first organised in 1972 and held at the University of Kent on a biannual basis. The initial seminars included few Post Keynesian-heterodox economists, but this slowly changed, starting in 1980, so that by the ninth seminar in 1989 they had a significant presence. (12) Finally, in October 1982, Arestis started a Post Keynesian research project on short-period macro-econometric modelling of the British economy with Ciaran Driver, who was also at Thames Polytechnic (CSE Newsletter October 1982; Thirlwall 1982, 1987; Hill 1989; Harcourt 1985).

2.2 Building Post Keynesian-Heterodox Economics at Cambridge

Cambridge in the 1960s and into the 1970s had many economists--staff, postgraduate students, and visitors--that were sceptical and/or identified their theoretical orientation as Marxist, Keynesian, Kaleckian, Sraffian, and perhaps Post Keynesian--see Appendix A.1. (13) As a whole, they were conscious that their intellectual engagement, scholarship, and theoretical and applied research were creating a 'new economic analysis'. These activities were supported outside of Cambridge by participants in the CSE, many of whom engaged with and within Cambridge through seminars, workshops, and study groups. One example of a seminar was the 1969-70 Marxism seminar (which was still running a decade later). Its aim was to stimulate Marxist discussion of political issues within the Cambridge Socialist Society. There was a total of nineteen seminars covering the Marxist socio-economic critique of capitalism, Marxist social philosophy, classless society and the historical development of Marxism. In addition, in 1971 there was a seminar on the corporation in monopoly capitalism, a workshop on 'British Capitalism Today', and a study group reading Capital. Finally, there was the Cambridge Political Economy Group, which was established in the early 1970s to analyse the problems of the British economy from a Marxist perspective.

Responding to the pending move of the Economic Journal from Cambridge to Oxford (which took place at the end of 1976) and the consequence that the new editors would be more likely to reject papers critical of mainstream economics, the younger heterodox socialist economists--John Eatwell, Ajit Singh and Bob Rowthorn--began thinking in late 1974 about establishing their own journal. Consequently, further discussions took place with Cambridge and non-Cambridge heterodox economists, including Geoff Hodgson, Ian Steedman, David Purdy and Barbara MacLennan from Manchester. To ensure that the prospective journal remained under their control, a cooperative was formed in 1976, the Cambridge Political Economy Society (CPES), which would own and produce it. (14) The CPES was intended as an intellectual, organisational and institutional focal point at Cambridge for the ongoing engagement in heterodox economics. (15) In particular, it was:

founded to provide a focus for theoretical and applied work, with strong emphasis on realism of analysis, the provision and use of empirical evidence, and the formulation of economic policies. This initiative springs from the belief that the economic approach rooted in the traditions of Marx, Kalecki and Keynes has much to contribute to the understanding and treatment of current economic and social issues: unemployment, inflation, the organization of production, the distribution of social product, class conflict, uneven development and instability in the world economy, the underdevelopment of the third world and economic and social change in socialist countries. (Cambridge Journal of Economics, Volume 1.1, March 1977)

Thus, in 1977 the Cambridge Journal of Economics (CJE) was founded for the purpose of publishing works engaged with these issues and approaches. Later in 1982, Eatwell, Murray Milgate and Giancarlo de Vivo, under the CPES, established the Contributions to Political Economy, an annual whose objective was to publish 'articles on the theory and history of political economy [that fell] within the critical traditions in economic thought associated with the work of the classical political economists, Marx, Keynes and Sraffa' (Contributions to Political Economy, volume 1, 1982). Finally, in 1985, it set up a charitable trust for the education of the public in political economy, and its main beneficiaries have been Cambridge postgraduate students in terms of grants and scholarships totalling more than a quarter of a million pounds. The CPES also sponsored a number of conferences. In particular, in November 1978, the CPES with the CSE and the New Left Review sponsored a conference on 'Value Theory and Contemporary Analysis'. (16) Then, in 1983, the centenary of John Maynard Keynes' birth, the CPES organised a conference on methodological issues in Keynesian economics. It had sixty-three participants who listened to twenty papers on probability, rationality, expectations, econometric, and Keynes' methodology, many of which were published in Keynes' Economics: Methodological Issues (Lawson and Pesaran 1985; (17) see also the Seminars on Marxism 1969-70; Radice 1971a, 1971b; CSE Newsletter April 1978; Pasinetti 2005; Singh in Arestis and Sawyer 2000; Kitson 2005; Mata 2006).

2.3 Identity, Theory, and Post Keynesian-Heterodox Economics

What is of interest in the above discussion is that prior to the early 1980s, Post Keynesian economics in Britain did not signify a particular collection of arguments or identify a specific group of economists. Rather what generally existed was an attachment to particular names: Keynes-Keynesians, Kalecki-Kaleckians, and Sraffa-Sraffians. (18) Thus, heterodox economists became Keynesians, Kaleckians and Sraffians, as if they were distinctly different theoretical approaches that did not permit a common identification such as Post Keynesian but did allow a pluralism of theoretical dialogue and debate that now can be characterised as heterodox economics. This pluralist-heterodox attitude is aptly captured in Skouras reminiscences about his editorial position at the Thames Papers:

As I tried to explain above, there was no opposition to Marxism but, at the same time, there was no precedence given to it either. Some of the first papers were Marxian ... My editorial policy did not favour non-Marxian heterodoxy over Marxian work. What I objected to was the reproduction of platitudes, routine and inconclusive econometric 'testing', pseudo-scientific quantification, doctrinaire navel-searching, banal arguments and pedantic and sloppy reasoning. Unfortunately, a lot of Marxian work shared some of these characteristics with run-of-the-mill neoclassical work. My main editorial concern was to find interesting papers that had something fresh to say on a theoretical or policy issue of some importance ... As it turned out, heterodox views seemed to me to satisfy most often the conditions of novelty and relevance. Thus, pluralistic heterodoxy and a critical stance towards neoclassical economics emerge as the main editorial direction. (Skouras 1999)

The significance of Skouras' comments is that heterodoxy outside of CSE did not consist of any group of specific approaches, such as Institutional, social, evolutionary or Post Keynesian. Consequently a Post Keynesian social network did not exist and in fact was not even contemplated. This rather diffuse view of heterodoxy also existed at Cambridge. There were the varied activities of the socialist economists and, later, of the members of the CSPE and contributors to the CJE, all of whom touted the traditions of Karl Marx, Kalecki and Keynes, but did not mention Post Keynesianism. Hence a young economist such as Tony Lawson in the 1970s was only aware of differences between individuals and not at all aware of Post Keynesian economics per se:

The CJE which I joined in 79 was Keynesian and still is. People there called themselves Keynesian ... I'm not sure I often if ever heard the label Post Keynesian ... The Cambridge I came into was Keynesian ... (Lawson 2000)

The happenstance of four 'events' in the early 1980s altered this. The first, as noted above, was the growing significance of Post Keynesian-heterodox economic activities outside of Cambridge as it coalesced around Arestis and the Thames Papers and British Review of Economic Issues. This was enhanced by a number of economists becoming interested in Kaleckian-Post Keynesian themes. (19) The second was the 1983 Keynes conference at which Chick, Sheila Dow, Geoff Harcourt, Hodgson, Lawson, and John Pheby all attended to discuss a common theme--methodology and inevitably Post Keynesian economics. A third event was Harcourt's return to Cambridge in 1982 to write an intellectual history of Keynes' students (see Harcourt 2006) and in the process began explicitly to promote Post Keynesian economics. He lectured to undergraduate and postgraduate students on Post Keynesian topics or at least on topics from a Post Keynesian perspective. He also had eight to eleven PhD students at any one time, including Michelle Baddeley, Flavio Comim, Terry O'Shaughnessy and Keiran Sharpe, who became engaged with the UK Post Keynesian-heterodox community. Finally, the project of the constructivist Sraffians to reconstruct economic theory--the protagonists in Britain were Eatwell, Hodgson, Lynn Mainwaring, Milgate, and Steedman--reached its high water mark in circa 1982-83 when it reached out to engage with Keynes' principle of effective demand as well as establishing a publishing venue for Post Keynesian-heterodox economists. (20)

Thus Post Keynesian-heterodox economics was, by 1985, recognised by British heterodox economists at Cambridge and elsewhere as a significant research agenda in British heterodox economics and was identified as including the contributions of Keynes, Kalecki, Joan Robinson and Piero Sraffa; that is, all the heterodox approaches that existed in Britain except Marxism. So by the mid-1980s, there existed at least seventy-five British economists who had engaged in some degree with Post Keynesian-heterodox economics (see Appendix A.2, columns B-E). Moreover, the CSE 'contributed' to the emergence of Post Keynesian economics on two accounts. First, twenty-eight of the seventy-five economists participated in its early activities before becoming involved in Post Keynesian-heterodox activities (see Appendix A.2, column A). Second, because the CSE failed to maintain its interest in issues of economic policy and applied questions, a number of CSE economists established an alternative forum in 1980. Its importance was that, through its annual conference (lasting until 1985) and publication Socialist Economic Review, a network of economists, including Malcolm Sawyer, who promoted a mixture of Marxist and left Keynesian analysis, emerged. This network helped to maintain a collective interest in aspects of Post Keynesian-heterodox economics. Finally, as indicated in Table 1, there was a 'core' set of Post Keynesian-heterodox economists, about half located at Cambridge and the rest spread around Britain, and located in old as well as new universities (or polytechnics) (see Eatwell and Milgate 1983; Arestis and Skouras 1985; Hodgson 1997; Lawson 2000; Sawyer 2007; Harcourt in Arestis and Sawyer 2000).

3 Post Keynesian-Heterodox Economies, 1988-1996

3.1 Post-Keynesian Economics Study Group (21)

In 1988, Arestis and Chick successfully applied to the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) for a grant to finance a Post-Keynesian Economics Study Group (PKSG) (22) on the grounds 'that the volume of research taking a broadly Post-Keynesian approach is now great enough to justify a Study Group'. They visualised Post Keynesian economics as a distinctive theoretical approach that drew on the works of Keynes, Kalecki, Joan Robinson, Kaldor and Sraffa and distinguished itself by 'its insistence that history, social structure and institutional practice be embodied in its theory and reflected in its policy recommendations'. (23) The establishment of the Study Group was the first heterodox organisational structure to emerge with the title of Post-Keynesian in Britain and hence constitutes the organisational beginning of Post Keynesian economics in Britain. (24)

To develop the PKSG, a mailing list was compiled in 1991 of 225 British economists who might attend its meetings and perhaps present a paper, while notices were placed in Review of Political Economy and the European Association for Evolutionary Political Economy Newsletter inviting foreign Post Keynesian-heterodox economists to present papers to the Study Group. The main activities of the Study Group from 1988 to 1996 consisted of half-day seminars with two or three domestic and/or foreign speakers five or six times an academic year and, starting in 1991, one conference each year. (25) In addition, from January 1995 to December 1997, Dow produced seven issues of the PKSG Newsletter. (26) Over the period of 1988 to 1996, there were thirty-nine seminars, six conferences, and one postgraduate conference at which 177 papers were presented to an average audience of thirty-seven economists of whom thirty-two were attached to British universities on virtually all methodological, theoretical and applied topics that would interest Post Keynesian heterodox economists, including papers drawing from Kalecki, Keynes, Marx, Sraffa, Frederick von Hayek, and Sidney Weintraub, as well as papers that articulated theoretical and methodological critiques of Post Keynesian economics.

The seminars and conferences brought British Post Keynesian-heterodox economists together on a frequent basis so that they developed a 'visual recognition' of their community and the intellectual discussions that took place during the meetings and the social-intellectual discussions that took place in the pub afterwards furthered the development of the community:

Undoubtedly a major attraction of the seminars has been their scholarship. One of the greatest pleasures for those who have attended the seminars has been their wide-ranging discussions between people who have read and thought about the issues raised ... This scholarship is largely the outcome of what I feel is an important animating factor of our discussions, namely the participation of a wide range of people who do not regard themselves as Post Keynesians. I recall numerous Kaleckians, at least three Marxists, a couple of neo-Ricardians, one or two institutionalists, and at least one Austrian, who gave papers and took part in proceedings. Without them, the Post Keynesians (and indeed the participating Kaleckians, Marxists, neo-Ricardians and Austrians) would lose that friendly, but critical, input into their discussions, without which those discussions could easily degenerate into self-congratulation, complacency, shallowness, and cliched thinking. With that input, all of us, Post Keynesians, Kaleckians, neo-Ricardians, Marxists, institutionalists and Austrians, have improved beyond measure the quality of our debates, thought and research. All of us have not only learned much about our own areas of interest but also extended the range of our thought and research. (Toporowski 1996, p. 3)

In addition, the PKSG Newsletter was established to further integrate the community. It carried notices of conferences, seminars, interesting visitors to Britain, newsletters, journals, new books and other Post Keynesian associations, abstracts of papers presented at the PKSG seminars and conferences, and news of members and their activities. The PKSG Newsletter also carried one sustained interchange between its members on the demise or future of Post Keynesian economics. When contemplating its establishment, Dow asked Fred Lee to write a controversial piece on Post Keynesian economics for the first issue. Drawing on research he was doing on the impact of the United Kingdom Research Assessment Exercise on heterodox economics and heterodox economists, he wrote an article for the first issue on 'The Death of Post Keynesian Economics?' The article was indeed controversial in that it elicited a number of responses for the next four issues. (27) In particular, the British Post Keynesians--Alistair Dow, Peter Riach, and Paul Downward--questioned the pessimism of the article, took exception to its stress on the need to teach Post Keynesian economics, and felt that Post Keynesian economics could survive and thrive in business schools; but they did not question the existence of the Post Keynesian-heterodox community and that it was a community worth maintaining.

When founded in 1988, the PKSG received a 6000 [pounds sterling] grant from the ESRC initially for the period October 1988 to March 1990, which was extended to November 1990. (28) At that point, it was discovered that the ESRC had suspended funding for all study groups. Thus Arestis and Chick approached the Royal Economic Society (RES) for funding of the Study Group's activities and received 900 [pounds sterling] for 1991. In addition, Edward Elgar, the publisher, contributed 1000 [pounds sterling] to the conference on 'Money and Finance in the Economic Restructuring of Europe, East and West' that took place in March 1992 for the opportunity to publish the conference volume. (29) Then in October 1991, the ESRC awarded the Study Group 10,000 [pounds sterling] for 1992 and 1993. Arestis and Chick applied for ESRC funding in 1993 and again was awarded a grant for 1994 and 1995; but the subsequent application for ESRC funding in 1995 for 1996-97 was not awarded. At the time of the 1995 application, both Arestis and Chick stepped down as co-chair of the PKSG and Sheila Dow and John Hillard took their places. In light of the ESRC rejection, Dow and Chick submitted a funding application to the RES and received a partial grant for 1996.

Losing ESRC funding combined with Arestis and Chick stepping down prompted a rethinking and reflection about the activities of the Study Group. Out of the discussions with various members, including Dow, Chick, Vicky Allsopp, Downward, Bill Gerrard, Lee, and A. Winnett, a number of proposed changes were articulated, accepted by the members of the Study Group and put into action. First, the organisational locus of the PKSG was shifted to Leeds University where Hillard was located because he had support for the production and mailing of the PKSG Newsletter and for the Group's financial reimbursement for travel and other items. Second, and more significant, it was decided that some seminars would be located outside of London as a way to broaden and strengthen the PKSG membership and add strength to those departments where there was already a significant Post Keynesian presence; (30) that a postgraduate workshop be organised by the graduate students at Leeds; (31) and that there would be joint participation in seminars and conferences with other bodies. (32) Finally, there was a proposal for transforming the PKSG into an explicit Post Keynesian association. However, it was never acted on, in part because of a concern for heterodox pluralism. That is, it was feared that some fellow-travellers, who had been so essential to the on-goings of the PKSG, would feel excluded and cease to participate. Rather it was suggested that an association with a name that was more broadly inviting be established as a way to maintain the Post Keynesian-heterodox community that had emerged in Britain by the mid-1990s; but such an association did not emerge until 1999 with the formation of the Association for Heterodox Economics (Toporowski 1996; Ietto-Gillies 1997).

3.2 John Pheby and Post Keynesian-Heterodox Pluralism

A major contribution to creating and maintaining the Post Keynesian-heterodox economics community was the Great Malvern conferences in political economy organised by John Pheby from 1987 to 1996. The first conference arose because Lorie Tarshis mentioned to Pheby that he wanted to come to England in 1987 but needed an invitation to a conference. So Pheby organised a small conference on the theme of 'New Directions in Post Keynesian Economics', which took place in 1987 at Great Malvern, England. (33) Although intended as a one-off event, it was quite successful and the participants enjoyed the ambience and so demanded a second conference. This resulted in nine successive conferences by 1996. These were attended on average by twenty-one British economists plus a number of foreign economists who listened to and commented on around fifteen papers over two and a half days. Very quickly, the Malvern conference gained a reputation as a venue where papers drawing on different heterodox approaches could be given and the ensuing discussion would be both vigorous and friendly:

the dominant theme running through Malvern has been a belief that heterodox economic paradigms have much to teach one another, and that economists with different perspectives can learn from one another if given the right environment. Malvern has provided that environment. It has been a place where all approaches to economic analysis have been welcome and respected, and where the insights from one tradition have met up with what Lakatos has called 'the hard core' beliefs from other paradigms. The results have been frequently contentious and sometimes synergistic, but they have always been illuminating. (Pressman 1996, pp. 1-2)

This point was also frequently expressed by participants while at the conferences and afterwards upon reflection, as Lawson recalled: 'It was the only forum I remember where ... approaches that might be classified as Post Keynesian, Austrianism, Institutionalism in the UK anyway, came together in one forum ...' (Lawson 2000).

In 1986 Pheby was in the process of contacting publishers about setting up a journal that eventually became the Review of Political Economy (ROPE). At this same time, the publisher Edward Arnold agreed to publish the International Review of Applied Economics edited by Sawyer (with the first issue appearing 1987). This success prompted Pheby also to approach Arnold with the result that ROPE was established (with the first issue appearing in 1989). (34) Thus, one outcome of the 1987 Malvern Conference was that Pheby was able to obtain papers for the first issue of the journal as well as recruit several of the participants as members of the board of editors. (35) Following the pluralistic theme of the Malvern conferences the initial editorial policy of ROPE encouraged:

... contributions from non-orthodox groups such as post-Keynesian, institutionalist, subjectivist and behavioural economists. However, submissions from a variety of economists doing creative work in the broad traditions of political economy will be welcome. (Review of Political Economy 1989, volume 1.1)

Over time, minor modifications were made to the policy specifically to encourage submissions from the broad traditions of political economy or heterodox economics so that the 1996 editorial policy

welcomes constructive and critical contributions in all areas of political economy, including the Post-Keynesian, Sraffian, Marxian, Austrian and Institutionalist traditions. (Review of Political Economy 1996, volume 8.2)

Of the more than seventy-eight different British economists who participated in the conferences, sixty were part of the Post Keynesian-heterodox community. In addition, forty-five different British Post Keynesian-heterodox economists published in ROPE. Thus, because the Malvern conference-ROPE complex encouraged a broad engagement across the different approaches that made up the Post Keynesian-heterodox community, a total of seventy-five different Post Keynesian-heterodox economists interacted with each other in the Malvern conference-ROPE complex (see Appendix A.2, columns I-J; (36) Pheby 1989, 1999; Lawson 2000; Sawyer 2007; Pressman 1996).

3.3 Supplementary Support for Post Keynesian-Heterodox Economics

From 1989 to 1995, the British Review of Economic Issues under the editorship of George Hadjimatheou (1989-92) and Peter Reynolds (1992-95) continued its support as a publishing outlet for Post Keynesian-heterodox economists. Of the twenty-one issues published from 1989 to 1995, there were twenty-one articles by Post Keynesian-heterodox economists, with perhaps the most interesting one being Downward's (1994) analysis of the evidence on business pricing. Moreover, between 1988 and 1996 there emerged three additional publishing outlets for Post Keynesian-heterodox economists that complemented the current existing ones, due largely to the efforts of Sawyer, Arestis, and Harcourt. One was the Edward Elgar book series, 'New Directions in Modern Economics' with Sawyer as series editor. The aim of the series was to present a challenge to orthodox economic thinking:

It focuses on new ideas emanating from radical traditions including post-Keynesian, Kaleckian, neo-Ricardian and Marxian. The books in the series do not adhere rigidly to any single school of thought but share in common an attempt to present a positive alternative to the conventional wisdom. The main emphasis of the series is on the development and application of new ideas to current problems in economic theory and policy. It will include new original contributions to theory, overviews of work in the radical tradition and the evaluation of alternative economic policies. (Sawyer, Preamble to 'New Directions in Modern Economics', edited by John Pheby 1989)

The fourteen books that came out in the series from 1988 to 1996 included Pheby's New Directions in Post-Keynesian Economics (1989) and Arestis' The Post-Keynesian Approach to Economics (1992). (37) A second publishing outlet established was the International Papers in Political Economy (IPPE). It was planned to be similar in content, format and style to the Thames Papers, which had ceased publication in 1990:

We have decided to proceed with plans for IPPE as a result of the considerable interest from colleagues working in the non-orthodox traditions in economics in the publication of longer, more reflective essays. The Thames Papers ... are no longer able to satisfy this demand. Our intention in seeking to launch the IPPE would be to create an ethos similar to that previously associated with the Thames Papers but also to make the papers much more international in origin and orientation. We would be the managing editors of this series, and would appoint at least one person from the major countries to form an editorial board. (Arestis and Sawyer 1990)

From 1993 to 1996, nine issues were published, all on Post Keynesian-heterodox topics, including Singh (1995) on markets and economic development, Peter Howells (1995) on endogeneous money and Arestis and Sawyer (1996) on the Tobin tax. The third outlet was the book series, 'Aspects of Political Economy', with Harcourt as the series editor. Thirteen books were published in the series, which ran from 1987 to 1993, six by British Marxist-Post Keynesian-heterodox economists, including Ian Steedman's From Exploitation to Altruism (1989) and Paul Dunne's Quantitative Marxism (1991). (38)

In addition to publishing support, Post Keynesian-heterodox economists also had other opportunities to present their material to interested audiences. Over the period of 1988 to 1996, a number of economists who attended PKSG activities also attended the annual CSE conference and many presented papers, especially under the quantitative Marxism theme overseen by Dunne. (39) Additionally, Harcourt organised a Post Keynesian seminar at Cambridge that ran until 1998 when he retired. (40) Moreover, in 1990 the Cambridge Realist Workshop was born as a reading group. Lawson and research students Steve Fleetwood, Steve Pratten, Jochen Runde and Clive Lawson initially got together to discuss philosophical issues; however, because they invited others to attend, combined with word-of-mouth and the excitement about the topics discussed, it quickly grew to over forty participants. By 1994, it had evolved to the point that individuals presented papers and then had to discuss and defend what they said. From 1994 to 1996, some fifty-eight papers were presented at the workshop and the presenters who were also engaged in Post Keynesian-heterodox activities included Lawson, Hodgson, Steve Parsons, Runde, Harcourt, David Young and Bernard Walters (CSE 1988-96; Lawson 2000; and Cambridge Realist Workshop: http://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/seminars/realist/index.htm).

Finally, there was indirect support in the form of supervising doctoral students and postgraduate courses. From the beginning, doctoral students from University College London, Cambridge, School of Oriental and African Studies, and Stirling attended the PKSG; then, circa 1995, doctoral students from Leeds began attending the seminars. In addition, circa 1994, nineteen economic departments had postgraduate courses that included either required and/or elective classes which contained Post Keynesian-heterodox material. While many of the classes existed in 1988 and others came into existence subsequently, there was no Post Keynesian-heterodox postgraduate course taught until 1993, when De Montfort University established an MA degree in economics. Its aim was to offer a range of classes, which in their totality provided an alternative to neoclassical economics:

The programme presents a theoretical core which draws upon the various non-traditional schools of thought, such as Institutional economics, Marxian economics, Sraffian economics, and Post Keynesian economics. (Master of Arts Degree in Economics, De Montfort University, Leicester, 1994, p. 1, in the author's possession)

As a result, like the doctoral students, students from the De Montfort programme attended the PKSG seminars. Whether the postgraduate students were doctoral, MPhil or MA candidates, many often attended the PKSG meetings, some gave papers (such as Steve Dunn and Giuseppe Fontana from Leeds, Mario Gracia from Cambridge, and Rogerio Studart from University College London (see Appendix A.2), and others made significant post-1996 contributions to the PKSG.

4 Post Keynesian-Heterodox Community: Organisation and Identity

By 1996, the community of Post Keynesian-heterodox economists was well established. The PKSG, combined with the Malvern conferences and reinforced by the Cambridge Realist Workshop and CSE conferences, constituted its organisational structure. Supplementing it was the 'publication structure'; that is, an array of heterodox journals and a book series that would publish Post Keynesian-heterodox material. Thus the two structures promoted institutional behaviour in that economists within the community became increasingly habituated to attend Post Keynesian-heterodox activities; to read, subscribe, and publish in ROPE, CJE, JPKE, and other heterodox journals; and to buy Post Keynesian-heterodox books published by Edward Elgar. From 1988 to 1996, the number of British economists who were identified as potential members of the community was 467, of whom 309 were actually engaged within it by partaking in at least one of its possible thirty-nine activities. (41) This is significantly greater than the seventy-five British economists who were engaged in some degree with Post Keynesian-heterodox economics in the 1980s (see Appendix A.2). Of the 309 economists, 192 were more than minimally engaged (see Appendix A.2); and of these, sixty-three were significantly involved in community activities (see Table 2), which is more than the thirty-nine active Post Keynesian-heterodox economists in the early 1980s (see Table 1).

Among the sixty-three active Post Keynesian-heterodox economists, fourteen stand out as making the community's identity: Arestis, Chick, Dow, Green, Harcourt, Howells, Lawson, Lee, Mainwaring, Mair, Reynolds, Riach, Sawyer and Steedman. Individually, they engaged across the thirty-nine activities and in six or seven of the different categories of activities. Moreover, they include the organisers and coordinators of the PKSG and the Cambridge Realist Workshop (Arestis, Chick, Dow and Lawson), editors of the PKSG Newsletter, IPPE, British Review of Economic Issues, 'New Directions', and 'Aspects of Political Economy' book series (Arestis, Dow, Reynolds, Sawyer and Harcourt) and pre-1980 heterodox 'activists' (Arestis, Chick, Green, Harcourt, Mainwaring, Riach and Steedman). In addition, the fourteen economists gave papers and otherwise participated in the community's seminar and conference activities, and published their work in the various Post Keynesian-heterodox publication outlets noted above. Thus their activities helped to produce and reproduce the organisational and publication structures of the Post Keynesian-heterodox community. Finally, because of their prominence within the community, they established both a dense set of relationships among themselves and an extensive set of relationships among other members of the community. Thus the fourteen economists provided a composite identity of Post Keynesian-heterodox economics: an intermingling of ideas by Keynes, Kalecki, Marx and Sraffa with the ideas of other heterodox economists was represented in their published work and seminar conference discussions. This composite identity, which was supported and reinforced by community members at large, combined with the organisational and publication structures, defined the Post Keynesian-heterodox community in Britain in the 1990s.

APPENDIX A.1

CSE Members and Fellow Travellers in Cambridge, 1970-71

Nicola Acocella

Terry Barber

Krishna Bharadwaj

C. Boffito

Graham Cox

Maurice Dobb

John Eatwell

Michael Ellman

Dave Ernst

Charles Feinstein

Jorge Fodor

Andy Friedman

Jean Gardiner

Richard Goodwin

Theodore Hall

Donald Harris

John Hutcheson

Grazia Ietto

Martin Jacques

Keith Low

Lee Mintz

Tony Needham

Mario Nuti

Arturo O'Connell

Suzanne Paine

Luigi Pasinetti

Prabhat Patnaik

Utsa Patnaik

Brian Pollitt

Hugo Radice

Sikander Rahim

S.K. Ra

Joan Robinson

Bob Rowthorn

Bertrand Schefold

Jesse Schwartz

Ajit Singh

P. Venkatramaiah

Orietta Vita-Colonna

Tokusabu Yoshida

[Derived from CSE Membership Lists circa 1970-71. Hugo Radice Personal Files]
A.2
Social Network of Economists Participating
in Post Keynesian-HeterodoxActivities, 1970-1996

Name                  A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L

N. Adnett                                     x                   x
H. Akranbothi                                     x
P. Allen                                  x
V. Allsopp                                x   x   x
A. Amado                                          x
P. Anand                                              x
R. Andrade                                        x
Anjos                                             x
J. Araujo                                 x
P. Arestis                x   x       x   x   x   x   x   x   x   x
G. Argitis                                        x
P. Auerbach                   x       x   x   x   x               x
R. Ayres                                      x           x       x
R. Backhouse                              x       x
S. Batstone                               x           x
J. Bibow                                          x           x
I. Biefan-Frisancho                               x               x
G. Blazyca                x                   x
M. Bleaney            x       x               x
F. Brouwer                                        x
A. Brown                                          x
V. Brown                                      x   x   x   x
B. Burkitt                    x
S. Cameron                                    x           x       x
A. Carreras                               x           x
M. Caserta                                        x   x
G. Catephores         x       x
V. Chick                  x   x   x   x   x   x   x   x   x       x
N. Clark                                                  x
J. Coakley                                    x   x
A. W. Coats                               x           x
B. Corry                      x           x   x   x
K. Coutts                     x   x       x   x               x
K. Cowling                    x               x           x   x
F. Cripps                     x   x
M. Crocco Afonso                                  x
E. Dalkiran                                   x   x
S. Daniel                 x   x               x   x
D. Deakins                                            x
M. De Angelis                                     x
M. Desai                      x   x       x   x   x           x   x
P. Devine             x                                       x
M. Dietrich                   x           x           x   x       x
A. Dow                            x       x   x       x           x
S. Dow                    x   x   x   x   x   x   x   x   x   x
P. Downward                               x       x   x   x       x
C. Driver             x   x   x       x   x   x   x           x
S. Dunn                                   x       x
P. Dunne                      x               x               x
J. Eatwell            x   x   x   x           x
D. Elson                                      x       x
R. Evans                                  x   x
M. Farmer                                 x           x
B. Fine               x   x                               x   x
L. Fishman                                        x
G. Fitzpatrick                                    x
S. Fleetwood                                          x       x
G. Fontana                                x       x
J. Ford                                               x   x
C. Forde                                          x
J. Foster                                 x           x   x
A. Freeman                                x       x
S. Frowan                                     x   x   x
C. Fuller                                     x   x               x
M. Garcia                                 x
B. Gerrard                    x           x   x   x   x
A. Ghatak                                     x   x   x           x
J. Gilbert                                    x       x   x
M. Glickman                                   x   x               x
A. Glyn               x       x
W. Godley                         x   x   x                       x
J. Grahl              x   x   x           x   x   x   x
F. Green              x   x   x           x   x   x       x   x   x
J. Q. Guo                                         x
G. Hadjimatheou           x   x       x       x                   x
G. Harcourt               x   x   x   x   x   x   x   x   x   x   x
P. Hare               x       x               x
S. Hargeaves-Heap                     x       x   x   x   x
L. Harris             x       x   x       x   x
J. Harrison           x   x   x
1. Hashi                                      x                   x
D. Heathfield                                 x       x
A. Henley                                 x
J. Hillard                    x           x   x   x   x
B. Hilton                                 x   x
S. Himmelweit         x       x   x
P. Hirst                                  x
G. Hodgson            x       x   x   x   x   x       x   x   x
J. Holscher                               x       x
P. Howells                    x           x   x   x       x   x   x
A. Hughes                     x   x           x
J. Humphries                  x   x
A. Hutton                                     x   x
G. Ietto Gillies      x       x           x   x   x       x       x
W. Jackson                                                x       x
R. Jacob                                              x
C. Jarvis                                         x
M. Jones                                          x
N. Kargiannis                                     x
Y. Kitromilides           x                   x
M. Kitson                                     x
M. Knell                                          x
J. Kregel             x       x       x
M. Landesman                      x           x
C. Lawson                                             x   x
T. Lawson                     x   x       x   x   x   x   x   x   x
F. Lee                    x   x       x   x   x   x   x   x       x
B. Loasby                                 x   x   x
P. Lowe                                                           x
P. Lysandrou          x   x   x               x
C. MacKenzie                              x
M. Mackintosh                                 x   x
G. Mahone                                         x   x
L. Mainwaring                         x   x   x       x   x   x   x
D. Mair                               x   x   x   x   x   x   x   x
M. Matthews                                           x
J. McCombie                       x   x       x   x               x
J. McGregor                               x
R. Meek               x               x
W. Melody                                                 x       x
N. Menezes-Filho                                  x
S. Metcalf                                x   x
J. Michie                                 x   x           x   x
M. Milgate                    x
S. Mohun              x       x   x
P. Mottershead                                x   x               x
J. Mulberg                                            x           x
A. Nagamine                                       x
T. Ndhlovu                                            x
P. Nolan                      x   x                           x
P. Ormerod                                x
T. O'Shaughnessy                              x               x
E. Paliginis                                      x
G. Palma                      x           x   x               x   x
S. Paine              x           x
M.-S. Park                                        x           x
S. Parsons                                x       x   x   x   x
S. Pashkoff                               x       x   x       x
H. Pesaran                        x           x
S. Peck                                           x
J. Perraton                                       x
K. Petrick                                        x
G. Petrochilos                                x                   x
J. Pheby                          x       x   x       x   x       x
B. Philp                                              x
G. Pilling                                x   x
C. Pitelis                    x           x   x   x       x       x
S. Pratten                                            x   x
R. Prendergast                                                x
A. Radford                                x
H. Radice             x                           x
S. Rankin             x       x               x
P. Reynolds               x   x       x   x   x   x   x   x       x
P. Riach                                  x   x   x   x   x   x   x
J. Robinson           x   x   x       x
J. Rooney                             x       x
T. Ross                                           x
B. Rowthorn           x   x   x           x   x
J. Rubery                     x   x                       x   x
J. Runde                                  x       x   x       x
N. Sarantis                   x       x   x   x   x               x
M. Sawyer             x   x   x       x   x   x   x   x   x       x
G. Scarfiglieri                           x
A. Scoon                                      x   x
J. Sedgwick                                   x   x
F. Serrano                                        x   x
F. Seton                              x
A. Seyf                                           x
G. Shackle                                            x           x
A. Shah                                       x   x
K. Sharpe                                         x
B. Sheehan                                    x
A. Singh              x   x   x   x       x                   x   x
R. Skidelsky                              x
F. Skuse                  x               x   x   x
T. Skouras                x   x
G. Slater                                         x
M. Smith                                          x
C. Spash                                              x   x
D. Spencer                                        x
C. Starmer                                    x       x   x
1. Steedman           x       x   x       x   x   x   x   x   x   x
G. Steele                                         x
J. Stephan                                        x
R. Studart                                x           x   x
R. Sugden                     x               x
R. Tarling                    x   x
K. Taylor                                 x       x
P. Teague                                 x
B. Thomas                                             x   x
G. Thompson                               x       x
A. Thirlwall                                  x               x   x
J. Toporowski                             x   x   x       x
A. Trigg                                      x   x               x
E. Tsakalotos                             x
A. Tylecote                               x   x   x   x   x
R. van den Berg                                   x
J. Vint                       x               x       x           x
A. Wailou                                         x
L. Walsh                                              x
B. Walters                                x       x   x
T. Ward                       x   x   x
J. Wells              x       x           x   x
J. Whittaker                                      x
F. Wilkinson          x       x   x           x           x   x
A. Winnett            x                   x   x   x   x
D. Young                                  x   x   x   x   x
N. Zafiris                    x               x
G. Zis                x       x               x                   x

A Member of and/or participated in CSE activities, 1970-1975

B Editorial board and/or publish in Thames Papers in Political
Economy, 1974-1990

C Editorial board and/or publish in British Review of Economic
Issues, 1977-1988; Cambridge Journal of Economics, 1977-1988;
and/or Contributions to Political Economy, 1982-1988

D CJE Value Conference (1978) and/or Keynes Conference on
Methodology (1983)

E Editorial board, published in, or subscribed to the Journal of
Post Keynesian Economics, 1977-1988

F Presented a Paper at the Post-Keynesian Economics Study Group,
1988-1996; contributed to its Newsletter, 1995-1996; and/or
contributed to the running of the Group

G Post-Keynesian Economics Study Group Mailing List, 1991

H Attended 2 or more of the 18 meetings of the Post-Keynesian
Economics Study Group, February 1993 to November 1996

I Presented a Paper at, or attended, the Great Malvern Political
Economy Conference, 1987-1994

J Editorial board and/or publish in the Review of Political
Economy, 1989-1996

K Editorial board and/or publish in the Cambridge Journal of
Economics, 1989-1996; and/or in Contributions to Political
Economy, 1989-1996

L Editorial board and/or publish in the Post Keynesian Journal of
Economics, 1989-1996; British Review of Economic Issues/Economic
Issues, 1989-1995; and/or in International Papers in Political
Economy, 1993-1996. Also subscribe to the Journal of Post
Keynesian Economics, Journal of Economics Issues, and/or Review
of Social Economy.


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Notes

(1) An earlier version of the paper was presented as a key note address at the 19th Conference of the History of Economic Thought Society of Australia, 4-7 July, 2006, Ballarat, Victoria, Australia.

(2) For example, Victoria Chick, working from first principles and mostly on her own, moved, over a decade, from mainstream economics in 1963 to Post Keynesian economics in 1973. As a consequence of her intellectual journey, she had difficulty publishing her critiques of neoclassical macroeconomics as well as her work on the General Theory until the late 1970s when Geoff Harcourt, in the Australian Economic Papers, published her critique of Robert Clower's understanding of the Keynesian revolution--also see below (Chick in Arestis and Sawyer 2000; Chick 1978c).

(3) Before being appointed as the Head of the Economics Division at Thames Polytechnic in 1974, Skouras taught at Middlesex Polytechnic (now Middlesex University) where he came into contact with Mario Nuti, John Eatwell and Joan Robinson, the last of whom had given a series of lectures there. Because he was sceptical of neoclassical economic theory and a pluralist, this contact led him to become interested in Cambridge-based Post Keynesian economic theory (Daniel 1999; Driver 1999; Skouras 1999).

(4) A second purpose of Thames Papers was to generate economic discussion within the Economics Division at Thames Polytechnic and to build up its reputation and make it better known among economists (Skouras 1999).

(5) Generally the papers were invited either as a result of talks with the author(s) or having heard them giving papers on the subject. In fact, one duty of the members of the editorial board was, in part, to bring interesting papers and economists to the attention of Skouras.

(6) In 1978 Skouras became the Head of the Department of Applied Economics at North-East London Polytechnic and Philip Arestis succeeded him as Head of the Economics Division at Thames. At the same time the editorial board was expanded to included individuals from other London-based polytechnics (Skouras 1999).

(7) Arestis first became aware of Eichner's work on macroeconomic modelling in the late 1970s. In May 1982 he put on a conference on Post Keynesian economics and invited Eichner to be the keynote speaker. Thus a conversation was struck up between them concerning short-period Post Keynesian macro-econometric modelling that lasted until the latter's death in February 1988 (Street, Arestis and Tool 1988; Arestis in King 1995; Arestis in Lee 2000 pp. 70-1).

(8) Harcourt's paper was the second survey of Post Keynesian economics after the Eichner and Kregel (1975) essay on Post Keynesian theory.

(9) This increasing emphasis on Post Keynesian economics was also reflected in changes in the composition of the members of the editorial board which now included Eichner (1987-88), Ciaran Driver (1987-89), George Blazyca (1988-89) and Frank Skuse (1988-89).

(10) From 1977 to 1988, there were twenty-three issues of the Review and fifteen publications by Post Keynesian-heterodox economists as well as another thirteen articles of interest to them.

(11) Papers presented at the conference included K. Laski, 'Kalecki's Theory of the Business Cycle', Wlodzimierz Brus, 'Kalecki and Socialist Development', Bob Rowthorn, 'Kalecki, Keynes and Income Distribution', and Eprime Eshag, 'The Political Economy of Michal Kalecki' (CSE Newsletter, November 1978).

(12) Post Keynesian-heterodox economists who attended the seminar in the 1980s included Bernard Corry, Geoff Harcourt, Nicholas Kaldor, Richard Kahn, Sheila Dow, Victoria Chick, John Brothwell, Stephen Frowen, Tony Lawson, Tony Thirlwall, Joan Robinson, Peter Kriesler and Terry O'Shaughnessy.

(13) For example, Krishna Bharadwaj arrived in Cambridge in 1967 to work on elaborating the Sraffian critique of mainstream theory as well as how Sraffa's approach differed from mainstream theory. While there, she engaged with Sraffa, Joan Robinson, Maurice Dobb, Luigi Pasinetti, and Kaldor and met a number of younger economists interested in the revival of classical and Marxian theory. John Eatwell, on the other hand, was a 1960s Cambridge undergraduate and became a teaching fellow at Trinity College in 1970. Throughout the 1970s he worked on developing a Keynes-Sraffa synthesis as a replacement for neoclassical economics (Bharadwaj, Eatwell and Nuti in Arestis and Sawyer 2000; Harcourt 1993-94).

(14) For the start-up financing of the journal, Eatwell and colleagues intended to ask Joan Robinson, Nicholas Kaldor, Maurice Dobb, Piero Sraffa and Richard Kahn for contributions. However, when approached, Kahn suggested that Academic Press would be interested in such a project. The Press was and agreed to provide the start-up financing.

(15) The CPES economists who were also in the CSE and identified as socialist economists included Eatwell, Nuti, Suzanne Paine, Rowthorn and Singh; and the other CPES economists included Mahmoud Abdel-Fadil, Francis Cripps, Roger Tarling, John Wells and Frank Wilkinson.

(16) About two hundred or more persons attended the conference, which by all accounts was a lively affair. Steedman and Hodgson made a number of interventions which seemed to carry the day, but still some were convinced against their will. Papers from the conference and subsequent discussion were published in Steedman et al. (1981).

(17) The activities of the Cambridge Policy Group, which existed in the 1970s, also contributed to the development of Post Keynesian-heterodox economics at Cambridge, but its history, hence contributions, has not been written up. In general the social and organisational history of economics at Cambridge is undeveloped, especially for the post-1945 years. Consequently, while the eventual demise of Post Keynesian-heterodox economics at Cambridge was seen as early as 1974, the actual process by which it occurred has not yet been told (Lawson 2000; Mongiovi 2001; Millmow 2003).

(18) Institutional and social economics did not really exist in Britain; that is, they did not exist as a body of collectively recognised economists engaged in research that is clearly associated with arguments published in, for example, the Journal of Economic Issues or the Review of Social Economics. In 1987-88, there were only three British economists who belonged to the Association for Social Economics and only seven who belonged to the Association for Evolutionary Economics.

(19) For example, in 1979 Peter Reynolds completed his dissertation on 'Macroeconomic Theories of Distribution and their Relationship with Economic Dynamics' which dealt with Kalecki's theory of distribution. Then in 1980 he produced a paper on 'Kalecki and the Post-Keynesians: A Reinterpretation'; and in 1987 he published Political Economy: A Synthesis of Kaleckian and Post Keynesian Economics. Malcolm Sawyer did not really become engaged in the Post Keynesian approach until the early 1980s when he attended Arestis' 1982 conference and re-established contact with Eichner and Arestis who was a fellow MSc student at the LSE in 1966-68. In 1979-80 he became interested in the work of Kalecki, which resulted in two books in the 1980s on macroeconomics and Kalecki (1982, 1985) and finally an edited volume on Post Keynesian economics (1988) (Reynolds and Sawyer in King 1995).

(20) In 1982, Eatwell became editor of the book series 'Studies in Political Economy', first published by Academic Press and then by Macmillan. The aim of the series was to publish books that furthered the constructivist Sraffian agenda of reconstructing economic theory in light of Sraffa's Production of Commodities and then applying the theory to problems in international trade, development economics, fiscal and monetary policy and other economic problems. One of the first books in the series was Milgate's Capital and Employment: A Study of Keynes's Economics (1982); and others of particular interest include Interest and Profit in the Theories of Value and Distribution (Pancio 1988) and An Essay on Money and Distribution (Pivetti 1991) (Eatwell in Arestis and Sawyer 2000; Eatwell 1982).

(21) Part of the material in this section is found in the Economic and Social Research Council records of the Study Group and part is drawn from the PKSG Newsletter, Issues 1-7, January 1995 to December 1997, copies of which are in the possession of the author. The hyphen in Post-Keynesian was inserted for grammatical correctness and hence was an official part of the Group's name.

(22) The 'E' was omitted because Arestis and Chick felt that PKSEG was too clumsy.

(23) This perception or view of Post Keynesian economics was also articulated by Dow (1991), but she downplays the Sraffian contribution, a trend that continued throughout the 1990s (see Arestis 1996; Arestis and Dow in King 1995).

(24) The significance of this is that Post Keynesian economics becomes widely viewed by British heterodox economists as an approach that warrants particular attention. One significant acknowledgement was the 11th Keynes Seminar whose theme was 'Keynes and the Post-Keynesians' and was supported by the PKSG. The programme included papers by Chick on 'Contributions of Post Keynesian Economics', Desai on 'A Critique of Post-Keynesian Economics', Kregel on 'A Post-Keynesian Explanation of the Current Slump' and Arestis on 'An Independent European Central Bank: A Post-Keynesian Perspective'. Discussants and attendees included Steedman, Sawyer, John McCombie, Fred Lee, Reynolds, Corry, Dow, Douglas Mair, Frowen and Frank Brouwer, all of whom were involved in the activities of the PKSG.

(25) The themes of the conferences were 'Finance and Economic Development' (1991), 'Money and Finance in the Economic Restructuring of Europe, East and West' (1992), 'Keynes, Knowledge and Uncertainty' (1993), 'Symposium on the Theory of the Firm' (1994), 'The Relevance of Post-Keynesian Economic Policies Today' (1995) and 'Second International Conference on Keynes, Knowledge and Uncertainty' (1996).

(26) A PKSG Bulletin was planned to replace the PKSG Newsletter starting in 1998, but it never materialised.

(27) See Lee (1995 and 1996), A. Dow (1995), Halevi (1995), Riach (1995), Smithin (1996), Downward (1996), and Kriesler (1996).

(28) The grant covered expenses such as travel and subsistence for speakers and participants, secretarial costs, and stationery, photocopying, telephone and postage costs. Over time when funds were limited, postgraduate students were given preference for reimbursement of travel costs.

(29) It was published in 1995 (see Arestis and Chick 1995). Edward Elgar also published other books that contained papers given at the PKSG, including Arestis and Chick (1992) and Dow and Hillard (1995, 2002a, 2002b). In addition, Macmillan/ St Martin's published a book containing papers given at the PKSG (Arestis and Sawyer 1997).

(30) There were seminars at Cambridge (1996, 1997), Glasgow Caledonian University (1998), University of the West of England (1999) and Manchester Metropolitan University (2000). From 1998 to 2000, the PKSG had six seminars with fifteen papers presented and an average of twenty-two participants. In addition, Arestis and Sawyer in conjunction with the PKSG organised a series of conferences from 1996 to 2000. These included conferences honouring Paul Davidson (1996, 1998) and Geoff Harcourt (1997); political economy of central banking (1997); and economics of the third way (2000).

(31) The first Post-Graduate Conference took place at Leeds in November 1996 with six papers presented, a round table discussion on postgraduate research and Post Keynesian economics, and forty-one participants. The subsequent conferences also took place at Leeds (1997 with 13 papers and 63 participants; 1998 with 22 papers; 1999 with 12 papers; and 2000 with 11 papers); and the last one took place at the School of Oriental and African Studies (2001 with eight papers). The Leeds postgraduate students involved in this include Karl Petrick (University of the West Indies), Giuseppe Fontana (University of Leeds) and Gary Slater (Bradford University).

(32) This included the Stirling conference in honour of Brian Loasby (1997) and the Association for Heterodox Economics 1999 and 2000 conferences.

(33) The conference papers were published in Pheby (1989).

(34) Pheby's rationale for establishing ROPE, which initially was called The Review of Post Keynesian Economics, was that the JPKE was North American-centric, which meant that Post Keynesians in the UK, Europe, Scandinavia, and Australia have felt excluded and the more adventurous and innovative work of some Post Keynesians seemed to be rejected by the JPKE. It was therefore becoming intellectually stale. Thus the aim of the journal was to develop linkages between Post Keynesians and other groupings of economists, such as Institutionalists, subjectivists and behaviouralist economists, and to emphasise the more positive and progressive aspects of Post Keynesian economics. Pheby and his editorial board subsequently realised that the journal's scope was too narrow, given its projected contributors and readership; thus the name was changed to ROPE (Eichner 1987; Lawson 2000).

(35) Successive Malvem conferences also produced papers for further issues of ROPE as well as an opportunity for the meeting of the editorial board.

(36) For its first five years, ROPE included a 'newsletter' with each issue which carried notes about the PKSG (as noted above), the Malvern conferences, and Edward Elgar's interest in publishing books in the areas of Post Keynesian and radical economics.

(37) Also published in the series was Marc Lavoie's well-known book, Foundations of Post-Keynesian Economics (1992).

(38) Also published in the series were five exceptional books by Goodwin and Punzo (1987), Asimakopulos (1988), Jarsulic (1988), Torr (1988) and Kurz (1990) that examined the theoretical core of Post Keynesian-heterodox economics.

(39) Some of the individuals included Alan Freeman, Francis Green, Sawyer, Peter Nolan, Jerry Coakley, Massimo De Angelis, Man-Seop Park, Downward, Lee, Singh, Paul Auerbach, David Harvie and Hillard. Moreover, a number of Leeds postgraduate students who also attended the PKSG meetings attended the 1996 CSE conference: Andrew Brown, Chris Forde, Harvie, Slater and David Spencer.

(40) After Harcourt retired, the seminar was taken over by Mark Roberts and it is now incorporated into the Queen's Seminar series.

(41) The activities are given at the end of Table 2.

Frederic S. Lee, Department of Economics, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 5100 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, Missouri 64110, USA. Email: leef@umke.edu
Table 1
Social Network of Post Keynesian-Heterodox Economists Participating in
Two or More Post Keynesian-Heterodox Activities, 1974-1988 (a)

Name                B   C   D   E

P. Arestis          x   x       x
P. Auerbach             x       x
V. Chick            x   x   x   x
K. Coutts               x   x
F. Cripps               x   x
S. Daniel           x   x
M. Desai                x   x
S. Dow              x   x   x   x
C. Driver           x   x       x
J. Eatwell          x   x   x
W. Godley                   x   x
J. Grahl            x   x
F. Green            x   x
G. Hadjimatheou     x   x       x
G. Harcourt         x   x   x   x
L. Harris               x   x
J. Harrison         x   x
S. Himmelweit           x   x
G. Hodgson              x   x   x
A. Hughes               x   x

Name                B   C   D   E

J. Humphries            x   x
J. Kregel               x       x
T. Lawson               x   x
P. Lysandrou        x   x
J. McCombie                 x   x
S. Mohun                x   x
P. Nolan                x   x
P. Reynolds         x   x       x
J. Robinson         x   x       x
B. Rowthorn         x   x
J. Rubery               x   x
N. Sarantis             x       x
M. Sawyer           x   x
A. Singh            x   x   x
T. Skouras          x   x
I. Steedman             x   x
R. Tarling              x   x
T. Ward                 x   x   x
F. Wilkinson            x   x

(a) Derived from Appendix A.2

B Editorial board and/or publish in Thames Papers in Political
Economy, 1974-1990

C Editorial board and/or publish in British Review of Economic
Issues, 1977-88; in the

Cambridge Journal of Economics, 1977-1988; and/or
Contributions to Political Economy, 1982-1988

D CJE Value Conference (1978) and/or Keynes Conference on
Methodology (1983)

E Editorial board, published in, or subscribed to the Journal of
Post Keynesian Economics, 1977-88

Table 2
Social Network of Post Keynesian-Heterodox Economists Participating
in Three or More Post Keynesian-Heterodox Activities, 1988-1996 (a)

Name               F    G   H   I   J   K   L

V. Allsopp         x    x   x
P. Arestis         x    x   x   x   x   x   x
P. Auerbach        x    x   x               x
R. Ayres                x           x       x
V. Brown                x   x   x   x
S. Cameron              x           x       x
V. Chick           x    x   x   x   x       x
B. Corry           x    x   x
K. Coutts          x    x               x
K. Cowling              x           x   x
M. Desai           x    x   x           x   x
M. Dietrich        x            x   x       x
A. Dow             x    x       x           x
S. Dow             x    x   x   x   x   x
P. Downward        x        x   x   x       x
C. Driver          x    x   x           x
J. Foster          x            x   x
S. Frowen               x   x   x
C. Fuller               x   x               x
B. Gerrard         x    x   x   x
A. Ghatak               x   x   x           x
J. Gilbert              x       x   x
M. Glickman             x   x               x
J. Grahl           x    x   x   x
F. Green           x    x   x       x   x   x
G. Harcourt        x    x   x   x   x   x   x
S. Hargreaves-
   Heap                 x   x   x   x
J. Hillard         x    x   x   x
G. Hodgson         x    x       x   x   x
P. Howells         x    x   x       x   x   x
G. Ietto Gillies   x    x   x       x       x
T. Lawson          x    x   x   x   x   x   x
F. Lee             x    x   x   x   x       x
B. Loasby          x    x   x
L. Mainwaring      x    x       x   x   x   x
D. Mair            x    x   x   x   x   x   x
J. McCombie             x   x               x
J. Michie          x    x           x   x
P. Mottershead          x   x               x
G. Palma           x    x               x   x
S. Parsons         x        x   x   x   x
S. Pashkoff        x        x   x       x
J. Pheby           x    x       x   x       x
C. Pitelis         x    x   x       x       x
P. Reynolds        x    x   x   x   x       x
P. Riach           x    x   x   x   x   x   x
J. Runde           x        x   x       x
N. Sarantis        x    x   x               x
M. Sawyer          x    x   x   x   x       x
A. Singh           x                    x   x
F. Skuse           x    x   x
C. Starmer              x       x   x
I. Steedman        x    x   x   x   x   x   x
R. Studart         x            x   x
A. Thirlwall            x               x   x
J. Toporowski      x    x   x       x
A. Trigg                x   x               x
A. Tylecote        x    x   x   x   x
J. Vint                 x       x           x
B. Walters         x        x   x
F. Wilkinson            x           x   x
A. Winnett         x    x   x   x
D. Young           x    x   x   x   x

(a) Derived from Appendix A.2

F Presented a Paper at the Post-Keynesian Economics Study Group,
1988-1996; contributed to its Newsletter, 1995-1996; and/or
contributed to the cunning of the Group

G Post-Keynesian Economics Study Group Mailing List, 1991

H Attended 2 or more of the 18 meetings of the Post-Keynesian
Economics Study Group, February 1993 to November 1996

I Presented a Paper at or Attended the Great Malvern Political
Economy Conference, 1987-1994

J Editorial board and/or publish in the Review of Political
Economy, 1989-1996

K Editorial board and/or publish in the Cambridge Journal
of Economics, 1989-1996; and/or in Contributions to Political
Economy, 1989-1996

L Editorial board and/or publish in the Post Keynesian Journal
of Economics, 1989-1996; in British Review of Economic
Issues/Economic Issues, 1989-1995; and/or in
International Papers in Political Economy, 1993-1996. Also subscribe
to the Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, Journal of Economics Issues,
and/or Review of Social Economy.
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