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Maize products - their uses in the food industry.

Maize Products - Their uses in the Food Industry

Pauls Cereals Ltd, a subsidiary of the Harrisons and Crosfield Group are specialist maize millers, producing maize flours, polentas, grits and steam cooked flakes for the food and brewing industries.

Recent developments show the importance of sourcing specific types of raw material maize, enabling their customers to rely on an end-product of consistent quality, matching their needs.

Recent independent research carried out for Pauls Cereals Ltd, in conjuction with their own development work, has shown that there are many areas where maize can readily be used.

Maize Grits

Utilising its Buhler plant, Pauls Cereals produce differing ranges of grits for:

a) Extruded Snackfoods - where coarse and fine granulation specifications are required and moisture levels need careful control, along with the ability to reduce the flour content to a minimum.


Retained on [mu] 1400 sieve
 [mu] 1000
 [mu] 710
 [mu] 500
 [mu] 355
 [mu] 250
 [mu] Pan

b) Extruded Breakfast Cereals - mainly fine granulations are required, with controlled moisture content, but South American maizes are usually required to give a more toasted appearance to the finished flakes.

c) Brewers Grits/Flakes - a less critical granularity and moisture control is necessary for the grits but optimal cooking of the flakes is required to maximise starch conversion.

Maize Flour

In coatings and batters, coarse and fine flours supplied within controlled viscosity ranges are finding much increased usage. In tandem with maize flour's lack of gluten, variable solids and work stable batters can readily be prepared. Flours, with colour variation between pale buff and the more yellow/red product from South American sourced maize, allow further avenues for product innovation. This entirely natural colour variation will enable artificial colours to be removed or reduced, and in certain products the colour is likely to be less pH or light sensitive than other natural products.

Traditional uses of maize flour, which include pastry blends with wheat flour, allow a golden yellow pastry colour to be achieved. Newly developed flours also provide some shortening effect, allowing possible cost improvement in recipes by reduction in sugar and fat levels.

The degree of softening of short pastry during storage can also be minimised, particularly by reducing moisture transfer from fillings in pies and pizzas. In many cereal confectionery products, particularly biscuits, increased yields and improved shelf-life are attainable.

In boiled savoury pastry, as well as improvements in colour, benefits in general
Coarse Grits Fine Grits
----------- ----------
 - -
 29 -
 57 1 max
 10 1 max
 10 58
 3 37
 1 max 4
 - 1 max

handling and machinability are noticeable.

Since maize does not have any gluten forming properties, the incorporation of scrap from the production of pie bases and lids can be re-used with fewer shrinkage problems.

The most recent research has shown interesting uses for ultra fine flours.

These can be added at up to 30 percent flour levels in high-ratio unit cakes and sponges. Cake volumes and crumb firmness are maintained and it provides an excellent golden yellow colour. Standard maize flours currently available produce open crumb structures and a slight core formation, even at lower levels.

As a general purpose thickening agent, maize flours produce solutions which first begin to gel at a higher temperature than wheat starch. They reach maximum viscosity in the area of 87-90 [degrees] - about 11 [degrees] higher than wheat starch. This is of particular interest in the heating of solid/ liquid mixtures such as diced meat in gravies where more rapid heat transfer, less lumping and gravy burning can be achieved. Viscosity at peak temperatures can be some 3 to 5 times higher than wheatflour, allowing cost effective substitution.

With increased demand for ethnic foods, much interest is being shown in the manufacture of maize-based products such as chapattis. Maize flour can also be used in dietary products where gluten is unacceptable.

Blending of maize flour with other ingredients provides the end-users with an infinite variety of possible recipe changes to suit their own individual requirements.

Maize Bran

Branmax is the outer skin, dried and milled to a fine particle size. This pale coloured bran contains high dietary fibre, combined with a bland flavour. It is commonly used in extruded snackfood and breakfast cereals as well as in dietary biscuits and coatings.

Paynes Tape for European


Lu, based in France and part of the biscuit branch of the BSN group, has chosen Supastrip for its packs. They already used tear tapes in their overwrapping operations but found that conventional tape kept breaking during the opening of the packet. Supastrip from Payne Packaging Ltd, which has a high tensile strength; has proved equal to the task. Its self-adhesive construction eliminates the need for heat and hot wax and although Lu pack at speeds of 50 to 100 packs a minute, we hear that no machine modifications were needed when they switched to 2mm wide Supastrip.
COPYRIGHT 1989 Food Trade Press Ltd.
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Copyright 1989 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
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Author:Bartlett, Bob
Publication:Food Trade Review
Date:Sep 1, 1989
Previous Article:"State of the art" steam peeling or thermal conditioning.
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