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1. Introduction

Malraux's novels are his awareness of the relevance of a lifetime experience rendered as fiction. His style is frequently typified by musicalness, ellipsis, unfinished sentences, and a visionary tone. The ethical component of Malraux's humanism is an examination of man and his capacities. Human imaginative ability is unrestricted, even when the artefacts it designs are intended for the benefit of a paradigm other than art. The artist should reject the cultural forms of the universe. The artistic capacity is irreconcilable with the totalitarian approach. The artistic undertaking is the imposition of culturally compelling embodiments on those (Scott and Stevens, 2016) of the universe. Art is an attempt against the anarchy of impression, being a formidable deterrent against the meaningless. The awareness of universal anarchy or absence of relevant regulation in the link between man and the universe (Peters, 2016) generates the perception of irrationality. Art is an escapade in time and in the constitution of form. Death is the materialization that institutes most effectively on man a grasp of the doomed flow of time. (Blend, 1963) Malraux's strikingly charged fiction with its ellipses, apothegms, and contempt for logically asserted analysis may be an adequate setting for his insightful humanism. The protagonists are prevalently entailed in a subjective endeavor to manage their own lives. The subconscious is a detrimental inevitability which reinforces inaction. Introspection makes possible the subconscious (Godlewski, 2015) where man's exploration for a novel distinctiveness brings about a boundless series of terrifying probabilities the subconscious certifies the meaninglessness of the human condition. (Harris, 1996)

2. Malraux's Construal of the Character of Destiny

Malraux's tragic perspective draws on his cognizance of the universe. Authentic art emerges with the artist's deep-seated consideration about the universe. The realists are craftsmen if they reproduce image, and artists if they overtake it. Artistic creation and the underlying human endeavor to grasp humanity's needs from the earth (Carr et al., 2015) are but distinct stages of the same endeavor. Even though the most absolute delight originates from assistance to mankind, the political and social patterns instituted by diverse fragments of society operate chiefly to satisfy their separate members. Extreme selfishness complements the undertaking of destiny in driving man down to irrationality and seclusion. Each person has an intrinsic value excluding society. Ephemerality, which makes human existence irrelevant on the universal level (Peters, 2015), is fate's most significant feature. Man, evanescent and in a realm he has not opted for and in which he has not any important duty, is annoyed by his deep-rooted shortcomings and challenged with data of the inevitable subverting awaiting his endeavors. Tragedy is associated with the awareness that human argumentation has run out of feasible solutions (Ferguson, 2016) when handling the issues of destiny. Art is a leading component of the conflict with destiny, being instrumental in the accomplishment of tragic sense. The tragic author is both decidedly cognizant of destiny and has the determination and strength to transform this realization into something clearly identifiable with the human endeavor. (Blend, 1963)

Malraux engages in a far-reaching metaphysical meditation on the ephemeral destiny (Greve, 2015) of the human species, using devices such as associationism, analogous arrangements, far-flung dialogue, temporal coaction, stereoscopic collocation, etc. In an irreligious realm, dispossessed of any authentically topmost values, divinity is owned by man. Transubstantiation, with its emphasis on the inquiring and the haphazard, has superseded affirmation as a requirement to advise man's consciousness of the character of the world. Biography may provide the problematic inheritance of a vanishing distinctiveness that is precisely defective as a way of handling the intricacy and abstruseness of resourcefulness. A Malraux fiction is not as much of a perusal but an act: the addressee is no longer observer but contributor, as the novelist enables little spatial or temporal interval between the situations of the story and the interpretation experience. Readers are challenged by context in which they act as virtual characters. Malraux strives to re-construct the action and ambiance of his narrative around the reader, aiming to disclose to his public a perspective of the world (Popescu, 2016) that is authentic and instantly available, and not a literary paradigm (Nelson, 2015), subordinated by the novelist, and at an identifiable interval from the public. (Bevan, 1986)

In La Condition humaine, the Malraux employs a critical historical situation as a typification of man's condition (Janzen, 2016) and as an incentive for wide-ranging metaphysical rumination on conceivable reactions to that condition. The foe is almost always faceless. The principal conflictual situation entails various propensities within one camp. Malraux employs the cosmos as an allusion to overemphasize the irrationality of the human condition, differentiating the untroubled imperishability of the former with the chaotic impermanence of the latter. Alienation as non-interaction is an unquestionable leitmotiv. Le Temps du mepris gives evidence regarding the impediment related to attempting to establish a political constraint on a swiftly advancing metaphysical investigation which is all-embracing in its goals (Krivochen, 2016), indicating how demanding it is for Malraux to incorporate a diffusive, humanist pursuit into the boundaries of the roman a these, an inherently centripetal genre. Man's strength for metaphysical transcendence is generalized from disseminating shared experiences (Peters and Besley, 2016) in a certain extreme situation. (Harris, 1996)

3. Malraux's Deep-rooted Endeavor to Disprove Man's Ephemerality

The notion of human poise in Malraux's novels is related to the notion of mutual support. Authentic cohesion is feasible only between individuals who have dignity. Mutual support, with its accompanying consequences (Lesko and Niccolini, 2016), is the finest imaginable justification for the distress, degradation, and desolation of man's destiny (degradation, which drives man down to degradation, is the most toxic foe of mutual support). The attempt to accomplish the broadest conceivable enlargement of mutual support (Weede, 2016) imposes its own value in distress. What should be done is not really to regard with clemency individuals who are called on impartiality by social discrimination (Martins Costa, 2015), but to aim to care for them to a degree where team spirit is achievable, to provide them the poise to which they are enabled. (Blend, 1963)

The quasi-analogical arrangements and the utterly analogical representations are blended inseparably into the story in such a manner as to lure readers onto an experience (Gillespie, 2015), and via eloquent emotional emphasis and outbursts make that experience theirs. The origins of Malraux's representation are drawn from spheres of experience (Hurd, 2016) which may be imparted by both novelist and reader. Metaphorical language is remarkably appropriate for establishing intricate links between the diverse constituents of the world portrayed by the author. The representation advises readers in a sophisticated, implicit way of something the author attempts to convey in subliminal link to the narrative line. The effect upon the reader is a transitory state of perception (Petcu, 2016), suspended between an utterly subjective, unexpressive truth and an essentially objective, discursive one. Being purely a poetic acumen it is at the center of the resourceful inventiveness and preserves an incomprehensible quality. Although the representation has an intricate arrangement, at its core prevails a resemblance drawn from the sphere of transferable reality, and a way of communication having its specific form. Whatever the architecture, the representation accomplishes a distinctive role. (Tarica, 1980)

In L'Espoir, the characters are influenced and regulated by the contingencies of the historico-political circumstances which overwhelm them. The novel brings down the yet centre-stage person in addition to the latter's abstrusely conveyed frequently expressively accused humanism. The scenario focuses on performance arranged in political terms, i.e. necessitating a trans-individual steadfastness. The mechanism of disindividualization brings about the transfiguration of an intricate intellectual character (Machan, 2016a, b, c, d) into a non-problematic individual. The protagonists are gradually moved away from the glamorously noteworthy accomplishments of their precursors and adapted to the purposefully effective assignments needed to ensure success. L'Espoir resorts to personal experience (Flegar, 2016) of critical circumstances and an authentic commitment. The leaders miss out on the existential concerns of their antecessors (Szczerbiak, 2016) and perform their duties as organizers. The ethical aspect of the protagonists is appropriately incorporated into a para-political rhetoric. (Harris, 1996)

4. The Ethico-Metaphysical Rhetoric Bolstering Malraux's Novelistic Works

Malraux's analysis of art is an intrinsic component of his comprehensive world perspective and originates from the same sources. An individual is a human being, having an awareness that makes him knowledgeable (Green, 2016) of distress and degradation, thus having an inherent value. Force may be a feature of the anxiety in man (Perez de Miles, 2016) and necessarily should be preserved under ceaseless guard. Social order cannot annihilate man's damaging instincts. Self-advancement with power as its goal (Terry, 2016) may be cultivated only by persistent adjustment, expediency, or the adoption of a political dogma. With the aim of displaying the route by which the human determination may transform appalling reality into an approach of both poise and prolificity, the notions "tragic" and "humanism" should be matched. Tragedy is not capitulation to the dreadful but subjugation of it. (Blend, 1963)

In configuring his novels, Malraux employs detected historical facets to provide their certain significance to the sets evoked in imagination. To aim to identify an authentic individual in a novel impede readers from getting to know (Vecsey, 2015) the personality conceived. Every protagonist is conceptualized, even if the author has employed considerations made in his ordinary existence. The only rewarding method does not involve recognizing an authentic individual behind a protagonist (Silistino, 2015), but exposing the dissimilarities that the author has crafted between observation and imagination. The psychology of Malraux's protagonists is not examined for the concern it holds in itself (Gloukhov, 2016), as none of the narratives has a protagonist as its hero. Malraux employs a narrative technique that challenges linear time and which depends on a highlighted temporal discontinuity. (Tannery, 1991)

Deaths proliferate in Les Conquerants: man is positioned in a non-transcendental realm where loss of life invalidates any undertakings. The scenario, monopolized by western(ized) cadres, exemplifies the West's obsession with the self. The concept of an achievable, ideologically purposeful, undertaking is put forward and the rhetoric of the unreasonable is essentially idiosyncratic. La Voie royale proposes the idea of the revitalization of masterpieces from the former times as a refutation of man's dependence to historical time (Lourie, 2015), portraying adventure as a purpose in itself. Death, the paramount embodiment of man's worthlessness, is the dominant mechanism of the rhetoric. Metaphysics dissimulates as uncontaminated adventure. The scenario conveys chronic metaphysical despair and provides an eloquent contextualisation (Benedikter, 2016) of the human condition (Rogers, 2016) in which the protagonists, without the intrusion of any ideological cognizance, may consecrate themselves to their metaphysical issues. The senselessness of man's condition is omnipresent. The notion of the unreasonable as a stimulus to performance is the main incentive of a chiefly metaphysical exploration. Transcendence is a latent personal determination. (Harris, 1996)

5. Conclusions

Malraux's ethic is one of involvement, of human cohesion in which an individual acts as component of society and not as a detached ingredient. No authentic boldness is achievable unless an individual is either a component of a whole or involved in organizing the social order that is to follow. The undaunted sense may motivate an individual to opt for performance in the sphere of authentic values (Barros-Del Rio, 2016) instead of sufficiency. The only route to life that is consistent and provides genuine contentment resides in performance whose aim is to offer the maximum achievable worthiness to humanity, to do all an individual can to hamper unreasonableness from being man's definitive predetermination. Death is the definitive result of predestination's undertaking. That circumstances should appear in which an individual is expected to breach the worthiness of some (Olssen and Peters, 2015) with the intention of maintaining that of the larger part is component of the bad fortune of human existence. (Blend, 1963) Metaphysics supplies the connotation of Malraux's novels. The artist is the self-determining exponent of man's capacity to challenge the senselessness of the human condition, gradually unrestrained by the precepts of any enforced ideology. Art is a demanding to man's evanescence and alters the significance of the world, being the eventual if problematic embodiment of man's disposition to lastingness (Zinchenko, 2015), of endeavors transcending human condition. Malraux's world is organized to reordering human undertaking from the ordinary to the awe-inspiring. (Harris, 1996)


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CARMEN PETCU University of Craiova

How to cite: Petcu, Carmen (2017). "Metaphysical Despair and Tragic Humanism in Malraux," Analysis and Metaphysics 16: 103-109.

Received 14 February 2017 * Received in revised form 14 April 2017

Accepted 16 April 2017 * Available online 10 May 2017

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Title Annotation:Andre Malraux
Author:Petcu, Carmen
Publication:Analysis and Metaphysics
Article Type:Essay
Date:Jan 1, 2017

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