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M. B. Emeneau, 1904-2005, President of the Society, 1954-51, Editor-in-Chief of the Journal, 1949-51.

Murray Barnson Emeneau, Emeritus Professor of Linguistics and Sanskrit at the University of California, Berkeley, was the longest-lived Indologist and anthropological linguist of great distinction of the twentieth century. In the early hours of August 29, 2005, he died in his sleep at the age of 101 in his house in Berkeley, California. His life was a saga of scholarly dedication and prolific writing on a variety of indological themes in general, and Dravidian in particular. His Indian students had always looked upon him as a guru of the true Indian gurukula tradition. This writer was one of them. (1)

Emeneau's forefathers, who were seafarers, migrated to Halifax, Canada, from the Payee de Montbeliard (which later became a part of France) in the middle of the eighteenth century and were among the first settlers in Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, along with other English, German, and Swiss Protestants. Emeneau was born on February 28, 1904 in Lunenburg. His father's death in 1912 left "the family very poor," and his "mother worked hard to make ends meet" (Emeneau 1991b: 91). Consequently, Emeneau evolved as a self-made person, who rose to great heights of eminence in his later life by dint of hard work. Emeneau stood first in his province in high school and was helped by a parliament member to go to college on a four-year scholarship. He received his B.A. Honors in Classics from Dalhousie University in 1923. He then went to Balliol College at Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar, where he earned a second bachelor's degree with honors in 1926. On his return, he went to Yale Graduate School as Instructor in Latin and continued his study of classics. He studied Sanskrit with George Bobrinskoy and was attracted to specialize further in it, in addition to comparative Indo-European. He received his Ph.D. from Yale University in 1931, his dissertation an edition and translation with critical notes of Jambhaladatta's version of Vetalapancavimsati (a collection of Sanskrit folktales). This was published by the American Oriental Society in 1934. He studied Indo-European grammar, Sanskrit, and anthropological linguistics with such great scholars and teachers at Yale as E. H. Sturtevant, Franklin Edgerton, and Edward Sapir. Emeneau says he benefited from Sapir's courses on phonetics and field methods, which offered "virtuoso training in sounds which could be heard, learned and reproduced" (1991b: 94). Owing to the bleak prospects for a teaching position for a classicist to teach Sanskrit because of the "Great Depression," he was helped by his teachers to get fellowships to go to India for the next three years. Edward Sapir suggested that he study the Toda language in the Nilgiri hills in India. He had adequate training in anthropological linguistics from Sapir and had exposure to structural linguistics from Bloomfield before his long trip to India. Emeneau said (1991b: 95):
 It was the two teachers, Sapir and Bloomfield, from whom I learned the
 "modern" linguistics of the 30s--from Sapir in person as a teacher,
 and from Bloomfield's writings and later informal contacts.... I feel
 myself as a pupil of both men ...

During 1935-38 he visited India and did extensive fieldwork on the language and culture of several nonliterary Dravidian languages of South and Central India, mostly Toda and Kota and for a shorter period Badaga in the Nilgiri hills, Kodagu in Karnataka, and Kolami in Central India. On a short visit to northwest India (now Pakistan), he collected data on Brahui. It must be noted that when he did fieldwork in India, there were no tape-recorders, and all his recording and transcription were in longhand based on his sharp ear. (2) After his return from India in 1938, Emeneau continued at Yale, teaching linguistics and classics. In 1940, consequent on the sudden death of the Professor of Sanskrit, Arthur Ryder, Emeneau was appointed by the University of California, Berkeley, as Assistant Professor of Linguistics and Sanskrit in the Department of Classics. He became Associate Professor in 1943 and was elevated to Professor in 1946. He became the founding Chair of the Department of Linguistics from 1953 to 1958 (3) and was Chair of the Classics Department from 1959 to 1962. He served the Linguistics Department until his retirement in 1971, after which he continued his association with the University of California as Emeritus Professor of Sanskrit and Linguistics.

Emeneau's range of scholarship and publications spanned many disciplines and interdisciplinary areas, involving linguistics, prehistory, anthropology, ethnology, onomastics, folklore studies, etc., with special reference to two major language families of India, Dravidian and Indo-Aryan. With 286 published items consisting of 28 books, 99 reviews (covering 113 books), 148 research papers, and 11 miscellaneous items (see complete bibliography at the end), he made a mark on almost every branch of Indology. (4) The impact of his work on the world of scholarship has been considerable. A survey of his publications by decades shows that his scholarly output gradually increased and reached its peak during 1961-70, and he remained productive into his mid-nineties.

The first major fruit of his fieldwork in India was Kota Texts in four volumes (1944a, 1946a, b, c). As a part of the war effort he also worked on Vietnamese and produced teaching materials and a grammar (1944b, c, 1945a, b). He was fascinated by the Toda language and culture, which were unlike those of any other tribe in India. He reminisces about what his guru, Sapir, taught him, as follows (1991: 95):
 What Sapir gave me ... was a sense of language as man's culminating
 cultural instrument. When I encountered the Todas, whose chief and
 all-absorbing esthetic experience was their extempore songs sung on
 all cultural occasions, I knew that it was this that Sapir was
 talking about, and his teaching led me towards copious recording and
 subsequent analysis.

His stupendous volume Toda Songs (1971a), with 245 songs with translation and ethnographic explanations (followed by a concordance of song-units and indices), was a groundbreaking work in Toda ethnopoetics, which has no parallel even in the major literary languages of India. Another monograph-length paper, "Ritual Structure and Language Structure of the Todas" (1974a), draws parallels between language and cultural practices. He apparently spent most of his first year in India studying Toda, the language on which he has the largest number of publications (two books and twenty-two papers). His knowledge of Sanskrit combined with his intensive study of the South Indian tribal texts and culture led to a spate of publications on Old Indo-Aryan and Dravidian between 1937 and 1960, on diverse topics involving Sanskrit folktales, textual criticism, Toda, Kota, Kodagu ritual practices and kinship organization, and reviews of Sanskrit texts on literature and poetics. His papers on linguistics and ethnology during the earlier years of his career were collected in a volume Dravidian Linguistics, Ethnology and Folktales: Collected Papers (Annamalai University 1967a).

Edward Sapir, while suggesting to Emeneau to study the Toda language in India during 1935-38, hoped that he might get into the study of comparative Dravidian, as indeed he did (1991b: 96). Emeneau's first paper on comparative Dravidian was a study of the verbs 'come' and 'give' in Dravidian (1945c) and his last paper dealt with the developments of Proto-Dravidian *r in Toda (2002). In between he published nearly thirty significant papers dealing with comparative phonology (see mainly 1953b, 1961c, 1969b, 1970b, 1971d, 1980h, 1988b, 1995), some aspects of morphology (1953d, 1961b, 1967b, 1968d, 1975a), criteria for subgrouping South Dravidian (1967b), besides two monographs: a study of the place of Brahui in comparative Dravidian grammar (1962b) and a sketch of Dravidian comparative phonology (1970a). His Kolami, a Dravidian Language (1955a) deals with an analysis of Kolami descriptively (structurally in Bloomfieldian terms) and also discusses its place in Central Dravidian, as well as providing an etymological index of Kolami words. He published a comprehensive grammar of Toda with copious texts (1984b), almost forty-six years after completing his fieldwork on the language. His important papers on comparative Dravidian up to 1991 were published as a volume entitled Dravidian Studies: Selected Papers (1994).

There are two major areas where Emeneau's scholarly contributions have left an especially lasting imprint.

(1) Beginning in the late forties he collaborated with Thomas Burrow, Professor of Sanskrit, Oxford University, on the preparation of an etymological dictionary of the Dravidian languages. Burrow had already published several important papers on comparative Dravidian phonology, treating such problems as the developments of Proto-Dravidian *k, *c, *n, and *y in different languages, alternations of i/e and u/o in root syllables in South Dravidian, word-initial voicing in stops, as well as the problem of Dravidian borrowings into Indo-Aryan from the earliest times ("Dravidian Studies" I-VII, BSO(A)S 9-12, TPS 1945, 1946). Burrow and Emeneau had been collecting cognates independently for their research from nearly twenty published sources of the Dravidian languages for some years; they then decided in 1949 to come together to work on a Dravidian etymological dictionary. Emeneau had already an enormous corpus of vocabulary from the non-literary languages of South India. Burrow visited India four times during 1950-66 and collected data on Parji, Kui, Kuvi, Gondi, Pengo, and Manda in central India, accompanied by Dr. S. Bhattacharya of the Anthropological Survey of India; two grammars (Parji in 1953 and Pengo in 1970) and several papers resulted from these visits. A Dravidian Etymological Dictionary (DED) was published in 1961 by Burrow and Emeneau with 4,572 entries. The authors added three supplements to this work (see Emeneau's bibliography 1962a, 1968a, 1972), and the second edition appeared in 1984 (called for short DED(R)) with 5,569 entries, incorporating revisions and additions. In the revised edition they drew cognates from twenty-eight languages (including some clear dialects and some doubtful ones) represented under appropriate entries. The languages are arranged mainly in geographical order from south to north, starting with Tamil in the south and ending with Brahui in Baluchistan (now part of Pakistan). In this ordering, at least two geographical groups correspond with genetic subgroups: South Dravidian I (Tamil, Malayalam, Irula, Kurumba, Toda, Kota, Kodagu, Kannada, Koraga, Tulu) and North Dravidian (Kurux, Malto, Brahui). But two genetic subgroups overlap: South Dravidian II (Telugu, Gondi, Konda, Kui, Kuvi, Pengo, Manda) and Central Dravidian (Kolami, Naiki, Parji, Ollari, Gadaba). The order followed was Telugu-Kolami-Naiki-Parji-Gadaba (Ollari, Salur Gadaba)-Gondi-Konda-Pengo-Manda-Kui-Kuvi. (5) Burrow and Emeneau also decided not to give reconstructions in the entries as was done by Turner in his Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages (1966). These limitations do not, however, detract from the utility of the DED(R) to researchers, and, in fact, the publication of this dictionary led to increased productivity in comparative Dravidian studies. This monumental work is a lifetime achievement of both Emeneau and Burrow, and it has become an indispensable reference tool for all researchers in Dravidian. All students of Indian languages and linguistics are eternally indebted to them for this lasting contribution.

(2) Emeneau will also be remembered for generations for his formulation of the concept of "India as a linguistic area," and his publication of massive evidence in support of it. He defined a "linguistic area" as "an area which includes languages belonging to more than one family, but showing traits in common which are found not to belong to the other members of (at least) one of the families" (1980a: 124, n. 28). His classic paper "India as a Linguistic Area," published in 1956, clearly established that language and culture had fused for centuries on the Indian soil to produce an integrated mosaic of structural convergence of four distinct language families--Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Munda, and Tibeto-Burman. With his further contributions (published as a book in 1980 by Stanford University Press under the title Language and Linguistic Area: Essays by Murray B. Emeneau), this topic has become a major field of research in language contact and convergence all over the world. He thus provided scholarly substance for the underlying unity of India's apparently divergent cultural and linguistic patterns. (6) Consequently, South Asia is now recognized not only as a "linguistic area," but also as a "sociolinguistic area," a "cultural area," and also as "a translation area." Subsequently he published more papers bearing on the same theme (1983a, 1987a, 1987b, 1992a, 1993b).

Professor Emeneau earned many academic honors and awards. He was a member of fourteen learned societies throughout the world. To name a few, he was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society (1952), Honorary Member of the National Institute of Humanistic Sciences, Vietnam (1957), Honorary Member of the Linguistic Society of India (1964), Honorary Fellow of the Royal Asiatic Society (1969), member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1970), Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy (1993), and Honorary Member of the Philological Society (2000), etc. He was President of the Linguistic Society of America in 1949 and was its Collitz Professor in 1953. He was President of the American Oriental Society in 1954-55 and was earlier (1949-51) the editor of its journal. He presided over the Sixth International Sanskrit Association held in Philadelphia in October 1984. He was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship twice (1949-50, 1956-57) and was the recipient of the Wilbur Lucius Cross Medal from Yale and the Medal of Merit from the American Oriental Society. He was conferred honorary doctorates by four universities, viz., the University of Chicago (1968), Dalhousie University (1970), University of Hyderabad (1987), and V. K. Kameshwarsingh Darbhanga Sanskrit University (1999).

Professor and Mrs. Emeneau (Kitty) lived a simple and dedicated life. They had books all over their house, but never owned a television; even in his later life Emeneau did not use a computer. He typed all his papers and books, including even the enormous manuscript of the Dravidian etymological dictionary, on a portable Olympia typewriter, fitted with special linguistic symbols. The Emeneaus were very hospitable to students and frequently invited them for dinner. When any visiting Indian scholar telephoned to meet him, he would invariably invite him for lunch or dinner. (7) After Kitty Emeneau died in 1987, Emeneau lived alone in their house for the remaining eighteen years of his life. I had the honor of dedicating my recent book, The Dravidian Languages (Cambridge, 2003), to "M. B. Emeneau, my guru, and to Henry M. Hoenigswald, my teacher in historical linguistics."

With Professor Emeneau's death a glorious era of Indological and Dravidian research has ended. His scholarly output and his personal example will continue to influence and inspire future generations of scholars in India and abroad.


(For references to Emeneau's works, see the bibliography following.)

Ananthanarayana, H. S. 2005. Emeneau's Contributions to Indic Studies. IJDL 34.2: 1-17.

Burrow, T. 1938. Dravidian Studies I [initial voiced stops in Dravidian]. BSOS 9: 711-22.

______. 1940. Dravidian Studies II [notes on the interchange of short o e with i u in South Dravidian]. BSOS 10: 289-97.

______. 1943. Dravidian Studies III [the developments of initial k- in Dravidian]. BSOAS 11: 122-39.

______. 1944. Dravidian Studies IV [the body in Dravidian and Uralian]. BSOAS 11: 328-56.

______. 1945. Some Dravidian Words in Sanskrit. TPS: 79-120.

______. 1946a. Dravidian Studies V [initial y- and n- in Dravidian]. BSOAS 11: 595-616.

______. 1946b. Loanwords in Sanskrit. TPS: 1-30.

______. 1947. Dravidian Studies VI [the loss of initial c/s in South Dravidian]. BSOAS 12: 132-47.

______. 1948. Dravidian Studies VII [further Dravidian words in Sanskrit]. BSOAS 12: 365-96.

Burrow, T., and S. Bhattacharya. 1953. The Parji Language. Hertford.

______. 1960. A Vocabulary of the Gondi Dialects. JAS 2: 73-251.

______. 1961. Some Notes on the Kuttiya Dialect as Spoken by the Kandhs of North-east Koraput. IIJ 5: 118-35.

______. 1963. Notes on Kuvi with a Short Vocabulary. IIJ 6: 231-89.

______. 1970. The Pengo Language. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Krishnamurti, Bh. 1958. Alternations i/e and u/o in South Dravidian. Lg. 34: 458-68.

______. 1961. Telugu Verbal Bases: A Comparative and Descriptive Study. (University of California Publications in Linguistics, vol. 24) Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press.

______. 1969. Konda or Kubi: A Dravidian Language. Hyderabad: Tribal Cultural Research and Training Institute.

______. 2003. The Dravidian Languages. Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

______, ed. 1968. Studies in Indian Linguistics: M. B. Emeneau Sastipurti Volume. Poona and Annamalainagar: Centres of Advanced Study.

Lakshmi Bai, B., and B. Ramakrishna Reddy. 1991. Studies in Dravidian and General Linguistics (A Festschrift for Bh. Krishnamurti). Hyderabad: Centre of Advanced Study in Linguistics, Osmania University.

Shalev, Michael, Peter Ladefoged, and Peri Bhaskara Rao. 1994. Phonetics of Toda. PILC Journal of Dravidic Studies 4: 19-56. [PILC = Pondicherry Institute of Linguistics and Culture, Pondicherry, India].


AA American Anthropologist
AUDLP Annamalai University Department of Linguistics Publications
BSO(A)S Bulletin of the School of Oriental (and African) Studies,
DLEF Dravidian Linguistics, Ethnology and Folktales: Collected
 Papers by M. B. Emeneau (1967a)
DS Dravidian Studies: Selected Papers by M. B. Emeneau (1994a)
IIJ Indo-Iranian Journal
IJDL International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics
IL Indian Linguistics
JAF Journal of American Folklore
JAOS Journal of the American Oriental Society
JAS Journal of Asian Studies
LEW Literature: East and West
Lg. Language
LLA Language and Linguistic Area: Essays by M. B. Emeneau (1980a)
PAPS Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society
TPS Transactions of the Philological Society
UCPCP University of California Publications in Classical Philology
UCPL University of California Publications in Linguistics

1930 Ambrose and Cicero. Classical Weekly 24: 49-53.
1931 a. Jambhaladatta's Version of the Vetalapancavimsati. Ph.D.
 Dissertation, Yale University (see 1934a).
 b. Confusion in Prakrit between the Sanskrit Prepositions prati
 and pari. JAOS 51: 33-39.
1933 a. A Note on the Development of the Indo-European Dental
 Groups. Lg. 9: 232-36.
 b. An Interpolation in Some MSS of the Brhatkathamanjari.
 Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 1933: 821-30.
 c. Ksemendra as kavi. JAOS 53: 124-43.
1934 a. Jambhaladatta's Version of the Vetalapancavimsati. American
 Oriental Series, vol. 4. Pp. xxiv + 156. New Haven: American
 Oriental Society. [Text published in Devanagari script by N.
 A. Gore, Poona, 1952. Rpt., New York: Kraus Reprint
 Corporation, 1967.]
 b. (with Maurice Bloomfield and Franklin Edgerton). Vedic
 Variants, vol. III: Noun and Pronoun Inflection. Pp. 513.
 Philadelphia: Linguistic Society of America.
1935 a. A Story of Vikrama's Birth and Accession. JAOS 55: 59-88.
 b. The Dialect of Lunenburg, Nova Scotia. Lg. 11: 140-47.
 c. A Union List of Printed Indic Texts and Translations in
 American Libraries. American Oriental Series, 7. Pp. xvi +
 540. New Haven: American Oriental Society. [Rpt., New York:
 Kraus Reprint Corporation, 1967.]
1936 a. Central Asiatic Versions of the Vetalapancavimsati. Poona
 Orientalist 2: 38-41; 4: 8-10.
 b. Review of L. V. Ramaswami Aiyar, The Evolution of Malayalam
 Morphology. Lg. 12: 300-301.
1937 a. Phonetic Observations on the Brahui Language. BSOAS 8: 981-
 b. American Research in India. Bulletin of the Rama Varma
 Research Institute 5: 62-63.
 c. Toda Marriage Regulations and Taboos. AA 39: 103-12. [Rpt.
 in DLEF 224-32.]
 d. The Songs of the Todas. PAPS 77: 543-60. [Rpt. in DLEF, 258-
 e. Toda Garments and Embroidery. JAOS 57: 277-89.
1937-38 Ritual Games of the Kotas. Bulletin of the Rama Varma Research
 Institute 5: 114-22; 6: 1-6.
1938 a. Personal Names of the Todas. AA 40: 205-23. [Rpt. in DLEF,
 b. Toda Culture Thirty-five Years After: An Acculturation
 Study. Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute
 19: 101-21. [Rpt. in DLEF, 303-17.]
 c. Echo-Words in Toda. New Indian Antiquary 1: 109-17. [Rpt. in
 DLEF, 37-45.]
 d. An Echo-Word Motif in Dravidian Folk-Tales. JAOS 58: 553-70.
 [Rpt. in DLEF, 357-70.]
1939 a. The Vowels of the Badaga Language. Lg. 15: 43-47.
 b. Toda Menstruation Practices. In A Volume of Eastern and
 Indian Studies Presented to Prof. F. W. Thomas on his 72nd
 Birth-day, ed. S. M. Katre and P. K. Gode. Pp. 82-84.
 Bombay: Karnatak Publishing House (for New Indian
 Antiquary). [Rpt. in DLEF, 318-20.]
 c. Kinship and Marriage among the Coorgs. Journal of the Royal
 Asiatic Society of Bengal, Letters 4: 123-47. [Rpt. in DLEF,
 d. The Christian Todas. PAPS 81: 93-106. [Rpt. in DLEF, 321-
 e. The Singing Tribe of Todas. Asia 39: 460-64.
 f. Was there Cross-Cousin Marriage among the Sakyas? JAOS 59:
 g. Another Example of the Echo-Word Motif and Dravidian Folk-
 Tales. JAOS 59: 503-5. [Rpt. in DLEF, 371-73.]
 h. Review of A. Aiyappan, Social and Physical Anthropology of
 the Nayadis of Malabar, and W. V. Grigson, The Maria Gonds
 of Bastar. JAOS 59: 129-33.
 i. Review of H. I. Poleman, A Census of Indic Manuscripts in
 the United States and Canada. JAOS 59: 133-35.
1940 a. A Chatelaine from Coorg, South India. Man 40: 81-82.
 b. A Classical Indian Folk-Tale as a Reported Modern Event: The
 Brahman and the Mongoose. PAPS 83: 503-13. [Rpt. in DLEF,
 c. A Further Note on the Dialect of Lunenburg, Nova Scotia. Lg.
 16: 214-15.
 d. Review of A. X. Soares, Portuguese Vocables in Asiatic
 Languages, from the Portuguese Original of Monsignor
 Sebastiao Rodolfo Dalgado. JAOS 60: 112-14.
 e. Review of Louis H. Gray, Foundations of Language. Classical
 Philology 35: 311-15.
 f. Review of D. L. R. Lorimer, The Burushaski Language; D. L.
 R. Lorimer, The Dumaki Language; and E. O. Lorimer, Language
 Hunting in the Karakoram. Lg. 16: 351-57.
1941 a. The Faithful Dog as Security for a Debt: A Companion to the
 Brahman and the Mongoose Story-Type. JAOS 61: 1-17. [Rpt. in
 DLEF, 383-412.]
 b. Language and Social Forms: A Study of Toda Kinship Terms and
 Dual Descent. In Language, Culture, and Personality: Essays
 in Memory of Edward Sapir, ed. L. Spier, A. I. Hallowell,
 and S. S. Newman. Pp. 158-79. Menasha, Wis.: Banta
 Publishing Company. [Book rpt., Salt Lake City: Univ. of
 Utah Press, 1960.] [Rpt. in DLEF, 233-57.]
 c. Review of D. M. Beach, The Phonetics of the Hottentot
 Language. Lg. 17: 359-61.
 d. Review of A. F. C. Read, Balti Grammar; T Grahame Bailey,
 The Pronunciation of Kashmiri; and Ann K. S. Lambton, Three
 Persian Dialects. JAOS 61: 112-13.
1942 a. A Further Note on the Faithful Dog as Security for a Debt.
 JAOS 62: 339-41. [Rpt. in DLEF, 409-12.]
 b. Review of S. D. Atkins, Pusan in the Rig-Veda. Lg. 18: 62-
 c. Review of La Meri, The Gesture Language of the Hindu Dance.
 JAOS 62: 148-50.
 d. Review of Banikanta Kakati, Assamese, Its Formation and
 Development. Lg. 18: 245-48.
 e. Review of Vishnu S. Sukthankar, The Mahabharata, vols. 5 and
 6. JAOS 62: 205-6.
1943 a. A Dravidian Etymology of the Sanskrit Proper Name Nala.
 UCPCP 12: 255-62. [Rpt. in DLEF, 148-54.]
 b. Studies in the Folk-Tales of India, I: Some Origin Stories
 of the Todas and Kotas. JAOS 63: 158-68. [Rpt. in DLEF, 413-
 c. Franz Boas as a Linguist. AA 45, no. 3, part 2 (Memoir of
 the American Anthropological Association 61, Franz Boas,
 1858-1942), pp. 35-38. [Rpt. in Portraits of Linguists, ed.
 T. A. Sebeok, vol. 2, 122-27. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
 Press, 1966.]
 d. Studies in the Folktales of India, II: The Old Woman and Her
 Pig. JAF 56: 272-88. [Rpt. in DLEF, 427-44.]
 e. Review of A. N. Narasimhia, A Grammar of the Oldest Kanarese
 Inscriptions. Lg. 19: 60-61.
 f. Review of L. Bloomfield, Outline Guide for the Practical
 Study of Foreign Languages, and Bernard Bloch and George L.
 Trager, Outline of Linguistic Analysis. JAOS 63: 208-9.
 g. Review of A. N. Mitchell, A Grammar of Maria Gondi, as
 Spoken by the Bison Horn or Dandami Marias of Bastar State.
 Lg. 19: 276-78.
1944 a. Kota Texts, Part One. UCPL 2: viii + 1-192. Berkeley and Los
 Angeles: Univ. of California Press. [Rpt. of pp. 1-14 in
 DLEF, 465-81, and of pp. 15-35 in DLEF, 64-90.]
 b. (with Diether von den Steinen). A Course in Annamese. Pp.
 iii + 243. Dittoed Materials, Army Specialized Training
 Program, Univ. of California, Berkeley.
 c. (with Ly-du'c-Lam and Diether von den Steinen). An Annamese
 Reader. Pp. 377. Dittoed Materials, Army Specialized
 Training Program. Univ. of California, Berkeley.
 d. The Sinduvara tree in Sanskrit Literature. UCPCP 12: 333-46.
1945 a. (with Diether von den Steinen). Annamese-English Dictionary.
 Pp. iii + 279. Dittoed Materials, Army Specialized Training
 Program, Univ. of California, Berkeley.
 b. (with Archer Taylor). Annamese, Arabic, and Panjabi Riddles.
 JAF 58: 12-20.
 c. The Dravidian Verbs 'Come' and 'Give'. Lg. 21: 184-213.
 [Rpt. in DLEF, 91-122.]
 d. Review of Verrier Elwin, Maria Murder and Suicide. AA 47:
1946 a. Kota Texts, Part Two. UCPL 2: 193-390. Berkeley and Los
 Angeles: Univ. of California Press.
 b. Kota Texts, Part Three. UCPL 3: 1-190. Berkeley and Los
 Angeles: Univ. of California Press.
 c. Kota Texts, Part Four (with folktale analyses by Stith
 Thompson). UCPL 3: iv + 191-374. Berkeley and Los Angeles:
 Univ. of California Press.
 d. The Nasal Phonemes of Sanskrit. Lg. 22: 86-93.
 e. Review of Verrier Elwin, Folktales of Mahakoshal, and
 Verrier Elwin and Shamrao Hivale, Folk-Songs of the Maikal
 Hills. JAF 59: 79-81.
 f. Review of Kenneth L. Pike, Phonetics. American Journal of
 Philology 67: 93-94.
 g. Review of R. N. Dandekar (ed.), Progress of Indic Studies
 1917-1942. JAOS 66: 94.
 h. Review of Jean Kennedy, Here is India. JAOS 66: 95.
 i. Review of Franklin Edgerton, The Mahabharata, vol. 2. JAOS
 66: 267-69.
1947 a. Studies in the Folk-Tales of India, III: Jain Literature and
 Kota Folk-Tales. JAOS 67: 1-13. [Rpt. in DLEF, 445-64.]
 b. Homonyms and Puns in Annamese. Lg. 23: 239-44.
 c. Some Neologisms in '-ize'. American Speech 22: 71-72.
 d. Review of Govind Swamirao Gai, Historical Grammar of Old
 Kannada. Lg. 23: 74-75.
 e. Review of Clarence K. Streit, Hafiz in Quatrains. American
 Oxonian 34: 124-25.
 f. Review of Stanley Newman, Yokuts Language in California. Lg.
 23: 311-12.
 g. Review of Shamrao Hivale, The Pardhans of the Upper Narbala
 Valley. JAF 60: 429.
1948 a. Taboos on Animal Names. Lg. 24: 56-63. [Rpt. in DLEF, 201-
 b. More on the Dravidian Etymologies. Lg. 24: 62; Lg. 24: 180-
 81. [Rpt. in DLEF, 210.]
 c. Review of Jules Bloch, Structure grammaticale des langues
 dravidiennes. Lg. 24: 319-21.
 d. Review of A. L. Kroeber, Anthropology. JAOS 68: 207-8.
1949 a. The Strangling Figs in Sanskrit Literature. UCPCP 13: 345-
 b. Review of R. N. Dandekar, Vedic Bibliography ... of All
 Important Work Done Since 1930. JAOS 69: 176-77.
1950 a. Language and Non-Linguistic Patterns. Lg. 26: 199-209. [Rpt.
 in DLEF, 211-23.]
 b. The American Contribution to Indic Studies: Arts and
 Letters. Journal of the Royal India, Pakistan and Ceylon
 Society 24: 19-21.
 c. Review of D. D. Kosambi, The Epigrams Attributed to
 Bhartrhari, and A. N. Upadhye, Lilavai, a Romantic Kavya in
 Maharastri Prakrit of Kouhala. JAOS 70: 195-97.
1951 a. Studies in Vietnamese (Annamese) Grammar. UCPL 8. Pp. x +
 236. Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press.
 b. Notes on Sriharsa's Naisadhacarita. University of California
 Publications in Semitic Philology 11 (Semitic and Oriental
 Studies Presented to William Popper): 87-102. Berkeley and
 Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press.
 c. Notes on the Kalakacaryakatha. JAOS 71: 174-77.
 d. Review of S. N. Dasgupta and S. K. De, A History of Sanskrit
 Literature, Classical Period, vol. I. JAOS 71: 86-87.
 e. Review of Dr. C. Kunhan Raja Presentation Volume; Acharya
 Dhruva Smaraka Grantha, parts II and III; Shri K. M. Munshi
 Diamond Jubilee Volume, part I; Homage to Vaisali; Sir
 William Jones: Bicentenary of His Birth, Commemoration
 Volume, 1746-1946. JAOS 71: 88-90.
 f. Review of Acarya Sri Hemacandra,
 Trisastisalakapurusacaritra, vol. III: Books IV and V.
 Trans. Helen M. Johnson. JAOS 71: 157.
 g. Review of Kenneth P. Landon, Southeast Asia, Crossroad of
 Religions. The Journal of Religion 31: 76-77.
 h. Review of Verrier Elwin, Myths of Middle India. JAF 64: 329-
1952 a. Sanskrit Sandhi and Exercises. Pp. 28. Berkeley and Los
 Angeles: Univ. of California Press. Revised eds., 1958,
 1966. 2nd revised ed., with B. A. van Nooten, 1968.
 b. Review of P. V. Kane, ed., The Sahityadarpana of Visvanatha,
 with Exhaustive Notes and the History of Sanskrit Poetics.
 JAOS 72: 129-30.
 c. Review of John Brough, Selections from Classical Sanskrit
 Literature, with English Translation and Notes. JAOS 72:
 d. Review of Verrier Elwin, The Tribal Art of Middle India.
 JAOS 72: 200-201.
 e. Review of Verrier Elwin, Bondo Highlander. JAOS 72: 201-2.
1953 a. The Composite Bow in India. PAPS 97: 77-87.
 b. Proto-Dravidian *c-: Toda t-. BSOAS 15: 98-112. [Rpt. in
 DLEF, 46-60.]
 c. The Toda and Sumeria--a Hypothesis Rejected. AA 55: 453-54.
 [Rpt. in DLEF, 61-63.]
 d. Dravidian Kinship Terms. Lg. 29: 339-53. [Rpt. in DLEF, 123-
 e. Obituary of Edward Howard Sturtevant. American Philosophical
 Society, Year Book 1952: 339-43. [Rpt. in Portraits of
 Linguists, ed. T. A. Sebeok, vol. 2: 365-69. Bloomington:
 Indiana Univ. Press, 1966.]
 f. Review of Louis Renou, La grammaire de Panini. JAOS 73: 118-
1954 a. Linguistic Prehistory of India. PAPS 98: 282-92. [Rpt. in
 Tamil Culture 5: 30-55 (1956); DLEF, 155-71; and LLA, 85-
 b. Review of V. R. Ramachandra Dikshitar, Tirukkural of
 Tiruvalluvar with English Translation, and A. Chakravarti,
 Turukkural with English Translation and Commentary and an
 Introduction. JAOS 74: 108-9.
 c. Review of Donald Mackenzie Brown, The White Umbrella: Indian
 Political Thought from Manu to Gandhi. United States
 Quarterly Book Review 10: 220-21.
 d. Foreword (unsigned) to Papers from the Symposium on American
 Indian Linguistics, Held at Berkeley, July 7, 1951. UCPL 10:
 1-2. Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press.
 e. Review of Franklin Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit
 Grammar and Dictionary and Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Reader.
 Lg. 30: 474-85.
1955 a. Kolami, a Dravidian Language. UCPL 12. Pp. xvi + 302.
 Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press. [Rpt.
 AUDLP 2: 1961.]
 b. India and Linguistics. JAOS 75: 145-53. [Rpt. in DLEF, 187-
 200, and LLA, 19-37.]
 c. Signed Verses by Sanskrit Poets. IL 16: 41-52 (S. K.
 Chatterji Jubilee Volume).
 d. Review of Manfred Mayrhofer, Kurzgefasstes etymologisches
 Worterbuch des Altindischen, fasc. 1-4. Lg. 31: 449-56.
1956 a. India as a Linguistic Area. Lg. 32: 3-16. [Rpt. in Language
 in Culture and Society, ed. Dell Hymes. Pp. 642-51. New
 York: Harper and Row, 1964; DLEF, 172-86; and LLA, 105-25.]
 b. Review of Verrier Elwin, Tribal Myths of Orissa, and T.
 Burrow and S. Bhattacharya, The Parji Language. JAF 69:
 c. Review of Mark J. Dresden, The Jatakastava, or Praise of the
 Buddha's Former Births. United States Quarterly Book Review
 12: 176.
1957 a. Toda, a Dravidian Language. Transactions of the Philological
 Society, 1957: 15-66. [Rpt. in DLEF, 1-36.]
 b. Numerals in Comparative Linguistics (with Special Reference
 to Dravidian). Bulletin of the Institute of History and
 Philology, Academia Sinica 29: 1-10 (Y. R. Chao volume).
 [Rpt. in DLEF, 139-47.]
 c. Review of Robert B. Jones, Jr., and U. Khin, The Burmese
 Writing System; Herbert Penzl, A Grammar of Pashto; Roy
 Andrew Miller, The Tibetan System of Writing. JAS 16: 319-
 d. Review of Manfred Mayrhofer, Kurzgefasstes etymologisches
 Worterbuch des Altindischen, fasc. 5-8. Lg. 33: 595-602.
1958 a. Oral Poets of South India--the Todas. JAF 71: 312-24. [Issue
 no. 281 of the journal was republished as Traditional India:
 Structure and Change, ed. Milton Singer. Publications of the
 American Folklore Society, Bibliographical Series, vol. X.
 Philadelphia: American Folklore Society, 1959], 106-18.
 [Rpt. in Language and Culture and Society, ed. Dell Hymes.
 Pp. 330-41. New York: Harper and Row, 1964; also in DLEF,
 b. Some Indian Etymologies. IL 19: 71-74 (Sir Ralph Turner
 Jubilee Volume I).
 c. Review of V. Raghavan, The Indian Heritage, an Anthology of
 Sanskrit Literature. JAS 17: 349-50.
 d. Review of Sudhibhushan Bhattacharya, Ollari, a Dravidian
 Speech. Lg. 34: 161-64.
 e. Review of Manfred Mayrhofer, Kurzgefasstes etymologisches
 Worterbuch des Altindischen, fasc. 9-10. Lg. 34: 408-17.
 f. Obituary of James M. D. Olmsted. American Oxonian 45: 40-42.
1959 a. Sketch of Dravidian Comparative Phonology. Mimeographed
 material, Univ. of California, Berkeley, 1963; Annamalai
 Univ., 1966. [Printed with slight revision, see 1970a.]
 b. Review of Laurits Bodker, Indian Animal Tales. Fabula 2:
 c. Review of Manfred Mayrhofer, Kurzgefasstes etymologisches
 Worterbuch des Altindischen, fasc. 11-12. Lg. 35: 323-28.
 d. Review of Acarya Sri Hemacandra,
 Trisastisalakapurusacaritra, vol. IV. Books VI and VII.
 Trans. Helen M. Johnson. JAOS 79: 48-49.
 e. Review of Stith Thompson and Jonas Balys, The Oral Tales of
 India. JAF 72: 252-53.
1960 a. Sri Harsa's Naisadhacarita and the Mahabharata Critical
 Edition. In Professor P. K. Gode Commemoration Volume, ed.
 H. L. Hariyappa and M. M. Patka. Poona Oriental Series, vol.
 93, 106-12. Poona: Oriental Book Agency.
 b. Nagapasa, nagabandha, sarpabandha, and Related Words.
 Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute 20: 291-
 300 (Sushil Kumar De Felicitation Volume).
 c. [Hindi translation of 1961b]. Hindii-anusilan: Dhirendra
 Varma Visesank, 140-46. Allahabad: Bharatiya Hindi Parisad.
 d. Review of Elementarbuch der Sanskrit-Sprache, by Adolf
 Friedrich Stenzler, revised by Samarendranath Biswas. Lg.
 36: 230-33.
 e. Review of S. Paranavitana, The God of Adam's Peak. JAOS 80:
 f. Review of Manfred Mayrhofer, Kurzgefasstes etymologisches
 Worterbuch des Altindischen, fasc. 13-14. Lg. 36: 539-44.
 g. Review of Wm. Theodore de Bary, Stephen N. Hay, Royal
 Weiler, and Andrew Yarrow, Sources of Indian Tradition.
 Artibus Asiae 23: 140-41.
 h. Priorities among South Asian Languages. In Resources for
 South Asian Language Studies in the United States, ed. W.
 Norman Brown (Report of a Conference Convened by the
 University of Pennsylvania for the United States Office of
 Education, January 15-16, 1960), 51-57.
1961 a. (with T. Burrow). A Dravidian Etymological Dictionary. Pp.
 xxix + 609. Oxford: Clarendon Press. [Rpt. lithographically,
 1966, 1970.]
 b. Brahui Demonstrative Pronouns. Journal of the Asiatic
 Society (Bengal) 3: 1-5. (Hindi translation 1960c.) [Rpt. in
 DS, 17-22.]
 c. North Dravidian Velar Stops. In Te. Po. Mi. Manivira Malar
 (Studies Presented to Professor T. P. Meenakshisundaram).
 Pp. 371-88. Coimbatore. [Rpt. in DS, 1-16.]
 d. Review of J. M. Somasundaram Pillai, Two Thousand Years of
 Tamil Literature. JAS 20: 412-13.
 e. Review of Aryendra Sharma, Beitrage zur vedischen
 Lexikographie. Lg. 37: 271-72.
 f. Review of Sushil Kumar De, History of Sanskrit Poetics. JAOS
 81: 434-35.
1962 a. (with T. Burrow). Dravidian Borrowings from Indo-Aryan. UCPL
 26. Pp. x + 121. Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of
 California Press.
 b. Brahui and Dravidian Comparative Grammar. UCPL 27. Pp. xi +
 91. Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press,
 [Chapter 5, The Position of Brahui in the Dravidian Family,
 62-70; rpt. in LLA, 320-28; Chapter 2, Brahui Vowels, 7-20,
 condensed for LLA, 329-32, also rpt. in DS, 35-48; Chapter
 4, Iranian and Indo-Aryan Influences on Brahui, 47-61, rpt.
 in LLA, 333-49.]
 c. Kalidasa's Abhijnana-sakuntala (Translated from the Bengali
 Recension). Pp. xii + 115. Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ.
 of California Press. [Rpt. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press,
 d. Kalidasa's Sakuntala and the Mahabharata. JAOS 82: 41-44.
 e. Bilingualism and Structural Borrowing. PAPS 106: 430-42.
 [Rpt. in LLA, 38-65.]
 f. Bark Cloth in India--Sanskrit valkala. JAOS 82: 167-70.
 g. New Brahui Etymologies. In Indological Studies in Honor of
 W. Norman Brown, ed. Ernest Bender. American Oriental
 Series, vol. 47. Pp. 59-69. New Haven: American Oriental
 Society. [Rpt. in DS 23-34.]
 h. Review of Albert B. Lord, The Singer of Tales. JAF 75: 67-
 i. Review of Stith Thompson and Warren E. Roberts, Types of
 Indic Oral Tales. JAF 75: 173.
 j. Review of Heinz-Jurgen Pinnow, Versuch einer historischen
 Lautlehre der Kharia-Sprache. JAOS 82: 107-9.
 k. Review of Laurence C. Thompson and Nguyen duc Hiep, A
 Vietnamese Reader. JAOS 82: 139.
 l. Review of John Brough, The Gandhari Dhammapada. JAOS 82:
1963 a. Ootacamund in the Nilgiris: Some Notes. JAOS 83: 188-93.
 [Rpt. in DS 405-13.]
 b. Review of Manfred Mayrhofer, Kurzgefasstes etymologisches
 Worterbuch des Altindischen, fasc. 15-16. Lg. 39: 101-7.
1964 a. Linguistic Desiderata in Baluchistan. In Indo-Iranica:
 Melanges presentes a Georg Morgenstierne a l'occasion de son
 soizantedixieme anniversaire. Pp. 73-77. Wiesbaden: Otto
 b. Franklin Edgerton, Obituary Article and Bibliography. Lg.
 40: 111-23. [Rpt. in Portraits of Linguists, ed. T. A.
 Sebeok, vol. 2: 497-504. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press.]
 c. Obituary of Franklin Edgerton. Journal of the Oriental
 Institute, Baroda 13: 297-98.
 d. Review of D. L. R. Lorimer, Werchikwar English Vocabulary.
 Lg. 40: 304-5.
 e. Review of Acarya Sri Hemacandra,
 Trisastisalakapurusacaritra, vol. 5: Books VIII and IX; vol.
 VI: Book X. Helen M. Johnson. JAOS 84: 196-98.
 f. Review of T Burrow and S. Bhattacharya, A Comparative
 Vocabulary of the Gondi Dialects. Lg. 40: 503-4.
1965 a. India and Historical Grammar. AUDLP 5. Pp. ii + 75.
 Annamalainagar: Annamalai University. [Chapter on "Diffusion
 and Evolution in Comparative Linguistics," 3-24, rpt. in
 LLA, 66-84; Chapter on "India and Linguistic Areas," 25-75,
 rpt. in LLA, 126-66.]
 b. Toda Dream Songs. JAOS 85: 39-44. [Rpt. in DS, 415-22.]
 c. Toda Verbal Art and Sanskritisation. Journal of the Oriental
 Institute, Baroda 14: 273-79 (Dr. Benoytosh Bhattacharya
 Memorial Number). [Rpt. in DS, 423-29.]
 d. Indo-Iranian Words for 'Wormwood'--an IE Etymology. IL 26:
 45-48 (Sukumar Sen Felicitation Volume).
 e. Review of Manfred Mayrhofer, Kurzgefasstes etymologisches
 Worterbuch des Altindischen, fasc. 17-18. Lg. 41: 114-15.
 f. Review of Edward C. Dimock, Jr., The Thief of Love: Bengali
 Tales from Court and Village. Western Folklore 24: 215-16.
1966 a. The Dialects of Old Indo-Aryan. In Ancient Indo-European
 Dialects, ed. Henrik Birnbaum and Jaan Puhvel. Pp. 123-38.
 Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press.
 b. Style and Meaning in an Oral Literature. Lg. 42: 323-45.
 [Rpt. in DS, 431-55.]
 c. Review of Chakravarthi V. Narasimhan, The Mahabharata: An
 English Version Based on Selected Verses. LEW 10: 154-55.
 d. Review of W. Norman Brown, Man in the Universe: Some
 Continuities in Indian Thought. In Americans Abroad, Annals
 of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 368:
 e. Review of W. Norman Brown, The Vasanta Vilasa and The
 Mahimnastava, or Praise of Shiva's Greatness. JAOS 86: 217-
 f. Foreword to M. N. Srinivas, Social Change in Modern India,
 pp. ix-xi. Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California
1967 a. Dravidian Linguistics, Ethnology and Folktales: Collected
 Papers. AUDLP 8. Pp. vii + 487. Annamalainagar: Annamalai
 b. The South Dravidian Languages. JAOS 87: 365-413. [The first
 section also in Proceedings of the First International
 Conference of Tamil Studies, Kuala Lumpur, 1966, vol. 2,
 563-71.] [Rpt. in DS, 71-161.]
 c. Review of Milton Singer, ed., Krishna: Myths, Rites, and
 Attitudes. LEW 11: 83-84.
 d. Review of Bhartrihari: Poems, with the Transliterated
 Sanskrit Text of the Satakatrayam. Trans. Barbara Stoler
 Miller. LEW 11: 430-32.
 e. Linguistics--Berkeley. The Centennial Record of the
 University of California, 90. Berkeley and Los Angeles:
 Univ. of California Press.
1968 a. (with T. Burrow). A Dravidian Etymological Dictionary:
 Supplement. Pp. xi + 185. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
 b. Bhagavadgita Notes. In Melanges d'indianisme a la memoire de
 Louis Renou. Publications de l'Institute de Civilisation
 Indienne, ser. In-8[degrees] fasc. 28. Pp. 269-78.
 c. An Indian Etymology. Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental
 Research Institute 48-49: 55-57 (Golden Jubilee Volume).
 d. Some South Dravidian Noun Formatives. IL 27: 21-30
 (Meenakshisundaran Felicitation Volume, part 1). [Rpt. in
 DS, 163-70.]
 e. Brahui sal-/sali- 'to stand': An Etymology. In Pratidanam:
 Indian, Iranian and Indo-European Studies Presented to
 Franciscus Bernardus Jacobus Kuiper on His Sixtieth
 Birthday, ed. J. C. Heesterman, G. H. Schokker, and V. I.
 Subramoniam. Pp. 339-41. The Hague: Mouton.
 f. Review of C. E. Bazell, J. C. Catford, M. A. K. Halliday,
 and R. H. Robins, eds., In Memory of J. R. Firth.
 International Journal of American Linguistics 34-56.
 g. Foreword to Marilyn May Vihman, compiler and editor, A
 Record of Lectures Delivered before the Linguistics Group at
 the University of California, Berkeley, 1941-1966
 (supplement to Romance Philology 21,4), 1-2.
1969 a. A Dravidian-Sanskrit Etymology. Bulletin of the Institute of
 History and Philology, Academia Sinica 39: 433-38 (Li Fang
 Kuei Volume, part 1).
 b. A Kota Vowel-Shift. Journal of Tamil Studies 1: 21-34. [Rpt.
 in DS, 175-82.]
 c. Onomatopoetics in the Indian Linguistic Area. Lg. 45: 274-
 99. [Rpt. in LLA, 250-93.]
 d. Sanskrit Syntactic Particles--kila, khalu, nunam. IIJ 11:
 e. The Non-Literary Dravidian Languages. In Current Trends in
 Linguistics, vol. 5: Linguistics in South Asia, ed. T. A.
 Sebeok. Pp. 334-42. The Hague: Mouton.
 f. Review of Manfred Mayrhofer, Kurzegefasstes etymologisches
 Worterbuch des Altindischen, fasc. 19. Lg. 45: 373-74.
 g. Foreword to N. Kumaraswami Raja, Post-Nasal Voiceless
 Plosives in Dravidian (AUDLP 18), (1 page unnumbered).
1970 a. Dravidian Comparative Phonology: A Sketch. AUDLP 22. Pp.
 vii + 129. Annamalainagar: Annamalai University. [Slight
 revision of 1959a.]
 b. Kodagu Vowels. JAOS 90: 145-58.
 c. Obituary of Charles Douglas Chretien. University of
 California in Memoriam, December 1970, 19-20.
1971 a. Toda Songs. Pp. xviii + 1004. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
 b. Prakrit Etymological Notes. IL 29: 30-33 (S. M. Katre
 Felicitation Volume).
 c. Dravidian and Indo-Aryan: The Indian Linguistic Area. In
 Symposium on Dravidian Civilization, ed. Andree F. Sjobert.
 Pp. 33-68. Austin and New York: Jenkins Publishing Company,
 Pemberton Press. [Rpt. in LLA, 167-96.]
 d. Kodagu and Brahui Developments of Proto-Dravidian *r. IIJ
 13: 176-96. [Rpt. in DS, 203-22.]
 e. Review of Asko Parpola et al., Proto-Indica: 1968. Brief
 Report on the Investigation of the Proto-Indian Texts;
 Decipherment of the Proto-Dravidian Inscriptions of the
 Indus Civilization: A First Announcement, Progress in the
 Decipherment of the Proto-Dravidian Indus Script, Further
 Progress in the Indus Script Decipherment; and Dieter
 Schrapel, Die Entzifferung des Yatischen. JAOS 91: 541-42.
 f. Review of Garland Cannon, ed., The Letters of Sir William
 Jones. Lg. 47: 959-64.
 g. Review of T Burrow and S. Bhattacharya, The Pengo Language.
 Lingua 28: 197-200.
1972 (with T Burrow). Dravidian Etymological Notes. JAOS 92: 397-
 418, 475-91.
1973 a. Review of Manfred Mayrhofer, Kurzgefasstes etymologisches
 Worterbuch des Altindischen, fasc., 20-22. Lg. 49: 162-67.
 b. Review of Martin Pfeiffer, Elements of Kurux Historical
 Phonology. Journal of the Oriental Institute, Baroda 22:
 c. Review of Kamil Zvelebil, Comparative Dravidian Phonology.
 Linguistics 107: 77-82.
 d. Review of R. E. Asher, ed., Proceedings of the Second
 International Conference-Seminar of Tamil Studies, Madras,
 India, January 1968, vol. I: South Asia. Journal of South
 Asian Studies (Western Australia) 3: 116-17.
1974 a. Ritual Structure and Language Structure of the Todas.
 Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 64.6. Pp.
 103. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.
 b. The Indian Linguistic Area Revisited. IJDL 3: 92-134.
 [Special Issue: Contact and Convergence in South Asian
 Languages, ed. Franklin C. Southworth and Mahadev L. Apte.]
 [Rpt. in LLA, 197-249.]
 c. (with K. Kushalappa Gowda). The Etymology of the Name
 Sayana. JAOS 94: 210-12.
 d. Review of S. V Shanmugam, Dravidian Nouns: A Comparative
 Study. Lingua 33: 388-91.
 e. Review of Martin Pfeiffer, Elements of Kurux Historical
 Phonology. Lg. 50: 755-58.
1975 a. Studies in Dravidian Verb Stem Formation. JAOS 95: 1-24.
 [Rpt. in DS, 223-62.]
 b. Review of Seppo Koskenniemi, Asko Parpola, and Simo Parpola,
 Materials for the Study of the Indus Script, vol. I: A
 Concordance to the Indus Inscriptions. JAOS 95: 138-39.
 c. Review of Manfred Mayrhofer, Kurzgefasstes etymologisches
 Worterbuch des Altindischen, fasc. 23-24. Lg. 51: 467-69.
 d. Review of Noriko Mayeda and W. Norman Brown, Tawi Tales:
 Folk-Tales from Jammu. JAOS 95: 563-64.
 e. Letter on the Late Dr. M. Varadarajan. Journal of Tamil
 Studies 7.1.
1976 a. Personal Names of the Coorgs. JAOS 96: 7-14. [Rpt. in DS,
 b. Letter on the Late Professor T. N. Sreekantaiya.
 Shrikanthatiirtha, xviii. Bangalore: T. S. Nagabhushana.
1977 Review of Manfred Mayrhofer, Kurzgefasstes etymologisches
 Worterbuch des Altindischen, fasc. 25-26. Lg. 53: 917-18.
1978 a. Towards an Onomastics of South Asia. JAOS 98: 113-30.
 b. Review of Colin P. Masica, Defining a Linguistic Area: South
 Asia. Lg. 54: 201-10.
1979 a. Toda Vowels in Non-Initial Syllables. BSOAS 42: 225-34.
 [Rpt. in DS, 275-86.]
 b. Foreword to Madhav M. Deshpande, Sociolinguistic Attitudes
 in India: An Historical Reconstruction. Linguistics Extranea
 Studia, vol. 5, ix-x. Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers.
 c. Linguistic Archaisms in Toda Songs. South Asian Languages
 Analysis, no. 1, 1979 (University of Illinois at Urbana-
 Champaign), 31-45. [Rpt. in DS, 287-302.]
1980 a. Language and Linguistic Area: Essays by Murray B. Emeneau,
 Selected and Introduced by Anwar S. Dil. Pp. xv + 371.
 Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press.
 b. Linguistic Area--Introduction and Continuation. LLA, 1-18.
 c. 'Arm' and 'Leg' in the Indian Linguistic Area. LLA, 294-314.
 d. The Brahui Language. LLA, 315-19.
 e. Author's Postscript. LLA, 350-54.
 f. Sanskrit bhogin- 'wealthy' [right arrow] 'Village headman;
 fisherman, palanquin bearer'. In American Indian and Indo-
 European Studies: Papers in Honor of Madison S. Beeler, ed.
 K. Klar, M. Langdon, and S. Solver. Pp. 315-25. The Hague:
 Mouton. [Rpt. in DS, 175-83.]
 g. Indian Pronominal Demonstrative Bases--a Revision.
 Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley
 Linguistics Society, February 16-18, 1980: 20-27. Berkeley:
 Berkeley Linguistics Society. [Rpt. in DS, 307-15.]
 h. Brahui Laterals from Proto-Dravidian *r. JAOS 100: 311-12.
 Also in Suniti Kumar Chatterji Commemoration Volume, ed.
 Bhakti P. Mallik. Pp. 101-5. University of Burdwan, 1981.
 [Rpt. in DS, 303-6.]
1981 a. Review of Madhav M. Deshpande and Edwin Hook, eds., Aryan
 and Non-Aryan in India. Lg. 57: 468-70.
 b. Review of Rosane Rocher, ed., India and Indology: Selected
 Articles by W. Norman Brown. JAOS 101: 236-38.
1982 Foreword to Golockchandra Goswami, Structure of Assamese, vii-
 viii. Guahati University.
1983 a. Demonstrative Pronominal Bases in the Indian Linguistic
 Area. IJDL 12: 1-17.
 b. A Man of the World. In Tamilaram: Dedicated to the Memory of
 Father Thani Nayagam, ed. Rajan Philipupilla. P. 27. Jaffna,
 Sri Lanka: Theepam Institute.
1984 a. (with T. Burrow). A Dravidian Etymological Dictionary, 2nd
 ed. Pp. xli + 853. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
 b. Toda Grammar and Texts. Memoirs of the American
 Philosophical Society, vol. 155. Pp. xiii + 426.
 Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.
 c. Review of Thomas R. Trautmann, Dravidian Kinship. Lg. 60:
 d. Preface. The Life and Works of Rev. S. X. Thani Nayagam
 [taninayaka atikalin varvum paniyum], by Rev. V. Antony John
 Alayarasan, x-xi. Sri Lanka.
1985 Kannada Kampa, Tamil Kampan: Two Proper Names. JAOS 105: 401-4.
 [Rpt. in DS, 317-22.]
1985-86 Sanskrit and Dravidian. Indologica Taurinensia 13: 61-71.
1986 Obituary of Thomas Burrow. IL 47. [4 pages, unnumbered.]
1987 a. Some Notes on Dravidian Intensives. In Festschrift for Henry
 Hoenigswald on the Occasion of his Seventieth Birthday, ed.
 George Cardona and Norman H. Zide. Pp. 109-13. Tubingen:
 Gunter Narr Verlag. [Rpt. in DS, 323-27.]
 b. The Right Hand is the 'Eating Hand': An Indian Areal
 Linguistic Inquiry. In Dimensions of Social Life: Essays in
 Honor of David G. Mandelbaum, ed. Paul Hocking. Pp. 263-73.
 Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. [Rpt. in DS, 329-38.]
1987-88 Indo-Aryan Origin of Gondi cud(d)- 'Small'. Indological
 Taurinensia 14: 195-99 (Professor Colette Caillat
 Felicitation Volume). [Rpt. in DS, 399-402.]
1988 a. Sanskrit Studies of M. B. Emeneau: Selected Papers, ed. B.
 A. van Nooten. Pp. ix + 213. Berkeley: Center for South and
 Southeast Asia Studies, Univ. of California (Occasional
 Paper 13).
 b. Proto-Dravidian *c- and Its Developments. JAOS 108: 239-68.
 [Rpt. in DS, 339-85.]
 c. Bloomfield and Panini. Lg. 64: 755-60.
 d. A Century of Toda Studies. Review article of Anthony R.
 Walker, The Toda of South India: A New Look. JAOS 108: 605-
 e. Review of William Cowan, Michael K. Koster, and Konrad
 Koerner, eds., New Perspectives in Language, Culture, and
 Personality. Historiographica Linguistica 15: 405-9.
1989 a. Phonetic Laws and Grammatical Categories. Proceedings of the
 Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society
 (February 18-20, 1989), 323-43. Berkeley: Berkeley
 Linguistics Society.
 b. Krsna Steals the Gopis' Clothes: A Folktale Motif. JAOS 109:
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 News from Philosophical Hall 7: 1.5.

Unpublished (1)
2000 a. Some Dravidian Noun Compounds. (Ms).
 b. The Origins of Toda z, [dz] (Ms p. 25).
 c. Origins of Toda yu[dot] (Ms p. 8).
 d. Toda Verb per- 'to be born' (Ms p. 3).
 e. Toda wis- (Ms p. 4).
 f. The Toda Word for 'Badaga' (Ms p. 3).
 g. A Toda Prayer for Kota welfare (Ms p. 3).
 h. Origins of Toda u and u- (Ms p. 11).

1. Professor Emeneau sent these items to me during 1999-2000. One was
published as 2000b. Another article on Toda, which must have been from
the same group, was published as 2002. The other manuscripts were
recently published under two titles: Some Dravidian Noun Compounds, IJDL
35 (2006): 1-7; Toda Studies, IJDL 35 (2006): 9-37.



I thank William Bright for supplying me with a list of Emeneau's publications from 1994 to 2003 and for his useful comments on this article. My thanks also go to Gopinathan Nair, editor of IJDL, for sending me an electronic copy of Emeneau's bibliography published in IJDL 34 (2005), June issue, and to Ramakrishna Reddy and Nagamma Reddy, who prepared the bibliography for the period 1930 to 1994.

1. I was a graduate student in linguistics at the University of California, Berkeley, during 1955-56. During 1954-55, I had completed my first-year courses at the University of Pennsylvania and also at the Linguistics Institute, during the summer of 1955, at the University of Michigan, and came to work with Emeneau on my Ph.D. dissertation in September 1955. I received a Rockefeller Foundation fellowship (on Professor Emeneau's recommendation) to support my study during this second year in the United States. I took two courses with Prof. Emeneau, viz., Rigvedic Reading and Comparative Indo-European in the fall; in the spring I took his seminar on Comparative Dravidian. I thoroughly enjoyed Professor Emeneau's classes, the depth and breadth of his scholarly exposition of problems; I also benefited from training in field methods with Professor Mary Haas. She used a Thai informant in the class, and that was the first time I was able to hear and distinguish contrasts in tones. In the seminar I was able to solve a difficult comparative problem in Dravidian phonology, and Emeneau appreciated my paper, which was later published (Krishnamurti 1958). I benefited from discussing Dravidian data and problems with other classmates like William Jacobsen, who also attended the Dravidian seminar.

During the summer months of June and July 1956, Professor Emeneau met with me on a daily basis, reading sections of my dissertation, meticulously correcting my style, spelling, and argumentation. I shall always remember his kindness in giving so much of his time. I completed two chapters of my dissertation, "Telugu Verbal Bases: A Comparative Study" as volume 1, and an appendix of 1,236 verb roots with etymologies as volume 2. Expanded with two more chapters, this was later published by the University of California in its Linguistics series (see Krishnamurti 1961).

I expressed my gratitude to Professor Emeneau by editing a volume of papers in his honor on his sixtieth birthday (Krishnamurti 1968) and dedicated two of my books to him (Krishnamurti 1969, 2003). Whenever I visited the United States, I made it a point to make a pilgrimage to Berkeley to pay respects to my guru.

2. Writing recently on the phonetics of Toda, Shalev et al. (1994: 19) say: "We, too, have profited enormously from Emeneau's work. We have followed his phonological interpretations, and benefited from his shrewd phonetic insights. We found that the Toda language of today differs in only a few, comparatively small, respects from that described by Emeneau on the basis of his fieldwork over half a century ago."

3. Emeneau was offered the Chair of Professor Edgerton at Yale after the latter's retirement, but he declined when the authorities of the University of California proposed to start a department of linguistics and also agreed to fund graduate students to do fieldwork and write dissertations on the Californian Indian languages under the directorship of Professor Mary Haas (cited by William Bright from Emeneau 1997b).

4. Emeneau's contribution to Sanskrit studies was considerable for over half a century, broadly 1931-86; in 1988 one of his former students in Sanskrit, B. A. van Nooten, edited and published a volume of selected papers of his teacher in Sanskrit (1988a) with a foreword by Emeneau. Emeneau had, by then published four books and nearly thirty papers on topics of Old and Middle Indo-Aryan; of these, twenty-four papers appear in the collection in two parts: literary and philological, 13 papers; linguistic, 11 papers. (For a survey and critical evaluation of Emeneau's contributions to Old and Middle Indic, see Ananthanarayana 2005.)

5. The authors say that the order of languages "is essentially a geographical one, working from south to north. It reflects, however, some of the groupings that are already possible: Ta.-Ma., Ko.-To., Kolami-Naiki (Ch.)-Pa.-Ga., Go.-Konda, Pe.-Manda, Kui-Kuwi, Kur.-Malt...." (DED(R): xxxv). It does not follow the larger subgroups. Actually Telugu should be followed by Gondi-Konda, and not Kolami-Gadaba, both geographically and genetically, since Koya, a dialect of Gondi, is spoken mainly in Andhra Pradesh. I proposed originally that Central Dravidian (Krishnamurti 1961, [section]4.20, pp. 260-61) consisted of what I now call SD II and CD as a single branch of PD. But in the seventies I discovered new evidence to set up Proto-South Dravidian consisting of SD I and SD II, taking the latter out of the original Central Dravidian. Professor Emeneau did not take into account the revised subgrouping that I proposed, nor did he ever discuss with me the arguments against it.

6. Emeneau specified that whenever he used "India," he was referring to greater India of the pre-independence period (Emeneau 1980a: 351, n. 1).

7. I cannot forget the kindness and hospitality of the Emeneaus when they spent six weeks in Coimbatore, India, in 1959, at the Summer School of Linguistics. The school was sponsored and conducted each summer for five years (1955-59) by the Deccan College, Poona, under a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. Emeneau offered a course on comparative Dravidian phonology, and I taught phonetics and phonology. Most of the faculty members were accommodated in an Engineering College hostel. The Emeneaus were lodged in a posh hotel, where every evening they would invite one or two faculty members for dinner. Kitty employed a maid to look after our two small children (one and two years old), so that my wife could enjoy the vacation. The Emeneaus always treated us with great affection.

Emeneau's scholarly integrity and humility were unparalleled. My colleagues at the Department of Linguistics, Osmania University, presented me with a Festschrift on my retirement (Lakshmi Bai et al., 1991). The details were kept a secret from me. When I read the very first article, "Brahui Personal Pronouns: 1st Singular and Reflexive" (page 1), by my guru, Professor Emeneau, I was deeply touched and overwhelmed to read these prefatory lines before his article: "A sastipurti offering to Bh. Krishnamurti, whose studies in Dravidian linguistics have from their beginning been seminal for all who work in the field--from one who has been both his teacher and his pupil, in deep gratitude." How very generous!
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Author:Krishnamurti, Bh.
Publication:The Journal of the American Oriental Society
Article Type:Obituary
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Oct 1, 2005
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