MILIOLIDEA OF TIYON FORMATION KAMBHU JABAL LOWER INDUS BASIN PAKISTAN.
The Miliolidaeforam found in the (KambhuJabal section) Middle Eocene rocks exposed
inTiyon formation around the Laki Range Lower Indus basin Sind are abundant in shale units. The morphological changes among 18 species shows intra-populational variations. The abundant Miliolidae species shows shelf outer neritic (0-50 m.) hypersaline shallow water condition. The faunules are also coherent and reflects fluctuating bathymetry with alpha diversity a=5-6 suggesting hyper saline to normal marine warm water condition in KambhuJabal section of Tiyon formation. The benthic assemblage shows distinct affinities with the Lutetian fauna of Hampshire basin and Paris basin Murray Gulf coastal region Cushman  Belgium Kasschister and Kutch of IndiaSamanta .
Key Words: TiyonFormation KambhuJabal Middle Eocene
The geology of the area was first mapped and described by Blandford. Noetling considered this unit as Ghazij Shale" (Lower Eocene) Vredenburg considered it as a part of Kirthar series (Late Middle Eocene to Early Oligocene). Jones (Hunting Survey Corporation HSC) prepared reconnaissance report and Geological Map on 1 inch to 4 miles scale and first time recognized this shale and limestone unit in between Laki and Kirthar as distinct unit and proposed the name Tiyon Formation after Tiyon Nai (Lat. 260 08/ 30// N; Long. 670 47/ 15// E Toposheet
35N16) represented by Late Ypresian to Early Lutetian age. The name Tiyon" is derived from Teyoon a name of Hindu person Brohi et al..
Kamb huJaba l : The Kam bhuJab a l (anticli ne) is situated in the north of Thano Ahmed Khan at a distance of 72 Km. road leading through Thano Bula Khan in Jamshoro district in Kirthar Range Fi g. No. 1. Th e studied ar ea covers
Latitude 25 32/ 33.64//N to 25 35/ 12.26//N Longitude 67 45/ 48.01// E to 67 47/ 48.28//E
The Kambhu anticline is asymmetrical doubly plunging anticline with NW strike have more than 750 dip in the eastern side and 100 in western side. Both sections (eastern and western) are measured from Nala cutting MinjharijiDhat at latitude 25 33/ 14.04//N and longitude 67 47/ 30.02//E. In the core of anticline Laki limestone is exposed. On the eastern limb the beds are steeply dipping at an angle greater than 750 due to overturning and faulting some beds are repeated and missing. Total 78 samples were collected from western limb; four (4) Laki Limestone seventy eight (78) from Tiyon formation and four (04) from Kirthar Formation. The samples are labelled as Tel/Km/W Tet/Km/W Tek/Km/W Tel/Km/E Tet/Km/E Tek/Km/E T = Tertiary e = Eocene and l = Laki Formation t = Tiyon formation k = KirtharFormation Km= Kambhu Anticline W= western limb and E = eastern limb. The thickness of Tiyon formation on western limb is 205 m. (672 feet) Lithological columnar section (Fig. No. 2 )
MATERIAL AND TECHNIQUES:
The samples were collected from upper contact of Laki Formation with Tiyon formation and was continued upward uptoKirthar Formation. The samples were collected from Limestone Shale and Marl which varied from generally hard and compact to soft material. 78 samples were processed by the standard techniques described by KUMMEL and RAUP  for isolation and separation of microfauna. The samples were analyzed by Jeol 640LV Scanning Microscope at Center for Pure and Applied Geology University of Sindh Jamshoro.
Sub family: Quinqueloculinainae
Genus: Quinqueloculinad'Orbigny 1826
(Plate 1 Fig.1a-b) Quinqueloculinamauricensis HoweH.V.1939 p.35 pl.4fig .8-10
Quinqueloculinamauricensis(Howe) Haque A.F.M.M. 1956 v.2pt. 256pl.32 fig.13.
Remarks:This species bear close resemblance to
Quiqueloculinalaevigatabut has a definite distinctive neck. The specimen from Tiyon formation show more resemblance to HaqueNammal Gorges species Quinqueloculina cf. mauricensis.
Distribution:This species was described from the Cook mountain formation of Louisiana and is recorded from the Yegua formation of Texas and the Libsonformation ofAlbama.
This species reported by Haque from basal Laki (lower Eocene) of the Nammal Gorge (Pakistan) but from Lakhra it has been recorded by Usmani from Ranikot formation (Paleocene) Pakistan. The figured specimen recorded from sample Tk-46 from Tiyon formation. QuinqueloculinaludwigiReuss 1886 (Plate 1 Fig.2)
Quinqueloculinaludwigi (Reuss) Batjes 1958 No143 p.103pl.1 fig.7 8
Quinqueloculinaludwigi (Reuss) Kaaschieter 1961 No.147 p.148 pl.7 fig.7 8
Remarks:This species is close to
Quinqueloculinasemminula which was described by Howe differs from Quinqueloculinasemminula except this species has extended apertural neck.
Distribution:The figured specimen has been recorded from the Tiyon formation Middle Eocene from the sample Tk-36 Tk-37 and Tk-41.
TriloculinatrigonulaLamarck1804 (Plate2 Fig.5a-b)
Triloculinatrigonula d Orbigny1826 7p.299 No.1 pl.61 figs 4-8;
Triloculinatrigonula Howe 1936 p.39 pl.3 fig.1 2. Triloculinatrigonula Cushman J.A.andStainforth R.M; 1945 14 p.21 pl.2 fig.18.
Remarks:This species is distinguished fromTriloculinagibbad'Orbigny in having curved chambers symmetrical towards both ends with crescentic aperture.
Distribution:This species was described from the Eocene of
France and from Grignon shows a considerable range of variation that is found in Paris basin and in the Belgium. Usmani has been found this species from Ranikot and Laki formation. In Tiyon formation this species occur in sample no Tk-22 and Tk-24.
TriloculinaregularisServoa M. ya 1960 no.3 114. Remarks:This specimen seems to be identical with Triloculinaregularisof Servoa but differs
fromT.austricad'Orbigny due to the presence of more elongate test the less inflated chambers in presence of apertural neck and absence of bifid tooth.
Distribution: This species has been recorded from Tiyon formation in Kambhu Section sample no Tk-70
This species differs from Quinqueloqulina juleana d'Orbigny  in having broader test and in absence of tooth on the long neck.
Quiqueloculinaparisensisd' Orbigny 1826 (Plate1 Fig. 6a-b)
Quiqueloculinaparisensisd'orbigny 1826 p.121 pl.3 figs.
Remarks:This species differs from Quinqueloculina juleana in the ridge like costae. Quinqueloculiaparisensisd'Orbignywas originally described from the Eocene of Paris basin from Grignon Formation. Distribution:A single specimen of Quinqueloculinaparisensis is recorded from the Tiyon formation from sample Tk-25.
(Plate 1 Fig.3a-c)
Quinqueloculinalaevigatad'Orbigny (1826) 7 p.301 No.6. Quinqueloculinalaevigata (d'Orbigny) Terquem 1882 3 2 p.173 pl.18 (26) figs.14 15.
Quinqueloculinalaevigata (d'Orbigny) Cushman J.A. 1935 181 p.11 pl.2 fig. 15.
Remarks:Quinqueloculinalaevigata bear a strong resemblance to Quinqueloculinapoeyana and Quinqueloculinabasciana but differs from it in possessing a bifid tooth and more elongate test.
Distribution:The figured specimen has been recorded in sample no Tk-24 and Tk35.
Triloculinacf.T.SarahaeHaque 1956 (Plate 2 fig. 1 and 2)
TriloculinasarahaeHaque 1956 v. 2 Pl. 2 59 Pl. 32 fig-10
Remarks:The specimen referable to this species is poorly preserved but it shows the close resemblance with Haque's species due to obliquity of the earlier chambers and oblong some-what oval shaped test.
Distribution: This species was originally described from the lower Eocene; lower part of the Laki succession as well as from the Khairabad Limestone (uppermost Paleocene) of
Nammal Gorge by Haque . The specimen from the
Tiyon Formation is recorded from the Kambhu Section. The figured specimen has been found from the sample Tm-18 Tm-34 Tiyon formation.
MiliolasaxorumLamarck 1804 (Plate 2 Fig.10)
Quinqueloculinasaxorum d' Orbigny 1826 AnnalesScinat
7 301 1 Pl. 16 fig. 10-14. Miliolasaxorum (Lamarck) Cushman 1932 U.S.Geol.Sur.Prof.Paper181 12 Pl. 3 fig 1-3.
Remarks:The specimen from the Tiyon formation shows close resemblance to MiliolasaxorumLamark 1804. Distribution:This species was originally reported by Lamarck ; it is reported from Eocene of North America. In the Tiyon formation this specimen has been reported from the Mari Nai Section.
Pyrgobulloidesd'Orbigny1826 (Plate 2 Fig. 9)
Biloculinad'Orbigny 1826 7 p.297 pl.16 fig. 1-4. Remarks: Pyrgobulloides (d'Orbigny) described by Bandy (Challanger report 1884 p.142 pl.2) has been determined by Thalmann (1932) to be referable to Pyrgo.lucernula.
T Plate 2
Fig. 1 2: TriloculinasarahaeHaque 1956 from the sample Tm-21. X 100.
Fig. 3: TriloculinaregularisSerova 1960 from the sample Tm-39. X 100.
Fig. 4: PyrgolucernulaSchwager 1886 from the sample Tm-26 x 100.
Fig.5a-b: TriloculinatrigonulaLamarek 1807 from the sample Tm-
23 1-adorsal view 1-c side view. X 100.
Fig.6a-b: Quinqueloculina Seminulum (Linne 1758) from the sample Tm-21 9-a umbilical view 9-b dorsal view.
Fig.7a-b: Quinqueloculina Simplex Terquem 1882 from sample
Tm-29 11a dorsal view 11b umbilical view x 100.
Fig. 8: PyrgomurrhianaSchwager 1886 from the sample Tm-40 x 100.
Fig.9. Pyrgobulloides d' Orbigny 1826X70
Fig.10: MiliolasaxorumLamarck 1804X100he figured species reported from study area very closely resembles toPyrgobulloidesd'Orbigny specimen.
Distribution: This specimen recorded from sample no Tk-
54 and Tk- 55. PyrgomurrahinaSchwager 1886 ( Plate 2 Fig. 8)
Remarks:This form is very close to P. subspherica (d'Orbigny) but is less elongate has a sinuous suture broader aperture and characteristic posterior inflation of the chamber.
Distribution:This species was originally described by Schwager in 1886 from lower Tertiary rocks. The specimen recorded from sample Tk- 52.
The section is dominated by species of Quinqueloculina Miliola Triloculina Dentalina and Robulus. Such an assemblage suggests a shallow shelf environment. The abundance of Miliolina indicating a depth range of (0-50 m.)Le calvez1973 Bandy  and Murray .
Quinqueloculina ludwigi Quinqueloculina laveigata Quinqueloculina juleana Quinqueloculina ranikotensis Quinqueloculina pairisensis Triloculina sarahae Triloculina trigonula Pyrgomurrhiana species. The diversity value of this assemblage is greater than a=5-6 indicate a condensed
sequence with little sediment being deposited during a prolonged of biogenic production on the Triangle diagram these assemblage plot on or near the
Miliolina-Rotalina line with up to 70% Miliolina.
This zone is dominated by Quinqueloculin amauricensis The Triangular plot suggests a hypersaline environment. The abundance of Miliolinaindicates shallow high energy open shelf environment slightly hypersaline water high energy near shore occurring forms e.g.Miliolides and representative genera Discorbisand EpistominellaLe Calvez .This assemblage zone indicate shallow (0-35 m.) slightly hypersaline marine condition with 36-40% salinity.
To conclude the KambhuJabal section of Tiyon formation from lower Indus basin Sindh biostratigraphy can be characterized by the abundance and variety of foraminiferal species of Miliolidae remarkably good state of preservation.
The benthic foraminiferal studied of Miliolidae family shows a shelf outer neritic (0-50 m.) marine condition. On the basis of characterized benthic species. The specific
composition of the faunules are coherent and reflects fluctuating bathymetry with alpha diversity a=5-6 suggesting hyper saline to normal marine warm water condition.
The benthic assemblage shows distinct affinities with the Lutetian fauna of Hampshire basin and Paris basin John and Murray  Gulf coastal region Cushman  BelgiumKasschister and Kutch of India Samanta .
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