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Long ago and far away....

Publishers Note:

Saul Beck purchased Quick Frozen Foods from Harcourt Brace Jovanovich in 1985. The magazine name was changed to Frozen Food Digest (including Quick Frozen Foods). The following pages contain events and news that were compiled beginning in 1938. Saul Beck Publications also publishes Quick Frozen Frozen Foods Annual Processors Directory & Buyers' Guide.

The first issue was 64 pages, of which 18 were advertising. Among the advertisers in that first issue that are still familiar today were processors Birds Eye, Booth Fisheries, Long Island Duckling; cabinet maker C. V. Hill; warehousemen U.S. Cold Storage, Merchants Refrigerating Company and National Cold Storage; and packaging company DuPont.

Circulation was only 2,000, advertising rates were commensurately low, but despite that the magazine edged into the black with its first issue. This was extraordinary, because the nation was still in the throes of the deepest and most prolonged Depression in its history.

The total volume of frozen foods in 1938 was 268 million pounds. The category with the highest production was frozen fruits, which today has the lowest poundage. In 1938 almost half, 130 million pounds, of everything frozen was fruits. Much of this was bulk, for use in ice cream, for preservers and bakers. Fruits were good items at retail, as well; a fine store might stock peaches, apricots, apples, strawberries, loganberries, gooseberries, cherries, cranberries, red raspberries, blackberries, currants, Persian melons and grapefruit sections. Fruits would remain the primary products through 1947, after which vegetables surged ahead, primarily because of their popularity in the retail cabinets.

The dollar value of all frozen products in 1938 was just $68 million. The main categories, in order of their importance, were fruits, vegetables, seafoods, poultry and meats. There were no frozen prepared foods and no concentrated juices, though a very limited amount of whole orange juice was frozen. There probably were about 200 processors, using the loosest definition of the term - but no one knows for sure, because at that time there was no directory of the industry.

A lot of what was frozen was intended for further processing and sale in a nonfrozen form. Most retail stores had no frozen food cabinets at all. Those that did have them were usually quality stores catering to the carriage trade. Very few supermarkets had any frozen foods. The large department stores like Macy's Bamberger's and Marshall Fields would only that year begin to sell frozen foods in their gourmet departments and were early promoters of the products.

Usually a store kept only one brand because the cabinet was supplied to him either by a large company like Birds Eye or by his distributor. They paid rental or in certain circumstances were loaned the case. Many stores stocked frozen foods in their ice cream cabinets. Virtually all of these cabinets were closed, and a clerk had to be called if the customer wanted to buy a package. It was this fact that retarded the introduction of frozen foods into the supermarkets, because frozen foods were not suitable for self-service. About 90 percent of frozen food sales were bulk or institutional.

There either were signs above the cabinets listing the frozen products and the prices of each (and frozen foods were relatively high in price for the Depression) or glass thermopane windows, through which the packages might be seen - but even in those cabinets, a clerk or the store owner had to secure the package for the customer. Because of the cost of refrigeration and service, coupled with low volume, retailers placed very high mark-ups on frozen products and kept them more as a convenience, regarding them as unprofitable, which they probably were. An estimated 5,000 to 6,000 stores carried frozen foods in 1938. The only storage space the consumer had for frozen foods was the ice cube compartment in the refrigerator. The frozen food packages were rectangular and small in size so they could fit into such compartments.

The word "frozen," when applied to food, had been considered a synonym for "spoiled," for any fresh fruits or vegetables that became frozen by cold weather lost texture and flavor and were virtually inedible. For that reason many of the early brands had names like Honor Brand Frosted Foods Corp., or Birds Eye Frosted Foods. There still are vestiges remaining of that terminology such as the Eastern Frosted Foods Association, which still bears the old designation. QUICK FROZEN FOODS magazine was considered quite daring to use frozen foods in its title, but then, it was dealing directly with the trade and not the public.

It should also be remembered that in 1938 something like 20 per cent of those people 21 to 65 years of age in the labor market were unemployed. A starting salary in most companies of $15 per week was considered fair, and $30 per week was adequate to support a family of four in modest circumstances. Less than two per cent of the high school graduates went on to college, and 40 per cent of American-born children never finished high school. There were no superhighways, radio was the big thing and television sets were not yet available in the stores, though you could build your own if you bought the components. A drawback was that there were no channels to tune in on.

Only certain areas of the United States sold frozen foods at all. Great sections of the country had no cabinets and no distributors, so the products were simply unavailable. That was the situation as the first issue of QUICK FROZEN FOODS appeared, and we have capsulated some of the events - both highlights and fascinating trivia - of the 68 years that our magazine has been the magazine of record, the spokesman, the prophet and the inspirator to the frozen food industry.

1938

August

Super markets: "Some super markets have taken to frozen foods in a big way. This is so in the East, but more especially throughout the Midwest. Most distributors of standard frozen food lines can count anywhere from 2% to 10% of their outlets as super markets. Interesting also is the super market's merchandising attitude towards frosted foods. Some large supers have installed two cases, each with a complete line." - Frozen Foods Forum.

Distribution: "Birds Eye has complete control over its distribution. All advertising is furnished by them - prices are maintained. Price cutting may mean loss of franchise.... Birds Eye...rents the case for $10 to $12.50 a month on a three-year contract...but the case remains their property."

England: Birds Eye established Frosted Foods Ltd. in Great Britain to sell its brand frozen foods, as well as franchise it to other nations; but eventually it was purchased by Unilever and is today the major brand in the United Kingdom, and in tonnage and dollar sales it has at times ranked first in the world.

Warehouse holdings: The first frozen food warehouse holding report in history was published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture this month, and as of July 1, 1938, showed 25 million pounds of fruits and 31 million pounds of vegetables in low-temperature storage. Biggest item is strawberries with almost 11 million pounds, second-biggest is green peas with 10.7 million pounds.

September

Airline feeding: The cover of the issue showed a passenger on United Air Lines eating frozen raspberries as part of her meal.

Shrimp freezing. Birds Eye announced that it would be opening a plant for the freezing of shrimp in Jacksonville, Fla.

October

Retail prices. Frozen spinach (pound), 23[cents]; peas, 25[cents]; peas and carrots, 23[cents]; cauliflower, 19[cents]; baby lima beans, 25[cents]; broccoli, 23[cents]; corn, 23[cents]; two ears corn-on-the-cob, 16[cents].

Clarence Birdseye. Reported manufacturing his newest invention, the Birdseye Reflector lamp, silvered on the inside to control the light without external reflection of any kind.

December

Frozen turkey rolls were suggested by QUICK FROZEN FOODS to increase sales and profitability, and a step-by-step photo sequence of how to prepare them for freezing was presented.

1939

January

England: S. W. Smedley, British frozen food processor, ran first full-page frozen food ad in Great Britain in the London Daily Standard, for Thursday, December 29, 1938, promoting frozen vegetables and berries for New Year's Day celebrations.

February

Chipsteaks. The inventor and first producer of chipsteaks, thinly sliced beef with all the gristle and fat removed, was Earl F. Shores of the Chipsteak Company, Los Angeles, Calif.

Locker plants. Since few homes have freezers, there are plants in hundreds of small towns and some cities where you can rent a low-temperature drawer and store frozen products. These rental places would usually cut up, wrap and freeze sides of beef as well as poultry for customers, and they are beginning to stock and sell frozen foods in commercial packs, as well as pack some themselves. QUICK FROZEN FOODS is catering to them, running articles every issue on their progress.

March

Frozen food pack. QUICK FROZEN FOODS estimates that of all frozen foods produced in 1938, 60% went to further processors, bakeries, ice cream manufacturers and preservers, 30% to the institutional trade and just 10% to the retail stores.

Frosted Foods Institute of California. This group was formed by California industry for the sole purpose of renting an exhibit at the Golden Gate International Exposition of San Francisco Bay, in which they displayed frozen foods and used the slogans: "Fresh summer foods in winter," "Science's Gift to Good Living," and added, "natural flavors," "firm texture," "full vitamin values," "no waste," "sanitary pack," "easily prepared." It was not an association in a true sense, but would meet annually.

Cryovac. The Dewey & Almy Chemical Co. believes it has come up with shrink-wrap of great advantage for packaging frozen poultry.

Birds Eye. At a Chicago dinner Clarence Francis, president of General Foods, reveals that $40 million has been invested in Birds Eye since 1929 and that 4,250 retail stores across the country carry the brand.

1939 New York World's Fair. Birds Eye is the only frozen food company with an exhibit.

April

Fruits. Morris Roth, head of Frigid Food Products, of Detroit, expands to a Cleveland location to increase production of frozen fruits. (This firm is still a leader in that field.)

Trucking: 85% of the refrigerated truck lines still using dry ice to transport frozen foods.

May

Packaging. Bags, primarily cellophane, were in use by 81% of FF packers for at least some products, according to a QFF survey. Some reported using cellophane bags as far back as 1930. In most cases the bags were inserted in the carton, giving double protection and good stacking.

Plant construction. The John Dulany & Sons plant in Exmore, Va., is one of the first built from the ground up specifically for freezing products. Most others have converted from other uses. Vegetables and fruits are the products packed.

June

Eastern Frosted Foods Association. A luncheon meeting is held at the Lincoln Hotel in New York City, presided over by John J. Antun of the Merchants Refrigeration Company, for what would become the nation's first true frozen food association. They call themselves The New York Quick Frozen Foods Luncheon Club, eventually The Eastern Frosted Foods Association.

July

Sales per store. Gross sales of all foods in many small stores (and super markets are still in their early growth stage) across the country are considered adequate at $2,000 a week. Frozen foods sales in these stores, where they carry frozen products, are averaging $20 to $40 weekly.

August

QFF circulation. Getting advertising was tough, but at the end of its first year, QUICK FROZEN FOODS had 4,853 paid subscribers. The magazine filled a need.

World War II. Packers, brokers, transporters, warehousemen and equipment manufacturers see the outbreak of hostilities in Europe as a boost to business.

September

The big three brands: Birds Eye, the Stokely-controlled Honor Brand, and Booth, all strong in retail sizes.

Fresh frozen dogfood: Scientifically blended by Nieman's.

Carrier Corp. This manufacturer of refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment is the first exhibitor to renew space at the New York World's Fair. As part of its exhibit it has an igloo with a frozen food cabinet, stocked with retail products on display.

Door-to-door-sales of frozen foods were instigated by BobWhite Frosted Foods, New York, N.Y., which sold products to housewives on a regular route from a refrigerated truck. During the forties and even into the fifties, there were hundreds of such businesses. Macy's and Bamberger's department store would also deliver with dry ice and Jiffy bags.

December

Full-color frozen food advertisement, a first, appeared on the inside back cover of the Saturday Evening Post, paid for by Du Pont Cellophane, then a leader in frozen food packaging.

Frozen lamb. A trial shipment, pre-cut, individually wrapped in cellophane, was shipped from Iceland. Tests were made under direction of QUICK FROZEN FOODS special representative Roy M. Cohen.

Midwestern Frozen Food Association organized by QUICK FROZEN FOODS at the Hotel Auditorium, December 13, 1939, along the lines of the previously-formed New York group. Price of attendance is the cost of the Chicago luncheon, $1.00.

1940

January

Birds Eye drops price control. Under George Mentley, that primary brand announces that it would no longer enforce price controls on its products, and retailers could now charge whatever they wished. That it would also abandon its policy of renting cabinets, and retailers could use their own or purchase them outright. Birds Eye had 4,400 cabinets on rental and would apply rental money already paid by retailer toward the purchase of the cabinet. Simultaneously it was taking a 22-page schedule in Life magazine for 1940, including some in four-color, to promote its products.

First National Frozen Food Meeting sponsored by QUICK FROZEN FOODS magazine in conjunction with the National Canners Association Convention in Chicago, on January 23, 1940, at the Auditorium Hotel. Two hundred attend and 50 have to be turned away for lack of accommodations. Chairman is John J. Antun and among the featured speakers is H. C. Diehl of the U.S. Frozen Food Laboratories in Seattle, Wash. There are exhibits by 27 members of the frozen food industry. L. F. Noonan, a processor who heads the Frosted Food Institute of California, says that it is now a group of packers dedicated to improving business in that state. At the end of 1939, there were 375 stores with frozen food cabinets in the entire state of California!

February

Good Humor is now using its trucks in the-winter, selling 23 different frozen fruits and vegetables door-to-door, beginning January 19, 1940, in the Newark and Elizabeth, N.J., environs. Super markets regard it as good advertising for frozen products, all of which are Good Humor brand.

Quick Frozen Foods now claims 7,000 circulation.

April

Refrigerator with freezer compartment built by Philco promoted by an offer of 21 packages of Birds Eye frozen foods for anyone who buys it. This sparks tie-ins by other processors with refrigerator manufacturers.

Frosted Foods Association of New York. The New York Quick Frozen Foods Luncheon club, which had met 10 times since May 1939, decided to formalize activities, and John Antun was elected president. Dues were set at $10 a year. The group has been averaging 60 a meeting.

California: Frozen food sales, which reached an estimated $350,000 in 1939, is given a shot in the arm when Golden State Dairy, of San Francisco, receives a statewide franchise for the distribution of Birds Eye frozen foods. Birds Eye announces that this would bring the total number of stores selling its products to 7,000, but in spite of this the brand is still unprofitable. It would not renew its exhibit for the second year at the World's Fair on which it had spent $170,000.

May

Statistics. In the absence of any industry body collecting production figures, QUICK FROZEN FOODS begins a comprehensive survey of all packers and estimates seem to indicate a 45% increase in frozen food output in 1939.

Ice cream law blocks frozen. Laws passed many years earlier to keep any other products out of ice cream cabinets on a state-by-state basis effectively slow down the distribution of frozen foods, even though the ice cream companies intended them only to keep butter and other dairy products out of their cabinets. The long-range effect will be good, because it forces distributors to place frozen food cabinets in their customers' stores.

American Medical Association votes to consider placing frozen foods on list of acceptable foods with high nutritive value, predominantly due to the research papers of Clarence Birdseye, J. G. Woodroof, Donald K. Tressler, H. C. Diehl, M. A. Joslyn and C. F. Evers - all the papers published in trade magazines and all regular contributors to QUICK FROZEN FOODS. The first product cleared is Birds Eye peas, given the seal of acceptance by The Council on Foods of The American Medical Association.

June

The Eastern Frosted Foods Association makes an arrangement with Carrier Corp., exhibiting refrigeration at the New York World's Fair, to exhibit retail frozen foods. The only cost to participating members is the salary of an attendee and the product displayed. They also arrange a retail Frozen Food Week promotion.

Iceland. The Federation of Iceland Cooperative Societies, Reykjavik, Iceland, opens an office in New York City, feeling there might be a market for its frozen fish in this country.

July

Snider Packing, Rochester, N.Y., has entered frozen under its own label, made famous by ketchup, with peas, asparagus and spinach.

Booth Fisheries. A net income of $153,502.57 for that firm's fiscal year, $100,000 more than the previous year, is announced by president R. P. Fletcher Jr.

August

Low-temperature cabinets. Sales increasing at 100% annually, with 12,000 cabinets now thought. to be in stores. Retail voluntaries and cooperatives lead the field in rate of cabinet installation, whereas corporate chains hold back.

Self-serve cabinets. Schaefer offers center aisle or wall cabinets, with sliding glass doors of thermopane, so the consumer can select own package. Automatic elevator lifts move a new package to the height of the one removed. A major advance in FF merchandising.

Thaw-pack orange juice made available by Citrifrost Corp., Pico, Calif., in a quart-size pliofilm bag that could remain five days in the refrigerator after thawing. The juice is whole juice.

Brand names. QUICK FROZEN FOODS begins the world's first directory of frozen brand names in its August 1940 issue.

Flowers. A Mobile, Ala., cold storage warehouse manager, A. A. Richards, of Alabama State Docks, announces that he has successfully frozen peonies and gladiolis. They keep indefinitely, and when thawed out are like fresh-picked.

Cooked foods. The brand name "Magic Meals" registered by California Consumers Corp., Los Angeles, preparatory to marketing cooked frozen products including roast turkey, halibut steak, vegetable soup and a barbecue sauce.

Distributors. Lists of distributors from all over the country who want to buy frozen food from packers published in QUICK FROZEN FOODS. For example, in October 1940: "Mercantile, Inc., Milbank, S.D., are interested in distributing a complete line of quick frozen foods. They have a fleet of refrigerated trucks and cover thirteen counties in South Dakota and nine counties in Minnesota." That distributor is still in the frozen food business, both retail and institutional, and may have gotten its start in frozen from that notice.

November

Clarence Birdseye, currently with Gravity Froster Corporation, Boston, Mass., in one of a number of feature articles especially written for QUICK FROZEN FOODS, offers chapter and verse on quality control. For example, fresh-caught pollock left on a dock in the summer will be "sunburned" in six hours, and in the winter will begin to slow freeze, but if immediately iced will stay in good condition for five days.

Pel-freez was registered by H. F. Pelphrey & Son, Los Angeles, on July 15, 1940, as a trade name for frozen California domestic rabbits.

A & P registered "Polestar" as a trade name for its private label frozen fish fillets, on July 2, 1940.

December

Home freezers. Initially promoted hard by Deepfreeze Division of Motor Products Corporation to packers and distributors for placement in stores, these units are round with a single cover on top and compressor attached. The company opened a show room in Detroit, with 45 operating units on display, stuffed with frozen foods.

First all-frozen-food store: the Frostar Market, White Plains, N.Y., with 23 Deepfreeze cabinets lining a wall, with signs in back of each telling what products are in them. The reason the store uses home-freezer-type units for display is that it is also the authorized agency for their sale. The food prices are criticized as "unnecessarily low" by other food stores in the area, because vegetables are 15 to 33 cents a package. Average sale is 80 cents, and the store is serving 150 customers a day.

1941

January

Individually Quick Frozen or IQF products, called "loose pack," gaining interest.

February

Baked goods. Quick frozen cakes, pies, biscuits, cookies, batters, yeast rolls all practical, Purdue University experimenters report. Why doesn't someone do it?

First National Frozen Food Convention and Exhibition, sponsored by QUICK FROZEN FOODS magazine, is held at the Auditorium Hotel, Chicago, Ill., Jan. 21-24, 1941. There are 1,500 people in attendance and 21 frozen food exhibits. Among the exhibitors: Honor Brand, Armour, Swift, Booth, Priebe, Snider, BobWhite, Deepfreeze and Cedergreen. There were 200 at the Annual Frozen Food Luncheon. Among the speakers, Dr. J. G. Woodroof, of the Georgia Experiment Station of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, said: "The vitamins in frozen products are really higher than those in the fresh products, that is, out-of-season products.... Vitamins in frozen products, particulary A and C, are the highest vitamins that you can get of any obtainable source out-of-season." Hotel rates were $2.50 with bath, $1.50 without.

April

Quick Frozen Foods and The Locker Plant becomes the name of the magazine; the locker plants are the margin of survival for the publication.

Tin cans are becoming scarce, and it is predicted that frozen foods which could be marketed in paper might benefit as a result.

Frozen ground coffee packed for BobWhite, home delivery frozen food company. Freezing prevents oils in coffee from turning rancid, thereby providing better flavor.

Frick freezer. A "Blizzard Freezer" announced by Frick. This box-like affair has doors for carts of products to be frozen. Inside, air is circulated at 40 to 50 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. The freezer has a capacity of 6,000 pounds a day.

July

Refrigerated trucks. An estimated 5,000 trucks capable of transporting frozen foods are in use.

August

Institutional distributors. Twenty-four are recorded by QUICK FROZEN FOODS as adding retail sizes of frozen products, where previously they had not done that type of business.

September

Self-service frozen foods are fitting into super markets through use of transparent, sliding glass-top cabinets. High-Low Food Markets, Chicago, has installed them in 25 stores.

December

R. H. Macy, New York, triples the space for frozen foods in its store.

1942

February

War and frozen foods: "It may well be the literal making of the frozen foods industry. Shortages which may become apparent in domestic distribution of fruits and vegetables can be supplied by quick frozen foods. The industry may make greater strides in the next two years than it has made in the entire time since its inception." - Editorial.

National Association of Frozen Food Packers. Under leadership of E. T. Gibson, Birds Eye head, leading processors of frozen foods assembled January 25, 1942, at the Blackstone Hotel, Chicago, and in four hours formed a national association with Gibson as president; Ralph O. Dulany, John H. Dulany & Son, vice president; John N. Seaman, Bozeman Canning Co., vice president; and A. E. Stevens, Birds Eye, temporary secretary. The meeting was held the day before The Second National Quick Frozen Foods Exposition at the La Salle Hotel, Chicago, Jan. 26-29, 1942, sponsored by QUICK FROZEN FOODS magazine.

The Second National Convention. There were 1,300 visitors and 35 exhibitors. Announcement of the formation of the National Association of Frozen Food Packers was made by Gibson at the Frozen Food Forum Luncheon on Jan. 27 to an attendance of 400: "We recognized the need in Washington for accurate information about the frozen foods industry and the need in behalf of the industry itself of having a spokesman who could speak, not for individual companies, but for the producing side of the industry, particularly, which is what Washington is interested in today."

March

Mechanical refrigeration of trucks. Truckers on the West Coast had been discouraged because dry ice could not hold the products properly. However, increasing use of mechanical refrigeration is bringing truckers into favor again. One trucker claimed transporting 25 million pounds in nine Western states during a single year.

Jewel Tea, Chicago retail food chain, is installing FF cabinets in all of its 150 stores.

Hors d'oeuvres are frozen with 10 different fillings by Dover D'oeuvres, New York, N.Y. They are prepared in rolls which are thawed and sliced.

Home freezers. DeepFreeze Company is employing door-to-door salesmen to sell home freezers, trying everything from supplying food themselves to linking up with the customer's favorite store, but it is tough going.

April

FF men to government: A. E. Stevens, Birds Eye vice president, goes to Washington, D.C., as Administrator of the Fruit & Vegetable section of the Office of Price Administration. Many other important frozen food people move into permanent and consultancy government posts.

Dog food. Rolled dog food in pound sizes is being packed by Herbert A. Nieman Co., Thiensville, Wis. Shortage of tin is moving some dog food packers into frozen.

May

Macy's in New York City advertises home freezers manufactured by Schaefer, Inc., at $259, and is willing to extend credit for payment.

July

Price ceilings. Through the efforts of the National Association of Frozen Food Packers, very fair price ceilings for packer, distributor and retailer of frozen foods - with the option to pass price increases along - are promulgated by the government. This ensures profitability in frozen foods for all handling them.

Larry Martin elected secretary of the National Association of Frozen Food Packers. Martin had been in charge of the Quick-Frozen Foods Division of the U.S. Office of Price Administration (OPA). He replaces temporary officer Edgar M. Burns, Oregon packer.

August

Prepared Foods. Chicken a la king, roast turkey, lobster a la Newburg and halibut a la king all marketed by Frost-Cooked Foods, Inc., Boston.

F. G. Lamb & Co., Freewater, Ore., has undertaken to freeze four million pounds of peas for the Campbell Soup Co.

Baked beans in frozen form introduced by Birds Eye.

September

Corn beef hash in frozen form marketed by National Frosted Foods, New York City distributor. The product is frozen in Argentina in one pound blocks.

Ocean Garden brand granted to Marine Products Company, San Diego, Calif., for frozen shrimp. (Trademark was applied for in 1939.)

The Locker Plant, a separate section which literally splits the magazine in two, is started. All editorial and advertising matter related to locker plants is included in this section, which is frequently half the size of the total magazine.

October

100% production increase is requested of the frozen food industry by he government, which states that it will issue priorities for obtaining equipment. The biggest problem is not obtaining equipment, but labor.

The Pennsylvania Railroad says frozen foods are a godsend for their dining cars, because of indeterminate number of people who may eat dinner.

Mixed vegetables, five vegetables in one package, are going over strong for Birds Eye.

Circulation of QFF now guaranteed at 8,000, including 416 copies to packers, 1,719 to wholesale distributors of quick frozen foods, 1,241 to ice cream companies, dairies & creameries and 4,428 to refrigerated locker plants.

November

Pack figures issued by the National Association of Frozen Food Packers for 1941: 107 million pounds of frozen fruits and 97 million pounds of frozen vegetables.

December

Dehydration. Government urging frozen food packers to go into dehydrated foods, wanting 400 million pounds in 1943, and making it very easy for them to get equipment. Some are responding.

National Frozen Food Packers Association sponsors session at Food Processors Conference, at the Palmer House. Chicago, Dec. 16, 1942, in which WPB (War Production Board) officials told the food industry what would be expected of them. There were 300 present, and they learned that four million pounds of metal had been allocated for the frozen food industry, primarily for equipment. No tin at all for cans. No priorities will be needed for paper packaging. Small packers can submit proposals for expansion. Draft deferments were available for essential agricultural workers, and there could be shifting of workers from nonessential crops, special training of workers and student and volunteer work. The industry suggested Mexican labor, woman and child labor and Army recruit labor. A packer could borrow up to 25% against amount to be supplied Army.

War Production Board tells the FF industry it will need 7 million additional pounds of frozen vegetables and fruits during 1943 to feed the Armed Forces. The 21 largest packers are producing 97% of all frozen fruits and vegetables. That includes everyone who packed more than 1.3 million pounds.

1943

February

Government purchases. Virtually all the government demands of the frozen foods fruit and vegetable packers for 71 million pounds of product is offered. "This is indeed a momentous achievement for so young an industry," wrote QFF, "It bespeaks efficiency, organization, and willingness to aid in the war effort."

Rationing. The government puts many frozen foods under point rationing; however, the number of points needed to buy a package of frozen foods was far less than that needed for identical canned foods. For example, equivalent weight of peas were 10 points for frozen and 16 for canned, so the consumer could buy more food by switching to frozen. Every newspaper in America, and every retail food store handling frozen, printed or posted signs indicating the points needed. It was an incredible advertisement for frozen foods and at a time when they had a rationing advantage.

March

Institutional sales halt. The Eastern Frosted Foods Association sends a committee of institutional distributors to Washington, D.C., on March 16 to appeal for relief, because lack of points and specific regulation prevent buying existing stocks in warehouses. The meeting is held with James Stout of the OPA. Some distributors report no sales in containers under 10 pounds in three weeks.

Ice cream. Government order limiting ice cream industry to only 65% of milk fat and milk solids offered opportunity to up the fruit content and increase the total supply by as much as 10%. This fruit could be supplied in frozen form since tin was unavailable.

Preserves. Any extra cost involved in buying frozen fruits for use in jams and jellies can be passed on to the customer, the government rules.

Price supports. The government agrees to buy peas, corn, lima beans, snap beans and some fruits from farmers at 1943 support prices and to resell them to freezers at 1942 lower prices, providing a subsidy and limiting inflationary impact.

Points reduced. Because frozen food inventories are piling up in the warehouses, the government reduces requirements four points a pound.

Institutional sales dropped from 42% to 65% as a rationing point system was awaited.

Army transport. The 71 million pounds of frozen vegetables purchased by the Army will be moved in 2,500 carloads from May through December 1943.

Dehydration section. The move to dehydration, encouraged by the government, is so precipitous that QFF puts in a special section to run monthly.

Prepared foods. Many prepared foods have no ration points put on them at all, so many small companies begin to freeze them. Among them, Red-E-Foods, Inc., Rochester, N.Y., has fish and clam chowder, chicken chili among other items.

May

Point pick-up. Sales of retail frozen foods increased 48%, and institutional, 27%, the two weeks following drop in points required to buy them. Up to then, 4.6% of consumers' points were spent for retail frozen. In the last two weeks, 8% of available points spent for frozen.

General Foods buys Snider, and a new Snider division is formed. Since General Foods owns Birds Eye, the frozen part of Snider's business is merged into that label.

June

"Bible of the Industry." That phrase, which has today become standard regarding QUICK FROZEN FOODS. first used.

Distributor relief. A ruling anticipated for July will allow institutional distributors a 29% markup on frozen foods. This will permit them to resume normal business.

July

Quick Frozen Foods Confidential Newsletter, a weekly mimeographed paper, is established to give readers instant information on what is happening in Washington, D.C., regarding wartime legislation on frozen foods.

November

Point increase. An across-the-board increase on frozen vegetables, doubling and tripling amount of points needed, causes consternation in view of a pack predicted at 100% greater. Eastern Frosted Food Association of N.Y. and Quick Frozen Foods Association of Chicago file protests to Washington. OPA also discourages packing institutional sizes in particular.

December

Frozen tomatoes, first blanched and then frozen whole in 30-pound containers are available from the Loughead Packing Company, Fresno, Calif.

Refrigeration Research Foundation formed as an adjunct of the National Association of Refrigerated Warehouses, November 18, 1943, in Chicago. H. C. Diehl, chief of commodity Processing Division of Western Regional Research Laboratory, Albany, Calif., has requested release from the government to act as its director.

1944

January

Frozen food store. Deepfreeze Motor Products, manufacturer of home freezers, has opened an all-frozen food store in Hubbard Woods, near Chicago, delivering frozen foods to the homes of freezer owners.

Birds Eye-Snider Division formed within the General Foods organization combining processing and distribution operations under one head.

Ed White resigns as head of Honor Brand and opens brokerage in San Francisco.

February

Production. Out of anticipated 240 million pounds of frozen vegetables for the crop year ended June 30, 1944, the Army will take 74 million pounds.

Ralph Dulany elected president of the National Association of Frozen Food Packers.

Post-War frozen food cabinets. Two meetings were held by QUICK FROZEN FOODS in cooperation with the Eastern Frosted Foods Association and the Chicago Association on January 20th and February 15th respectively on the problem of expansion of retail cabinets after the War. The two meetings were attended by over 500.

William O. Vilter, president of the Vilter Manufacturing Co. Milwaukee, major manufacturer of ammonia compressors for freezing plants, dies at age 62.

Clarence Birdseye sees bright future (15 years off) for dehydrated foods, agrees to join technical advisory board of QUICK FROZEN FOODS.

April

Self-service cabinets. In survey by QUICK FROZEN FOODS of super markets, it is found that 95% prefer self-service frozen food cabinets.

Kold Kist Frozen Foods and Kermin Products are two of half-dozen new frozen prepared food companies in Los Angeles.

June

Whole orange juice frozen in glass under Cold Gold brand by Pure Fruit Juices of Los Angeles. Agitation of the juice while freezing leaves air space in center of container and the additional expansion of juice on freezing is inward, preventing jar from breaking under pressure.

375 foods frozen successfully are listed by QUICK FROZEN FOODS.

Governor Dewey of New York, Republican candidate for President of the United States, turns out to be a frozen food user and endorses the industry as one with a future.

Apple sauce. A flood of companies, including the largest, Birds Eye, rush into freezing it.

Orange juice concentrate. Freezing concentrated juice rather than whole juice is the only practical answer to creating a new industry, states Arthur L. Stahl of the Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, Fla. Experiments with freeze concentration have produced distinctly superior results, and several other methods are available.

October

Distributors beg for product. Some estimated 500 wholesale distributors who want to handle frozen foods are on the waiting list of leading packers to get priority when more product is available.

British Columbia Packers Ltd., Vancouver, announces plans to go into freezing of fish, specifically fillets, as soon as the War is over.

November

Frozen food stores. First all-frozen food store in White Plains, N.Y., so successful that Frostar is opening up two new ones in the area. Idea has already begun to spread to other parts of the country, including a new one in Washington, D.C., by Deepfreeze.

December

Automatic dispensing cabinet for frozen foods - solid wall unit, with each item in a different compartment just as foods are sold in the Automat - is now being sold to stores by Refrigeration Corporation of America, New York.

Soy bean products are experimentally being frozen as possible extenders or substitutes for meat products.

Can the ice man sell FF? J. Clark Bennett in a talk before convention of the National Association of Ice Industries asked the ice men to consider possibility of door-to-door sales to people with home freezers.

Western Frozen Food Association organized November 8, 1944, at the Palace Hotel, San Francisco, with Ted Aronson of Santa Clara Frosted Foods as its first president.

L. Bamberger & Co., Newark, N.J., largest department store in the state, will process, freeze and sell a line of precooked frozen foods.

Marathon Corp. new name of Menasha Products Co., Menasha, Wis., major supplier of frozen food packaging.

1945

January

Cancelled conventions. The National Association of Frozen Food Packers and the National Canners Association have cancelled their planned annual meets due to War conditions. QUICK FROZEN FOODS has cancelled its annual Frozen Food Forum Luncheon.

Brand names. There are 250 different brand names in the frozen food industry.

Vertical freezer. Prominent refrigeration engineer Van Rensselaer H. Greene invents a freezer with trays fed into the bottom and moved upward, freezing in the process of rising, and discharged at the top. The unit can hold 50 trays and freeze up to 2,000 pounds an hour including IQF. It works continuously. For his achievement Green is invited to join the QUICK FROZEN FOODS technical staff and accepts.

February

Seabrook Farms is a new label, launched by The Deerfield Packing Co., Bridgeton, N.J., for its retail products. Deerfield is the largest frozen vegetable packer in America.

March

Frigid-Dough, freezer of raw dough products, has opened a retail store exclusively for the sale of frozen fruit pies, chicken pies, cookies, cloverleaf rolls, muffins. Products are baked off by the housewife.

The California Frozen Food Institute formed by Frank Wright Foundation in San Francisco. Aim is to promote frozen products, educate production and marketing men and coordinate efforts of California processors and allied industries.

April

Complete frozen dinner developed by W. L. Maxson Corp., New York. Each meal consists of meat, vegetables and potatoes in a three-compartmented round tray. All components processed to heat simultaneously and pyrex or bakeware tray are disposable. Entire output taken by the Army, which utilizes a Whirlwind oven that heats six meals simultaneously in airplanes. Typical menus include: steak, french fried potatoes and carrots; meat loaf, candied sweet potatoes and spinach, etc.

June

Froz-n Coff-e introduced by Cusak Coffee Company, Los Angeles, contains enough concentrate for three to five cups in a cup-shaped container, six for 30 cents.

The Story of the Frozen Foods Industry ... and the Magazine That Grew Up With It published as a brochure by QUICK FROZEN FOODS.

Ben E. Keith Company, distributor from Fort Worth, Tex., takes quarter page ad in QUICK FROZEN FOODS reading: "Exceptional Opportunity for distribution of Quality Institutional Lines of Frozen Foods. Correspondence solicited from quality packers. Largest distributors of fresh and frozen fruits and vegetables in the Southwest."

July

First 1945 Pocket Directory of Frozen Food Packers published by QUICK FROZEN FOODS, containing 256 pages and priced at $2.00.

Frozen pie crust developed by Mrs. Mason's Original Frosted Pie Crust, New York City. It is sold in a roll like a salami and must be thawed, rolled, placed in a pie tin and baked. It retails for 34 cents and there is also a one-pound institutional package.

September

Frozen meat pies, frozen dinners, frozen fruit pies offered by the Cease Commissary Service, Dunkirk, N. Y.

Dehydration "boom" collapses and QFF drops section.

October

Frozen Food Store special section inaugurated.

"Yellow" Section of News, Markets, Prices and People inaugurated.

QFF now has 7,800 readers, of whom 5,200 are paid subscribers.

Smedley head to visit U. S. from England to buy freezing equipment.

All War controls off freezing equipment as of October 1, 1945. Scramble for available material.

November

An industry convention. QUICK FROZEN FOODS editorializes that the frozen food people should have a separate convention, not connected with the canners, and that it be sponsored by the National Association of Frozen Food Packers.

Snowcrop Marketers, Inc., formed in Los Angeles, headed by J. I. Moone, former division manager of Birds Eye-Snider. Will market complete retail line of frozen fruits and vegetables.

Long Island Duck Packing Corp. to building a freezing plant with a 75 million pound a year capacity.

December

Clarence Birdseye tries to save the disappearing dehydration industry with a new process producing flavors superior to anything yet seen, but after testing the products QFF concluded: "They represent the greatest improvement yet made on preservation by dehydration ... but to frozen foods, no threat."

No improvement in the quality of frozen foods for the past five years, QFF asserts, and predicts that if new research is not forthcoming the industry will have a disaster.

J. G. Woodroof, chief food technologist of the Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station, joins QFF staff as Technical Editor.

Rich Products Corp., Buffalo, N.Y., has developed a nondairy product called "Whip Topping" as an alternative for war-shod whipped cream. The product has a soy base and its first promotion is a quarter-page advertisement in QFF seeking distributors. The product is packed in a tapered milk-type container.

Advertising Club. QFF, on December 20, 1945, assembled hundreds of leading advertising agency men at the Advertising Club of New York to eat an all-frozen-food luncheon and listen to Clarence Birdseye speak.

Orange juice concentrate. Freezing was begun by Florida Frozen Fruits, Inc., in March 1945. Among executives is Charles M. Henderson.

1946

February

First postwar convention of frozen food packers Feb. 2-7, 1946, attended by 900.

National Wholesale Frozen Food Distributors, Inc., newly-formed organization today known as the National Frozen Food Association, represented by its second vice-president, William M. Walsh at the packers' convention. He reported his association had 75 members and asked for the formation of a committee linking the two associations.

French fried potatoes, Maxson enters the field with the first retail package of french fries.

Pasco Packing Company to build largest orange concentrate freezing plant in Florida, expected to be in full operation in Dade City sometime in 1947.

Link between associations. Burton Prince, president of the new distributors' association, appoints William Walsh of Morrison & McCluan, Pittsburgh, as chairman of the advisory committee to confer with the packers' association on cooperative action.

Donald K. Tressler, Ph.D., outstanding food technologist who helped perfect the blanching process for frozen foods, opens his own food laboratory in Westport, Conn.

May

Jeno's Frozen Salad Vegetables with bean sprouts, 12-ounce package, out of Duluth, Minn., first frozen venture of Jeno Paulucci.

Southeastern Frozen Foods Association organized April 19, 1945 in Macon, Ga., with H. C. Bateman of Bateman Frozen Foods as its president.

Bumble Bee brand quick frozen fish fillets in five-pound institutional pack available from Columbia River Packers Association.

June

The Frozen Food Critic by Laura Track begins this month. It would run until her death in 1972. She bought retail products at random and prepared them according to instructions and, as a trained home economist, told things the way she saw them. For the first time in history frozen french fries were tested. She said the taste was good but that heating instructions were too short, a crisper product would result in a slightly better flavor with longer heating.

Birdseye boil-in-bag. Clarence Birdseye says he has tested scores of products since 1932, and freezing them in a plastic pouch produced a superior product and made it possible to heat them in boiling water.

Aluminum. Dr. T. M. Hill of the Foil Division of the Aluminum Company of America suggests that there might be a wider future for aluminum in frozen foods packaging. At present there are foil laminated boxes and foil wrappers but no foil containers.

C. A. Swanson & Sons, Omaha, has gone into frozen chicken a la king, chicken fricassee, chicken salad and chicken chow mein in addition to its line of raw frozen poultry products.

Southern fried chicken is being produced by K. C. Food Products, Newark, N.J., along with a wide line of other cooked products including french fries to go with the chicken.

Hot hers d'oeuvres in frozen form marketed by Kathleen Watson Kelley, New York, as well as cold hers d'oeuvres.

Bridgeford Company, San Diego, Calif., is producing corned beef hash as well as a line of frozen fruits and vegetables.

Prepared foods. So many packers are entering the frozen prepared foods business that QUICK FROZEN FOODS has a special section titled "Cooked and Prepared Foods," mentioning as many as 20 new companies per issue.

J. R. Simplot plans to freeze potatoes in Nampa, Idaho.

Foil package made from thin aluminum sheet has been developed by Bjorksten Laboratories, Chicago. It can pack almost any solid or liquid food product with maximum protection, offering rigidity, and can be used to reheat product. Does not transmit any odor to product.

August

Frozen retail dinners, produced by Maxson, to be sold to the public for the first time starting September 20, 1946, at L. Bamberger & Co., New Jersey's largest department store, in Newark, N.J. Ten different meals will be offered, each with a main course and two vegetables in a three-compartmented platter. They will be called "Strato-Meals."

Minute Maid introduced institutional sizes of frozen orange concentrate May 1, 1946.

Snow Crop introduces first retail package of frozen orange concentrate in a 6-ounce tin in New York and Philadelphia in July 1946.

September

Mobile frozen food stores. The first of what would become hundreds of stores on wheels, usually converted buses, is inaugurated by Capt. Bud Mayer whose "Frostmobile" in Arlington, Va., carried frozen foods door-to-door. The housewife could walk into the bus and select frozen foods out of the cabinets. A gasoline-powered compressor maintains temperature in the cabinets. It cost him $9,000-10,000 to start the business.

Price controls removed from all frozen products but meats, as of August 31, 1946. Packers, distributors, retailers can charge anything they can get.

Frozen Food Council of California was formed to make arrangements for a large-scale frozen food show to be held the week of October 7th in the State Exposition Building in Los Angeles. The mayor declared it "Frozen Food Week."

Frozen shrimp cocktails introduced by McKay-Davis Co., Dade City, Fla. Shipments being sent to New York City by air.

October

Maxson's dinners score initial success at Bamberger's. Prices range from 98 cents for beef goulash with simmered gravy, garden peas, butter sauce and a potato patty to $1.98 for chicken paprika with French beans and a potato patty. The tray is heat-resistant paper fiber with a foil-lined cover capable of heating at 400 degrees F. The weights are 11-12 ounces.

Processors. QUICK FROZEN FOODS showed there were now 737 frozen food companies in its second directory of frozen food processors, up from 516 in 1945. Biggest percentage jump was in cooked and prepared foods, from 34 to 100, though great numbers were added in meat and seafoods.

Southland Products Co., already operating four freezing plants in New York, Florida, Illinois and Tennessee, planning a million-dollar expansion to keep up with demand.

November

Movement. Frozen food prices are up 50-100% and QFF again cautions, "Prices on many items are out of line, industrywise and competitively." Slowing down of sales already noted.

Maxson frozen potato plant established in Washburn, Me.

Frigidinner brand name of line of frozen dinners out of Philadelphia, first to use foil tray and foil cover.

December

Slowdown. Inventories of frozen foods begin to pile up in warehouses, almost a billion pounds. Not only are prices too high but quality is poor. Even lifting of price controls on meat fails to help; in fact it is seriously hurting. "Everyone knows the seller's market in frozen foods is over," QFF writes. "Emphasis must be on merchandising, selling and advertising, rather than on production, although quality production is a must which will make smart merchandising successful."

Boilable pouches. The Singer Food Process Corporation, operating out of the kitchen of Hotel Gramatan, in Bronxville, N.Y., is producing from 5,000 to 8,000 packages a day of oyster stew, lobster bisque, onion soup, minestrone, seafood Newburg, curried shrimp and similar products packed in moistureproof bags to be reheated in the bag in boiling water.

Sandwiches. Open-faced sandwiches topped with cheddar cheese and bacon to be heated in an oven like a pizza are marketed by Edith T. Latimer Co., New York.

1947

January

Southland Frozen Foods is the new name of Southland Products Co., with Philip Rizzuto and Theodore Delson, former partners, principal stockholders under new incorporation.

J. D. Jewell, of Gainesville, Ga., who began freezing chicken late in 1945, is now adding the freezing of cut up chicken to the regular line of eviscerated frozen chickens.

February

Bankers and frozen foods. Because of slump in frozen foods, the danger of loans being withdrawn and refused is imminent. QUICK FROZEN FOODS arranges a meeting between 30 of the leading bankers and the top frozen food packers and association heads on January 28, 1947, at the Wall Street Club in New York. Banker confidence was renewed and the frozen food industry was saved what might have been a stunning setback to postwar expansion plans.

School Lunch Program. Pasco's new Florida plant has received a contract from the Federal government for $450,000 of frozen concentrated juice to be distributed as part of the School Lunch Program.

March

Open frozen food cabinets, announced as forthcoming by Hussman as early as September 1945, are now in stores and beginning to work out. No sliding glass thermopane top - the customer reaches in and selects product. Price is $1,300 and waiting time could be a year or more for delivery.

Convention issue. A 290-page number of QFF is prepared for the joint convention of the packers and distributors associations held in San Francisco, Mar. 18-20, 1947. There is a registration of 7,000 and there are 102 frozen food exhibitors. C. Courtney Seabrook of Seabrook Farms is elected president of the packer's group. Board votes to permit every type of freezer to join, not just those processing fruits and vegetables, with associate membership for suppliers. The affair is recognized as the official national convention by the entire industry.

IQF freezer developed by Clarence Birdseye - called "Gravity Froster," because products enter on moving belt through blast tunnel, passing downward through a series of belts and emerge from the bottom - is now being manufactured by Cleaver-Brooks Company, Milwaukee. The equipment is completely automatic, easy to defrost and clean. Initial models produce 1,000-1,200 pounds per hour.

Consumer survey, conducted by DuPont, found that only 29.3% of frozen food buyers planned their purchases, underscoring the importance of impulse in sales.

Tyler accepting orders for open cabinets.

April

Prices plummet. Widespread dumping of all types of frozen foods at any price in order to clear inventories as industry panics.

Frozen lemonade. Techniques of preparing it perfected by scientific team headed by W. V. Cruess of the University of California, who asserts it is a "natural" for the frozen food industry.

Mrs. Paul's Kitchens, a small Philadelphia company which recently entered the business with devilled crabs and fried oysters, is taking a crack at producing french fried potatoes.

June

Microwave ovens. Speed cooking through Raytheon electronic ovens offers great potential in conjunction with frozen foods.

July

Temple Frosted Foods, Brooklyn, is freezing Chinese foods, including egg rolls, fried rice and chow mein.

Victor F. Weaver, Inc., New Holland Pa., now marketing frozen chicken patties, turkey patties, chicken cutlets, turkey cutlets, fried chicken, jellied chicken, boned chicken and boned turkey, all in frozen form.

August

Awrey Bakeries, Detroit, is freezing its own line of baked goods, including a dozen different types of rolls, bran muffins, cookies and fruit pies.

W. L. Maxson dies. The founder of the company bearing his name, which introduced retail frozen dinners, french fries and other products, died July 15, 1947.

Alford Refrigerated Warehouses announces it will spend $5,250,000 on the largest refrigerated warehouse in the world. It will have 9.5 million cubic feet, as well as 8 million cubic feet of dry space, plus offices. The project covers a 60-acre site in Dallas.

October

Snow Flake Canning Co., owned by H. C. Baxter & Bro., went into the production of frozen french fried potatoes early this year at Corinna, Me. All production is supplied to Birds Eye-Snider. In May 1946 they had operated a pilot plant.

November

Minute Maid begins distribution of its retail 6-ounce can of frozen orange concentrate in New York, Pennsylvania and Maryland.

December

R. H. Macy, New York, expanded its food department with four C. V. Hill self-service frozen food cabinets. They will be selling the Fruitidor as well as the Lily White label of companion store, Bamberger's.

Fish and Chips in a one-pound package for 59 cents is introduced by Chicago Frozen Foods.

Gretchen Grant Kitchens, Jersey City, N.J., which entered freezing a few months ago with pie crust, is also freezing liver canapes, cheese bagels and cocktail cookies. Proprietor is Louis Midler.

Milady Food Products, Brooklyn, N. Y., under ownership of Hy Epstein and Mac Levine, is producing a line of frozen blintzes in a variety of flavors selling for 45 cents.

Florida Citrus Canners Cooperative, Lake Wales, Fla., plans to be in frozen concentrated orange juice in January.

1948

January

Two Frez-O-Mats, self-service freezer cabinets containing standard-size FF packages in drawers showing the label in the front, were installed in the side walls in an American Store in Philadelphia: they are said to have increased FF sales by 25 to 33% by saving the customer from having to dig into the usual coffin freezers to hunt out her preferred items.

Advertising its own brand of frozen vegetables in the newspapers, Snowbird Frosted Foods, a Philadelphia distributor, sent penny post cards to alert its retailers to tie in their displays with the specials advertised.

February

The Frozen Food Cook Book, the first cook book devoted entirely to home preparation of FF, prepared by Frozen Food Products, Inc., New York, N.Y., with the aid of the Frozen Food Foundation, Syracuse, N.Y., is announced for publication by Simon & Schuster in April.

Microwave heating was first associated with frozen foods in an article about a research project by food technologists at the State College of Washington, concerned with the use of high frequency radio power, supplied by radar equipment developed during the War, in the food industry. Initial work was with scalding of fruits and vegetables prior to freezing, rather than reheating FF.

March

QUICK FROZEN FOODS incorporated Food Freezing magazine, effective this issue.

An estimated five to seven million cans of frozen citrus concentrates had been packed since first appearing in the 1946-47 season. Standardized for retail in six-ounce cans, FCOJ prices ranged from 27[cents] to 32[cents] a can, averaging 29[cents].

Frozen Foods Week, initiated locally the year before by the Quick Frozen Foods Association of Chicago and spearheaded by them this year, scheduled for national celebration March 14-20.

United Airlines testing the use of frozen foods, precooked and stored in freezers aboard planes, for service on their Stratocruisers.

Foil pouches with individual entree portions hermetically sealed in, called Wife-Savers, are demonstrated by Maxson Food Systems, New York, N.Y., at Bloomingdale's, New York department store.

April, 1948

Alford Refrigerated Warehouses is constructing a new refrigerated warehouse in Dallas, Tex., with about 7.5 million cubic feet of storage space, with special attention to be given to palletized operation, and cold storage doors to be mechanically operated to speed up movement of traffic.

May

The estimated number of frozen food packers is now 909, compared to 737 listed in the QFF Directory of Processors a year earlier.

June

Dry milk, frozen, concentrated and reconstituted twice, being tested by government agencies. The frozen milk is said to reconstitute very well and to offer a real saving in bulk, but price "still somewhat out of line."

A frozen dinner package, designed by Sylvania Div., American Viscose Corp., New York, N.Y., holds an entire meal for four. The items - such as corned beef hash, green peas and peaches - are separately packed in the carton.

July

Frozen food distributors surveyed; 87% see profits in home cabinet sales through cooperation with appliance dealers. Food and cabinet combination sales show good results.

QFF offers to check brand names against a file of 1,500 to help companies avoid duplication.

Certified Grocers of California, a cooperative buying group for over 1,300 super markets in southern California, is buying direct from packers, and also completing a 15,000-square-foot freezer warehouse.

September

Safeway Stoes, the only major super market chain not generally handling frozen foods, announces its intention to experiment in the stocking and selling of certain frozen foods, including ice cream.

October

Packers and distributors associations agree to hold a united industry convention the next March, following a decision made at a special meeting of the National Wholesale Frozen Food Distributors Association to accept the proposal to merge conventions made by the National Association of Frozen Food Packers.

Minute Maid concentrated, frozen orange juice is to be promoted on a new series of daytime radio programs to be launched in the fall by Bing Crosby, who was recently elected director of Vacuum Foods Corp., New York City, processors of the orange juice.

November

Leo Young, formerly with International Fisheries Corp., started his own company, Leo Young and Co., as of Oct. 27, 1948.

December

Grand Union, New York chain operating over 300 stores, 118 in the metropolitan area, and which had been handling frozen foods since 1935, showed a 59% increase in the FF sales in the first nine months of 1948 over the same period in 1947.

Deerfield Packing Corp., Bridgeton, N.J., changed its name to Seabrook Farms Co., for closer identification with its brand.

1949

January

Orange juice replaces strawberries in FF best-seller spot for first time in some cities.

Truck transportation of FF showed continued increases as proposed rail rates threatened to price railroads out of the market, according to a QFF survey.

QFF acquired Frozen Food Industry & Locker Plant Journal from Food Publications, Inc., New York, N.Y., and incorporated it with QFF effective with this issue.

February

Canners showed apprehension at inroads of frozen foods at their recent convention, and made substantial promotional plans for 1949. Meanwhile, fewer freezers were in attendance at the canners' convention.

March

A proposed law in Massachusetts that each package of FF would have to bear the exact date the article was processed meets stiff opposition from FF interests in the state and from the National Wholesale Frozen Food Distributors Association.

April

Distributors show increasing disturbance at direct selling to super market chains by some packers.

The merger of Foremost Dairies, Inc., Jacksonville, Fla., with Maxson Food Systems, Inc. under the name of Foremost Dairies, was announced.

May

Institutional distributors indicated an expanding market for frozen foods in this field, with sales for 1949 running well ahead of the same period a year earlier.

Welch Grape Juice Company, Westfield, N.Y., enters field with grape juice concentrate, currently marketed in the New York and New Jersey areas.

Marketing tests for FF by Safeway Stores, Inc., according to Lingan A. Warren, president, "appear to justify the installation of equipment in a substantial number of stores."

June

The annual packaging review shows "a 100 % improvement in the design and color of all new packages. Gone, or fast disappearing, are the igloos, the Eskimos, the huskies and the ice-capped mountains, and in their place has come the lifelike colored vignette that shows the foods themselves."

Lamb chops, lima beans and carrots are packed together by Hygrade Food Products Corp., New York, N.Y., as a complete dinner in a cellophane overwrap open carton.

July

A new container for Rich Products Corp., Buffalo, N.Y., Whip Topping dispenses the topping ready to use, no beating or whipping being required. The new container, sealed under pressure, spouted a continuous stream of the whipped vegetable-base topping as long as the nozzle was pressed. Only about an hour at room temperature was required for the frozen product to defrost for use.

FF package dating bill defeated in the Massachusetts legislature.

August

The Southern Frozen Food Distributors Association was organized following a two-day meeting in Atlanta, Ga. The group at that time numbered 22 FF distributors and 7 associate members.

September

Frozen coffee concentrate test marketed in six Eastern city areas by Snow Crop Marketers, Inc., New York, N.Y.

November

Minute Maid Corp. is the new name for Vacuum Foods Corp., New York, N.Y.

Carl A. Swanson, president, C. A. Swanson & Sons, Omaha, Neb., frozen poultry processing company, died at the age of 70 while he was in Chicago attending the annual meeting of the National Poultry, Butter and Egg Association.

December

Snow Crop Marketers, Inc., New York, N.Y., announced that it would discontinue direct selling and other operations bypassing distributors, in an address to a meeting of the National Wholesale Frozen Food Distributors Association.

Cranberry juice concentrate added to the Ocean Spray line, according to the National Cranberry Association, Hanson, Mass.

1950

January

Florida juice concentrates anticipated to reach a pack of over 25 million gallons in 1950, according to QFF survey, roughly 2 1/2 times 1949 production.

February

Fantail breaded shrimp, a new frozen product introduced less than a year earlier by Trade Winds Company and its national sales agents, E. L. Cook Co., Atlanta, Ga., is now distributed in 36 states.

March

Rising grove prices of Florida oranges led to fears that FCOJ prices might rise from the 31[cents]-33[cents] range to 35[cents] a 6-ounce can; the National Wholesale Frozen Food Distributors Association took a page ad in Florida papers calling on citrus growers not to injure the concentrate market by pricing juices out of the market.

April

Lemonade concentrate, making one quart from a 5 1/2-ounce can, introduced by Snow Crop Marketers, Inc.

A breading combination for use by manufacturers of frozen seafoods and meats is offered by Modern Maid Food Products, Brooklyn, N.Y. It consists of the company's Redi Breader and its newest product, All-Purpose Batter Dip.

May

Minute Maid lemonade concentrate made at Sunkist plant in Ontario, Calif.

June

Supporting the A&P in its fight against monopoly charges, the National Association of Frozen Food Packers issue a resolution calling any dissolution of the food chain's operations a threat to the economy and welfare of the country.

July

Heating of frozen foods by microwaves in Raytheon Radarange Electronic Oven discussed in an article.

August

Pan American World Airways is doing its own freezing of foods served on flights. Special ovens for preparing the food in transit are being installed on the planes.

A survey of more than 1,000 hospitals made by Modern Hospital magazine showed that 60% had frozen food storage at the beginning of 1950, compared to 35% in 1948.

September

E. W. Williams, publisher of QFF, starts his first reporting tour of Europe.

FF cabinet deals are made by 70% of distributors responding to QFF survey; most involve direct sale of cabinets to retailers. A frequent objection is that the distributor did not get exclusive FF rights in filling the cabinet.

New Kate Smith Show scheduled to be sponsored by Minute Maid Corporation on NBC TV.

October

The Eastern Oregon Canning Co., Weston, Ore., recently purchased by F. G. Lamb Co., Freewater, Ore., will be operated under the name Lamb-Weston, Inc., as a subsidiary of the F. G. Lamb Co.

A ready-baked frozen waffle introduced by the Waffle Corporation of America, Philadelphia, Pa., under the brand name Downyflake Frozen One-Minute Waffle.

California Fruit Growers Exchange purchases the "Sunkist" trademark from the California Packing Corporation for $1.25 million. The exchange had been using the brand on its fresh citrus fruit since 1908, but the previous owner also used the brand name on canned and dried fruits.

November

FF cabinet production dwindling, due to materials shortages since the outbreak of the Korean War, and is threatened by cutback orders on strategic materials.

1951

January

Former Georgia Governor Ellis Arnall, senior partner of Arnall, Golden and Gregory, Atlanta, Ga., is appointed with his firm as chief legal counsel for the National Wholesale Frozen Food Distributors Association.

February

Frozen specialty packers in the New York City area chose a name for their recently formed organization: the Prepared Frozen Foods Processors Association.

General Foods Corporation, Birds Eye Foods processor, takes an option on a White Plains, N.Y., site for the construction of a general office building. (Its offices were located in New York City.)

The Green Giant Company, Le Sueur, Minn., known for its canned vegetable products, is market testing its frozen peas under the Green Giant label in Fort Wayne, Ind., and Minneapolis, Minn.

March

Morton Packing Company, Louisville, Ky., prepared food processor, elected George E. Egger president, following the retirement of L. Owsley Haskins. Egger was a director of Minute Maid Corp., New York, N.Y., and Merchants Ice & Cold Storage, among other firms.

April

Frozen precooked dinner, called FrigiDinners, packed by FrigiDinners, Inc., Philadelphia, Pa., consisting of meat and vegetables wrapped in foil and packed in an aluminum platter, are sold with other self-service items in a chain of automatic launderettes operated by Telecoin Corporation, New York, N.Y.

May

The Buitoni Macaroni Corp., New York, N.Y., brings out a frozen stuffed lasagne and a shell macaroni au gratin.

The Borden Co. is planning a line of 15 frozen fruits and vegetables under the Borden label.

June

A new distribution policy announced by Birds Eye Division of General Foods Corp., New York; it will enter into no exclusive or restrictive selling agreements with any customer.

July

The new 20-volume Collier's Encyclopedia is the first recognized and authoritative reference work of its kind to include a special section on the history and development of the frozen foods industry and its products.

August

The old Polar label, used until 1947 by the Polar Frosted Food Co., is revived for a standard (or B) grade line by Cedergreen Packing Corp., which bought Polar four years earlier.

September

The Shrimp Ahoy frozen cocktail and cooked shrimp brand line purchased by SeaPak Corp., St. Simons Island, Ga., from the Miami Packing Co., Hackensack, N.J.

October

Retail B brands found disfavor among a majority of distributors surveyed; although only 52% expressed opposition to the concept, 73% did not handle B brands and, of these, 67% did not plan to. Even among those handling them, 30% opposed the idea but handled them under pressure from retailers who wanted them.

Grilled cheese sandwiches added to the Mae Rich line of Nomar Foods, Inc., New York. The waffled sandwiches are ready to heat in a toaster.

Popcorn, prepared for home popping, brought out by Popcorn Products, Inc., Milwaukee, Wis., under the name Three-Minute Paddycorn.

Cooking in a plastic bag, a method said to make roasting turkey and other kinds of frozen poultry as simple as boiling water, described by Bradley Dewey, president, Dewey and Almy Chemical Co.

November

New, double-deck FF cases ("Twin-Dex" cabinets) were installed in a Clark Market in Los Angeles, resulting in an increase of FF sales to 4% of total volume.

Beatrice shelves frozen milk and its chocolate milk-base concentrate because of restrictions on civilian use of tin. Clinton H. Haskell, president of Beatrice Foods Co., said, "We didn't feel this was any time to bring out a new product requiring a tin container."

December

The campaign to persuade Florida juice concentrators to label their product as of Florida origin gains headway as Snow Crop, Pasco and Fosgate signified their intention to go along with it. Sealdsweet has already designed a label with the word "Florida" superimposed on a juice-dripping orange. Minute Maid, however, hesitates to put "Florida" on cans going to California.

1952

February

Three citrus associations consolidate, merging their activities. The Florida Canners Association took over the information services of the Canners League of Florida as well as administration of the program of the Citrus Processors Association, which represented pulp and molasses producers.

Introduction of a frozen version of the previously refrigerated Sara Lee Cream Cheesecake for national distribution by the Kitchens of Sara Lee, Chicago, marks the first appearance of this brand in the FF cabinet. The item was processed by Gottfried Baking Co., New York, N.Y.

March

Consumer survey made with support of Crowell-Collier Publishing Co. Research Dept. presenting comparable results of a similar survey made three years earlier (April 1949), shows 11% increase in families buying FF (from 76% to 84%); 56% of buyers now serve FF more than once a week, compared to 39% in 1949; there was a 220% increase in FF buyers serving juice concentrates.

The first QFF "Almanac of the Frozen Foods Industry" appears in this issue. The 20-page section includes not only statistics and tables of prices but maps and charts and a summary of OPS (Office of Price Stabilization) regulations and other miscellaneous data.

April

Plans for providing the home freezer owner with regular supplies of FF, later dubbed "food clubs," are springing up all over the country, most tied in with the sale of a freezer. Some plans are sound, others are strictly promotional, but most circumvent the retailer. QFF advocates case lot sales from retailers at 10-to-15% discounts, on some sort of distributor-retailer participation plan.

May

Pocket edition of QFF announced for launching in June; it will carry material different from that in issues of the "Master Edition," in a 4-inch by 6-inch format like Quick magazine.

June

The consumer never had it so good: concentrates were selling at two for 25[cents]; two 8-ounce packages of peas for 29[cents]; a 12-ounce package of strawberries at 29[cents]. But a QFF editorial notes that while the trend to price-cutting is attracting thousands, perhaps millions, of new FF users monthly, it is threatening to pauperize the industry, and the line between A and B brands is becoming indistinct.

July

Separation in reconstitued orange juice was prevented through a new and secret process developed by Birds Eye Division of General Foods, according to James P. Delafield, product manager for Birds Eye concentrates.

Sale of Welch Grape Juice Co. properties to its growers for $15 million arranged; affected were the 4,000 grower members of the National Grape Cooperative Association scattered through most grape-growing areas of the country.

September

"The Locker Plant," part of the title of the magazine from April 1941 (QUICK FROZEN FOODS and THE LOCKER PLANT), dropped from the cover. From September 1942, it had its own section in the rear of the magazine, with its own section cover which, from June 1949, gave it the title "The 'Grade A' Locker Plant." With this issue the section was retitled "The Food Club and the Locker Plant," and included home freezer news as well.

The Quick Frozen Foods Association, Chicago, announced its intention to expand to include members from the Middle Western states. Its new name would be Central States Frozen Food Association. Charles Peterson, of E. A. Aaron & Bros., was president of the group.

October

General Foods left the shrimp industry with the sale of its subsidiary, General Seafoods, Inc., to J. Lawrence Alphen and Associates, following the recent purchase of its shrimp interests in Mexico by Booth Fisheries. General Foods' Shrimp and Oyster Division will continue to handle oysters and clams, but it is expected that the name would be changed.

1953

January

A booklet on how to handle frozen foods, entitled Protecting Frozen Foods, has been published by the National Association of Frozen Food Packers, and is expected to have wide distribution throughout the trade.

Stokely's Honor Brand, the frozen food division of Stokely-Van Camp, Inc., has redesigned its labels and is progressively changing over its entire line of frozen foods to the new packages, which stress the Stokely rather than the Honor Brand name.

Pot pies are shaping up to be a bigger factor in the FF cabinet than they have in the past, thanks largely to a Birds Eye promotion begun in the fall, together with a refund offer by Swanson. Morton is adding an 8-ounce pie to its present 6 1/2-ounce and 11-ounce offerings. Other companies coming out with pot pies or weighing their changes are J. D. Jewell, Honor Brand, Fox DeLuxe Foods, and Libby, McNeill & Libby. A Seabrook Farms spokesman denied rumors of that company's considering entering the field.

February

Aluminum foil freezing, baking and serving dishes for frozen food packers were in the offing from Ekco Products Co., according to a spokesman, following a line for consumer outlets shown at the National Housewares Show in Chicago.

March

Frozen foods accounted for 4.8% of the chains' total food dollar volume, according to information supplied by 131 chain store buyers, a figure which is higher than any previously reported from national studies. The study was undertaken by a joint effort of QFF with Quick magazine.

Frozen Dinner was the brand name of the heat-and-eat meal on a three-way divided aluminum platter advertised by Quaker State Foods Corp., Pittsburgh, Pa.

April

FF heads the list of rapidly growing food industries, according to a survey by the U.S. Department of Commerce's Office of Business Economics, which defined rapid growth as an average annual growth rate of 7 1/2% or more between 1940 and 1951. Frozen foods had a rate of growth of 17 1/2%, followed by canned fruit juices with a 12% rate of growth.

John M. Fox, president of the Minute Maid Corp., elected to the board of directors of the Morton Packing Co., Louisville, Ky., packer of frozen meat pies, it is announced by George E. Egger, Morton president.

May

"Prepared frozen foods, in a scant three years, have turned from the industry's stepchild into its golden-haired boy. Many distributors report specialties now constitute up to 40% of total volume. The trend, as QFF has predicted for years, is now shaping up in the direction of main course dishes, featuring meats, chicken or seafoods. Even complete meals are coming back rapidly."

June

Food clubs are through, according to John Bess, head of the Freezer Owners Association and one of the chief food club plans' proponents. The trouble was, he said, that most food clubs deviated from the original idea, which was to sell wholesale. "They merely attempted to replace one type of retailing with another and, consequently, they could not deliver the savings they had promised."

Juice concentrates are available in more than 150 different labels; QFF's special packaging section illustrates 47 6-ounce FCOJ cans alone, including one from Tropicana and several chain and wholesale grocery labels. Four frozen coffee concentrates are available in glass jars with screw tops. Three 6-ounce tins of concentrated tomato juice are also shown.

July

First Southwestern Frozen Food Association convention is held at the Shamrock Hotel, Houston, Tex.

Horse meat packers anticipate curtailment of their expanding industry as authorities estimate dwindling supply of horses for processing into pet foods will last from 7 to 10 years. Some are considering making a changeover to the solitary packing and canning of relatively cheaper beef, both for human consumption and animal foods.

August

Potato patties and other products, including french fries and diced potatoes, are now under production by the recently formed Ore-Ida Potato Products, Inc., Ontario, Ore., an affiliate of Oregon Frozen Foods being run as a separate operation, according to F. Nephi Grigg, president and sales manager.

Franchises for its new frozen raw doughnuts are offered on a nationwide scale by Dix Minit Donut Corp., Skokie, Ill.

Frozen fried fish sticks, packed in any real volume only in the last six months, have grown to capture a fair share of the market according to industry reports.

October

The Tyler Fixture Corporation, Niles, Mich., manufacturer of refrigerated food store equipment, has changed its name to Tyler Refrigeration Corporation, according to Robert L. Tyler, president.

November

C. A. Swanson & Sons, Omaha, Neb., is the first nationally known name to join the growing ranks of frozen multiple-item dinners with a turkey dinner consisting of sliced turkey, dressing, giblet gravy, sweet potato and green beans in a divided aluminum tray. An aluminum foil covering is said to cut preparation time in half. Retail price was reported to be around $1.

December

An intensive promotion drive in the New York metropolitan area will spearhead a national sales campaign backing the new Chinese-style frozen food line of Chun King Sales Co., Duluth, Minn. The company is packing chicken, beef and meatless chow meins as its first three frozen items.

1954

January

The public cold storage warehouse is growing in importance, and, according to an editorial in the Frozen Foods Forum, it may hold the key to the future of distribution. This has come about through the establishment of more drayage or trucking operations working directly from warehouse to retailer. The perfect tie-up of the future may be the frozen food distributor and the local warehouse.

No more orange groves within 50 miles of Los Angeles 25 years from now is the prediction of Harold Ryan, Agricultural Commissioner for the city. Inasmuch as 12,000 acres of orange trees have been uprooted to make room for real estate, he said, "in 25 years or so all our oranges may be coming from Florida."

Swanson's "TV Dinner" is introduced to 50 principal cities. The 12-ounce turkey dinner, retailing in the first chains to handle it at 89 cents, has an outer wrap of six-color printed MSAT cellophane laminated to tissue parchment.

March

Campbell Soup Co., Camden, N.J., has joined the FF ranks with the test marketing of four frozen soups in the Philadelphia area. They are: green pea with ham, chicken and vegetable, oyster stew and cream of shrimp.

Star-Kist Foods, Terminal Island, Calif., is the first major canned fish packer to introduce frozen tuna pie under its own label, with Van Camp Sea Food, also of Terminal Island, to follow suit shortly, marketing tuna pie under its Chicken of the Sea label.

Lykes Bros. now owns a dominant portion of Pasco Packing Co., Dade City, Fla., but no change in the Pasco management or operation is considered at present, according to Joseph T. Lykes, president of both firms. Lykes purchased 20% of Pasco's stock in 1949.

April

Howard C. Boerner appointed director of marketing of Seabrook Farms Co., Bridgeton, N.J., following his resignation as national sales manager of Minute Maid Corp. At the same time, Boerner announced the formation of H. C. Boerner Co., located at New York City, to provide a consulting and sales service to the food industry.

May

QFF introduces its first Institutional Section devoted to FF for the institutional/food service field.

June

Whale meat is being used by one packer for frozen pet food, in the face of decreasing availability of horse meat. Frozen pet foods are about 6% of prepared pet food sales.

Seabrook Farms Co., Bridgeton, N.J., elects John M. Seabrook president, succeeding his father, Charles F. Seabrook, who becomes chairman of the board. At the same time, C. Courtney Seabrook, previously vice president in charge of sales, is named senior vice president of the company.

July

Snake River Trout Co., Buhl, Idaho, marks its 25th anniversary as producer of Tingey's 1,000 Springs brand with plans to up its frozen pack to 500,000 pounds, according to Robert A. Erkins, president and general manager.

Stouffer Restaurants, Cleveland, Ohio, has advanced its plans to market a line of frozen prepared dishes under its own label when the restaurant chain opened a new freezing plant. The company has for several years packaged and sold frozen dishes from its Shaker Stouffer Restaurant in Cleveland, but last year began test marketing several items in local retail stores.

Stokely-Van Camp, Oakland, Calif., buys the controlling interest in PictSweet Foods, Mt. Vernon, Wash.; a spokesman said both the Stokely Honor Brand and the PictSweet labels will be continued and merchandised vigorously.

A joint convention is planned by the Southern Frozen Food Distributors Association and the Southwestern Frozen Food Association for Sept. 30-Oct. 2 in New Orleans.

August

Large size polyethylene bags are becoming increasingly popular in the FF industry. For instance, Minute Maid is packaging three cans of orange juice in a poly bag for multiple unit sales. It is possible that the time will come when a 10-ounce poly bag, attractively printed, may be used for the retail sale of frozen vegetables and fruits by packers who want to be competitive from a price basis.

September

The Birds Eye Story, a 25th anniversary tribute to the organization which in large part pioneered the frozen food industry, comprises a 62-page section in this issue.

Aunt Jemima pancakes introduced by Quaker Oats Co., Chicago, Ill., marking that company's debut in the frozen foods field - and the probable debut of frozen pancakes, though they have been the subject of considerable experimentation since the success of frozen waffles. Mrs. Burke's Foods, Philadelphia, Pa., also introduced a line of frozen pancakes throughout the Middle Atlantic states. Quaker Oats' pancakes are initially limited to the Canton, Ohio, market area.

FrigiDinner, Inc., Philadelphia, Pa., manufacturer of precooked frozen meals, is granted a patent for aluminum platters covered with aluminum foil used in the processing of the meals. According to Jacob Fisher, president, all styles and shapes of aluminum platters with foil covers and their multiple uses are included in the patent.

October

TV Dinner brand is registered with the Patent Office by C. A. Swanson & Sons, Omaha, Neb., filed as of Aug. 6, 1953, with use claimed since July 23, 1953, for frozen turkey dinner. Appearance in the Official Gazette of the U.S. Patent Office is often a year or more after filing. Ranch Hand brand is also filed for by Chip Steak Company, Oakland, Calif., Aug. 25, 1953, for a number of frozen meat products, with claim for use since November 1948.

Specialty packers form a national body as the National Prepared Frozen Food Processors Association is chartered in New York, with members of Philadelphia and New York organizations forming its first chapters.

Kitchens of Sara Lee, Chicago, Ill., continuing its sales expansion, is now in 17 states, mainly in the Middle West. It has appointed Beatrice Foods Co. as distributor in Cleveland and Akron, Ohio, for its butter coffee cake, butter pound cake and cream cheese cake. The cakes are distributed as frozen baked goods beyond a 300-mile radius of the company's Chicago bakery.

British Columbia Packers Ltd., Vancouver, B.C., announced the purchase of Freeman Certi-Fresh Foods, Los Angeles, Calif. Arthur and Max Freeman, former principals of Certi-Fresh, will remain with the company during the transition period.

November

Special section on Seabrook Farms, which now has its own post office, Seabrook, N.J., with 50,000 acres of crops "comprising the world's largest farming-freezing operation."

Trading on the popularity of fish sticks, meat and poultry packers launch stick varieties including ham sticks from Geo. A Hormel, beef sticks by Goren Packing Co., chicken sticks from J.D. Jewell, while C. A. Swanson & Sons is offering precooked sticks made of chicken and turkey meat combined. Another company, Frozen Farm Products, Inc., is manufacturing Chik-Stik, a breaded chicken product on a wooden stick, under the Roseport brand.

December

A $100 prize is offered by OFF for the best design of a new FF cabinet which will create more footage in no more floor space; ". . . a multi-tier case which will enable the retailer to display a bigger variety of frozen foods by utilizing the only space left in his store; a cabinet which will make sales by displaying frozen foods vertically as well as horizontally."

Snow Crop Division of Clinton Foods is purchased by Minute Maid Corporation for nearly $40 million. The merger is seen by the citrus industry as having a stabilizing effect on the market.

1955

February

Refrigerated orange juice, which has gained steadily in consumer favor since last summer, has failed to cut into sales of frozen orange juice concentrate. There was some indication that it was cutting into sales of whole oranges. Five Florida packers pack the refrigerated juice: Florida Citrus Canners Cooperative (Reddi), Florida Juice (Orange Blossom), Fruit Industries (Tropicana), Golden Gift and Scenic Citrus.

March

International Frozen Foods Section, the forerunner of Quick Frozen Foods International, includes 12 pages of news and advertisements from Europe and Japan.

Minute Maid Story is told in a 36-page section, celebrating the company's loth anniversary.

New England distributors met in Worcester, Mass., to make plans for the formation of a regional association.

Campbell Soup Co., Camden, N.J., is now distributing its frozen soups nationwide, following six months of market-testing in Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington, D.C.

A vast underground freezer warehouse carved out of solid rock near Kansas City, Kan., is opened by Inland Cold Storage Company. It has capacity for 2,500 carloads of FF, and is called the "World's Biggest Natural Icebox."

April

More than a million dollars will be spent to build a new refrigerated warehouse and processing plant in Gloucester, Mass., in a joint effort by Gorton-Pew Fisheries Co. and the Quincy Market Cold Storage & Warehouse Co. The two-story concrete and masonry building will have a capacity for 12 million pounds of frozen fish.

A&P is considering marketing its own private-label orange concentrate as well as several other private-label frozen foods. Up to the present A&P's only private label frozen foods have been the Cap'n John line of seafoods.

C. A. Swanson & Sons, Omaha, Neb., is acquired by Campbell Soup Co., Camden, N.J. Both the Campbell and the Swanson labels will be continued, and the companies will be operated separately. It was reported that new non-concentrate frozen specialties would be marketed under the Swanson brand, while Campbell would continue to handle frozen soups and other types of concentrates.

May, 1955

"The latest success story of the cooked and prepared frozen foods industry (is) the frozen meal on a platter. The only step remaining now is to pack a meal that includes soup and dessert. And it is reported that Campbell Soup Co. and its C. A. Swanson division are readying such a step...."

Hawaiian Punch concentrate has been introduced in selected West Coast areas by Pacific Citrus Products Co., Fullerton, Calif.

McCain Produce Co., Ltd., of E. Florenceville, N.B., Canada, is planning the erection of a plant to process and freeze vegetables and fruits in that area. The owner is A. H. McCain.

June

An atom bomb blast, rated at 40 kilotons, failed to appreciably change flavor and color of frozen foods stored in the mock city at the Yucca Flats, Nev., test site. Samples exposed in a home freezer in the kitchen of a concrete slab house 4,700 feet from ground zero showed no physical damage, were rigidly frozen and showed no radioactivity four hours after the blast. Samples buried in a metal, insulated box just beneath the soil 1,270 feet from ground zero had to wait to be checked two days because the box was still "hot," but showed only nominal radiation, comparable to that of a radium watch dial, and taste tests showed very little difference between them and the ones at 4,700 feet.

A cellular glass insulating material with a ceramic finish is announced by Pittsburgh Corning Corp., Pittsburgh, Pa. Called "Duraface Foamglas," the new material also has moisture-proof qualities, and unsupported walls can be built of the blocks because of their rigidity and high compressive strength.

Banquet's turkey dinner appears for the first time on QFF's monthly price lists; a 12-ounce platter, it sells in Chicago for 69[cents].

Luchow's, a well-known New York restaurant, entered the frozen field with three precooked items, lentil soup with frankfurters, Salisbury steak with mushroom sauce and Swedish meatballs in an herb cream sauce. They are packed in airtight pliofilm bags, which are dropped into boiling water to prepare.

July

Carnation Co., Los Angeles, Calif., has entered the frozen food field by purchasing Mrs. Lee's Pies, Los Angeles, packer of simple Simon brand frozen pies and cookie rolls.

First of several precooked dishes introduced by Howard Johnson's restaurant chain is a 16-ounce pack of chicken croquettes; distribution is throughout New York and New England.

September

Irradiated foods are discussed at length in a progress report; no final conclusions are made, save that its threat to frozen foods is many years away.

Consolidated Foods has purchased American Frigid Dough, Chicago, a pioneer packer of cooked and prepared foods. New products will appear under the Frigid Dough label and their distribution is to be expanded to a national level.

With the formation of Aquafoods Corp., David Islands, Tampa, Fla., the Carnation label will be used on a full line of frozen and canned seafood products. Aquafoods, which has a sublicense to use the Carnation trademark through Griffith-Durney Co., Los Angeles, Calif. (William W. Durney, president, is a vice president of Aquafoods.), has contracted to market part of the output of 17 fish processors under the Carnation brand, and is negotiating with 15 more.

October

Sam Martin joins QFF editorial staff as Associate Editor.

Red L Foods Corp. is the new name adopted by Louis L. Libby Food Products, Long Island City, N.Y., to realize benefits from a closer association with the company's Red L brand name, adopted two years ago, according to Robert S. Graves, president.

November

Pet Milk buys Pet-Ritz Foods, processor of frozen fruit and berry pies with plants at Frankford and Beulah, Mich. George Petritz continues to head the operation, which will be known as the Pet-Ritz Division of Pet Milk Co. This is Pet Milk Co.'s first venture into frozen foods.

The Continental Baking Co., New York, N.Y., is negotiating to acquire the Morton Packing Co., Louisville, Ky., processor of frozen meat and fruit pies.

December

QFF's Retail Edition becomes standard size, replacing the Pocket Edition, and is bound into the regular issue, as well as sent separately to 27,000 retailers throughout the country.

Winner of cabinet design contest is announced by QFF: David P. Walker of Los Angeles, Calif. Walker's design combines a bottom bin with enclosed shelves above and behind it, adaptable to an island configuration by doubling the total unit back to back with a common refrigeration system. A special award was made to Karl Weber, president of Weber Showcase & Fixture Co., Los Angeles, Calif., for completing and bringing out the first practical multi-tier FF cabinets, which have up to 66% more capacity than the average single-deck case.

1956

January

Minute Maid sales top $100 million for the first time, as a result of the increase in volume made possible by the acquisition of Snow Crop, nearly tripling its previous year's sales figure.

Philip J. Rizzuto is elected president of Southland Frozen Foods, New York, N.Y., following the resignation of Theodore U. Delson. Rizzuto was founder of Southland with a plant at Plant City, Fla. Southland directors also named D. Herman Kennedy vice president and Charles Garfinkel secretary-treasurer.

The merger of Morton Packing Co. with the Continental Baking Co., New York, N.Y., is resulting in no change in operations or personnel; only the name has been changed, to Morton Frozen Foods, Inc. Its general offices remain in Louisville, Ky.

February

TreeSweet Products Co., Santa Ana, Calif., has completed negotiations with Di Giorgio Fruit Corp., San Francisco, whereby Di Giorgio has agreed to acquire an interest in TreeSweet and to make additional funds available to the company. This will provide TreeSweet with capital for the expansion of its Florida processing facilities.

March

Macaroni and cheese in an 8 1/2-ounce single-serving package is introduced by Morton Frozen Foods, Louisville, Ky., supported by an advertising effort featuring a three-for-the-price-of-two introductory offer.

Mrs. Smith's Pie Co., Philadelphia, Pa., fresh pie processor, is planning a new frozen pie plant; at present, a portion of the company's Pottstown, Pa., plant is devoted to larger or institutional frozen pies.

Nutritional comparison of FF and canned foods is made by OFF using figures from a nutrition research project sponsored by the National Association of Frozen Food Packers, the "Wisconsin report," for frozen foods, and from the National Canners Association and the USDA for canned foods. Values for FF are consistently over those for canned foods.

April

Reaction to OFF's comparison of nutritive values of FF and canned included many congratulatory messages from packers, both on and off the record; requests for reprints of the article for use by FF salesmen; and special meetings by three canner groups to determine what counteraction, if any, should be taken. Packers who asked for reprints declared that the comparison would be especially effective in the institutional field, because dietitions and other buyers concerned with special menus would be impressed with the nutritional data.

May

Willy Ley, perhaps the best-known science writer in the U.S., is author of an article in QFF entitled "Spacemen of Earth Satellite to Subsist on Frozen Foods." He cites the facts that FF packaging is lighter by far than either cans or glass jars, thus saving fuel, and that precooked foods would be preferable to those needing to be cooked, to cut the amount of heat energy radiated in the satellite.

June

H. P. Hood & Sons, Boston, Mass., enters the citrus concentrate field with the purchase of Minute Maid Corp.'s Dunedin, Fla., FCOJ plant. Minute Maid's sale of this plant fulfills in part the terms of a consent decree filed with the Federal government last year in which Minute Maid agreed to dispose of juice concentrating plants at Dunedin and Frostproof, Fla.

Murry Berger is appointed national sales manager of Aquafoods Corp., Tampa, Fla., distributor of frozen seafoods under the Carnation label. Berger, northeastern regional sales manager for SeaPak Corp. for the past five years, specializing in institutional sales, will direct this aspect of Aquafoods as well as its projected retail line.

Gorton's opens its million-dollar fish plant at Gloucester, Mass., and installs a continuous government inspection service. Formerly known as Gorton-Pew Fisheries Ltd., the company will henceforth be known officially as Gorton's of Gloucester.

August

J. M. Korn, a director and one of the founders of the Waffle Corp. of America, New York, N.Y., and owner of his own advertising agency in Philadelphia, died July 23.

September

Stouffer's completes its new $1.35 million addition to its Cleveland processing plant, paving the way for expansion of the marketing of its frozen cooked foods on a national scale through a 700% increase in production capacity.

The Los Angeles Superior Court upheld the right of more than 120 southern California markets to sell frozen, prepackaged meats, poultry and fish regardless of current labor union contracts. Judge Phillip H. Richards also noted that the clauses of the labor contract which require that all meats, poultry and fish be cut and wrapped where they are sold are in restraint of trade and violate both state and Federal antitrust laws.

Kitchens of Sara Lee, Chicago, Ill., has been acquired by Consolidated Foods Corp., Chicago, according to a joint announcement by S. M. Kennedy, Consolidated president, and Charles W. Lubin, who will continue as president of Sara Lee and will also serve on Consolidated's board of directors. Sales of the Kitchens of Sara Lee have grown from $400,000 in 1951 to $5 million in 1955, according to Lubin, and there is anticipation that that figure will double in 1956.

Welch Grape Juice Co., Westfield, N.Y., has sold out to National Grape Cooperative Association, its stock delivered to National Sept. 1 in compliance with an option drawn up in 1952.

October

Mrs. Paul's Kitchens, Philadelphia, Pa., introduces what is believed to be the first seafood dinner packed in a sectionalized aluminum tray. The 7-ounce dinner includes seven items: shrimp, deviled crab, scallops, fish sticks, fishlets, french fried potatoes and peas.

"The Merchants Refrigerating Company Story" is a special section on this refrigerated warehouse company, which has 10 warehouses across the country with an aggregate 18,581,000 cubic feet of below-zero storage space.

November

Clarence Birdseye, known as the founding father of the quick frozen foods industry, died Oct. 7 following a heart attack in New York. He was 69.

Minute Maid introduces a new line of 26 vegetables and seven fruits with a special introductory offer of 60[cents] off on each dozen to retailers throughout New York State and Erie, Pa.

1957

February

Luchow's precooked FF business is purchased by Seabrook Farms, Seabrook, N.Y. The transaction in no way involves Luchow's restaurant in New York City.

Boston Bonnie Fisheries, Boston, Mass., claims to be the first plant in the world to process frozen fillets under continuous USDA inspection. The company's fish sticks and frozen fried scallops are also covered by the service, and intentions are to have all of its seafood products government inspected.

March

Swanson's "TV" brand Souper Dinner begins test-marketing in San Francisco, Oakland, Minneapolis, St. Paul, Pittsburgh and Buffalo. It consists of three courses; old-fashioned vegetable-with-beef soup; main course, fried chicken and mashed potatoes; dessert, apple pie. Each course comes in an individual rigid-foil container; cooking time on all three is identical.

Precooked, battered poultry parts are added to the Swanson line by Campbell Soup Co. A Campbell spokesman said that, contrary to industry rumors, the precooked line will not replace the company existing line of frozen uncooked poultry.

McCain Foods Ltd. opens a new processing plant for FF in East Florenceville, N.B., Canada. A company spokesman describes it as the largest quick freezing plant in Canada. The company packs french fried potatoes, peas and strawberries.

April

The Carnation label, granted in 1955 to the Aquafoods Corp., Tampa, Fla., for use on seafood products, has reverted to William Durney, Inc., according to W. W. Durney, president. The marketing activities of frozen seafoods involving the Carnation label will be carried on by another corporation of which Durney is president, the Seafare Corp., Los Angeles. The Seafare Corp. has three regional corporate units situated in the West, Midwest and East; plans for a fourth corporate unit for the South are under consideration. Murry Berger, president of the eastern corporation, said Seafare will assume the marketing role formerly performed by Aquafoods, and no break in the continuity of supply is anticipated.

Waffle Corp. of America changes its name to Downyflake Foods Inc., in line with its brand use for waffles and pancakes, to pave the way for an expanded line of frozen prepared foods. The company recently acquired 1896 House Products, Williamstown, Mass., a packer of frozen turkey sticks.

May

The Doughnut Corp. of America, New York, N.Y., has changed its name to DCA Food Industries Inc., according to David M. Levitt, president.

June

Protan jelly coated mackerel made history by being the first frozen food product used by the Horn & Hardart restaurant chain in its world-famous Automats. Ramfield & Co., New York, N.Y., are exclusive sales agents for Norwegian mackerel frozen in Protan jelly, which is also being sold in many A&P super markets, and they are also acting as leasing agent for the Protan jelly freezing process for firms in this country.

TARS (Trans-American Refrigerated Services, Ltd.) is an organization of five cold storage companies - Merchants Refrigerating Co., New York, N.Y.; Quincy Market & Cold Storage Co., Boston, Mass.; Continental Freezers of Illinois, Chicago, Ill.; Wisconsin Cold Storage, Milwaukee, Wis., and Terminal Ice & Cold Storage, Portland, Ore. - formed to coordinate services and make available coast-to-coast warehousing facilities for frozen foods. The member companies have a total of 50 million cubic feet of refrigerated storage space and maintain 27 warehouses in 21 important production and marketing locations.

July

Minute Maid Corp announces it will move its national headquarters from New York to Orlando, Fla., November 1, at the beginning of the company's fiscal year.

Ocoma's calorie-counted dinners are said to be the first such dinners offered by a well-known frozen food company. Three varieties, turkey, chicken and beef, will show the calorie count on the labels, ranging from 230 to 490. Dinners will not be bland and tasteless, according to a spokesman, and will be priced competitively with other frozen dinners.

"The Stouffer Success Story" is a special section on the Stouffer Corporation's growth from its original restaurants to its success in FF.

Pepperidge Farms, Inc., Norwalk, Conn., has acquired Black Horse Frozen Pastry, Keene, N.H., marking the entry of Pepperidge Farm, a baker of bread and rolls, into the frozen food field.

October

Seabrook Farms takes over the Snow Crop retail line of vegetables and fruits from Minute Maid Corp. in a deal involving no cash transaction; Snow Crop still has title to the brand and is licensing it to Seabrook, which will pay a nominal royalty. Seabrook benefits by acquiring a nationally advertised label, 10 new markets and a big Middle Western territory, while Minute Maid, which had to buy most of its production for the Snow Crop label, unloads an unprofitable and unwieldy operation and gets back primarily into the juice business.

Luchow trade name is dropped by Seabrook Farms, and the entrees formerly sold under that label are marketed under the Seabrook brand. However, every label carries the legend: "Prepared from a recipe featured at famous Luchow's, New York."

November

Headquarters for the Stokely-PictSweet frozen foods division of Stokely-Van Camp will move from Mt. Vernon, Wash., to Oakland, Calif., by the end of the year. The move returns the FF division to the former home of Stokely's Honor Brand, which was moved to Mount Vernon with the acquisition of PictSweet.

John Inglis Frozen Foods Co., Modesto, Calif., becomes a division of the Harris Manufacturing Co., Stockton, Calif., all the stock of which becomes the property of the owners of the stock of John Inglis Frozen Foods. All the directors and officers of Inglis become directors and officers of the Harris company in the same positions they held with Inglis.

December

H. C. Boerner Co., Great Neck, N.Y., named metropolitan New York broker for Minute Maid and Snow Corp retail lines, according to Hamilton Stone, vice president in charge of sales for Minute Maid Corp., Orlando, Fla. Howard C. Boerner, president of the brokerage, was Minute Maid's first sales manager, resigning in 1953 to organize the brokerage firm.

1958

January

Florida freeze: The most severe freeze since 1940 brings an estimate of 25 to 35% less concentrate in 1958, and strong prices for the next two years. Minute Maid the only large processor with sizable 1957 carryover.

Direct deliveries to chains. As the role of warehouses in FF distribution changes, QFF finds 8.7% engaged in drayage, direct delivery service, to chain super markets - and 26.2% seriously considering it.

Boil-in-bag. Seabrook expands its new line of frozen entrees in plastic pouches with the addition of four entrees, well seasoned and using such a quantity of wine that the company purchased a state liquor license.

February

Not by foot alone. Dollar volume per linear foot not a proper measure for a successful super market operation, as survey shows an FF cabinet producing more than double the national average of $22 per foot may actually cost retailer more in labor costs and lost potential sales than the purchase of additional cabinets.

Into the diet market. Two processors - Ocoma Foods Co., Omaha, first with three dinners, and Diets of Rochester, Rochester, with eight dinners - take aim at a dietetic foods market that attained sales of $150 million in 1956.

March

TV and FF. A Television Bureau of Advertising survey discloses that the most avid television viewers are also the heaviest users of frozen foods.

Breaded shrimp standards. Raw breaded shrimp standards, finally arrived at, permit a 50% level of breading - and ensure controversy and a vigorous response from all concerned.

Cargo containers. Refrigerated portable cargo units, known as the Adapto Materials Handling System manufactured by the American Car and Foundry Division of ACF Industries, transport frozen foods through many layovers without intermediate warehouses.

April

Under glass. Peaches frozen in glass are marketed successfully by Glacier Frozen Foods, Sanger, Calif., which believes that vacuum-packing will cut down deterioration of the peaches on defrosting.

More boil-in-bag. And what a variety: griddle cakes and syrup, bacon and eggs, franks and sauerkraut, single-serving vegetables, stews, soups, baking socia biscuits and dozens of others. QFF boils over.

Lunch box. Hi-Grade Food Distributors of Los Angeles packages a frozen lunch box with a handle, containing sandwiches, Jello fruit cocktail dessert, two cookies, napkin and fork.

A packaging first. Gorton's of Gloucester is first to use a tear-strip opening device on frozen seafood. Dispensing with the overwrap, Gorton's uses a new packaging machine said to provide a tighter seal.

May, 1958

The cost of living: From 1953 to 1958 retail costs of food, exclusive of FF, rise 15% while the average retail price of frozen foods declines 18%. Four-fifths of the March 1958 advance in living costs is attributed to food.

Pinpointing pizza: In the first national frozen pizza survey, QFF discerns regional sales patterns - sausage pizza tops in Middle West and individual-serving cheese a leader in East and South. Round pizza is more popular than rectangular, and thick-crusted pizzas are preferred in New Orleans and many Middle Western states.

The recession and FF. Packers of both national and private label brands report that volume and profits are untouched by the recession; that sales were definitely higher in the first three months of 1958; that net profits were higher in most cases; and some report the best quarter in history - and prices have not markedly declined from the previous year.

June

Capital investment in frozen foods in estimated at $5.25 billion, with $1.8 billion in home freezers, $1 billion in processing, $500 million each in zero-degree warehousing, refrigerated trailers and lockers, $462 million in distribution, $400 million in retail store cabinets and backroom storage and $93 million in refrigerated railroad cars.

Vending machines. Rudd-Melikian markets a vending machine designed to store frozen foods and dispense them hot, anticipates 28% of in-plant populations will use for lunch.

July

The Department of Justice takes the field against the frozen foods industry by: (1) announcing an investigation into the possibility of monopolistic price fixing as a cause of high-priced FCOJ; (2) indicting the Frozen Food Distributors Association of Greater New York for conspiring to restrain interstate trade; and (3) scheduling House subcommittee hearings on retail frozen food prices.

Campbell concedes. FrigiDinner, Inc., of Philadelphia, successfully settles a suit against Campbell Soup Co. for infringement of its patent on aluminum trays that must be heated with foil covers. Campbell purchases a paid-up license for the duration of patent.

August

Institutional boil-in-bag. Shoreland Freezers of Salisbury, Md., offers a food service line of individually portioned servings of boil-in-bag vegetables complete with seasoning and butter, with 10 different 2 1/2-ounce portions.

New transit era. A combined Congressional committee approves the House-Senate Transportation Bill. All interstate motor hauling of frozen fruits and vegetables will now be under ICC regulations, excepting seafoods.

September

"Bake-on-Premises" pies, Farm Crest Food Products, Detroit, Mich., installs oven equipment next to the frozen foods counter in super markets, cooks frozen fruit pies, and averages sales of never less than 1,200 pies at one location in a week.

NARW names Powell, Richard M. Powell gets the nod as new executive vice president of the National Association of Refrigerated Warehouses.

October

Global acquires Flagstaff. Global Frozen Foods, a New York distributor, acquires Flagstaff Frozen Food Associates, Newark, N.J., strengthening its position as a leading area distributor while marking its entrance into the institutional field through Flagstaff's products and accounts.

Rocky Marciano, undefeated world heavyweight champion, enters the frozen foods business with Park Products Co., Asbury Park, N.J., which will introduce Rocky's frozen Italian specialties.

Containerization. Of potential importance to the industry is the new shipping concept, containerization, which can reduce packing costs and cut handling charges and losses from damage claims. At present, 39 U.S. railroads and two in Canada offer piggy-back service.

December

FTC investigates. The FTC announces that frozen food buying by large retail outlets will get special attention during its forthcoming investigation of competitive methods and practices used in marketing food.

1959

January

Senator Hubert Humphrey, as chairman of a Senate subcommittee on Retailing Distribution and Fair Trade Practices, says, "Smaller frozen foods producers are finding it progressively more difficult to obtain display space for their products. Aggressive Commission action now can help eliminate the bad marketing practices which seem to be spreading in the field."

Temperature standards. AFDOUS planning to proclaim code of temperature standards for FF handling. Among many contributing causes were spot checks by warehouse groups revealing only 46% of FF stored in display cases at zero or lower, and only 52% in backroom freezers at zero or lower.

Consumer Reports magazine judges 17 brands of frozen platters and rates them all good or very good, but "none qualified as Excellent because none was up to the quality of fine restaurant or expertly home-cooked fare."

February

Upright cooler with air curtain, announced by Hussmann Refrigerator Co., St. Louis, may be precursor of long-awaited, vertical cabinet displaying.

Frozen fruit pie disaster feared as price and cabinet wars bring specials as low as 29 cents. No profits left for promotion.

Iceland Products opens Samband brand processing plant in Steelton, Pa. Bjarni V. Magnusson', president, indicates program of broadening U.S. markets.

March

The top 15 FF packers do $681-715 million annually. Top six are Birds Eye, Minute Maid, Campbell-Swanson, Booth Fisheries, Stokely-PictSweet and Pasco Packing Co., the latter two achieving $45-50 million annually.

The top 12 chain stores do $821 million annually, estimates QFF. Leader is A & P with $280 million, a distant second is Safeway.

Nutrition. Massive study, underwritten by NAFFD, reveals frozens to be of more nutritive value than canned. The study's figures reveal that where a comparison is possible 47.5% of USDA's FF figures are underrated.

Aluminum foil pouch produced by Milprint, Inc., and used for precooked frozen meat and poultry.

Metal detectors becoming important to processors. Brilmayer Laboratories, N.Y., manufactures detector that automatically rejects contaminated packages.

April

Edwin T. Gibson, industry pioneer, dies. Gibson helped organize Birdseye Frosted Foods and was its first president. In 1938 he established International Frozen Foods. Elected first president of NAFFP in 1942. Had retired as executive V.P. of General Foods.

May

Southern vegetables - blackeye peas, whole and cut okra, sliced yellow crook-neck squash and greens - appear more and more in Northern markets.

Mexican foods, with their appeal to those who look for something different, can be the leader in prepared field, says Louis H. Stumberg, president of Patio Foods, Inc.

June

Seabrook Farms, Seabrook, N.J., sold for $3 million to Seeman Brothers, Inc., N.Y. Samuel Winokur, new Seabrook president, says expansion into national distribution will continue.

John I. Moone, founder of Snow Crop Marketers, dies at age 46. Snow Crop probably was first to sell direct to retailers. Moone left Snow Crop, with sales of $60 million, to form Concentrate Marketers.

George Mentley, an industry pioneer who joined Birds Eye as a salesman in 1934, retires as marketing manager of the firm.

A Radarange microwave oven designed for fast cooking and eye appeal is introduced by Raytheon Manufacturing Co. for $2,595.

July

AFDOUS approves a uniform code of handling for the industry, a suggested guide for the 50 states. Backroom storage must be zero degrees F or lower, and retail cases must be capable of maintaining zero or lower.

Anniversary dinner in Springfield, Mass., celebrates 30th birthday of Birds Eye. The city proclaims June 15, 1959, as "Clarence Birdseye Memorial Day."

"Liquefreeze," a new liquid nitrogen freezing-shipping method developed by Isbrandtsen Co., Inc., N.Y., delivers cargo at zero degrees F or lower after month in transit.

October

First FF marketing guide, put together by QFF and Seabrook Farms's Harold L. Franklin, breaks down 100 leading metropolitan area FF markets by 21 factors, including all product categories, per capita purchases and chain sales.

Gerald E. Thomas appointed frozen foods product marketing manager for Campbell Soup Co.

Drive-ins are big and getting bigger as a market for frozen foods. Predicted 10 year growth from 37,106 units to 75,000. Henry's Drive-In, Inc., Detroit, Mich., with 20 franchised areas in 18 states, purchases 87% of its food frozen.

Rigid boilable plastic containers make test appearance in New York chains through a 12-ounce Italian shrimp marinara package from Elegante Food Products, Brooklyn, N.Y.

November

The prospect of irradiation as a method of food preservation goes up in smoke. Process had flunked out on flavor and wholesomeness, and then test animals fed the food developed internal bleeding, enlarged hearts, loss of fertility, poor eyesight and other deficiencies. U.S. Army cancels $7.5 million project.

December

Frozen flowers? Alan Thornton, manager of an Inverness, Scotland, freezing firm, claims to have licked freezing's tendency to make plants and blossoms brittle and disintegrate.

The FTC investigates FF buying, alleging practices including price discrimination, illegal receipt or payment of brokerage, discriminatory granting of advertising allowances, and knowing inducement of illegal prices and advertising and promotional allowances.

1960

January

Frozen candy. Wallace & Co., Brooklyn, markets frozen chocolate covered mints through super market chains.

Chock Full O' "Doughnuts." Restaurant chain Chock Full O' Nuts ventures in a new direction, selling its own doughnuts, frozen, in New York-area super markets.

Gorton's merges with Florida Frozen Food Processors, shrimp firm, to implement long-considered addition of shrimp to its list of seafoods. QFF predicts the merger/birth of another industry giant.

February

Russian reactions to the Birds Eye display of American frozen foods at the American National Exhibition in Moscow fascinate U.S. observers. Unfortunately, the three million who attended were not allowed to taste the frozen foods.

M. Crawford Pollock leaves position as director of marketing development for Campbell Soup Co. to join Green Giant. While with C. A. Swanson & Sons, Omaha, Pollock was a pioneer in national distribution of prepared foods.

March

Carl R. Fellers, retired head of the Department of Food Technology at the University of Massachusetts and a member of QFF's technical advisory board since the magazine's inception, dies.

April

Department of Defense spending approximately $70 million yearly on FF for Armed Forces and families, $18 million for ready-to-cook chicken fryers.

June

First liquid nitrogen production line freezer developed by Liquefreeze, subsidiary of Isbrandtsen Co., N.Y. Subjects food to minus 320 degrees F, reportedly freezes usually within five minutes.

Aluminum cans grow in importance as Minute Maid packs between six and seven million six-ounce cans of FCOJ in 1959-60 pack.

Van de Kamp's Holland Dutch Bakers, Los Angeles,. enters FF field as it breaks ground for plant to process chicken pies, enchiladas, french fried northern halibut, chicken croquettes, and guaymas shrimp, to start.

July

Two companies vie to introduce semirigid plastic containers to supplant the waxed carton. Prices to be competitive because of use of low-priced Styrene which, when stretched thin, will not grow brittle at freezing temperatures.

August

Ward Baking Co. of New York goes national by acquiring Farm House Foods Co., processor of frozen pies, baked products and casseroles. Had already acquired Johnston Pie Company, Los Angeles.

September

End of a decade. 1959 brings production and sales records 6,565 million pounds and $2,749 million, the end of a decade which saw poundage increase 433% and product value 733%.

Soviet technicians contribute article on the at-sea freezing capability of Russia's expanded fishing fleet. In previous decade refrigerated cargo space increased eight-fold. By 1965 more than two-thirds of vessels to have mechanical refrigeration.

Tear-strip board can, aluminum laminated, is developed by Aluminum Company of America and United Shoe Machinery Corp. and test-marketed by Minute Maid. Lighter and cheaper than all-aluminum cans.

October

Automated FF distribution center, pioneered by Jerseymaid Milk Products Co., Los Angeles, gets attention of industry. Moves as many as 25,000 cases a day. Output quadruples.

Frozen margarine marketed for first time in New York City and Philadelphia by Standard Brands under the Fleischmann's brand.

Safeway - exclusive and in-depth - the story of how that super market chain bought, warehoused, distributed and sold an estimated $145 million in frozen foods the previous year.

Murry's Steaks, Inc., Washington, D.C., sells housewives on frozen meats, operating seven stores that do 90% of their volume in frozen meats.

Leo Musso increases sales 500% in three years at Quality Foods, Inc., South San Francisco. Uses newspaper campaigns, advertised brands only, never-out-of-stock policy, continuous demonstrations.

Frozen potatoes, led by French fries, skyrocket to 200 million pounds in institutional use. Surpass peas as institutional best-seller.

Merger of Minute Maid and Coca-Cola appears to be final triumph in the up and down business life of the citrus processor. Minute Maid's ad budget, already a high $3 million in 1959, expected to at least double.

November

In-store bakeries, a new development in super market service departments, seen as offering distributors way to diversify and expand, with an unlimited potential for institutional accounts.

December

Fish-shaped fish fillets appear on the market.

Onion ring processors increase from only a handful to nearly 20 in three years. Institutional market seen as the fastest growing.

1961

January

Bacteriological quality of FF much higher than that of milk or other foods found in home freezers, according to retail samples survey made by National Association of Frozen Food Packers.

Gorton's of Gloucester merges with Fishery Products, Inc., Cleveland, packers of Bluewater Seafoods.

Fred Otterbein promoted to vice president of financial administration of General Foods. He was general manager of Birds Eye for the previous seven years. In that post, he is succeeded by E. W. Kelley, previous treasurer of General Foods.

Frozen table eggs loom as super-convenient product as university and Army researchers tackle the problem, some even attempting the fried egg.

February

Plastic rigid vegetable container with a longitudinal tear strip is test marketed by Birds Eye in 10-ounce vegetable packs with transparent covers.

John M. Fox becomes executive vice president of United Fruit. He had been president of Minute Maid since its inception in 1945 as Florida Foods.

H. P. Hood & Sons markets its Southern Sun FCOJ in a spiral-wound fiber can with inner and outer layers of laminated aluminum foil.

April

Freeze drying no bonanza when processor needs an $80,000-$100,000 freeze drying chamber in addition to freezing facilities.

May

Five-company merger results in Ore-Ida Foods, Inc. Involved are Ore-Ida Potato Products, Inc., Idaho industries, Inc., Oregon Industries Co., Oregon Frozen Foods Co., and Oregon Feeding Co.

June

Freeze-dried prepared foods marketed at retail by Armour.

Pillsbury enters frozen foods with purchase of Gibbs Goodies, Ludington, Mich., processor of apple dumpling and apple crisp frozen desserts.

Glen-Joe, Denver-based all-frozen meat store chain, opens 20th store. Open only two days a week, the stores thrive on portion-cut and blast-frozen meat in institutional sizes.

August

Joseph E. Guinane retires from General Foods Corp. after 35 years of service. He worked with Clarence Birdseye, conducted some of the earliest experiments in quick-freezing fish, and did the layout for what was possibly the first complete freezing plant.

Stew vegetables pack, containing potatoes, carrots, onions and celery, is marketed in a polyethylene bag by Stokely-Van Camp.

Van de Kamp's Holland Dutch Bakers forms a new company division for frozen foods. Robert J. Hudecek, company vice president, supervises.

September

Chef Boy-Ar-Dee, well known Italian foods processor, test markets frozen cheese and sausage pizzas in the East.

Green Giant Co. introduces 10-ounce packages of vegetables in butter sauce, packed in boilable plastic pouches. Initially: tiny peas, baby limas, corn niblets and kitchen-sliced green beans.

October

For the first time, product-by-product poundage and value of frozen vegetables, fruits, poultry, seafoods, prepared foods and concentrates are given. QFF presents this exclusive survey.

G. W. Muddiman, former chairman of Birds Eye Foods Ltd., London, dies. He had been associated with Hudson Bay Company before the War, then with Birds Eye Ltd. from 1946, watching British FF grow from nothing.

Four major baking companies push frozen doughnuts at retail: Chock Full O' Nuts, Southern Bakeries Co., Wagner Baking Corp., and Farm House Frozen Foods Co. of Conn., a subsidiary of Ward Baking Co.

November

Vegetables, in combinations and in sauces, are introduced by Birds Eye with extensive advertising and promotion. (Eight items were selected from 48 test-marketed.)

Muffin potential explored by Downy-flake Foods, Morton Frozen Foods, and Gold Hill Prepared Foods, Inc., with several approaches in packing and distributing.

December

FF brokers see their institutional volume move from 34% to 46% in one year. Three-decked, air curtain cabinet brings 300% sales increase over five-week period in frozen bakery sales at Jewel Tea's Riverside, Ill., store.

Beer concentrate, produced by freezing, requires no refrigeration. Union Carbide and Phillips Petroleum are testing the waters.

1962

January

Tab-opening fiber can with metal ends, designed for packaging frozen fruits and berries, is introduced by Canco Division of American Can Co.

Frozen baby food dropped by Birds Eye. Problem in maintaining bacterial control.

Pilot restaurant, completely automated and using frozen and refrigerated foods, is tried by White Tower Corp., New York City, operator of 200 restaurants.

February

Jesse D. Jewell, founder and chairman of the board. sells his controlling interest in J. D. Jewell, Inc., poultry processor.

Freeze-dried instant coffee soon to be on market, says William L. Porter, lab director for Vacuum-Freeze-Drying division of Bethlehem Corp.

Pall cast over poultry processors at possibility that U.S. might not be able to lower tariff barriers at same time as Common Market countries, which buy 150 million pounds of frozen poultry annually.

March

Polyethylene/paper pouch for vegetables to be introduced by Western Waxide, division of Crown Zellerbach Corp.

Leo Young reports that the growth of Europe's Common Market could sharply cut U.S. frozen fish imports. Urges the rapid buildup of a modern American fishing fleet.

April

Florida packers estimate that as much as 60% of the year's 94 million gallon FCOJ pack will be sold in multipacks of four, six or eight cans.

May

Scramble to market multi-level FF cabinets involves several manufacturers.

A 100% frozen program for Sara Lee as the company drops its fresh baked goods. Primary reason: frozen bakery products in most cases are superior to fresh.

June

Dessert with frozen dinners? Swanson, Chun King and Red L Foods test market the concept.

Florida Citrus Mutual board of directors tentatively endorses proposal for a reserve FCOJ pool as a method of stabilizing prices during crop shortages or bumper crops.

August

Jack Fisher, sales manager of Goldhill Food Corp., Brooklyn, dies. Introduced the foil-covered aluminum tray while operating own company, FrigiDinner.

September

Processed FF poundage mounts to 8,425 million pounds in 1961, valued at $3,582 million.

In Europe, Findus and Nestle form new company with capital of [pounds] 16 million, setting stage for Europe-wide battle with Birds Eye, the frozen food titan.

Everything served is frozen at Buitoni's new Broadway restaurant. Franchise inquiries increase.

Gorton's announces "Fresh-Lock," a new means of locking in natural fish flavors, texture, color and nutrition, reducing drip loss and weight and protein loss.

October

FF sales of the 16 leading chains estimated at $849 million for fiscal 1961-62.

Philip Rizzuto, pioneer packer and president of Southland Frozen Foods, N.Y., dies.

Freezer space in U.S. warehouses hits high of 516 million cubic feet of minus zero space, topping refrigerated space for the first time.

November

Home delivery of FCOJ in eight-ounce tetrahedronal Ultra-Pak is made by Whiting Milk Co. under Daisy Meadows brand on dairy home delivery routes in Boston area.

Swanson introduces three-course dinners nationally. Research overcame problems of simultaneous heating of five components and manufacture of special tray.

Pillsbury's FF division to begin marketing baked goods under "Pillsbury" brand label.

1963

January

El Chico Corporation, Dallas, Tex., major processor of Mexican foods, is formed by the merger of El Chico Foods, Inc., and El Chico Commissary, Inc. "Fluidizing" belt freezing systems for IQF products are now available with capabilities 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8 tons per hour from Lewis Refrigeration Co., Seattle, Wash., and over 20 are being used by processors. The prototype of this "Lewis IQF System" was first used in 1961, by Chehalis Packing Co., Chehalis, Wash., for strawberries, peas and corn.

February

Gorton's of Gloucester announces thai it will merge with Red L Foods, specializing exclusively in prepared seafoods and seafood dinners.

H. J. Heinz Co. will enter the FF field: it reaches agreement to purchase Star-Kist Foods, Terminal Island, Calif., processor of prepared seafood products.

Du Pont's recently introduced Freon-502, an azeotropic mixture of its Freon-22 and Freon-115, is already in use in over 40 refrigeration systems - half for display cases, the others for FF and chemical processing.

A & P and National Tea, following Jewel Tea's lead, begin marketing their baked goods in frozen form.

Microwave restaurant opens near Times square: Tad's freezes entrees, customer selects dish from refrigerated case. cafeteria style, and after paying cashier takes tray to his table where there is a microwave oven for him to use.

March

Frozen dinner survey conducted by Prof. George C. Cook, of New York State University, and students, finds about 23.6% of middle-income families purchase frozen dinners, to be consumed by the whole family (48.9%), children under 12 (22.5%), couples (7%) or teenagers (4.8%). Forty-nine percent were satisfied with the products, but 28% wanted bigger portions, and 55% responded favorably to the idea of dinners including soup and dessert. Forty percent first tried the product because of TV commercials. Most popular varieties: chicken (bought by 60%), turkey (40%) and beef (32.6%).

April, 1963

QFF covers two national conventions and editorializes: "When nine out of every ten people you meet in this industry ask (and with increased impatience) - when are we going to have one convention instead of two? - we think it's time to listen."

The potato pack increased 31% in 1962 over '61, to 761 million pounds. French fries accounted for about 87% of the total, and two-thirds of the total was institutional. At least 12 new frozen potato plants commenced operation in the past two years.

The National Shrimp Breaders Association, recently reorganized, institutes an information service for its members - offering detailed data on credit, shipping, marketing, technology and statistics. Executive secretary Gerald P. Smith reports that membership has expanded greatly and represents 85-90% of domestic production.

Pot pie sales declining, though the average price is down to 18 cents each. Larger sizes, different shapes are being tried by a number of packers.

May

Freezer food plans are dwindling rapidly; super market competition - and cooperation of super markets and appliance dealers - have cut into plan profits and few of them are able to offer savings to consumers. Many freezer food plans are charging prices above list for the appliances.

Canadian Frozen Potato Products Council is formed by eight processors - Carnation Co. Ltd., Fraser Valley Frosted Foods, Holland River Gardens, McCain Foods, Seeman Brothers, Singer's Food Products, Snowflake Cannery Co. (of Brunswick, Me.), and York Farms.

Birds Eye introduces eight institutional varieties of free-flowing vegetables in sauce in 2 1/2-pound cartons. The sauce is frozen in small cubes evenly blended with the partly cooked IQF vegetables. In thawing, the cubes of sauce soften but do not liquefy.

Mette Munk, Ltd., Ondense, Denmark, is exporting authentic (not cake-dough) Danish pastries to the United States. The products are being tested in a number of U.S. cities.

June

Nathaniel Barclay, co-founder and former president of Snow Crop Frozen Food Co., died at the age of 56.

QFF notes the excellent prospects for the increase of FF sales from the current $3 1/2 billion to $7 billion by 1970. (It happened in '69.)

Senator Hart compares a frozen pie from the super market with one baked for the Senate cafeteria, finds the former wanting and asks the FDA to set standards.

July

Control of Libby, McNeill & Libby is gained by two foreign companies, Banque de Paris et des Pay Bas, through its American subsidiary, Parisbas Corporation, and Fasco A.G., a member of the Michele Sindona Italian industrial complex. Libby announces ground breaking for a new vegetable plant in Wisconsin.

National Biscuit Co., New York, forms a FF division under general manager Edward H. Coale, after acquiring U.S. distribution rights for Mette Munk Danish pastries.

Kitchens of Sara Lee (Canada) Ltd. is established by the U.S. company, and Frederick W. Hayward is named vice president of Canadian operations. The new unit is located in Bramalea, Ont., and is geared initially for $5 million in baked goods sales.

Green Giant reports $10 million in sales of prepared vegetables in 1962, and predicts $18 million in '63. The company's boil-in-bag items have penetrated about 60% of the country since introduction in 1961.

Hager, Inc., Bridgeport, Conn., one of the largest freezer food plans in New England, goes into the institutional market, introducing a line of low-cost gourmet entrees designed for microwave reconstitution.

FTC learns why advertised brands of FF are more expensive: its survey of fruit, vegetable and concentrate processors (covering 1959) finds that Birds Eye and Minute Maid carry 46.2% of the advertising burden for these categories, and only six companies spend more than $1 million per year on advertising. Private label dominates, with 70% of the larger chains' total volume. About one-third of the packers surveyed were losing money.

August, 1963

Frozen Food Month (September)is recognized by the Federal government, and Acting Secretary of Agriculture Charles S. Murphy issues a statement on the growth and importance of the industry. Using the theme "Frozen Food Buy-Time," packers, retailers, brokers, distributors and transporters will conduct promotional programs to make consumers more aware of the quality, convenience and value of FF - an unprecedented, all-industry effort.

Common Market will not budge: Council of Ministers unanimously refuses to reduce duty on American poultry. "As poultry goes, so go our overall trade prospects," says Secretary of Agriculture Orville Freeman. The U.S. may increase tariffs on Common Market imports.

Three-mile limit called obsolete. Senator Gruening, Democrat of Alaska, proposes that the U.S. extend its territorial waters to 12 miles off shore to benefit the fishing industry.

Former Welch president dies. Edgar T. Welch, president of Welch Grape Juice Co., 1926-1935, and founder, in 1945, of Westfield Frozen Food Lockers, Inc., Westfield, N.Y. was 82 years old when he died.

QFF marks 25th anniversary and editorially calls for, among other things: more cabinet space for packers' brands, "since they create the original demand" and "provide research and advertising"; less price cutting; more scientific production on the basis of accurate market research; more premium brands; better cost information; faster reheating equipment; a campaign to increase vegetable consumption; larger retail packages. . . .

September

Campbell Soup Company eliminates cooperative advertising with direct customers for its Swanson products, feeling that the money will do both packer and retailer more good if directed toward building the brand name among consumers. (Campbell's Pepperidge Farms division is one of the few major packers that never had a cooperative advertising program.)

Green Glant agrees to acquire all outstanding shares of Sterling Industries, Inc., Sacramento, Calif., fruit and vegetable processor.

Formation of Sara Lee Ltd., to distribute Sara Lee cakes throughout the United Kingdom, is announced by Charles W. Lubin, president of Kitchens of Sara Lee. New company is a joint venture of the U.S. firm and J. Lyons & Co., of London.

Pet Milk to buy Downyflake consumer products business, according to joint announcement. Downyflake was a division of DCA Food Industries. Boyd F. Schenk is named president of Pet's FF divison'.

Dressel Bakeries is acquired by American Bakeries Co.

Obituary: George T. Edwards, an organizer of Pratt Fresh Frozen Food Co., in 1934. He arranged for the first railroad carload shipment of frozen peas from California to New York. He sold his interest in Pratt in 1954, and was associated with a brokerage until retirement in 1960. He was 77 years old.

Moore's Seafood Products Inc. moves from Milwaukee to new site in Fort Atkinson, Wis., where it has constructed a new plant that doubles production capabilities.

October

Frick Co. introduces "Spiro-Flex," a continuous, automatic freezer which reduces conveyor friction and permits operation with a single, low-hp motor.

Harry E. DiCristina died at 70. He was president of Holly Hill Fruit Products Co., Inc., Davenport, Fla., since 1948, and its general manager from 1936 until then. It was among the first to enter the juice concentrate field.

A QFF first: per capita consumption of FF, presented in a separate retail and institutional product-by-product breakdown.

Chun King Corp. purchases Chun Wong, Inc., Compton, Calif., a leading frozen convenience food packer on the West Coast since 1948.

Booth Fisheries directors okay purchase by Consolidated Foods.

November

The Banquet Canning Company, St. Louis, will now advertise its Banquet brand nationally, according to Park Lockwood, sales manager and vice president. The company is about to introduce 18 new items, he adds. The campaign will include one of the largest schedules ever placed in Life magazine by a FF company, as well as heavy local newspaper ads and radio and TV spots.

The National Food Brokers Association's 60th annual convention, to be held Dec. 7-11 in Chicago, will (for the first time) include a special meeting on the sale and merchandising of frozen foods. The number of brokers handling FF increased 266% in the past 15 years. Of 2,050 member companies, 61.9% now sell FF, reports Watson Rogers, NFBA president, and about two-thirds of those sell to both retail and institutional markets.

Eskimo Frozen Foods, subsidiary of Associated Fisheries, major U.K. seafood processor, has been purchased by Fropax, Ltd. - making Fropax number two in the U.K., second to Birds Eye Foods, Ltd.

New retail products include french toast for the toaster from Country Best Foods and crepe suzettes from Gala Delicacies, Inc. The crepes are inserted in a polywrap, the sauce in a poly pouch. Gala also introduces entree crepes in boil-in-bags for the institutional market.

December

Birds Eye drops its cooperative ad program, doubles its marketing budget for the coming year, and discontinues dinners and meat pies. It is test marketing "Awake," a frozen "imitation" orange drink concentrate in 9-ounce cans.

Frozen tomato slices, packed eight per package at 29 cents, are being tested by Libby. Processing is made possible by liquid nitrogen "Magic Freeze" process developed by Airco. A special variety of tomato is used.

William J. Finnegan, greatest single benefactor of The Refrigeration Research Foundation, died. Finnegan was a consulting engineer who was responsible for important advances in food freezing. He made a $50,000 loan to TRRF without interest so that its Colorado Springs building could be constructed. The loan was repaid as rent until his death, whereupon the building became TRRF property.

1964

January

United Foods, of Houston, Tex., purchases Western Frozen Foods, Hammond, La., Pan Am Foods, Brownsville, Tex., and Gulf Southern Corp., Tampa, Fla.

Beatrice Foods Co., Chicago, processor, is holding merger discussions with Produce Terminal Cold Storage Co., also of Chicago. If Beatrice buys the refrigerated warehousing company, it will operate as a separate division.

NFI president killed in plane crash. Lewis Goldstein, president of the National Fisheries Institute, died Dec. 8, 1963, in a jet liner crash near Elkton, Md. He was 44. He was secretary of Liberty Fish Co., Philadelphia, and vice president of the Brownsville Shrimp Exchange. A survivor of the Bataan Death March and 42 months as a P.O.W., he was elected national commander of the American Defenders of Bataan and Corregidor in 1956.

Commercial Cold Storage, Inc., Atlanta, opens a $3-million, 4-million-cubic-foot refrigerated food center. QFF carries a special section on the company, formed four years before.

"FLoFREEZE," a fluidization freezing system recently developed by Frigoscandia, of Sweden, has already been installed by three processors in the United States and two in Canada, as well as a number in Europe.

Soy protein meat analogs are being marketed by at least two companies, Worthington Foods, Inc., Worthington, Ohio, and Brown's Frosted Foods, Inc., Philadelphia. Both offer a number of products - including chicken, beef and ham varieties.

February

Ben Hill Griffin, Inc., Frostproof, Fla., is the first processor to use the Florida Citrus Commission's "O.J." symbol, which appears on its 6- and 12-ounce cans of Golden Sip and Sun Sip concentrated orange juice.

March

The FF department can be twice as profitable as groceries, significantly more profitable than produce,according to a study by McKinsey & Company, Inc., for the Birds Eye division of General Foods. With only 5% of volume, frozens can match the total net profit of the meat department.

J. W. Greer Company, Wilmington, Mass., introduces its Jet Freezer, employing high velocity, low temperature air discharged in vertical streams above the product.

Eugene Merkert, president of Food Enterprises, Canton, Mass., brokerage, receives a special honor award for outstanding service from the Freedoms Foundation. The presentation is made by Dwight D. Eisenhower.

April

Fish stick and portion production for 1963 broke all records, with sticks rising 9% above '62, and portions jumping 20%.

Chun King purchases the assets of Oriental Commerce Ltd., Windsor, Canada, which packs Dragon brand frozen Chinese foods.

Raymond N. Tuller dies. He was cofounder and former president of Springfield Cold Storage Co., Springfield, Mass. He worked closely with Clarence Birdseye in his early experiments at Amherst College. He died March 30, of a head attack, at 70.

SeaPak Corporation, St. Simons Island, Ga., acquires a majority of the stock of Trade Winds Company, Thunderbolt, Ga., and offers to purchase the remainder. There are to be no changes in the latter's brand or line.

O.J. square footage down 17.1% in the cabinets, 1962-1963, although cabinet space per store rose 11.2%. Space devoted to other citrus juices also declined. Juice concentrates other than citrus gained by 4.5%, and drinks gained by 13.3%. It was estimated that civilian per capita consumption of frozen O.J. would have to rise 22% over the last five years' average in order to successfully market the expected 1967-68 orange crop.

May, 1964

Edible, transparent packaging film for FF developed by American Maize-Products Co., Roby, Ind. Food is to be wrapped in the material before freezing. The film will slowly dissolve in water and is completely digestible.

General Foods introduces freeze-dried instant coffee through its Maxwell House division. The product is called "Maxim concentrated instant coffee."

U.S. Steel and other producers attempt to penetrate the FF packaging market with tin-plated steel foil to replace aluminum.

Dressel's division of American Bakeries increases its frozen prebaked line to 24 products, redesigns its packaging and announces year-round advertising plans.

QFF exclusive nationwide frozen pizza survey: QFF presents detailed results in two parts, beginning this issue. Highlights: large pizzas most popular; thin-crust cheese is number-one seller: 40% of the packers freeze pizza exclusively; two-thirds claimed increased '63 sales; 24.5% average sales increase predicted for 1964; 83.5% of the business is retail; and an increasing number of food giants are moving in for their share of the market.

Anthony J. Pizza Food Products Corp., Calumet City, Ill., is constructing a half-million dollar plant in Chicago Heights, according to an announcement by Anthony J. Pizza, president, who founded the company in 1949.

June

DCA Food Industries, Inc., New York, acquires Golden Dipt Meletio Corporation, St. Louis, Mo., breading and batter mix processor organized in 1904, according to a joint announcement by David M. Levitt, president of DCA, and John H. Meletio, president of Golden Dipt.

Mrs. Kornberg dies. She was the founder and past president of Mrs. Kornberg's Food Products Corp., North White Plains, N.Y.

Johnston Pie Co., Los Angeles, purchases Rose Royal, Inc., El Segundo, Calif., producer of frozen and fresh cheese cakes and cheese pies. Johnston Pie added nine-inch pie shells to its line.

July

Three low-calorie dinners - turkey, chicken and haddock - are being tested by the F. M. Stamper Co., St. Louis, under the "Hollywood '300' "label. Each dinner has 300 calories. "A few attempts have been made in the past to market calorie-counted frozen foods with no particular success," QFF editorializes. "Now we find a major dinner company introducing three calorie-counted dinners and at least two juice concentrate companies featuring synthetically sweetened drinks. Is the public ready...? One thing we are sure of and that is that, if not now, one day diet foods will be a standard part of the retailers' frozen food line."

Five varieties of vegetables in butter sauce, all in boilable pouches, are being readied by Seabrook Farms, N.J.

Fruit Growers Express Company, Washington, D.C., is building 630 insulated bunkerless refrigerator cars, at a total expenditure of over $11.5 million.

Mobile IQF freezer system introduced by Lewis Refrigeration Co., Woodinville, Wash., to be utilized by Green Giant at its Beaver Dam, Wis., plant.

August

FF prices are lower than they were eight years ago and much lower than 12 years ago, while other food prices continue to climb.

Amerio Contact Plate Freezers, Inc., Cliffside Park, N.J., introduces a fully automatic loading/unloading plate freezer, capable of freezing foods at the rate of 200 retail packages per minute.

Bridgford Foods Corp., Anaheim, Calif., frozen bread dough producer, builds new, totally automated Eastern plant in Secaucus, N.J.

National Sea Products, Ltd., of Halifax, opens the world's largest ground fish processing plant in Lunenburg, Nova Scotia. It has the capacity of handling 80 million pounds of seafood annually. QFF has a special section.

Gretchen Grant Kitchens, Jersey City, N.Y., hors d'oeuvres processor, purchased by The Glidden Company and becomes a division of Durkee Famous Foods.

September, 1964

Kitchens of Sara Lee, Chicago, opens Deerfield, Ill., facility - the world's largest bakery devoted exclusively to frozen product - tripling production capacity.

Pet Milk Co., St. Louis, purchases Milady Food Products, Inc., Brooklyn, N.Y., processor of Jewish-style foods.

Lamb-Weston, Inc., Portland, Ore., reactivates the Rocky Mountain Chemical Co's FF plant in Rupert, Idaho, for frozen crinkle-cut french fried potato production: The company recently acquired Frozen Potato Products' Grand Forks, N.D., plant from Mid-Continent Cold Storage Company of N.D.

Container Corporation of America's Sefton Can and Plastics Division develops an easy-opening fibre can for frozen citrus concentrate. It is laminated paperboard with aluminum ends and a built-in tape opening feature. The consumer simply pulls the tab.

Armour introduces special-diet entrees for hospitals.

October

Seabrook Farms founder dies. Charles Franklin Seabrook died Oct. 20, 1964, after a long illness. He was 83. He expanded from his father's 78-acre farm near Bridgeton, N.J., into a multimillion-dollar vegetable farming and freezing operation. With Clarence Birdseye, he did much of the research on freezing, and for the first three years of the industry, packed all Birdseye brand frozen vegetables and fruits in his Seabrook, N.J., plant. Seabrook processing operations were sold in 1959.

First Canadian Frozen Food Convention hosted by the Ontario FF Council, held Sept. 22-23, in Toronto.

Batter-fried fish puffs introduced by Gorton's of Gloucester, along with a seafood casserole line.

Abel's Bagels, Buffalo, N.Y., makes frozen debut with four varieties - traditional, onion, egg and rye - packed in poly bags.

New York Bagel Bakery moves from New Haven to larger plant in West Haven, Conn. Murray Lender, sales manager, describes it as the "the largest bakery in the world for bagels only."

QFF packers survey reveals that railroads are carrying 23.1% of FF, not about 15%, as previously believed.

Directory of private and controlled label frozens of leading retail food chains is published for the first time in QFF.

November

FF code. A statement of suggested trade practices for manufacturers, distributors and retailers of frozen food is approved by the board of directors of the National Association of Frozen Food Packers and related associations. Ralph Garside, national manager, business development, Birds Eye division of General Foods, played a major role in formulating the code.

Calavo Growers of California is engaged in a test marketing program with Frigid Foods, Inc., Escondido, Calif. Liquid nitrogen is used to freeze ripe avocados in half-shells, slices and chunks. Calavo personnel are introducing the product to the institutional trade initially.

December

New York State associations, The Frozen Food Association of Western New York, Buffalo, and the Central New York Frozen Food Association, Syracuse, are organized.

The August 1963 QFF is to be micro-filmed for placement in Time Capsule II, to be buried on the grounds of The New York World's Fair. The issue includes the history of the FF industry from 1938, written by E. W. Williams. Time Capsule I was buried in 1938.

The Diamond International Corporation, a holding company, announces plans to acquire Heekin Can Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, a leading manufacturer of institutional tins for frozens.

Ralph E. Garside resigns from Birds Eye to become a partner and vice president of R. W. Mitchell, Inc., Chicago, brokerage. He had been associated with the processor for 34 years.

1965

January

Freezing adds nutrition to certain foods, making more nutrients available. QFF prepares detailed comparison of frozen with canned foods, utilizing data from the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation, the National Canners Association and the USDA's handbook, "Composition of Foods." Vegetables, fruits and juices are covered.

Valdez Cold Storage Co., Valdez, Alaska, announces plans for a $1.5 million seafood processing plant.

The annual convention of the North-west Canners and Freezers Association, Jan. 10-12, in Portland, Ore., is attended by well over 1,500 packing and allied industry members.

Frick Company, Waynesboro, Pa., announces a new, continuous, automatic freezer, called Freez-Pak, suitable for IQF or packaged product.

Basic refrigeration text. Avi Publishing Co., Westport, Conn., brings out vol. 1 of Handbook of Refrigerating Engineering, by W. R. Woolrich, Dean Emeritus and Professor, College of Engineering, University of Texas.

Powdered dry ice freezer, developed by Thermlce Corp., Philadelphia, successfully applied in fruit and vegetable processing.

Mrs. Smith's Pie Company, Pottstown, Pa., will construct additional production facilities, doubling capacity.

Van de Kamp's Frozen Food Division announces a $1-million addition, to double baked goods production capacity.

Perky Pies, a division of Jaz-Zee Products, Inc., Oakland, Calif., announces a line of fruit, beef, tuna and chicken turnovers.

February

FF grew at almost twice the rate of the Gross National Product in the past year - 11%, compared to 6.7%. According to QFF, present FF sales are about $4.4 billion and poundage is over 9 billion. Retail sales accounted for $3 billion; institutional, for $1.4 billion. Since 1963, the number of U.S. FF packers increased by almost 300, to 1,463. "We now foresee a curtailment of this growth into fewer and larger units. The era of consolidation has set in."

Appearance of frozen poultry out-ranks price, three-to-one, as a determining factor in purchase, according to an extensive consumer survey by Professor George C. Cook of New York State University and a team of students. About 49% of Consumers buy some form of frozen poultry, most often turkey, most often whole. Whole frozen chicken buying is also stronger than buying of parts. There is a market for deboned frozen poultry at a higher price.

French snails in seasoned parsley butter sauce are packed in six-ounce retail packages by S-Car-Go, Inc., Ramsey, N.J.

James Jefferson Rucker Bristow, inventor of citrus concentrating processes, died Jan. 28, at 74. He founded the Dunedin, Fla., citrus processing plant.

Chef Pierre Inc., dessert processor, relocates, from Elk Rapids to Traverse City, Mich., and drops "Foods" from its former name, Chef Pierre Foods Inc.

March

Last separate convention, the 24th annual event sponsored by the National Association of Frozen Food Packers, was held March 1-3, in San Francisco. After 22 years of service, Lawrence S. Martin resigns his duties as executive vice president. He is succeeded by Thomas B. House.

The Freezer Box Division of Annapolis Yacht Yards, Inc., Annapolis, Md., is acquired by Evans Products Co., Plymouth, Mich.

Campbell Soup announced plans for construction of a multi-million-dollar plant near Sumter, S.C., for Swanson TV Dinners anti poultry products.

May, 1965

Winter Garden Freezer Co., Inc., Bells, Tenn., fruit and vegetable processor, embarks on a $1.4 million expansion program, according to an announcement by J. O. Tankersley, president.

Morton Frozen Foods begins construction of a plant in Russellville, Ark., primarily for poultry products.

Potato processors merge. Snow Flake Canning Co., Corinna, Me., and Lamb-Weston, Portland, Ore., sign merger agreement. Snow Flake will operate as a subsidiary.

Singleton Packing Corp., Tampa, Fla., has opened the first U.S. shrimp plant designed for liquid nitrogen freezing.

June

"The Japanese have a word for it - 'tempura' - and in the near future the frozen prepared food industry will see how much of a market exists for deep-fry foods which sport a light, fluffy batter. . ." - Editorial.

H. J. Heinz Company is negotiating for the acquisition of Ore-Ida Foods, Inc., Ontario, Ore.

Colonial Beef Co, Philadelphia, opens a $1.5-million meat processing plant in that city's new Food Distribution Center.

July

Tasti-Fries, a six-sided frozen french fried potato product, is introduced by the Birds Eye division of General Foods.

F. G. Lamb & Co., Weston, Ore., merges into Lamb-Weston, Inc., according to F. Gilbert Lamb, president of Lamb-Weston. F. G. Lamb & Co. began freezing strawberries in 1939, vegetables in 1942.

August

Lubin retires. Charles W. Lubin, founder, chairman and chief executive officer of Kitchens of Sara Lee, Deerfield, Ill., retires from that firm after 15 years of service. He developed the technique of baking cakes in aluminum foil pans, freezing and shipping them in the same container.

Kenneth J. Sartori elected president of American Consumer Industries, Inc., New York, the country's largest owner and operator of cold storage warehouses.

Glass-door retail cabinet drawbacks are "myths," QFF concludes, and emphasizes their positive aspects in installations in both the United States and the United Kingdom.

Celentano Brothers, Newark, N.J. Italian specialties processor, runs a summer promotion for its unusual thick-crust pizza, using TV and radio commercials.

Modern Maid Food Products, Inc., Jamaica, N. Y., announces perfection of a method of maintaining complete leavening stability in its new tempura batter mix. "Our technologists engaged in extensive experimentation with existing battering equipment in cooperation with Sam Stein Associates."

"The U.S. fishing industry is in such dire extremity that the potential of the seas for supplying nourishing, economical food for our population may never be realized. ..." - Editorial.

September

Twenty per cent gain, greatest in FF history, boosts volume to $5.25 billion. - State of the Industry.

Campbell Soup introduces first three-course frozen seafood dinner, Swanson "Mixed Seafood Grill" in five-compartment tray.

McCain Foods Ltd., Florenceville, New Brunswick, Canada, acquires the entire share capital of Caterpac Ltd., London, England, one of the largest private importers of FF in Great Britain. It distributes Caterpac brand products to the institutional market.

Edward A. Taylor becomes general manager of the Florida Citrus Commission, succeeding Homer E. Hooks, who resigns after eight years in the post.

Max A. Ries, co-founder of Honor Brand Frosted Foods, died Aug. 1, following a long illness. He was 59. Honor Brand, one of the industry's first, was later purchased by Stokely-Van Camp.

October

Largest issue of any magazine ever in the history of publishing up to that time - 542 pages. Over half of the pages are devoted to editorial material. Each copy weighs over three pounds. The magazine includes the most extensive data ever assembled on the industry. Largest ad in the issue is a 10-page fold-out in four colors for Mrs. Smith's Pie Co. It is believed to be the largest ever carried by any food trade publication.

Sam Stein Associates, Inc., Sandusky, Ohio, will make the line of Fry-O-Matic continuous fryers invented by Wood B. Hedgepeth and formerly manufactured by Jabez Burns & Sons, Inc., and its successor, Blaw-Knox Co., Inc. The entire line has been redesigned. Stein tempura applicator is announced.

December

Florida-Citrus Commission upgrades O.J. quality. Use of washed pulp solids for 6-, 12- and 32-ounce sizes is prohibited. The increase in brix (from 41.8 [degrees] to 44.8 [degrees]) means there will be about 7% more orange solids.

Green Giant will buy Dulany Foods, Inc.

"Bake-in-bag" bread introduced by Pet. Special baking bags made of a nylon film are provided for both proofing and baking the raw bread dough.

Pet Milk Co., is reportedly buying Hussmann Refrigeration, Chicago. Pet recently acquired Downyflake, Milady's and Frosted Fruit Products.

1966

January

Molded pulp disposable pie baking plates are developed by Keyes Fibre Co., New York. The "Bak-O-Ware" pie plate bakes complete pies up to 15% faster than metal can. Evenly distributed heat permits uniform bottom browning.

February

Frozen foods, from 1955 to 1965, grow at 3.6 times the rate of United States' Gross National Product.

March

E. W. Williams Publications, Inc., publisher of Quick Frozen Foods, joins Cahners Publishing Co., Boston. Will operate as a division of Cahners.

Green Giant and Birds Eye test market fruit in a quick-thawing pouch. The bags are placed unopened in warm water for 10-15 minutes.

CandyGram, Inc., in association with Western Union, sees frozen candy sales quadruple during first year of operation. Offers one- and two-pound boxes by mail.

Three varieties of frozen pancake batter are packed in one-pint containers by International Industries, Inc., North Hollywood, Calif.

April, 1966

Lamb-Weston custom builds and equips traveling test kitchen to demonstrate its frozen potato products to restaurants throughout the country. Includes freezer, high output two-basket deep fryer, oven, range, sink, portion-control scale, heat lamps, lounge area, and is completely air conditioned.

May

F. M. Stamper Co., St. Louis, owner of Banquet Canning Co., buys Bright Foods, Inc., Turlock, Calif.

Wallace C. Blankinship becomes vice president-FF systems development for Stouffer's frozen prepared foods division. James M. Biggar succeeds him as vice president and general manager of the division

Birds Eye markets 18 vegetables ready to serve five minutes after brought to a boil.

Container Corp. of America produces frozen juice cans with spray coatings of DuPont "Elvax" vinyl resins in place of interior layer of aluminum foil; first application of hot melts in rigid containers.

Dr. "Dutch" Diehl, pioneer frozen food researcher, retires from Trans-American Refrigeration Services.

June

Campbell produces its first "international Style Dinners" under Swanson label - German, Italian, Mexican and Chinese.

Hyman Epstein dies, a pioneer processor of Jewish-style frozen foods and one of the best-known figures in the industry.

USDA researchers discover that 20% of frozen retail items cost slightly less than their ingredients at retail. Percentage possibly greater because of yield-after-cooking results. Frozen yields ranged from 88 to 100% of initial weight, as compared to 65 to 95% for home-prepared counterparts.

July

Container Corp. of America devises laminated paperboard body with metal ends for FCOJ containers.

Merger of Global Frozen Foods and Snow Kist produces what may be world's largest 100% independently operated retail FF distributor.

Lamb-Weston purchases control of Brown and Kelly, Inc., Quincy, Wash., potato processor.

September

Jerre Pearson is named president and chief executive officer of Seeman Brothers, Inc., and its subsidiary, Seabrook Farms Co. Inc., Carlstadt, N.J.

Hanscom Brothers, Inc., of Philadelphia, markets in New York 10-ounce packages of iced yellow cup cakes and French crumb cup cakes, individually paper-cupped after baking.

Crunchler breading arrives as Gorton's introduces five items - fried shrimp, fish sticks, fried clams, fish fillets and fried scallops - with a crunchy recipe combination of tempura puff batters and breading.

SeaPak Corp., St. Simons Island, Ga., soon to be acquired by W. R. Grace & Co., which proposes one common share for each 2.262 of SeaPak's 481,000 common shares.

October

Global Frozen Foods, Inc., easily absorbs Snow Kist business by use of "Code-a-Phone," automatic answering device that takes orders electronically, bypassing switchboard.

November

All-time record of $5.77 million set in 1965 as value of FF produced or marketed in U.S., a 9.8% increase over 1964.

Nestle of Toronto markets its own freeze-dried coffee, Taster's Choice, in Canada.

Frozen cream type pies, produced under good sanitation conditions, found by FDA study to have an E. coli MPN less than three per gram (none, by their method) or sterile.

December

R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company acquires Chun King for $63 million. Chun King's stock to be held by new subsidiary, R. J. Reynolds Foods, Inc., with Chun King founder Jeno F. Paulucci as chairman.

1967

January

Jeno F. Paulucci, president and chairman of the board of Northland Foods, Inc., Duluth, Minn., announced expansion of the company into the FF field, with establishment of research center for dessert and Italian foods.

H. P. Hood & Sons completes 100% ownership of Roman Products Corporation, South Hackensack, N.J., largest 100% Italian FF company in U.S.

First entry into pot pie field made by Stouffer's frozen prepared foods division, Cleveland. Introduces beef, chicken and turkey pies in 10-ounce portions.

April

R. J. Reynolds Foods, Inc., established, with initial focus on production of frozen and canned foods, including snacks, desserts and beverages. Composed of Chun King Corp.; the Grocery Products division of Penick & Ford, Ltd.; College Inn Products; and Filler Products, Inc.

Frozen corn-on-the-cob, in poly bags, four full ears to the bag, is test marketed in Philadelphia by Green Giant.

De luxe frozen vegetables introduced by Birds Eye. Five different products receive a distinctive label. The assortment considered a first in frozen vegetables.

May

Frozen fruit spreads, actually raw fruit preserves, are introduced in nine-ounce plastic tubs by Dean Foods Co., Franklin Park, Ill. Said to retain flavor of fresh fruit.

July

Coffee whitener in 1/2-ounce single-serving portion plastic cups offered to institutional trade by Rich.

August

Paul I. Corddry appointed general manager of Ore-Ida Foods, Inc., Ontario, Ore. Corddry had served as general manager of product marketing for parent company, Heinz.

Frozen nondairy topping. Cool Whip, begins national distribution under Birds Eye label.

September

Irrigation in eastern Washington State almost doubles acreage under cultivation since 1963. Potato processing production increases 385% in two years; area may have potential to produce 50% or more of the United States processed potatoes.

Fish and seafood industry products pass $1 billion mark in 1966, a total worth of $1,029,402,101. Total pound-age was 971,088,647.

October

Green Giant agrees to sell a subsidiary, Dulany Foods, Inc., Fruitland, Md., to United Foods, Inc., Houston.

FDA approves Du Pont's use of dichlorodifluoromethane (Freon freezant) for the freezing of foods by direct contact.

November

Frozen corn-on-the-cob production increases 400% in three years, retail gains 268%. Growth predicted for over 20 years.

James A. Schlindwein appointed assistant to the vice president, sales and marketing, for Hershey Chocolate Corporation. He had been vice president of a similar division at Sara Lee.

Minute Maid metamorphosis. Coca-Cola Company amalgamates Minute Maid Company and Duncan Foods to form the Coca-Cola Company Foods Division, headquartered in Houston, with J. Lucian Smith as chief executive officer.

Carl E. Seabergh, who opened the world's first all-frozen-food store, in 1940, in White Plains, N.Y., dies. He also designed and built to his own specifications the first open-top FF cabinet.

With QFF supplying the data and DuPont the computer, computer estimates are secured for the first time of FF growth in next 10 years by pounds, dollars and per capita consumption. All frozens are expected to increase 148% in dollar value, with prepared foods up 355%.

Seafood processors increased in number by 774% in past 20 years, now making up 44.9% of all FF processors.

Rosarita Foods, Mesa, Ariz., a leading processor of Mexican foods, predicts Mexican style will become the country's number one nationality food by 1975.

December

James L. Ferguson is recommended to succeed George M. Perry as general manager of the Birds Eye FF division. Ferguson was marketing manager of the Jell-O division.

Jeno's, Inc., is the new name of Northland Foods, Inc., Duluth, Minn., according to owner and board chairman Jeno F. Paulucci.

1968

January

Full,sized home freezers owned by almost one out of every three American families; percentage of households so equipped doubled in last 10 years. Including refrigerators with FF compartments, perhaps 90% of U.S. families can store FF for a week or more.

Findus LTD., a subsidiary of the Nestle Co., second largest in European FF volume, and Fropax Ltd. merge into company with larger, stronger, more economic base for expansion in United Kingdom. A challenge for Birds Eye Foods Ltd.

James A. Schlindwein named president and chief executive officer of Kitchens of Sara Lee.

James Biggar is named president of the Stouffer Foods division. Bigcar was vice president and general manager of the frozen prepared foods division.

February

M. Crawford Pollock appointed a consultant to the Weyerhaeuser Paperboard Packaging division, Chicago. Pollock, formerly a senior vice president and a director at Green Giant, originated the merchandising concepts which popularized frozen dinners, meat and fruit pies, poultry and prepared vegetables.

Frozen rice dishes in boil-in-bag market tested in five varieties by Green Giant.

March

The Freezing Preservation of Foods published in four volumes by AVI publishing company; the definitive and indispendable work on the field virtually a do-it-yourself encyclopedia. Edited by Donald K. Tressler.

May, 1968

Thirteen-floor FF warehouse, with vertical-horizontal elevators, is constructed by the Stouffer Foods Division of Litton Industries in Solon, Ohio.

Robert K. Pedersen is elected president and chief executive officer of OreIda Foods, Inc.

First roll-on roll-off all-containerized ship, operated by Transamerican Trailer Transport, Inc., makes maiden voyage. With capacity of 260 containers, 24% are refrigerated, each with capacity of 2,091 cubic feet.

ITT reportedly will acquire Continental Baking for $281 million.

Weight Watchers enters FF with four frozen fish dinners developed especially for the weight-conscious public. Meat and poultry dinners are expected to follow.

Simulated meats produced from spun soybean protein could pose economic threat to fresh meat, a threat which could be blunted by the centralized cutting and freezing of heavy cuts of meat.

July, 1968

Computerized warehouse management methods, used by National Cold Storage Co., maintain first-in-first-out principle, provide 100% inventory computers. National's success may speed industry conversion to computerization.

August

30th anniversary Issue. The 360th consecutive issue of QFF, never having missed a number, now serving an industry of 1,800 processors doing $5 billion a year. A 70,000-word illustrated history complete in the issue tells the fabulous story.

Imitation frozen milk test-marketed under the brand of Veeva-Rich by Rich Products. Product is a three-to-one concentrate with a coconut oil base that reconstitutes to half a gallon and sells for 35 cents. Has the nutritional value of real milk.

John Inglis names O. A. (Ole) Cerutti general sales manager, after 18 years with the company.

Donald K. Tressler, Ph.D., who helped develop the freezing process, is named 1968 recipient of the Nicolas Appert Award by The Institute of Food Technologists, as one of the world's leading food technologists.

Gorton's approves merger with General Mills, after declaring a profit of $1.5 million for fiscal year ended March 31, 1968.

Catfish farms are becoming big business as 35, million pounds a year are raised in ponds, half of it sold in frozen form.

Irradiated meats. Approval withdrawn to process them by the FDA.

September

Bernan Food Corp., Newark, N.J., processor of frozen kosher specialties, named Michael Midler president.

Frozen puddings under the Cool 'n Creamy name market-tested by Birds Eye.

October

Screw compressors introduced to the United States by Howden. Great savings in the initial installation at Prossers Packers, Inc., Prosser, Wash. by Lewis Refrigeration.

United Foods sells Watsonville, Calif., vegetable processing plant to Green Giant for $4.9 million. It may be largest of its type in the world.

Thaw pack frozen retail fruits growing fast. Products are packed in plastic bags and thaw out in 15 minutes ir room temperature water. They overcame long-thawing problem which has for years seriously hurt progress of frozen fruits at retail.

Fish-and-chips restaurants exploding across the country, using a great deal of frozen product.

November

Shrimp farming begun by Akima International Corp. in Panama City, Fla.

New England Fish Company celebrates 100th anniversary by opening new headquarters in Seattle. Now among top five in fish and seafood sales.

December

Morton Frozen Food sales reach $115 million, George Vail reveals; goal is $200 million.

Amerio Refrigeration, long an integral part of the frozen food industry with its plate freezers, was acquired by St. Regis Paper Co.

International Vegetables with sauce launched by Birds Eye. Initial varieties include Bavarian, Danish, Mexican and Japanese.

Bridgford Foods Corp., Anaheim, purchases Frozen-Rite Foods, Dallas, after the death of its founder Irving Comroe. This will put Bridgford in the frozen bread dough business.

1969

January

The Freon freezer. A combination of product movement through liquid Freon at a temperature of 25 degrees below zero F is expected to open up markets for this freezer with high-ticket products like shrimp. An FDA approval has already been obtained and three major equipment firms have been franchised to sell the freezer.

Jeno Paulucci resigns as board chairman of Reynolds Foods. He says he would like to spend more time on the development of his own enterprises.

February

H. C. Boerner, founder of H. C. Boerner Co., Great Neck, N.Y., one of the nation's largest and most respected frozen food brokerages, died January 19, 1969, at the age of 53, of a stroke. New president of the firm is Ned Maher.

J. D. Jewell, who built the second largest frozen chicken operation in the United States during the fifties, retired Dec. 31, 1968. He pioneered a 100% integrated operation.

March

Frozen concentrated milk in retail-sized cans tested by Sealtest in Milwaukee. Reconstitutes two-to-one. The concentrate can also be used undiluted as cream. Priced higher than fluid milk.

Tex-Mex Cold Storage, Brownsville, Tex., begins operations. Some $2 million was spent on one of the largest low-temperature facilities in its area.

April

William W. Cease dies. One of the earliest pioneers in the introduction of frozen fruit pies, frozen dough products and meat pies, Cease died March 25, 1969, at Dunkirk, N.Y.

Boyd F. Schenk is the new president of Pet, Inc. He has previously been president of the frozen food division.

Seeman Bros., parent company of Seabrook Farms, will purchase Oceans of the World Eastern, Inc., New York, headed by Murry Berger - prime outlet for the Carnation frozen seafood brand.

Retail frozen omelets by Spread Eagle Farms, Country Market Foods Co., and others in a number of varieties.

Vitamin-enriched bagels introduced by Lender's.

Ken J. Sartori of U.S. Cold Storage receives a citation from QUICK FROZEN FOODS for his contributions to the frozen food industry at the annual convention of the warehouse association.

May

Three-course dinner broadens base of dinner market by greatly increased consumption among husbands and teenagers, according to a survey of 1,000 families by New York Agricultural and Technical College in cooperation with QFF.

Retail pies in institutional sizes up to 48-ounces and 10-inches in diameter provide new impetus to moribund frozen fruit pie industry.

Frozen milk. Scientists at the University of Wisconsin lick problems of separation of frozen milk after thawing and change of flavor. They see no barrier to commercial frozen product.

New York Schools. Conversion underway to switch 450 grade schools in five years to 100% frozen lunches.

June

Poly bag vegetables almost 50% of retail poundage of category exclusive of potatoes.

Edwin F. Huddleson dies at 81. He was the man who took Stokely into frozen foods via Honor Brand. He credited QFF with convincing him that the frozen line should be extended to retail products.

Thorsteinn Gislason of Coldwater Seafood is elected president of the 120-member American Seafood Distributors Association, the organization that defeated import quotas on groundfish fillets and led to a reduction of duties on fish blocks, ensuring a constant source of supply of raw materials to the industry.

Breaded chicken pioneer M. E. Grant, of Indianapolis, dies. He experimented with breaded, precooked chicken before World War II, held a trademark on fried chicken and developed the first chicken patties.

Cabinet defrost cycle eliminated in revolutionary dry-air design by John F. Mercer of Globe, Ariz., and a patent taken on it.

Taco franchise restaurants boom in the Southwest, with products most frequently supplied in frozen form.

July, 1969

Pollock is becoming the main target of fishermen in the Atlantic as supplies of haddock dwindle. Boats are being converted for that fish.

Gorton's of Gloucester is one of first to install a Freon freezing system for breaded shrimp.

August

Sidney J. Weinberg, famed Wall Street broker with Goldman, Sachs & Company, who negotiated the sale of Clarence Birdseye's company and freezing patents to Postum (General Foods) for $22 million, died July 23, 1969, at the age of 77. He had been offered 75% interest for $12 million, but threw in another $10 million for the remaining 25%.

Frozen yogurt on a stick introduced by Dannon.

Breakfasts tested by Swanson, including pancakes with sausage patties; scrambled eggs with sausage and country style fried potatoes; and French toast with sausage patties.

Willis Shaw Frozen Express, a leading transporter of frozen foods, acquired by Dei Monte.

October

Richard Funk succeeds Harry K. Schauffler as executive director of The National Frozen Foods Association on Dec. 1, 1969, and will headquarter in Hershey, Pa.

Spacemen to be supplied with frozen meals for the flight of Apollo 12, with a specially designed frozen food container and oven.

McCain Foods, largest frozen food processor in Canada, to enter U.S. market with institutional potatoes, selling East of the Mississippi.

Sara Lee will spend $10 million to expand Deerfield plant so it can produce products other than baked goods.

Totino's pizza, now produced on the West Coast by Ventura Coastal Corporation, has penetrated 75% of the market. Production began there in 1968.

Charles Henderson dies. He moved Mrs. Smith's Pies into frozen, functioning as sales manager from 1956 to 1966, when he retired. He processed his own version of frozen orange concentrate at Florida Frozen Foods, Haines City, Fla., from 1944 to 1947, though it was not the type that later became popular.

England. Imperial Tobacco obtains 9% of the British frozen food market through its acquisition of Ross and Smedley. A price of $115 million was paid for the Ross Group. The purchase also includes a franchise for Young's shellfish as well as the Aylesbury brand. Imperial itself does collectively about $2.5 billion annually.

November

Sysco Corporation formed through the merger of nine major frozen food distributors: Global, Plantation, Frostpack, Houston's Food Service, Texas Wholesale, Thomas, Wicker, Justrite and Zero.

RCA buys Banquet for $140 million in shares. General Mills had previously negotiated for Banquet, but had not gotten the family-owned F. M. Stamper Company, which was estimated to be doing between $150 and $175 million annually, most of it in frozen prepared foods.

Soy extender for frozen hamburger patties becoming more widespread, lowering the cost without injuring nutrition.

December

Frozen coffee concentrate: The Coca-Cola Company has produced a product reconstituting at 17-to-one, complete with a dispenser for the institutional trade. Flavor is superb.

Onion rings becoming vast business. Moore's Seafood Products, Fort Atkinson, Wis., says it may have to change its name because the onion rings outsell all the seafoods combined.

Van de Kamp's markets 11 frozen bakery items.

1970

January

Worthington Foods, a company specializing in vegetarian meats in frozen form, has been acquired by Miles Laboratories.

Dolphin Foods, a prominent Cleveland-based frozen fish and seafood processor, purchased by Durkee.

Elm Tree Baking, producer of frozen ready-to-bake products, bought by Rich Products.

February

Frozen food buyers. A complete day in the life of a major retail frozen food buyer was recorded on tape and the interviews published in what is the only feature of its type ever done. There was no censorship of the copy by any of the participants.

Sara Lee enters the frozen fruit pie market with double-crust pies.

Containerized shipping of frozen foods to Puerto Rico and the Caribbean gaining volume, with three shipping firms from the greater New York Area alone shipping 100 containers a week.

March

American Frozen Food Institute is the new name of the 28-year-old National Association of Frozen Food Packers. It was felt that the old name was too narrow in scope to represent the full activity of the association.

Sam Martin and Saul Beck promoted to associate publisher and national advertising manager of QUICK FROZEN FOODS properties, March 1, 1970.

Frozen bacon, called Baconex, fully cooked, requires only a few seconds of heating prior to serving.

April

Shenandoah Valley Produce Co. lost its founder, Thomas M. Ferrara, who died April 10, 1970. Starting as a poultry distributor, he built one of the nation's frozen poultry companies.

Charles Rizzuto was named president of Southland Frozen Foods, one of the major producers of frozen vegetables in the East. He had a background of 19 years with the company.

May

Refrigeration Engineering Corporation (RECO), San Antonio, Tex., introduces a new concept in freezers, a continuous stainless steel grid, chain driven, making it a flexible table to convey products. Product transfer is automatic and the system will take fresh, precooked, trayed, bagged or boxed product.

Freezer Queen, major Buffalo-based frozen meat and prepared foods company, merges into the National Biscuit Company.

John Inglis Frozen Foods Co., Modesto, Calif., purchased by United Foods. Inglis was established in 1945 and became one of the nation's leading private label fruit and vegetable packers.

June

Salmonellae cannot live in frozen vegetable processing lines, experiments at Cornell University attest. Even introducing large bodies of them resulted in no trace at the end of the processing line.

August

Paul Jacobs leaves Gorton's for vice presidency at Hood. While with Gorton's he was responsible for that firm's acquisition of Florida Frozen Foods, Miami, shrimp processors; Blue Water Seafoods, Cleveland, portion-control fish; Red-L Foods, Great Neck, N.Y., prepared seafoods; Fulham Brothers, Boston, Mass., retail fish: Freeborn Farms, Monroe, Conn., hors d'oeuvres; and Bayou Foods, Mobile, Ala., seafood specialties.

Snake River Trout Co., Buhl, Ida., run by Robert Erkins, purchased by the Inmont Corp., New York.

September

Prices. Comparison of frozen food prices of 1970 with those of 10 years earlier show them to be inflation-resistant - in fact hardly changed. Fruit pies, lemonade, french fried potatoes, meat pies, and pound cake were actually lower in price.

Libbyland Adventure Dinners, stressing foods that children prefer, such as hot dogs, meat balls and fried chicken, with vegetables and dessert are marketed. Each dinner has a full-color, die-cut, pop-out puzzle.

Seeman Brothers changes name to Seabrook Foods.

Kellogg's to acquire Eggo Foods, successful company with large, round frozen waffles.

Gorton acquisition by General Mills questioned by FTC.

Minute Maid nationally distributes 16-ounce concentrated orange juice which reconstitutes to a half gallon.

Polyunsaturated frozen nondairy creamer called Poly-Perx tested by Mitchell Foods.

Fred's Frozen Foods, institutional prepared foods company, purchased by Central Soya Company, Fort Wayne, Ind.

Frozen fried chicken bids for the takeout dollar. Excellent product now available at retail throughout the country from a number of outstanding companies.

October

Voluntary Handling Code for FF developed by the Frozen Food All-Industry Advisory Coordination Committee.

James Conrad replaces retiring Leon Jones as J. R. Simplot Food Division president.

La Choy fine of frozen Chinese foods introduced in unique smooth-wall aluminum containers. Leading off the line are five varieties of egg rolls.

Ralston Purina enters prepared frozen food field with 16 "Checkerboard" entrees. These products are to compete with those of Banquet, Stouffer's, Swanson and others.

A Politz study of QFF readers showed that 70% were top management. Half supervise over 30 employes, one-third earn over $30,000 annually, 81% are 36 years of age or older, at least some college completed by 60%, average estimated value of their homes is $40,000.

December

Home freezer boom in England, results in 100%-frozen food stores opening around the country, some chains, selling bulk frozen foods at highly competitive prices.

Louis H. Rich, founder of Louis Rich Foods, Inc., West Liberty, Iowa, one of the nation's largest frozen turkey processors, died at the age of 74, Nov. 14, 1970.

1971

January

Roman Products. Joseph H. Hoyt, chairman, brings Cy Settineri, one of the founders, back to the frozen Italian foods firm as a new processing facility is completed in South Holland, Ill. by owner H. P. Hood.

February

Skylab will take 72 frozen items aloft for a 500-day supply of meals for the crew. Whirlpool Corporation is contracting for the food and heating system.

Ellio's Pizza bought by Purex. The Long Island City company, which has done amazingly well in New York and Philadelphia, figured excellent prospect for growth.

Jennie-O Foods new name for Farmers Produce Company, Willmar, Minn., a wholly owned subsidiary of Earl B. Olson Farms. The firm is a major producer of frozen oven-ready turkey products.

March

Mercury levels very low in frozen fish, Dr. Robert M. White, National Marine Fisheries Service, reports after testing 200 samples.

April

Seabrook Foods buys Glacier Packing Co., one of the oldest frozen fruit companies, located in Sanger, Calif., noted for packing its retail products in glass and for thaw pack fruits.

May

Frozen meat in retail cuts equal to fresh, Kansas State University finds when it freezes and places for sale in retail stores prime cuts of beef. Both fresh and frozen were priced the same and the test lasted for 13 weeks.

Thick & Frosty Shake Concentrate in a variety of flavors for making drinks similar to milk shakes marketed by Birds Eye.

Pond-grown Israeli carp sold frozen in retail packages resulting from successful aquaculture.

Limitless fish a myth, reports oceanographer Dr. John H. Ryther. Only 10% of the sea, primarily off the coastal shelves of the continents, contain commercial quantities of fish, and these areas are already being fished close to their limits.

June, 1971

Murry P. Berger elected chairman of the board of Seabrook Farms Co., Inc., a division of Seabrook Foods.

Brazil emerging as major exporter of frozen concentrated orange juice, shipping in excess of six million gallons in 1969.

Frozen egg roll business booms, with sales increasing 27% 1970 over 1969 to an estimated figure approaching $20 million annually, and involving such well-known names as Jeno's, La Choy's, Chun King, Kellogg's; Howard Johnson's and many others.

Rupert's Certi-Fresh, a leading frozen fish processor, invests in $2-million expansion for precooked products in Silver Springs, Calif.

July

Total Distribution Plan for America, a system whereby leading refrigerated warehouses in key areas of the country consolidate and redistribute shipments of frozen foods from a variety of packers, has added Alford Refrigerated Warehouses, Inc., of Dallas, to a list that already includes: Atlantic Refrigerated Warehouses, Inc., Atlanta; Continental Freezers of Illinois, Chicago; Empire Freezers of Syracuse, Inc., Syracuse; Packers' Cold Storage, Inc., Fullerton, Calif.; and Terminal Ice and Cold Storage, Portland, Ore.

Lamb-Weston, Inc., Portland, Ore., a leading processor of frozen french fries and other vegetables, has signed an agreement of merger with Amfac, Inc., a Hawaii-based firm.

Where Private Label Ends, an editorial by Sam Martin, predicts that the A & P may someday soon use its own facilities to private label or co-pack for others and may even permit the use of the A & P label in non-A & P stores.

August

Stayton Canning, a major processor of frozen fruits and vegetables, will combine with United Flav-R-Pac Growers.

John Fox, former head of Minute Maid, resigns presidency of United Brands Co. and United Fruit Co.

Eugene Boone elected executive vice president of John Inglis Frozen Foods.

Extruded french fries, made from those cuts of the product not generally used, ground up and shaped, are proving successful, particularly at retail

September

Frozen soups in boxes proving successful at retail for Kubro Foods, Los Angeles.

John Fox named president of H. P. Hood & Sons, Boston, parent company of Roman Products Corp.

Frozen pizza accounts for 41% of dollar volume of all retail ethnic foods - Italian, Mexican, Chinese, Jewish - combined in seven markets broken out by SAMI.

Mrs. Paul's was the only retail brand of frozen fish found to be nationally distributed in U.S. in a survey taken by Canadian government.

Florida Citrus Mutual creator Latimer Maxcy died at the age of 83. He bought land suitable for citrus groves when it was selling for as little as 30 cents an acre, went into freezing orange juice in the late forties and sold out to Snow Crop, which was in turn bought out by Minute Maid. At the time his worth was reported to be "far in excess" of $50 million.

October

Frozen tea to be tested by Thomas J. Lipton, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.

Robert Rutledge resigns as executive vice president of Citrus Mutual for health reasons. Under his directorship the organization grew from 4,600 to 15,500 members. He was regarded as a spokesman for the citrus growers and one of the world's leading authorities on citrus. He was said to be responsible for the easy-opening orange juice can.

Unbaked frozen bread showing retail sales strength, estimated at $30 million.

November

Roman Products sold to Joe Hoyt and Cy Settineri by H. P. Hood.

Floyd F. Smiley Jr, appointed president of Bordon Food groups, which includes frozen companies Henderson's Portion Pak and ReaLemon.

Mark M. Singer replaces retiring Watson Rogers as president of the National Food Brokers Association on Jan. 1, 1972. Singer had been with the association since 1946.

Frozen foods sales were $8 billion in 1970.

Foil can be used in microwave ovens with a little care, claims Melvin L. Levinson, inventor of basic microwave patents and proprietor of Electronics Center, Elizabeth, N.J. He also asserts he has successfully fried, broiled, roasted, toasted, barbecued and so on in a microwave oven with the use of a few adapters.

Per capita consumption of frozen foods was 72.9 pounds in 1969.

Arne Asper, president, Frionor Norsk Frossenfisk, Norway, predicts declining fish supply and very high prices ahead for the next five years. Further processed and prepared fish one answer to extending supply.

Coldwater Seafood Corp., Icelandic company marketing in the United States, is now handling exports from the Faroe Islands. Quality of these products is the same as those from Iceland and it is believed that combined marketing effort will benefit both.

December

Movie on frozen foods, professionally made in color by QFF was premiered at the Nov. 12, 1971, all-frozen-food luncheon at the Advertising Club of New York. The program, arranged by QFF, included speeches by James Schlindwein, chairman, Kitchens of Sara Lee, and Austin Hayden, of Green Giant.

Lowell Wakefield, founder of Wakefield Seafoods, Inc., Fullerton, Calif., retired Oct. 31, 1971, from the company he had made the industry leader in frozen crabs, much of it retail. He had previously sold the company to Hunt Wesson, and it was under the jurisdiction of T. E.G. Krogius.

Arctic Cold Storage opens 2.7 million cubic foot facility in Silver Springs industrial complex which includes Van de Kamp's and Rupert's Certi-Fresh. Critics call Sam Vinci a visionary overextending himself, but he maintains his geographical location is a natural.

1972

January

Professor George G. Cook retires. For 25 years he taught practically the only course in frozen food processing in the country at the Agricultural and Technical School, Farmingdale, N.Y. He also conducted a dozen door-to-door consumer studies on retail frozen foods in cooperation with QFF, and this supplied hitherto unavailable marketing information. Results were condensed in the book The Freezing Preservation of Foods, Volume 4, from the Avi Publishing Company.

Eugene Boone named president and chief operating officer of John Inglis.

Margaret Clamser selected as executive director of the Eastern Frosted Foods Association. She had previously been affiliated with The National Frozen Food Association, Coldwater Seafood Corp., Vita Food Products and Weight Watchers International. She maintains the post of executive director of the National Prepared Frozen Food Processors Association.

Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration chartered as a nonprofit association for all companies concerned with ammonia refrigeration systems, with headquarters in Chicago.

Extruded onion rings, onions ground up and reshaped, battered and fried, becoming big frozen item at both retail and institutional.

March

Morris Unger, founder of Edward Boker, Inc. New York, one of the nation's largest institutional distributors, dead at age 76. He was the first distributor in New York to market frozen orange juice, he financed early attempts at frozen baked goods and he helped establish many little-known brands in the institutional field.

Laura Track, QFF's home economist and author of the popular column "The Frozen Food Critic" since 1946, died at her Brooklyn home. Her last column was for the issue of February 1972.

QFF industry projections made in 1966 for 1970, worked out by utilizing the computer department of E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, Del., prove uncannily accurate. Frozen seafood sales were projected for $1.52 billion, final figure was $1,506 billion; frozen vegetable sales were projected as $1.111 billion, the actual figure was $1.169 billion; frozen poultry was projected for $1.37 billion, the actual figure was $1.294; frozen fruits were projected for $275 million, the actual figure was $256 million - and so it went.

Salmon, pan-size, successfully being raised and frozen by Domsea Farms, a subsidiary of Union Carbide.

April

Sara Lee drops all direct sales by its own sales force and converts to 100% brokerage operations.

Japanese outbid Americans for our own frozen shrimp.

May

International Association of Refrigererated Warehouses is new name for National Association of Refrigerated Warehouses, as overseas membership grows.

Tom Barnum named president of Kitchens of Sara Lee.

Foil containers in microwave oven heat excellently in demonstration given to Sam Martin by research scientist Mel Levinson. In some cases metal assists reheating of the food.

June

Ocoma sold to Tyson by Consolidated Foods. Ocoma had annual sales of $45 million and Tyson $75 in 1971. Both are outstanding frozen poultry companies.

Frozen candy test-marketed by Kitchens of Sara Lee - everything from eight-ounce to one-pound boxes.

July

Harold A. Shaub succeeds W. B. Murphy as president of the Campbell Soup Company. James C. Walker promoted to vice president of frozen foods.

Atlantic Refrigerated Warehouses opens three-million-cubic-foot distribution center in Atlanta. The warehouse is part of Munford, Inc., and a participant in TDP.

Continental Freezers of Illinois begins construction on a 37,000-square-foot addition, bringing this TDP-involved warehouse to six million cubic feet.

August

Murry Berger secures $200,000 in frozen shrimp from China as result of initial visits there. Products will b sold under his Carnation label.

Murry's Steaks' founder, A. G. Mendelson, dies June 25, 1972. He founded a chain of super markets selling wholesale frozen meats at retail that remained permanent fixtures on the retail scene.

October

Alan Macdonald becomes president of Stouffer Foods, moving steadily upwards through the ranks after starting as a trainee.

November

Frozen fried chicken exempted from truck freight rate regulations of interstate commerce by Supreme Court.

RECO IQF fluidized freezers that defrost by air or water marketed.

December

Springs Mills will pick up Seabrook Foods in $35.5-million deal.

James O. Tankersley elected president of United Foods. Tankersley is chairman of the board of Winter Garden Freezer Co.

1973

January

RJR Foods, marketers of Chun King and Patio, to switch to 100% broker operation.

March

Harcourt Brace Jovanovich buys QUICK FROZEN FOODS from Cahners.

April

McDonald's Corp. will switch from fresh to frozen hamburger meat for its entire operation.

Stouffer's sold to Nestle by Litton.

June

Empire Freezers of Syracuse adds 1.5 million cubic feet, bringing its total zero space to 4 million cubic feet to service its TDP accounts.

July

Egg Beaters, a product inspired by adverse publicity given egg cholesterol, proving outstanding success for Standard Brands.

August

Differential healing container that allows selective heating of frozen meals in a microwave oven in use from Teckton, Inc. Entree and vegetables heated while ice cream dessert remains frozen.

September

Lloyd J. Harriss Pie Co. acquired by Mrs. Smith's Pie Co. National network of pie kitchens to bake off frozen pies and deliver them fresh to stores under development. Will introduce Boston cream pie.

December

Sunkist frozen orange concentrated beverage, with orange ingredients and other elements, tested. Called "Sunkist Closest to Squeezing," it marks renewed interest in frozen foods by the company.

Kineret Foods Corp. formed to fill a need for kosher foods that would parallel existing nonkosher lines. AI-

1974

January

Leo Levinson slain in parking lot. Senseless crime hits the frozen food industry as the founder, board chairman of Treasure Isle, Inc., Tampa, Fla., one of the nation's leading frozen shrimp processors, is shot after leaving a bank.

February

Birds Eye switches from direct sales to brokerage in some areas of the country, including the New York, Philadelphia and Washington-Baltimore markets.

The International Frozen Food Association was formed as an adjunct to The American Frozen Food Institute at the 1973 National Frozen Food Convention & Exhibition, held Dec. 9-12 at Bal Harbour, Fla.

March

Sam Martin and Saul Beck return to QFF as co-publishers, accepting responsibility for editorial and advertising aspects respectively.

George Mrdeza named president of Morton Frozen Foods.

Corn on the cob production boosted 50% in two years by the adoption of Freon freezing, now at 270 million pounds.

Universal Product Code introduced on Green Giant packages. It is the first frozen food company to do so.

May

Slow-melt ice cream under heavy promotion by Good Humor in drive to attain national distribution.

Libby, McNeil & Libby selling off frozen food operations. Winter Garden and Citrus Central buying frozen vegetable and juice lines respectively.

Wallace C. Blankinship, who together with Vernon Stouffer helped establish the frozen food division of Stouffer's, died March 29, 1974, at the age of 65. He had retired in 1969.

New York City schools spending $12 million annually on preplated frozen meals.

Frozen bread dough shows spurt in sales at retail because high price of flour has made the product more than competitive with fresh.

June

Orchard Hill secures Libbyland dinners and begins promotion of single-serving eight-ounce frozen fruit pie.

Empire Freezers of Syracuse raises zero-temperature capacity to over 4 million cubic feet to accommodate its TDP distribution system.

July

William Lipton, salesman and director of public relations extraordinary, retired from Modern Maid Food Products at the age of 75.

James L. Ferguson succeeds C. W. Cook as chairman of the board of General Foods Corp. He headed the frozen food group in the past.

Foodways New York elects Robert De Lorenzo as president.

August

San Francisco rejects proposal to make menu labeling of frozen foods used in restaurants mandatory.

September

Vernon Stouffer dead at 72. Son of founder and former president and chief executive officer of Stouffer Corp., he built it to its present size and had the foresight to enter the frozen foods industry. The company celebrated its 50th anniversary May 20, 1974.

October

Inflation raises FF sales 32% to $12 billion on poundage gain of 4.4%.

British frozen food sales approach $1 billion with Birds Eye accounting for $705 million, according to their latest annual statement. This is believed to be the largest sales of any company in the world, including U.S.

November

Vertical stacking freezer introduced by Design + Process Engineering.

December

North Atlantic Seafood Association is formed, backed by companies of Norway, Iceland, Denmark and Norway, to promote frozen fish.

Floyd F. Smiley appointed executive vice president, operations, of Banquet Foods Corp., St. Louis.

Frozen Food Forum elects Louis C. Dell, chief operating officer with title of executive vice president.

1975

January

Tony's Pizza, in unusual store-door route network, may have become the world's largest frozen pizza company without the industry's general knowledge because its sales do not go through chain warehouses.

John C. Calhoun advances to vice president and general manager of

March, 1975

Thomas H. Wyman elected president and chief executive officer of Green Giant.

FACT, industry organization to promote frozen foods, raises first-year budget of $300,000. Anticipates $1 million for the second year.

April

Stouffer rolls back prices on 10 items to help combat consumer resistance due to a combination of recession and inflation.

Cathy Rigby selected as spokesperson for FACT consumer drive.

Universal Product Code subject of experiment by Pathmark in Woodbridge, N.J., store.

Astronauts eliminated weight loss by eating frozen foods on Skylab.

May

Frozen pie shell market at $43 million; rose 48% in 1974 alone.

Glass-door frozen food cabinets will outsell all others in 1975, QFF survey of retailers reveals. Main reason is that energy costs are higher than ever.

Orange juice, which minimized price increases in view of a bountiful supply, enjoyed the greatest upswing of any of the frozen food products during the past year.

Golden trout developed by Thousand Springs Trout Farms, Buhl, Idaho, the payoff of 20 years of selective breeding.

Lee Weddig returns to National Fisheries Institute as executive director.

Morton Frozen Foods cuts prices on its frozen beef dinner by 25 cents each, as a result of lower beef prices.

June

"Retortable pouches, shelf-stable foil composite pouches serving as cans represent no threat to frozen foods." - Editorial.

Leon C, Jones, former president of the J. R. Simplot Company Food Division and the man most responsible for its success in frozen foods, died just short of his 70th birthday. His pivotal role was acknowledged by Jack Simplot, founder of the company.

July

A & P, faced with economic difficulties, announces that it will co-pack and private label for other companies desiring frozen seafoods out of its Boston plant.

August

Robert W. Rutledge, retired Citrus Mutual executive, dies of a heart attack at the age of 54.

Mrs. Smith's cuts prices on 113 dessert products.

Richard Page, one of the most active frozen food distributors in the country, founder of Frozen Food Forum, chairman of Arrow Foods, New Orleans, and founder of the Southwestern Frozen Food Association, died in a 727 jetliner crash at Kennedy International Airport, New York, June 24, 1975.

September

James, A. Schlindwein leaves Consolidated Foods for Wilson & Co.

Roman Products Corporation, frozen Italian foods company, files bankruptcy and is dissolved.

Breading used for 1.5 billion pounds of FF, QFF establishes. Increased 342% in 12 years.

October

Moore's initiates aquaculture program for Great Lakes yellow perch.

November

Super market cabinet space average 236 linear feet in 1975.

Sales climbed to $13 billion in 1974, with small poundage rise.

December

Liquid nitrogen plant built alongside Keystone frozen hamburger plant, piping nitrogen from plant to plant, marking a first for the frozen food industry. Keystone processes for MacDonald's.

1976

January

Sam Martin, co-publisher and editor of QFF, is included in the 1976-77 edition of Who's Who in America. Martin is selected on the basis of his editing, writing and research in FF field.

Twenty retail frozen meat outlets are opened in the greater Detroit area by House of Portion Control, Detroit. Processing is done in company's own plant.

John Clark Mattimore, creator of the market research organization SAMI (Selling Areas-Marketing Inc.) as a subsidiary of Time, Inc., dies at age 59.

February, 1976

Burger Chef Systems in process of converting all of its 1,000 units to the use of frozen hamburger patties. Completion expected within a year.

Bagel merger. Lender's Bagel Bakery, Inc., acquires Abel's Bagels, Inc., Buffalo, N.Y. Abel's has just completed construction of a 34,000-square-foot plant in West Seneca, N.Y.

Fish and seafood - exclusive of prepared fish and seafood precooked specialties - accounting for over 19% of U.S. total FF dollar value, mostly institutional. Had grown in 14 years from $351 million to $2,572 million.

March

Kellogg Company and Mrs. Smith's Pie Company reach agreement in principle for Kellogg's acquisition of the dessert pie processor.

Distributors about-face. Survey reports 48.96% of FF distributors would sell consumers FF at their warehouses.

April

Mechanical refrigerator cars decline in number for second consecutive year. Cars lost through attrition not replaced; no immediate shortage seen. Rising initial cost and diminishing rate of return given as causes of nonreplacement.

May

General Mills purchases controlling interest in Saluto Foods Corp., Benton Harbor, Mich., major Middle Western processor of frozen pizza.

June

Birdseye potato label re-acquired by General Foods for frozen retail potato products. It had been acquired under special agreement by American Kitchen Foods, Greenwich, Conn., which company was bought by Potato Service, Inc., a division of American Home Foods.

July

"Pressware" paperboard trays are test marketed for home use by the manufacturer, the Single Service Division of International Paper Company. The trays can be used in microwave as well as conventional ovens.

August

Owen Fennema tells annual meeting of Institute of Food Technologists that the appearance of QFF in 1938 was one of the landmark factors in the creation and growth of the FF industry.

Boston Bonnie, nationally known seafood processor, constructs doughnut processing plant. Boston Bonnie Bakers, Inc., already producing 100,000 per daily shift, packing in private label as well as own brand.

October, 1976

Rich Products acquires SeaPak, St, Simons Island, Ga., fish and seafood processor, from W. R. Grace & Co.

An entire batter-fried line of kosher poultry products to be produced by Empire Kosher Poultry, Inc., Mifflintown, Pa., at its new plant.

November

Pillsbury Co. acquires Fox De Luxe Foods, Chicago, Ill., pizza processor. Fox had recently completed construction of a new plant in Joplin, Mo.

"Nutwood Farms" is the new label to be used by the Fremont Company, Fort Lauderdale, as it enters frozen baked goods field with line of doughnuts, honey buns, cakes and cookies.

December

Line of multiple-conveyor tunnel freezers designed to simultaneously freeze various product sizes requiring various freezing times is introduced by Refrigeration Engineering Corporation (RECO), San Antonio.

Commodore brand retail seafood items are introduced by Commodore Foods, Inc., Lowell, Mass., for 20 years a major private label packer. The firm's "Dipt 'N Batter" fillets soon to be followed by "Fish and Chips" dish.

January

Banquet launches major marketing effort to recapture consumers who patronize fast-food outlets rather than super markets. Says Banquet, "We're going to tackle the fast-food franchise group head on."

Lasagna rises rapidly as the fastest-growing Italian pasta-based product, particularly at food service.

Brazil leaves U.S. a distant second as biggest exporter of FCOJ. Exports increased 67% over 1974, reaching almost 181,000 metric tons. Brazil export pack almost three times as great as U.S.

February

Frederick J. Otterbein retires as group vice president of General Foods. He had served as general manager of the Birds Eye Division from 1953 to 1961, when Birds Eye was the dominant factor in the FF industry.

March

Robert Arneson, sales agent for North Pacific Canners and Packers for nearly 40 years, dies at age 89. Arneson started his career in the food industry in 1909.

Retail frozen fried chicken tests out at one-third the price of fast-food fried chicken, and, in quality, at least as good or superior. The frozen type of crunchy breading increasingly offered as alternative by take-outs.

May

Robert Erkins takes over The Gruber/Erkins Seafood Letter and changes its name to The Erkins Seafood Letter.

Retail frozen omelets by Spread Eagle Farms, Country Market Foods Co., and others in a number of varieties.

Poly bag vegetables almost 50% of retail poundage of category exclusive of potatoes.

David L. Stevenson is named president and chief operating officer of Mrs. Smith's Pie Company, succeeding Robert C. Smith. Stevenson had been vice president-Kellogg International, Brussels.

June

Paul Corddry succeeds Robert K. Pedersen as president and chief executive officer of Ore-Ida Foods, Inc.

Van de Kamp's makes its frozen pizza debut with two varieties of thick-crust pizza, a multi-cheese mixture and a combination. Ad budget is over $3 million.

What to do about fluorocarbons in refrigeration equipment will be decided by the government within a year. Biggest problem would be possible ban on use as refrigerant in FF cabinets.

July

Frozen crepes, formerly sold mainly to food service, enter retail markets via Quaker Oats, Stouffer Foods, Mrs. Paul's and Van de Kamp's. Promotion by Quaker Oats directed to consumers who already make crepes.

September

Retortable pouch shelf products get first test sale in U.S. as Continental Kitchens, a division of ITT Continental Baking Company, brings out seven entrees in three widely separated markets.

Arthur J. Huberfeld is appointed chief operations officer of Shenandoah Valley Poultry Co., Inc.

Seafoods register largest single dollar gain in seafood industry history, a 54% increase over 1975, from $2.843 to $4.38 billion. A result of demand exceeding supply, even though supply had itself reached an all-time record.

October

First frozen retail steak dinners sold nationally are introduced by Morton Frozen Foods in four varieties of "Steak House Platters." Line is aimed at bringing fastfood dollars back into food stores.

November

J. O. Tankersley succeeds John Inglis as chairman of the board of United Foods, Inc. Inglis, a FF trailblazer, had built John Inglis Frozen Foods Company, Modesto, Calif., a fruit and vegetables processor, from the ground up.

Gain of $2.4 billion in total FF sales for 1976. Fifty-eight per cent of the increase is credited to fish and seafood. Poundage rose 6.6%, to 19 billion pounds.

Kellogg Company will not contest further the Justice Department's order requiring its subsidiary, Mrs. Smith's Pie Company, to divest itself of the Lloyd J. Harriss Pie Company.

December

Robert W. Bracken succeeds George E. Mrdeza as general manager of Morton Frozen Foods. Mrdeza becomes president of ITT's bakery division.

Floyd F. Smiley, president and chief operating officer of Banquet Foods Corporation, is elected to the additional position of chief executive officer. Kenneth E. Guebert retires as chairman and chief executive officer.

Springs Mills, Inc., divides its FF subsidiary into two companies: Seabrook International Foods, Inc., the seafood division, at Great Neck, N.Y., Seabrook Foods, Inc., fruits, vegetables and prepared foods processor, at Atlanta, Ga.

"Pressware" trays being tested for new products by Green Giant and Quaker Oats. The paperboard containers, manufactured by International Paper Company, can be used in both conventional and microwave ovens.

1978

January

Consolidated Foods Corp. arrives at an agreement in principle for the acquisition of Chef Pierre, Inc., Traverse, Mich., one of the nation's leading frozen dessert pie companies. Consolidated intends to keep Chef Pierre brand name.

February

Keystone Foods Corp., major supplier of frozen hamburgers to McDonald's restaurants, begins production of portion-controlled beef products for institutional and retail markets through new subsidiary, Nashville Frozen Foods Corporation, Nashville, Tenn.

Sara Lee adds yogurt chiffons to its low-calorie "Light'n Luscious" line with three toppings - blueberry, strawberry and dark sweet cherry.

March

Pillsbury to market frozen, unpopped popcorn and a line of frozen pancakes, both especially prepared for home microwave use. Products have already been sold through vending machines in institutional situations.

A paperboard tray for frozen entrees to be used in either microwave or conventional ovens, the "Two-Way" tray, is developed by the packaging division of American Can Company.

Mrs. Smith's introduces frozen yogurt pies in strawberry and lemon flavors, and "Light Pies" in chocolate, coconut and banana flavors.

April

Tentative agreement announced by Beatrice Foods Company for purchase of Tropicana Products, Inc. Tropicana had earlier broken off purchase talks with Kellogg.

May

Edwin H. (Bud) Werner appointed president and chief executive officer of Jeno's Inc. Werner had been vice president-sales, of RJR Foods, Inc.

Retailers reply. Over 65% say fast food operations are cutting into their overall volume. Over 80% assert that featuring FF helps offset or counter this loss.

June

Heinz announces an agreement in principle for the acquisition of Weight Watchers International. The weight-control organization had sales of $39.2 million in 1977.

Frionor opens one of the world's most advanced fish and seafood processing plants in New Bedford, Mass.

French fried potatoes for the toaster test marketed by Mrs. Smith's.

July

Pet, Inc., goes to court to prevent a takeover attempt by IC Industries, a railroad holding company.

Lawrence C. Russell joins General Host Corp. as corporate vice president and group president. He will oversee the Van de Kamp's Frozen Foods division.

Charles Ferrara, president and chief executive of Shenandoah Valley Poultry Co., Inc., died unexpectedly of a heart attack.

August

Lloyd J. Harriss Pie Company is bought from Mrs. Smith's Pie Company by Frank J. Croke and Hugh Martin, owners of Food Industries of America, Inc.

The Potato Board touts the potato as a diet special and introduces the "Potato Lover's Diet Place" to the foodservice industry.

September

Robert E. Rich Jr., is named president of Rich Products Corp., succeeding his father, Robert E. Rich Sr., founder of the company.

October

Stouffer's splurges on the largest introductory campaign in its history for six international entrees.

Pillsbury and Green Giant merge.

November

R. J. Reynolds acquires Del Monte to merge with RJR Foods, an RJR subsidiary.

Jeno's launches six Italian entrees in "Pressware" dual-over paperboard trays.

December

Morton Mini Cream Pies boost mint pie market to $20 million in retail sales.

Green Giant rolls out six shelf-stable entrees.

January, 1979

QFF's co-publisher and editor, Sam Martin, is listed in the 1978-79 edition of Who's Who in the World, partially for his contributions to the FF history.

February

Stouffer Foods celebrates 25th anniversary with a $12 million-plus advertising campaign, the largest in its history.

Consolidated Foods Corp. joins five companies to form a new FF group with aggregate sales in excess of a half billion dollars annually.

April

Frozen pizza's linear footage in retail cabinets climbs 60% in last four years, averaging 10 to 16 linear feet and selling in excess of $500 million annually.

July

H. J. Heinz quits the foodservice frozen pizza business and sells its two Heinz U.S.A. division pizza processing plants.

Association of Seafood Importers sues the Food and Drug Administration for its high rate of rejection of frozen shrimp imported by association members from India.

September

John G. Randazzo, founder and president of Brilliant Seafood, died of cancer on July 12.

Ore-Ida Foods opens a new facility near Plover, WI, to process three frozen potato cuts, using 100,000 tons of potatoes a year.

October

QFF Co-Publisher and National Advertising Manager Saul Beck is included in the 1978 edition of Who's Who in advertising, the second time he has received this honor.

Nationwide Supermarkets average 309 linear feet of frozen display, a 6.5% increase from 1978.

December

Ore-Ida Foods opens Boise, ID headquarters. Modular design on 8.3-acre site allows for future expansion.

January, 1980

Mrs. Paul's Kitchens enters the restaurant business by acquiring Arthur Treacher's chain of restaurants from its parent company, Orange-co. Inc., Columbus, OH.

Swanson Division of Campbell Soup Co. formulates a new line of FF for microwave preparation. Company also opens the Swanson Microwave Information Center.

March

Howard D. Jester, 79, an early FF distributor and founder and 25-year treasurer of the National Frozen Food Association (originally the National Wholesale Frozen Food Distributors Association died at his home in Wilmington, DE.

April

Fifty years old, Arista Industries started in fish oils but moved into frozen seafood in the 1960s. The company imports a full line of frozen seafoods, including Brazilian lobster tails, and has become one of the nation's leading seafood brokers.

The FF industry, celebrating its 50th anniversary, chalks up 8.7 percent of all volume in supermarkets and has become the fourth largest department in the store, with more space allocation 1 percent less than sales.

July

QFF's Saul Beck promoted to publisher.

Stouffers opens $47 million Gaffney, SC plant.

General Mills rolls out Saluto Italian entrees in ovenable paperboard trays.

August

Del Pero Mondon Meat Co. takes over the Kings line of frozen meats from International Multifoods Corp. and transfers production to Arkansas. Meanwhile, Multifoods increases its emphasis on fish and seafood lines with the acquisition of Bandon Fisheries, Inc.

Congress proposes the Motor Carrier Act of 1980: Anyone who sells food can offer a discount to customers that make their own pickups instead of having the food shipped to them.

October

National Frozen Food Association plans "Frozen Food Festival 1981: Cold Fish for Hot prices," the largest sales promotion in the history of FF.

ConAgra acquires Banquet Foods.

Van de Kamp's Frozen Foods diversifies into a line of breaded fish products called Light & Crispy to complement its pioneering line of battered products.

December

U.S. Department of Commerce bails out the ailing domestic shrimp industry with $12.2 million aid program.

February, 1981

Weaver introduces hotdogs made from chicken.

Computerized scanners in supermarkets speed checkout operations and improve management information and control for FF information.

March

Stouffer's Lean Cuisine line is designed to aid consumers in the battle of the bulge.

April

George M. Prince, president of Bally Case & Cooler, Inc., died March 4 in Allentown, PA, after a short illness.

Iceland Seafood marks 30th anniversary with major freezer expansion to meet projected increases in demand.

June

Nabisco, Inc. and Standard Brands, Inc., merge to form Nabisco Brands, Inc.

July

E. V. "Gene" Amoroso is named president and chief executive officer of The Coca-Cola Company Foods Division succeeding Ira C. Herbert.

August

Borden begins test marketing flexible-package aseptic orange juice drink.

Food and Drug Administration probe under way on adulteration of private label frozen and chilled orange juice.

September

National Fisheries Institute fights federal quota and 30 percent tariff on shrimp imports.

Joseph Katz, 79, chairman and founder of Empire Kosher Poultry, died July 20 of cancer at the Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA.

December

Jeno's announces plans to transfer major operations from Duluth, MN, to a 350,000-square-foot structure that formerly housed RCA's Banquet Foods Division in Welliston, Ohio.

Lee Young, founder and operator of Leo Young & Co., Inc., Babylon, NY, brokerage firm, and a member of QFF's technical advisory board, died Oct. 13 of a heart attack.

February, 1982

RJR Foods changes name to Del Monte Frozen Foods.

March

Land O' Lakes test-markets first frozen entree, Pour-A-Quiche frozen quiche batter.

April

National Frozen Food Association and the American Sanitation Institute establish certificate of excellence ratings for annual inspections of food handling facilities.

May

Campbell Soup Co. buys certain frozen food business assets of Mrs. Paul's Kitchens.

July

Jeno's acquires John's and Gino's brands of frozen pizza and Cresta brand Mexican foods and Creative Crust, a patented shelf-stable pizza crust from VISA of Monterey, Mexico, through Multi National Investment Corporation.

Winn-Dixie Stores, Mrs. Smith's, Singleton Packing Corp., and Delta Blue-Provimi take honors in the 39th annual national competition of the Paperboard Packaging Council, Washington, D.C.

National Sea Products Limited and H. B. Nickerson & Sons Limited, both of Nova Scotia, Canada, combine total United States sales and marketing activities into National Sea Products (U.S.) Corp. Limited. Floyd F. Smiley becomes chairman and CEO.

August

William P. Smolka, vice president-marketing, sales, Buitoni Foods Corp., says ethnic frozens in the 80s are as American as pizza pie.

September

American Frozen Food Institute and the International Association of Refrigerated Warehouses study final plans for a prototype carbon dioxide-cooled refrigerated railcar.

November

1981 FF value hits $27.6 billion while tonnage inches toward 22 billion pounds, recovering from 1980 dip.

December

The Boener Company launches a cents-off store redeemable food coupon promotion to place more than 150,000 coupons in the hands of shoppers in 1983.

Brazilian frozen concentrate orange juice suppliers take over 70 percent of Canadian market.

February, 1983

Lender's Bagels celebrates tricentennial of the bagel.

March

Tamper-proof packaging be-comes a major issue in the food industry following Chicago Tylenol poisonings.

April

Thomas Slade Gorton, Jr., 82, founder and president of Slade Gorton & Co., Inc., died Jan. 13.

Sara Lee launches national distribution for three croissant products, all butter, cheese, wheat and honey.

May

Southland Frozen Foods celebrates 40th Birthday.

Nifda celebrates 25th anniversary with sales in excess of $500,000,000.

June

C. James McNutt, president of Campbell Sales Company, Camden, NJ, won the food distribution industry's "Triple Crown." He received the National-Wholesale Grocers' Association's Herbert Hoover award; the Food Marketing Institute's William H. Albers Trade Relations award: and the National Food Broker's Association's Watson Rogers award.

July

Tampa Maid Sea Products buys Kitchen Ready Foods' assets and acquires the Kitchen Ready Shrimp label and related brands.
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Title Annotation:events and news published in the Frozen Foods Digest since 1938
Publication:Frozen Food Digest
Date:Feb 1, 1998
Words:35492
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