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MEANING CONSTRUCTION IN PRINT BEER ADS.

1 Introduction

Metaphor, metonymy and image schemas are conceptual devices that allow for the interpretation of verbal and non-verbal messages. These devices play a crucial role in the interpretation and understanding of advertisements; hence, advertisers use these mechanisms to attract and persuade the consumer to buy a specific product. The theoretical underpinnings of this paper are based on the Cognitive Metaphor Theory (Lakoff and Johnson 1980; Ruiz de Mendoza and Perez 2011, among others) on the one hand, and the studies on multimodal metaphor (e.g. Forceville 2009, 2016; Forceville and Urios-Aparisi 2009) on the other, which have revealed that meaning is created through modes of communication other than verbal ones. The present research lies within the scope of the research into the instantiation of metaphor, metonymy and image schemas in advertising (Forceville 1996, 2008, 2012; Caballero 2009; Velasco 2009; Negro 2015a, 2016). It analyses the role of these conceptual mechanisms from a contrastive perspective on the basis of a corpus of French and English on-line beer ads. The purpose of our investigation is twofold: (1) to show the role of verbal and visual metaphors and metonymies in the creation of a particular conceptualization about the specific attributes and benefits of beer in English and French ads; and (2) to show the contribution of image schemas as devices that carry a positive evaluation of the product being advertised.

The layout of the paper is as follows. Section 2 provides an overview of the theoretical background of this study. Section 3 deals with the corpus and the methodology employed. Section 4 presents the sample analysis. Section 5 examines the theoretical implications of the corpus analysis. Section 6 draws some conclusions.

2. Theoretical background

In the cognitive view, metaphor, metonymy and image schemas occupy a central role in our conceptual structure. They are conceived as primarily cognitive devices structuring human thought and action.

2.1. Metaphor and metonymy

Within the Cognitive Metaphor Theory (e.g. Lakoff and Johnson 1980, 1999; Lakoff 1987, 2006; Kovecses 2002; Ruiz de Mendoza and Perez 2011, among others), metaphor involves understanding an abstract domain of experience (target) in terms of a concrete domain (source). While a metaphor is a mapping (i.e. a set of correspondences) between two different conceptual domains, a metonymy is a domain-internal conceptual mapping. Ruiz de Mendoza and Otal (2002: 58) suggest two types of metonymy based on the domain-internal nature of metonymic mappings:

a) Source-in-target metonymies are those in which the source domain is a subdomain of the target domain like sign for state (e.g. 'to raise one's eyebrows'). They involve domain expansion.

b) Target-in-source metonymies are those in which the target is a subdomain of the source, for example the metonymies based on Kovecses and Radden's part-for-part relationship and those based on other frames like the product and the location frames (1998), e.g. The flute (i.e. the person playing the flute) isn't coming today. They involve domain reduction and the consequent highlighting of part of a domain.

Metaphor and metonymy often interplay (Ruiz de Mendoza and Diez 2003). In metaphor-metonymy interaction metonymy is subsidiary to metaphor (Ruiz de Mendoza and Otal 2002). This assumption results from the nature of the two mappings. While a metaphor involves two conceptual domains, a metonymy involves just one. Therefore, the two domains of a metaphor cannot operate within the single domain of a metonymy.

Metaphors and metonymies do not only manifest themselves in language, but also occur non-verbally and multi-modally. Multimodal metaphors and metonymies are those whose target and source are rendered in two different modes. Advertising is a type of multimodal discourse, where overall meaning is construed through four modes: written language, spoken language, visuals, and sound. In this regard, our analysis shows how image and text interact in the creation of meaning.

2.2. Image schemas

The notion of image schema was jointly introduced by Lakoff (1987) and Johnson (1987) and further developed by other authors such as Evans and Green (2006). Briefly, an image schema is a basic conceptual pattern that organizes our experiences. A close look at the literature yields the following basic properties of image schemas (Lakoff 1987: 267-269; Hampe 2005: 1-2; Evans and Green 2006: 179-189):

* They are preconceptual, i.e. non-linguistic.

* They are generic.

* They are embodied, i.e. they are based on sensory-perceptual experience.

* They are multimodal, i.e. they encompass all types of sensory experience.

* They are structured. Although image schemas constitute gestalts, i.e. structured wholes, they consist of a number of structural elements and a basic logic that can be expressed propositionally. Thus, the structural elements of the PATH schema (Johnson 1987; Lakoff 1987, 1989) are a starting point, an end point, and a direction. If you want to move from a source to a goal (the destination) along a path, you must pass through each intermediate point on the path (Lakoff 1989) and any obstacle may prevent you from reaching your goal.

* They are meaningful because they arise from experience.

* They are recurrent in our physical experience.

* They are common to all human beings.

* They can undergo transformations, e.g. count nouns can be transformed into mass nouns, and vice versa.

* They can occur in clusters.

A range of image schemas taxonomies have been proposed by cognitive semanticists (e.g. Lakoff and Turner 1989). We adopt Evans and Green's list of image schemas (2006: 190) for the purposes of our study. Evans and Green group image schemas according to the nature of the experiential grounding:

(a) space: up-down, front-back, left-right, near-far, centre-periphery, path, straight-curved, scale.

(b) containment: in-out, full-empty.

(c) multiplicity: part-whole, count-mass.

(d) balance: axis balance, point balance equilibrium.

(e) force: compulsion, blockage, counterforce, diversion, enablement, attraction, resistance.

(f) cycle.

(g) attribute: heavy-light, dark-bright, big-small, warm-cold, strong-weak.

As Gibbs and Colston (2006: 260) remark, image schemas "are a crucial, undervalued dimension of meaning". Cognitive literature has revealed that image schemas provide the basis for a large number of metaphoric and metonymic mappings (Lakoff and Johnson 1980, 1999; Johnson 1987; Lakoff 1987; Lakoff and Turner 1989) and underlie metaphor-metonymy interaction (Diez 2001). In addition, they play a role in the metaphorical representation of emotions (Pena 1999) and the conceptualization of music (Saslaw 1996). In much the same way, many metaphors and metonymies used in specialized discourse are based on image schemas as shown in economics (Alejo 2010), advertising (Cortes 2001, 2010; Velasco and Cortes 2009; Negro 2013a) and political cartooning (Negro 2013b).

2.3. Metaphor and culture

The issue of cross-cultural variation in metaphor has raised great interest. Metaphorical concepts and expressions reveal differences across cultures and languages. In line with this, the present paper gives evidence of the way metaphorical images reflect culture in different nations. Some attention has been paid to the interaction between culture and metaphor within the cognitive linguistics framework (Boers 2003; Kovecses 2005, among others). Lakoff and Turner (1989: 66) argue that knowledge about source domains is not merely a question of embodiment, but also of cultural connotations and correspondences. In their view, cultural models underlie a great number of metaphors. From a multimodal perspective, Forceville (2009) claims that the study of multimodal metaphor manifestations may contribute to the understanding of culturally embedded knowledge and beliefs.

Boers (2003) distinguishes three ways in which metaphor use can vary across languages. The first type of variation refers to different degrees of productivity or conventionality of the same source-target mapping. The second type consists in differences in the value-judgments associated with either the source domain, the target domain or the appropriateness of the metaphor; for example, describing the government as a machine can evoke associations of efficiency and smooth running in one culture and associations of impersonality and inhumanity in another. Such differences are rooted in culture. The third type of metaphor variation concerns differences in the degree of pervasiveness of metaphor as such: a language may show more or less preference for the use of metaphor as compared to other figures of speech. Of these three types, the first type of variation is the most obvious and common in metaphor. Kovecses (2005) provides abundant linguistic data from typologically different languages, showing that variations in the use of metaphors occur not only cross-linguistically, but also within the same culture. Some cross-cultural analysis has been carried out on advertising discourse (e.g. Lantolf and Bobrova 2012). (1)

2.4. Metaphor, metonymy and image schemas in advertising

Metaphor and metonymy have two essential roles in advertising:

a) Cognitive role. Metaphor and metonymy are employed to describe the product or service advertised by means of a number of features associated with it, such as its price, origin, size, shape, colour, use, effect or the target audience (Velasco and Fuertes 2004: 866).

b) Pragmatic role. Metaphor and metonymy contribute to the communicative function of advertising. The primary intention behind advertising is to make people buy. In this context, metaphor and metonymy play a persuasive role, which is closely related to the rhetoric of advertising. Metaphor and metonymy work as advertising strategies (e.g. Ungerer 2000; Velasco and Fuertes 2004; Ma 2008; Negro 2013a, 2015b). It is convenient to mention that the communicative impact of metaphor is influenced by its conventional or innovative nature. New metaphors taken from our corpus such as beer is a SHIP, BEER IS A SINGER AND BEER IS A FLOWER (cf. below) have a stronger communicative effect than conventional ones.

The role played by image schemas in advertising is related to their axiological value. As Krzeszoswki (1993) postulates, the axiological parameter POSITIVE-NEGATIVE lends special dynamism to the use of preconceived schemas in metaphorisation. The second element of an image schema sometimes carries a positive evaluation which reinforces the positive qualities of the product advertised, thus working as a persuasive tool to attract consumers (Cortes 2010).

3. Corpus and methodology

To illustrate and contrast the use of metaphor, metonymy and image schemas in English and French advertising we compiled two on-line corpora of English and French beer advertisements. Our choice is justified on the following grounds:

1) On-line adverts are particularly good examples of interaction between the modes of language and visuals inasmuch as the text and the image are dependent upon each other to convey the message (Negro 2013a).

2) On-line adverts provide a complete image and a text in a limited space span.

Each corpus consisted of 100 ads (2) from the following beer brands:

(a) English beer ads: Guinness, London Pride, Mackeson, The Beer Daily, Murphy's, Boddingtons, Caledonia Best and Carling.

(b) French beer ads: 1664, Lorraine, Kronenbourg, Hoegarden, Cardinal, Grimbergen, Pelforth, Licorne, Champigneulles, Fischer, Kanterbrau and La Dodo le.

We selected those ads that displayed cognitive content in their image and/or verbal element. The English corpus contains a higher proportion of metaphors and metonymies than the French corpus (78 vs 64 instances). In order to analyze the beer ads selected, we followed a cognitive and multimodal approach. We identified the metaphors and metonymies and determined whether they are monomodal (verbal or pictorial) or multimodal (verbo-pictorial, pictorio-verbal) (Forceville 1996, 2009, 2012, 2016). We also explored the image schemas that motivate a number of metaphors and metonymies. We adopted Evans and Green's list of image schemas (2006) for the purposes of our study.

Finally yet importantly, our analysis reveals the pragmatic value of metaphor and metonymy, which is linked to the promotion of beer, and the way image schemas contribute to the persuasive potential of metaphor and metonymy by conveying an evaluative meaning.

4. Corpus analysis

The corpus provides a metaphorical representation of both beer and beer consumption.

The bulk of beer metaphors are based on the Great Chain of Being proposed by Lakoff and Turner (1989). This is a cultural model that defines the attributes and properties of natural beings. In this model, natural beings are arranged in the following hierarchy: God, humans, animals, plants and complex and natural objects.

In other ads metaphor views beer drinking as a source of pleasure and of loyalty to a particular beer brand as a commitment like marriage.

Images of a particular beer served on glasses or shown by means of beer bottles are frequently used. In some ads we can see a half-full beer glass. This detail is meaningful since it profiles the foam as a beer ingredient (cereal).

Only in three instances does metonymy occur alone. In the ad for Hoegaarden, a pile of broken glass cues the metonymy instrument for action (the glass for the action of seeing), which highlights beer density. The clincher reads: Rien a faire, cette hiere est trouble. Image-text interaction yields the correct interpretation of the ad. In fact, the metonymy is activated by one of the meanings of trouble, 'blurred'. The other meaning, 'cloudy', refers to the most relevant feature of this beer brand.

In the ads for the 1664 beer (see figure 1) the beer taste is cued by the source-in-target metonymy TASTE OF BEER FOR BEER, which is verbally encoded: Le gout a la francaise 'taste in the French way'. Beer is considered an element of cultural identity through association with the country. This association is made explicit by the presence of French cultural symbols such as the Eiffel Tower in Paris.

The metonymy BEER INGREDIENT FOR BEER highlights the aroma of the beer, as illustrated by the Kronembourg ads, where the image features wheat (ble, grain), a beer ingredient, standing for the beer. The metonymy is also verbally cued: Gardez votre ble au frais ('Keep your wheat in a fresh place'), Pas de doute, on a un grain 'No doubt we have a grain'. In both ads the metonymy is generated through the activation of the literal sense of the idiom in the clincher rather than the idiomatic meaning (garder son ble 'save your money', avoir un grain 'have a screw loose'). Table 1 displays the metaphors reflected in our corpus.

As advanced above, the majority of beer metaphors encoded in the ads are based on the Great Chain of Being proposed by Lakoff and Turner (1989). The metaphors belonging to the highest level in the Great Chain of Being hierarchy, i.e. those subsumed under the general metaphor BEER IS A LIVING BEING--BEER IS A PERSON, BEER IS AN ANIMAL AND BEER IS A FLOWER--emphasize crucial aspects of brand positioning such as defining product features, creating the consumer's need for that particular brand or enhancing the brand reputation, while the metaphors falling within the lower levels of the hierarchy focus on more specific aspects such as the product characteristics and benefits. Thus the metaphorical description of the Guinness beer as "tall, dark and handsome" enhances the beer features, whereas the metaphors depicting beer as a woman are meant to make the product desirable by employing sexual appeals. In this sense, metaphorical gender metaphors (Velasco 2009) give rise to a sexist interpretation since women are presented as desirable objects. This is best illustrated in the ads for the Mackeson beer, which feature a sexy woman. In the ad shown in figure 2 the identification of beer with a woman (a WOMAN'S LEGS ARE A BOTTLE OPENER) relies on a further source-in-target metonymy (INSTRUMENT FOR OBJECT), the bottle opener standing for the beer. The metonymic basis of the BEER IS A WOMAN metaphor is also reflected in another ad for the Guinness beer, where the woman is represented through her back. The upper part of the back is in white, thus working as a metaphorical configuration of the foam of the Guinness beer, one of its most highly valued features, whereas the lower part of the back appears in black, the colour of the Guinness brand. The anthropomorphic metaphor is based on the space schema (front-back).

In contrast, in the French subcorpus the metaphorical representation of beer in terms of a woman is based on a perceptual feature, colour. Beer is regarded as a blonde, as illustrated by ads for lager brands like Fischer: La plus belle des blondes ne s'appelle pas Claudia, mais Fischer. The ad creates a connection between the beer and the fashion model Claudia Schiffer, whose surname resembles the brand name.

We encountered variants of the personification of beer in the French corpus that enhance the brand reputation. The Kronenbourg beer is metaphorically understood as a renowned singer who is on tour across the whole France, as the text hints: Actuellement en tournee ('on tour') dans toute la France. The second variant of the personifying metaphor is the metaphor BEER IS A QUEEN underlying an ad for the Lorraine beer. The metaphor is verbally rendered by the text La reine ('queen') de Martinique and visually cued by the image of a glass of beer with foam shaped as a crown. The metaphor is based on a source-in-target metonymy (SIGN FOR STATUS), the crown standing for the queen.

In a few English ads the anthropomorphic metaphor enhances the beer brand origin as a sign of its high quality, as exemplified in the ads for the London Pride beer (figure 3), in which the verbal element (Made of more / Made of London) activates the metonymies LONDON FOR UNIQUE BREWING STYLE AND LONDON FOR UNIQUE INGREDIENTS. Here, London stands for a supposedly unique or highly characteristic way of brewing beer in London that can be identified through its ingredients, so in tasting the beer one can identify its unique origin.

Similarly, the metaphorical representation of the Boddingtons beer as a Chinese lantern that metonymically stands for the Chinese district in Manchester, as the text Part of Manchester suggests, highlights the beer origin as a positive attribute in a BEER ORIGIN FOR HIGH QUALITY metonymy.

Animal metaphors foreground beer features or the beer origin. The metaphorical configuration of the Licorne beer as an untamable (indomptable) unicorn (figure 4), which is triggered by the brand name, profiles the beer character, (3) and the FORCE-ATTRACTION schema underlying the metaphor reinforces this characteristic.

In some ads for the Murphy's brand, beer is featured as a dragon standing for Ireland. Metaphor thus serves to present the beer brand as a symbol of national identity. The underlying metonymy BEER ORIGIN FOR HIGH QUALITY further enhances the beer features.

The view of beer as a cultural icon is also conveyed through the source domain of plants. The Guinness beer is sometimes portrayed as the corolla of a shamrock. The visual metaphor is based on two metonymies: PART FOR WHOLE (the corolla for the flower) and SYMBOL FOR COUNTRY (the shamrock standing for Ireland). Again the beer origin metonymically represents its high quality.

The flower metaphor may be used to enhance the floral taste of beer, as illustrated by some Pelforth ads. The glass of beer is viewed as a flower and the beer foam is equated with the liquid nectar sucked by a butterfly. The TASTE OF BEER FOR BEER metonymy is verbally expressed by the sentence Et le palais renait 'And the palate revives'.

A set of ads equate beer with a natural or complex object. These metaphors enhance beer features or benefits. The Kanterbrau ad (figure 5) highlights the COLOUR of the beer by depicting it as gold: Que l'or coule a flots 'Gold streams down'. The BEER IS CHINA metaphor profiled in another ad for the Fischer brand enhances its high quality. The image of a beer bottle between a knife and a fork combines with the text to instantiate the metaphor: En Alsace, quand on sort l'argenterie, on sort aussi la porcelaine 'In Alsace, when you put the silver crockery on the table, you also put china'.

Other metaphors highlight the creaminess of a particular beer. These metaphors use source objects such as butter, face cream, suncream or whipped cream. For example, the metaphorical reading of the Boddingtons beer as whipped cream is triggered by both the image and the text: the image depicts a whip twisted around a glass of beer, the beer being described as the cream of Manchester.

In other ads metaphor enhances the freshness of beer by depicting a beer glass (metonymically representing the beer) as an icecream. In the ad for La Dodo le brand the metaphor is intended to stimulate beer drinking on the hot island of La Martinique. The same ad highlights the taste of the beer through the metaphor BEER FOAM IS THE TONGUE, which relies upon the metonymy SENSE FOR ORGAN, the tongue standing for taste.

The strong taste of the beer is also enhanced through its metaphorical configuration as a natural phenomenon such as a tidal wave or a waterfall. The Guinness beer is sometimes depicted as a heavy storm, strength being translated into "greatness", as the text reads in one of its adverts: Greatness in every drop.

In other ads the beer is associated with a French region or island. For instance, the link of the Fischer beer to Alsace is created through the metaphor BEER IS A LANDSCAPE ELEMENT, which is cued by both the image of a Fischer bottle in the fog and the text (Photo d'un paysage typiquement Alsacien par un temps de brume 'Photo of a typically Alsatian landscape in foggy weather').

A further group of metaphors highlight the benefits of beer. For example, the metaphor BEER IS FUEL cued in a Murphy's ad where the beer bottle is depicted as a pump suggests that beer provides energy to consumers in just the same way as fuel provides energy to engines. The energy that beer brings is also conveyed through the configuration of beer as the shovel of a cricket in a Guinness ad, a cultural metaphor that invokes the UP and FORCE schemas, both being positively valued. This is reinforced by the text: The power to lift us all.

Beer also has emotional benefits. Thus the conceptualization of beer as a ship cued in a Murphy's ad suggests that beer drinking makes our daily life more comfortable. The use of a big ship on a billboard evokes the help of American soldiers to British ones to win World War II. This cues the interpretation that Murphy's beer is an external help to survive in "our daily war". The communicative impact of the metaphorical image is reinforced by two image schemas, namely FORCE and ATTRIBUTE (BIG). In addition, the BIG schema is called up by the primary metaphor IMPORTANCE IS SIZE (Grady 1999). Curiously, FORCE correlates with BIG. The metaphor confirms the role of shipping as a prototypical source domain in many metaphors, which is in consonance with the importance of seafare in British history.

A set of metaphors in English ads convey the idea of beer consumption as a special occasion or a source of pleasure, as illustrated by a Guinness ad where a beer glass (metonymically standing for the beer) is depicted as a pile of mobile phones. This visual metaphor suggests that beer drinking time is to be enjoyed in group without being disturbed. The metaphor interacts with the PILE schema and it is based on the INSTRUMENT FOR ACTION metonymy.

Some metaphorical images highlight brand loyalty by featuring it as a commitment. For example, another Guinness ad creates a visual and verbal analogy between drinking Guinness beer and getting married. The view of a pile of beer glasses filled with Guinness as the layers of a wedding cake is backed up by the clincher: Making a commitment. The metaphor relies on the PILE schema and a part-whole metonymy, as cutting the cake represents the act of getting married.

5. Data discussion

It is clear that the target domain imposes constraints on source selection. The choice of source objects is constrained by branding strategy. Advertisers use the anthropomorphic metaphor to develop the 'commoditization process' (Borchers 2005: 27), in which a commodity is understood in terms of a person, adding value to the product by transferring to it human features and behavioural actions. Therefore, by presenting a product as a person, advertisers incite consumers to buy it.

Highlighting special features of a particular beer brand such as softness or creaminess increases brand positioning. This explains why advertisers resort to source objects that prototypically have those features, i.e. butter and cream, and map them onto the beer brand. In addition to that, establishing the brand reputation through metaphors that equate beer with an outstanding figure (a queen, a celebrity), a valuable object (gold, china) or a cultural symbol (a ship, the shovel of a cricket, a dragon/shamrock) can help promote the brand.

Monomodal visual metaphors show these source objects in the centre of the image, while the brand name appears on the bottom right corner, so that establishing the relationship between the source object and the beer brand is quite straightforward.

The high quality of a beer may be determined by its origin, which explains the metaphors BEER IS A LANDSCAPE ELEMENT AND BEER ORIGIN IS A BEER INGREDIENT.

In the remaining of the corpus meaning inferences are produced through multimodal metaphor. The text either triggers or supports the metaphorical interpretation of the image. In the ad for the Kronenbourg beer, the image does not convey metaphorical meaning by itself; it is the text that profiles a metaphor (BEER IS A PERSON). In other ads (e.g. Lorraine, Kanterbrau, Boddingtons, Fischer, La Dodo le) the text simply acts as a linguistic support of a visual metaphor.

The analysis also gives evidence of the metaphor-metonymy interplay. First, metonymy highlights the beer ingredients, a beer feature (e.g. taste, quality) or its origin. Then the element metonymically highlighted activates a metaphor. In the ad for the Murphy's brand, the metaphorical representation of the beer as a shamrock rests upon the metonymic view of Ireland as a shamrock, suggesting that both the shamrock and the Murphy's brand are symbols of Ireland.

Occasionally metonymy operates within a metaphorical scenario. Thus the ad for Guinness shown in figure X activates a MARRIAGE scenario. The image of a couple cutting the wedding cake reflects a PART-WHOLE metonymy subsumed within the metaphor DRINKING GUINNESS IS GETTING MARRIED, which is cued by the layers of the cake, equated with beer glasses. This metaphor-metonymy interaction is illustrated in table 2:

As regards image schemas, they are productive in the creation of metaphoric or metonymic mappings in both languages. The most recurrent ones are the SPACE schema (up-down, front-back), the ATTRIBUTE schema (big-small), the FORCE schema and the PILE schema. It is worth noting that specific beer features are enhanced by means of particular image schemas in both subcorpora. Thus density is highlighted through the PILE schema, while the beer origin is shown through the FORCE-ATTRACTION schema. The beer benefits are highlighted through the SPACE (up-down) and ATTRIBUTE (big-small) schemas in English and French. Additionally, the PILE and FORCE schemas are used to enhance the benefits of beer in the English ads.

In both subcorpora metaphor, metonymy and image schemas add value to the beer being advertised and contribute to beer promotion by (1) enhancing product features (colour, density, creaminess, freshness, origin) and benefits (source of energy and pleasure); or (2) highlighting elements that determine the beer brand's position in the market, such as brand reputation and brand loyalty.

6. Conclusion

The present paper has attempted to show the role of cognitive devices in advertising through a contrastive analysis of a sample of English and French beer ads. Advertisers exploit metaphor, metonymy and image schemas in the verbal and/or visual mode to create powerful messages and call customers' attention. The relevance of these cognitive mechanisms lies in (1) their contribution to the correct interpretation of the visual and verbal components of ads; and (2) their broadly rhetorical function, being decisive in generating persuasion. Our corpus analysis reveals that metaphor and metonymy contribute to the primary goal of advertising by promoting beer in different ways: (i) by emphasizing specific beer features that make it unique; (ii) by evoking the beneficial effects of beer drinking; and (iii) by regarding beer as a cultural symbol that provides identity. The image schemas SPACE, FORCE, PILE and ATTRIBUTE underlying many metaphors and metonymies contribute to beer promotion by conveying a positive evaluation of the product.

The scope of the paper being limited, further research should be carried out on a wider corpus to provide further evidence for the findings.

Notes

(1) These authors examine multimodal conceptual metaphors in American and Ukrainian television beer commercials.

(2) The sources of the adverts are the beer brand websites. We only show those adverts that we were granted permission to publish.

(3) Colour, favour, mouthfeel, alcohol content and bitterness are the main parameters of beer character (Oliver 2011).

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Received: 2 May 2018

Accepted: 16 October 2018

ISABEL NEGRO ALOUSQUE

Universidad Complutense de Madrid

inegro@ccee.ucm.es

MA. ENRIQUETA CORTES DE LOS RIOS

Universidad de Almeria

mecortes@ual.es
Table 1. Metaphors in English and French beer ads

General metaphor              Specific metaphor
BEER IS A LIVING BEING        BEER IS A WOMAN

                              BEER IS A QUEEN
                              BEER IS A SINGER
                              BEER FOAM IS THE TONGUE
                              BEER IS AN ANIMAL

                              BEER IS A PLANT
                              BEER IS A FLOWER
BEER IS A NATURAL OBJECT      BEER IS GOLD
                              BEER IS A LANDSCAPE ELEMENT
                              BEER ORIGIN IS A BEER INGREDIENT
BEER IS A COMPLEX OBJECT      BEER IS CHINA
                              BEER IS BUTTER
                              BEER IS FACE / SUN CREAM
                              BEER IS WHIPPED CREAM
                              BEER IS AN ICECREAM
                              BEER IS FUEL
                              BEER IS THE SHOVEL OF A CRICKET
                              A BEER GLASS IS A PILE OF MOBILE
                              PHONES
IMPORTANCE IS SIZE            BEER IS A SHIP
                              A BEER GLASS IS A CHINESE
                              LANTERN
BEER IS A NATURAL PHENOMENON  BEER IS A TIDAL WAVE/A WATERFALL
                              BEER IS A HEAVY STORM
                              DRINKING BEER IS GETTING MARRIED

General metaphor                Instance
BEER IS A LIVING BEING          Guinness
                                Mackeson
                                Champigneulles
                                Lorraine
                                Kronenbourg
                                La Dodo le
                                Licorne
                                Murphy's
                                Pelforth
                                Guinness
BEER IS A NATURAL OBJECT        Kanterbrau
                                Fischer
                                London Pride
BEER IS A COMPLEX OBJECT        Fischer
                                Boddingtons

                                La Dodo le
                                Murphy's
                                Guinness
                                Guinness

IMPORTANCE IS SIZE              Murphy's
                                Boddingtons

BEER IS A NATURAL PHENOMENON    Guinness

                                Guinness

Table 2. Metaphor-metonymy interaction

METAPHOR BEER GLASSES ARE LAYERS OF A WEDDING CAKE
Source domain                                       Target domain
Getting married                                     Beer drinking
METONYMY : PART OF AN EVENT FOR THE WHOLE EVENT
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Author:Alousque, Isabel Negro; De Los Rios, M. Enriqueta Cortes
Publication:Miscelanea: A Journal of English and American Studies
Date:Jan 1, 2018
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