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MAPPING HISTORIC AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTION OF MARBLED TEAL (Marmaronetta angustirostris) IN PAKISTAN.

Byline: H. Chaudhry, Z. Ahmad, H. Ali, M. Atiq-ur-Rahman, N. Nisar and A. Tahir

Keywords: Marbled Teal, GIS, conservation, wetlands, historic and current distribution data.

INTRODUCTION

Marbled Teal (Marmaronetta angustirostris). belongs to class Aves, order Anseriformes and family Anatidae. Five duck species are resident in Pakistan and Marbled Teal (Marmaronetta angustirostris) is one of those. It is vulnerable specie (Bird Life International, 2017) and lacks information on its population status, migration pattern and other requisite information which is necessary to formulate a national recovery plan for this species in order to protect its wetland habitat in Pakistan. Marbled Teal is considered as rare, vulnerable and biome-restricted species (BirdLife International, 2017).

Wetlands of Pakistan are found in close vicinity of Indus River basin and its adjacent flood plains. Pakistan has around six hundred and seventy species of birds, among which one third are water birds such as teals, swans and geese which flourish in these wetlands and lakes (Li and Mundkar, 2004). Biological resources of wetlands in Pakistan are at risk of habitat loss, fragmentation, contamination and climate change. It is, therefore, imperative to map distribution of threatened species in these wetlands in order to assess their distribution, by employing the breakthrough technique of GIS modelling. For the present study Marbled Teal (Marmaronetta angustirostris) was selected for mapping its historic and current distribution in Pakistan. Species occurrence data was collected from the field and other repositories of records can be extrapolated to the entire potential range of the species with the help of distribution maps.

There are number of applications of these maps such as identification of previously unknown populations, determination of sites for reintroductions, guidance on additional surveys and selection and management of protected areas (Graham et al., 2004). A comprehensive knowledge of the current distribution of a species is a precondition for rehabilitation of species in an ecosystem (Franklin, 2009; Barik and Adhikari, 2011).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Species sighting data with longitude and latitude were gathered by eld surveys carried out under wetland project expanded over three years duration, funded by WWF-Pakistan as well as from the literature. Collection of historic distribution records of Marbled Teal was achieved by extensive review of literature and collection of available data regarding the confirmed sightings of Marbled Teal in Pakistan. In order to map historic and current distribution of Marbled Teal, extensive literature review was carried out (Marshall, 1903; Baker, 1908; Aitken, 1914; Waite, 1922; Wright and Dewar, 1925; Hickie, 1935; Christison, 1942; Ali, 1943; Waite, 1948; Savage, 1965; Koning and Walmsley, 1972; Koning and Konning-Raat, 1975; Ahmad, 1983;Ahmad, 1987;Scott, 1989; Roberts, 1991; Green, 1993a b; Khan, 1998; BirdLife International, 2001; Gabol et al., 2005 and Chaudhry et al., 2012).

In addition to this, field survey reports of Pakistan Wetlands Programme were explored to collect the recent sighting data of Marbled Teal. The collected data was processed in MS Excel whereby the geographical coordinates along with the localities were added in the data. Moreover, the habitat information of Marbled Teal was synced for further processing. These geographic points helped in delimiting the areas of Marbled Teal presence in Pakistan.

Most of the sighting locations were in the geographical coordinates of Degrees Minutes Seconds (DMS) format which were converted into Degrees Decimals (DD) using MS Excel. Sighting data table was further modified to make it compatible for GIS analysis by adding the latitude and longitude of the localities mentioned in the table, as very few coordinates of the sighting records were available in the literature. Further, the data was categorized into historic, fairly recent and recent categories on the basis of their sighting years. All the sighting records up to year 1960 were given the 'historic' status while the sightings between the years 1961 to 1990 were given the 'fairly recent' and all the records after the year 1991 were classified as recent sightings (Table 2). The geocoded sighting point datasets were retrieved in the ArcGIS 9.3 as event theme for displaying Marbled Teal existence in order to map its distribution.

Relevant attributed information of Marbled Teal was added in the attribute tables. The spatial data layers were created using ArcGIS 9.3 software.

Table 1. Records of Marbled Teal in Pakistan.

Sr###Site name###Year###No. of Marbled###Source

No.###Teal

###Historic(pre1960)

1###Rohri district###January 1872###+###BMNH

2###Dost Ali near Sukkur###January 1872###+###BMNH

3###Ghaibi Dero, Larkhana###January 1872###+###BMNH

4###Hamal, Mehur###January 1872###+###BMNH

5###Larkana###January 1872###+###BMNH

6###Sehwan###January 1872###+###BMNH

7###Karachi###September 1877###+###BMNH

8###MorPati, a saltmarsh North of Ormara###June 1878###8###(Baker, 1908; 1921)

9###Khushdil Khan lake Pishin district###February 1903###2###(Marshall, 1903)

10###Qambar###December 1909###+###FMNH

11###Khushdil Khan lake Pishin district###August 1913###+###(Aitken, 1914)

###Nowshera, Peshawar,###October 1914###+###(Home 1915; Briggs and

12###on a small jheel near the Kabul river###Osmaston 1928)

13###Khushdil Khan lake Pishin district###June-July 1914###12###(Meinertzhagen, 1920)

14###Larkana###1914-1917###+###(Ticehurst 1922-1924)

15###Manchar lake, Dadu district###1914-1917###+###(Ticehurst 1922-1924)

16###Pithoro, Eastern Narra###1914-1917###+###(Ticehurst 1922-1924)

17###Siranda lake and Sonmiani lagoon, Lasbela###June 1915###+###(Ludlow 1916, Baker 1921)

18###Siranda lake and Sonmiani lagoon, Lasbela###1916###+###BMNH

19###Karachi###August 1918###+###BMNH

20###Larkana###January 1918###+###BMNH

21###Manchar lake, Dadu district###March 1919###+###BMNH

###KallarKahar###November 1918,###+###(Waite 1922; 1948)

22###1921 and 1922

23###Jhelum district###1918 and 1921###+###(Wright and Dewar, 1925)

24###Manchar lake, Dadu district###January 1921###+###BMNH

25###Bahawalpur region###1921-1925###+###(Wright and Dewar, 1925)

26###Sheikopura, near Lahore###March 1923###+###(Wright and Dewar, 1925)

27###KallarKahar###1925###+###(Waite 1922; 1948)

28###Jajjah-Abbasian, Bahawalpur###January 1939###2###(Ali, 1941)

29###ZangiNawar lake, chiefly a winter visitor###1940###+###(Christison, 1942)

30###Jajjah-Abbasian, Bahawalpur###1960s###+###(Green, 1993a)

###Fairly recent(1961-1990)

31###TandoMasti Khan, near Khairpur###March 1965###+###(Holmes and Wright 1968)

###Khairpur district###pre-1969, April###+###(Roberts, 1991)

32###1980

33###Ghauspurjheel###1973###50###(Green, 1993b)

###Kandhkot###February 1973###50###(Koning and Walmsley,

34###1973)

###Lang lake, Larkana district###February 1973###2###(Koning and Walmsley,

35###1973)

###Sunari lake, Sanghar district###winter 1974###+###(Koning and Koning-Raat,

36###1975)

37###Sunari lake, Sanghar district###January 1975###20###(Scott, 1989)

38###Lang lake, Larkana district###midwinter 1977###40###(Green, 1993a)

39###Siranda lake and Sonmiani lagoon, Lasbela###March 1978###+###(Roberts, 1991)

40###Ghauspurjheel###November 1979###6###(Roberts, 1991)

41###GhauspurJheel###30 November 1979###6###(Roberts, 1991)

42###Khairpur###April 1980###+###(Roberts, 1991)

43###Seer Chandia lakes###April 1980###+###(Green, 1993b)

44###Mirpur SakroThatta District###11 October 1981###2###(Roberts, 1991)

45###Mirpur Sakro, Thatta district###October 1981###2###(Roberts, 1991)

46###Taunsa barrage###1981###20###(Scott, 1989)

47###Mangla reservoir###February 1982###60###(Green, 1993b)

48###Akri lake, Nawab Shah district###February 1982###12###(Ahmed, 1983)

###ZangiNawar lake###February and May###30###(Ahmed, 1983)

49###1983

50###ZangiNawar lake###January 1984###300###(Roberts, 1991)

51###ZangiNawar lake###May 1984###+###(Roberts, 1991)

52###Taunsa barrage###September 1985###30###(Scott, 1989)

53###Taunsa barrage###January 1987###5###(Scott, 1989)

54###Akara dam###January 1987###50###(Scott, 1989)

55###Hamal, Katchri###January 1987###29###(Scott, 1989)

56###ZangiNawar lake###July 1987###130###(Scott, 1989)

57###Pugri###January 1988###41###(Scott, 1989)

58###Hamal, Katchri###1988###7###(Scott, 1989)

59###Pugri###midwinter 1988###10###(Green, 1993a)

###Bridge lake###11 February-12###+###(Kylanpaa, 2000)

60###April, 1989-1998

###TandoMasti Khan, near Khairpur###October 1989###20###(Oriental Bird Club Bull. 11

61###[1990]: 40-48)

62###Dera Ismail Khan district###January 1990###12###(Green, 1993a)

###Recent (1991-present)

63###KharRoo lake###January 1991###20###(Green, 1993b)

64###Bolahi (untraced)###January 1991###32###(Green, 1993b)

65###Morakho (untraced)###January 1991###35###(Green, 1993b)

66###Loonkhann, near Khipro###midwinter 1991###23###(Green, 1993b)

67###Drigh Lake Wildlife Sanctuary###midwinter 1991###59###(Green, 1993b)

68###Hamal, Katchri###midwinter 1991###1,625###(Green, 1993b)

69###Seer Chandia lakes###January 1992###20###(Green, 1993b)

70###Allahno Wari (untraced)###January 1992###33###(Green, 1993b)

71###KarudWah (untraced)###January 1992###13###(Green, 1993b)

72###Loonkhann, near Khipro###midwinter 1992###13###(Green, 1993b)

73###Hamal, Katchri###midwinter 1992###1006###(Green, 1993b)

74###Loonkhann, near Khipro###Midwinter 1992###13###(Green, 1993b)

75###Mahboub Shah lake, Nawabshah district###May 1992###30###(Green, 1993b)

###Rangala, Muzaffargarh###May and July 1993###27###(BirdLife International,

76###2001)

77###Lulukdan###August 1993,###50###(Khan, 1998)

78###Hub Dam###October 1992###2###(Green, 1993b)

79###Khushdil Khan lake, Pishin###Undated###2###(Marshall, 1903)

80###Khushdil Khan lake, Pishin###Undated###+###(Hickie, 1935)

81###Khushdil Khan lake, Pishin###Undated###4###(Savage, 1968)

82###Khushdil Khan lake, Pishin###Undated###+###Ahmed, 1989)

83###Nal (The Nall)###Undated###+###(Baker, 1921)

84###Ghauspurjheel###Undated###6###(Roberts, 1991)

###southern Dera###Undated###+###(Hume and Marshall 1879-

85###Ghazi Khan district###1881)

###In the Bahawalpur region###Undated###+###(Hume and Marshall 1879-

86###1881)

87###Firoza, Bahawalpur###Undated###+###(McLeod, 1881)

88###Khushdil Khan Lake###Undated###+###(Meinertzhagen, 1920)

89###Drigh Lake, Sind###Mid-winter 1998###2###(Gabolet al., 2005)

90###Drigh Lake, Sind###Mid-winter 1999###380###(Gabolet al., 2005)

91###Drigh Lake, Sind###Mid-winter 2002###24###(Gabolet al., 2005)

92###Lung Lake, Sindh###July-Aug, 2005###60###(Mughal, 2007)

93###Lung Lake, Sindh###31st January 2006###+###(Mughal, 2007)

94###Zero point, SahahdadKot###January 15th, 2010###11###(Chaudhry et al., 2012)

95###Saji Dam in Balochistan###January 22nd, 2010###31###(Chaudhry et al., 2012)

###Rangla Wetlands Complex###April 13-16, 2010###19###(Chaudhry et al., 2012)

###(RWC) in district Muzaffargarh of Punjab

96###province

97###RWC###June 2-4, 2010###32###(Chaudhry et al., 2012)

98###RWC###January 18th, 2011###2###(Chaudhry et al., 2012)

99###RWC###January 15th, 2012###4###(Chaudhry et al., 2012)

100###Dangewari Lake in district Khairpur###January 21st, 2012###2###(Chaudhry et al., 2012)

101###Saji Dam in Balochistan###January 24th, 2012###12###(Chaudhry et al., 2012)

Table 2. Modified table of the sighting records of Marbled Teal for GIS Analysis.

Sr. No.###Latitude###Longitude###Province###Locality###Year###Status

###1###27.68634###68.84279###Sind###Dost Ali###1872###H

###2###27.59888###67.64756###Sind###GhaibiDero###1872###H

###3###27.43659###67.62678###Sind###Hamal Lake###1872###H

###4###27.69236###67.56430###Sind###Larkana,###1872###H

###5###27.67928###68.89903###Sind###Rohri###1872###H

###6###26.42354###67.86044###Sind###Sehwan###1872###H

###7###24.89090###67.02697###Sind###Karachi###1877###H

###8###25.23683###64.63248###Balochistan###MorPati###1878###H

###9###30.67129###67.06495###Balochistan###Khushdil Khan Lake###1903###H

###10###27.60419###68.00490###Sind###Qambar###1909###H

###11###30.67129###67.06495###Balochistan###Khushdil Khan Lake###1913###H

###12###30.67129###67.06495###Balochistan###Khushdil Khan Lake###1914###H

###13###27.69236###67.56430###Sind###Larkana,###1914###H

###14###26.44896###67.64238###Sind###Manchar Lake###1914###H

###15###34.18311###71.49811###KPK###Peshawar###1914###H

###16###25.51053###69.37569###Sind###PithoroEasternNarra###1914###H

###17###25.54417###66.61108###Balochistan###Siranda Lake###1915###H

###18###25.54417###66.61108###Balochistan###Siranda Lake###1915###H

###19###25.54417###66.61108###Balochistan###Siranda Lake###1916###H

###20###32.77548###72.70817###Punjab###KallarKahar###1918###H

###21###24.89090###67.02697###Sind###Karachi###1918###H

###22###27.69236###67.56430###Sind###Larkana,###1918###H

###23###32.93469###73.74609###Punjab###Near Jhelum###1,918###H

###24###26.44896###67.64238###Sind###Manchar Lake###1919###H

###25###26.44896###67.64238###Sind###Manchar Lake###1921###H

###26###29.46490###71.67955###Punjab###Near Bahawalpur###1921###H

###27###32.77548###72.70817###Punjab###KallarKahar###1922###H

###28###31.71328###73.98353###Punjab###Sheikopura###1923###H

###29###32.77548###72.70817###Punjab###KallarKahar###1925###H

###30###31.68084###74.10384###Punjab###Jajjah-Abbasian###1939###H

###31###29.43319###65.75634###Balochistan###ZangiNawar Lake###1940###H

###32###31.68084###74.10384###Punjab###Jajjah-Abbasian###1960###H

###33###26.47846###68.87842###Sind###TandoMasti Khan###1965###F

###34###30.67129###67.06495###Balochistan###Khushdil Khan Lake###1968###F

###35###26.88202###69.09702###Sind###Khairpur###1969###F

###36###28.13330###69.10000###Sind###Ghauspur Lake###1973###F

###37###28.24006###69.18523###Sind###Kandhkot###1973###F

###38###28.21869###69.15076###Sind###Kandhkot,###1973###F

###39###27.49252###68.02415###Sind###Lang (Lungh) Lake###1973###F

###40###26.13580###69.04331###Sind###Sunari Lake###1974###F

###41###26.13580###69.04331###Sind###Sunari Lake###1975###F

###42###27.49252###68.02415###Sind###Lang (Lungh) Lake###1977###F

###43###25.42486###66.59462###Balochistan###Siranda Lake###1978###F

###44###28.13330###69.10000###Sind###Ghauspur Lake###1979###F

###45###26.88202###69.09702###Sind###Khairpur###1980###F

###46###27.86205###67.58178###Sind###Seer Chandia lakes###1980###F

###47###24.54570###67.95236###Sind###Mirpur Sakro###1981###F

###48###24.52903###67.59601###Sind###Mirpur Sakro,###1981###F

###49###30.53846###70.82724###Punjab###Taunsa barrage,###1981###F

###50###26.36655###68.73655###Sind###Akri lake (Akridhand)###1982###F

###51###33.16676###73.66670###AJK###Mangla reservoir###1982###F

###52###33.16676###73.66670###Punjab###Mangla reservoir,###1982###F

###53###29.43319###65.75634###Balochistan###ZangiNawar Lake###1983###F

###54###29.43319###65.75634###Balochistan###ZangiNawar Lake###1984###F

###55###29.43319###65.75634###Balochistan###ZangiNawar Lake###1984###F

###56###30.53846###70.82724###Punjab###Taunsa barrage,###1985###F

###57###25.38074###62.29330###Balochistan###Akara dam###1987###F

###58###25.26660###62.28063###Balochistan###Akara dam###1987###F

###59###27.44648###67.62485###Sind###Hamal Lake###1987###F

###60###30.53846###70.82724###Punjab###Taunsa barrage,###1987###F

###61###29.43319###65.75634###Balochistan###ZangiNawar Lake###1987###F

###62###27.44648###67.62485###Sind###Hamal Lake###1988###F

###63###27.30413###68.05365###Sind###Pugri###1988###F

###64###27.30288###68.05561###Sind###Pugri###1988###F

###65###31.77347###70.92473###KPK###Bridge lake###1989###F

###66###26.47846###68.87842###Sind###TandoMasti Khan###1989###F

###67###31.77347###70.92473###KPK###Chashma Barrage###1990###F

###68###27.58172###67.88970###Sind###Drigh Lake WS###1991###R

###69###27.44648###67.62485###Sind###Hamal Lake###1991###R

###70###26.40088###68.78932###Sind###KharRoo Lake###1991###R

###71###25.67531###69.56004###Sind###Loonkhann###1991###R

###72###25.28025###67.13047###Sind###Hub dam###1992###R

###73###27.44648###67.62485###Sind###Hamal Lake###1992###R

###74###25.66670###69.53330###Sind###Loonkhann###1992###R

###75###25.67531###69.56004###Sind###Loonkhann###1992###R

###76###26.33152###68.71561###Sind###Mahboub Shah Lake###1992###R

###77###27.86205###67.58178###Sind###Seer Chandia lakes###1992###R

###78###28.54083###62.00389###Balochistan###Lulukdan###1993###R

###79###30.22850###71.11130###Punjab###Rangala Wetland Complex###1993###R

###80###31.77347###70.92473###KPK###Bridge lake###1998###R

###81###27.58172###67.88970###Sind###Drigh Lake WS###1998###R

###82###27.58172###67.88970###Sind###Drigh Lake WS###1999###R

###83###27.58172###67.88970###Sind###Drigh Lake WS###2002###R

###84###27.49252###68.02415###Sind###Lung Lake###2006###R

###85###30.22850###71.11130###Punjab###Rangala Wetland Complex###2010###R

###86###25.49193###61.98824###Balochistan###Saji Dam###2010###R

###87###30.22850###71.11130###Punjab###Rangala Wetland Complex###2011###R

###88###26.51110###68.88770###Sind###Dangewari Lake###2012###R

###89###30.22850###71.11130###Punjab###Rangala Wetland Complex###2012###R

###90###25.49193###61.98824###Balochistan###Saji Dam###2012###R

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Roberts (1991) described the Marbeld Teal as breeding resident at some parts of Balochistan and Sindh Province which include Zangi Nawar Lake, Bund Khushdil Khan, Sonmiani and Drigh Lake while the areas adjacent to these localities like wetlands of DehAkro, Hammal Lake, Nara Canal, Chutiari Reservoir, Lungh Lake and other wetlands along the Indus River stretch in Sindh Province provide the wintering grounds of this species (Fig. 1). After going through an extensive literature a list having all the sightings of Marbled Teal in Pakistan was compiled (Table 1). Fig. 2, 3 and 4 show the spatial distribution according to historic, fairly recent and recent records of Marbled Teal in Pakistan.

Over the period of time, there has been a trend of shrinking of the preferred habitat for Marbled Teal. Historic sightings of Marbled Teal (Fig. 2) were recorded at Dost Ali, GhaibiDero, Hamal Lake, Larkana, Rohri, Sehwan, Karachi, MorPati, Khushdil Khan Lake, Qambar, Manchar Lake, Peshawar, Pithoro Eastern Narra, Siranda Lake, Kallar Kahar, Near Jhelum, Near Bahawalpur, Sheikhupura, Jajjah-Abbasian and Zangi Nawar Lake (Table 1). Marbled Teal was found in all four provinces prior to 1960. While between 1961 to 1990 its sightings (Fig. 3) were more restricted to Sindh, Southern Balochistan and Southern Punjab in localities like TandoMasti Khan, Khushdil Khan Lake, Khairpur, Ghauspur Lake, Kandhkot, Lang (Lungh) Lake, Sunari Lake, Siranda Lake, Seer Chandialakes, Mirpur Sakro, Taunsa barrage, Akri lake (Akridhand), Mangla reservoir, ZangiNawar Lake, Taunsa barrage, Akara dam, Hamal Lake, Pugri, Bridge lake and Chashma Barrage (Table 2).

Recently, Marbled Teal has been sighted at Bolahi, Drigh Lake, Hamal Lake, KharRoo Lake, Loonkhann, Morakho, Allahno Wari, Hab dam, Hamal Lake, Karud Wah, Mahboub Shah Lake, Seer Chandia lakes, Lulukdan, Rangala Wetland Complex, Bridge lake, Lung Lake, Saji Dam, and Dangewari Lake (Fig. 4). Declines in water bird population can therefore be attributed to loss of habitat and also this rate of decline was exacerbated due to uncontrolled hunting and disturbance experienced throughout Indus watershed. This duck is heavily exploited at the breeding places and its eggs are collected. This practice of egg collection and hunting has been a major threat at Lulukdan in Balochistan as well. Egg collection practices have been seen at Zangi Nawar lake and Siranda jheel too. Intensive hunting at Khushdil Khan lake has not been controlled by authorities.

During winters extensive netting operation can be seen in different lakes in Sind. Marbled Teals are caught and then supplied in the market of various towns. There is huge subsistence on duck meat by the local residents.

Conclusions: This pioneer study provides historic and current distribution data regarding Marbled Teal, a vulnerable duck species of Pakistan. According to the findings of this study, the duck has suffered a restricted distribution in the current times in comparison to its widespread historic distributions in the same locations. A careful scrutiny of the results revealed that its habitat has undergone major devastations due to destruction and fragmentation. The data is further processed to generate GIS maps which will help in formulating effective conservation plans for Marbled Teal and will better equip in managing its wetland habitat in Pakistan.

Recommendations/Future Studies: There is lack of data regarding threatened birds. Surveys need to be carried out in order to fill the gaps in the knowledge. This will help identify the techniques required for protection. Bird counts and surveillance of the wintering sites of Marbled Teal are required to be carried out on regular basis. These ducks also change their habitats from one place to the other every season. Therefore, regular monitoring should be carried out in order to fully understand habitat requirements of these species.

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Publication:Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Feb 28, 2019
Words:4309
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