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Lola Ridge and the Literary Soiree.


A proletarian modernist, Lola Ridge is best known for her work published between 1918 and 1922, which coincided with her editorship of Broom and Others, and her salon in New York that hosted most of the leading poets of the time, including Marianne Moore, William Carlos Williams, and Hart Crane. Four years before Eliot's bleak and anti-Semitic "The Waste Land," her equally long poem "The Ghetto" celebrated the "otherness" of the Jewish Lower East Side, chronicling an era and prophesying the multi-ethnic world of the twenty-first century. She was one of the first to delineate the life of the poor in Manhattan and, in particular, women's lives in New York City. The title poem of her second book, Sun-up and Other Poems, is a striking modernist depiction of a child's interior life. Harriet Monroe, founder of Poetry, and William Rose Benet, founder of Saturday Review of Literature, called Ridge a genius. Her poem "Brooklyn Bridge" greatly influenced Hart Crane, and her late work shared Crane's concerns with archaic language and mysticism. Her 1919 speech "Woman and the Creative Will" anticipated Virginia Woolf's A Room of Her Own by ten years.

Born in Dublin, Ridge spent 23 years in New Zealand and was educated as a visual artist at the Julian Ashton Academy in Sydney. By the time she offered a manuscript to A. G. Stephens, the most influential publisher in Australia, she had published nearly forty poems in prominent Australasian magazines. Primarily ballads and traditional lyrics, these early poems reflected the nascent nationalism and labor movements of the period. Deciding to emigrate to America in 1908, she left behind her husband in New Zealand. She befriended Emma Goldman in New York, spent several years organizing at the anarchist Ferrer Center, and founded and edited early issues of the Modern School magazine.

She traveled the United States for five years, returning in 1918 to New York, where she edited Margaret Sanger's Birth Control Review. The Ghetto and Other Poems, her first book, was published that year, and represented a radical departure from her early work, with emphasis on Imagism and free verse. The salon she founded celebrated Alfred Kreymborg's magazine Others, which she rejuvenated. In keeping with the politically charged modernist milieu, she entertained the revolutionary John Reed as well as Wallace Stevens. In 1922 Harold Loeb asked her to become the American editor for Broom, where she mentored Hart Crane and Jean Toomer. When Loeb insisted that the expatriate Gertrude Stein be included in her American issue, she resigned.

Her third book, Red Flag, published in 1927, was written at the height of her interest in the Russian Revolution. Notable poems from this book include "The Fifth Floor Window," for which she won Poetry's Guarantor Prize, and the sonnet "Electrocution." 1927 was also the year she was arrested with Edna St. Vincent Millay at the demonstrations protesting the execution of Sacco and Vanzetti.

Although she refused editorship of New Masses, she remained on the editorial board for many years. In 1930 she published the book-length poem Firehead, written in six weeks at the artist colony Yaddo. An irregularly metered account of the Crucifixion as told by witnesses, the book represented a turn toward the mystical; it received excellent reviews. "Stone Face," a poem on Tom Mooney that appeared in her last book, Dance of Fire, was reproduced by the thousands and hung in labor halls to remind organizers of his unjust imprisonment. One of the first women poets to receive a Guggenheim, Ridge was twice given the Shelley Award by the Poetry Society of America.

In her later years she traveled alone to Baghdad and Mexico, searching for inspiration for a final sequence of books entitled Lightwheel that she did not complete. She never abandoned her interest in anarchist themes and always maintained an international perspective. Her contributions were buried in the wake of the New Critics' demotion of women, free verse, and politics as a subject, as well as the rise of anti-radical political feeling in America prior to World War II.

The following text is adapted from Chapter 14 of my biography of Lola Ridge, Anything That Burns You: A Portrait of Lola Ridge, Radical Poet (Tucson, AZ; Schaffner Press, 2016).

Soirees for Others

Ridge hosted weekly soirees for the modernist magazine Others in her one-room apartment at 21 East 15th Street. (1) "She was older than most of the young writers," Flossie Williams recalled, reminiscing about the political as well as literary mix of one of her parties. "There was John Reed, who wrote Ten Days That Shook the World; and Louise Bryant--they were all in that group." (2) According to Gregory and Zaturenska's A History of American Poetry, 1900-1940, her space was a "large, barely furnished, wind-swept, cold-water loft." (3) Almost alone among the moderns, Ridge had no independent income. Yet her welcome was such that famous and not-so-famous writers and artists and activists gathered sometimes twice a week at her place to discuss the future of art in America and its various freedoms: literary, sexual, and political. In his Autobiography, William Carlos Williams writes: "It doesn't sound exciting, but it was. Our parties were cheap--a few drinks, a sandwich or so, coffee--but the yeast of new work in the realm of the poem was tremendously stirring." (4) Kreymborg writes in his autobiography a few years later: "The printed page was not enough; one wanted to greet the other fellow, and failing such a meeting, wished to hear about him, read about him, talk about him." (5) Using her own meager funds, Ridge selected the guest list, arranged the refreshments, made the introductions, and became a major force behind the continuing publication of Others. (6) "She was charismatic," writes Cyril Kay-Scott,
   and Evelyn [Scott, his wife the novelist] was not alone in falling
   her spell. Few left her salon with anything but good words for their
   hostess. In a subtle way her influence on American letters was
   than many polemicists and clique leaders for, by virtue of her
   dedicated spirit, she made things happen. (7) 

Regarding the very real achievements of the women who held thesesalons, Cecily Swanson, author of a dissertation titled "A CircleIs a Necessity: American Women Modernists and the Aesthetics ofSociability," said this in an interview:
   These women ... have been difficult to "read" as
important figures of
   literary modernism because their contribution was less
   as we are accustomed to perceiving it than a new conception of the
 which championed the aesthetic merits of salon
   conversation. (8) 

InSinbad, Cyril Kay-Scott's novel about Evelyn's affair withWilliam Carlos Williams around that time, he recalls the guests at thesefamous soirees with some sarcasm: "Little Celia St.John,"--surely Edna St. Vincent Millay--"ever the centerof a group of men, smiled ... recalled a wax lily.

'Well, tired little boy, if it's too far to yourplace, you might spend the night with me, only one flight down in thissame building,' she was saying. No one laughed." (9) Hementions Ridge wearing pendant earrings and speaking with an almost tooperfectly modulated low-pitched voice, "her enunciationtheatrically distinct, and her manner well-bred to the point ofdiscomfort." (10) Overcompensation for a less than advantageousupbringing? Kay-Scott was never close enough to Ridge to discover hertrue origins as the poverty-stricken stepdaughter of a failed goldminer: "[she] remembered with despair the bourgeois home fromwhich she had escaped." (11) But he does acknowledgeRidge's complexity: "[She] had a code of worldliness, andher vanity made her demand some sexual recognition from most of the menshe met. But unknown to herself her tendency was toward a morallybeautiful idealism." On the same page, Kay-Scott has her admit:"I am a bitter female." (12)

Literarysoirees had flourished in lower Manhattan since the 1910s. Theywere used to solicit money to publish magazines, to celebrate awriter's publication, and, most often, for talk. Margaret Sangerheld such soirees. (13) From 1913 to 1916 Mabel Dodge invitedguests on Wednesdays to her luxurious apartment just off WashingtonSquare, her salons launched in imitation of those of her friend GertrudeStein. (14) Willa Cather held hers on Fridays at 5 Bank Street in 1917.(15) As soon as Margaret Anderson and Jane Heap brought theLittle Review from Chicago to New York, they entertained in an apartment withlacquered black walls and a magenta floor "the color of theinside of a stomach." Black chains supported a big divan. (16)Jean Toomer also attended Ridge's parties, and later founded theHarlem Gurdjieff reading group, which minutely recorded not only theirdiscussion, but also the effect of each participant. Edna St. VincentMillay made enough money writing potboilers in 1919 that she heldsoirees at 25 Charlton Street. (17) But according to criticJeffry Kondritzer, "Of the many social and literary gatherings inManhattan, those held at Lola Ridge's tried most fervently tokeep the flame of literature alive." (18)

Kreymborgremembered that
   [Ridge] kept the movement going by giving a party nearly every time
   sold a poem or an article, though editors sent her sums hardly ample
   enough to be converted into the refreshments gracing her dark room on
   Fifteenth Street.... Some of the older members hob-nobbed about
   room with some of the newer: Evelyn Scott, a green-eyed person with a
   satiric languor, Emanuel Carnevali, a young Italian with a
   vocabulary that promised to usher new cadences into American poetry
   Waldo Frank, one of the moving spirits of the now defunct
Seven Arts
 and entering the room late in the evening, Scofield Thayer, who
   had recently bought out The Dial
 from Martyn Johnson. (19) 

"We hadarguments over cubism that would fill an afternoon," WilliamCarlos Williams recounts in his Autobiography. (20) His father had died at the end of 1919, and that "may haveintensified his quest for place and belonging," writes onecritic. (21) Williams had begun to write about his love of America inboth his fiction and poetry, but he was also working hard to"make it new," an effort that resulted in Korain Hell: Improvisations, a work so new few understood it. (22) But Ridge appreciated his talentfor experimentation: "The words of William Carlos Williams eitherrend and pull apart or set about erecting a new building," shewrites a few years later in her New Republic review of In the American Grain, (23) several chapters of which had been read at her soirees.Williams called Ridge a "Vestal of the Arts," to denoteher dedication to the world of poetry. (24) His estimation of otherfemale poets varied wildly, ranging from punching the Baroness Elsa vonFreytag-Loringhoven in the face ("I flattened her with a stiffpunch to the mouth") (25) to the canonization of Moore("Marianne was our saint"). (26)

Marianne Mooreenjoyed Ridge's parties, and her comments about them reveal theplayful yet serious tone of the events; for example: "I aminterested in Marsden Hartley's 'exposition' of theAmerican quality in poetry. I am not just ready myself to say what Ithink that quality is." (27) Moore was no ingenue to the group.She had visited Kreymborg during her first trip to New York in December1915, (28) and picnicked with Kreymborg and Williams at the Ridgefieldshacks, a sort of artist colony in New Jersey whereOthers was born. (29) It was among the several magazines that first publishedher work in 1915. "It could be said, perhaps," Moorestates in a Paris Review interview, that Kreymborg was her true American discoverer. "Hethought I might pass as a novelty." (30)

AlthoughMoore never embraced Ridge's fierce anarchism, she did espousesocialism and supported suffrage. (31) "Of course we all areSocialists," Moore writes in a letter from college in 1909,"in so far as we know economics and are halfway moral, and wantclean politics." (32) While Ridge was editor in 1919,Others printed Moore's poem "Radical."
   to a point, conserving everything,
   this carrot is predestined to be thick.
   The world is
   but a circumstance, a mis-
   rable corn patch for its feet. With ambition, im-
         agination, outgrowth,
   with everything crammed belligerently
   inside itself, its fibres breed mon-
         a tail-like, wedge-shaped engine with the
         secret of expansion, fused with intensive heat to
         the color of the set-
   ting sun and
   stiff. (33) 

Contemporary critic Stephen Burtpoints out that roots are also radicals, therefore carrots are radicalvegetables with possibly political overtones, and the orange carrots are"the color of the set-/ting sun," not quite red. (34)Moore's continuing interest in the political world is indicatedin a few of her titles: "To Statecraft Embalmed toDisraeli," "To Disraeli on Conservatism,""To Military Progress," and her various anti-German poems,most importantly "You Say You Said," published in 1918,with its uncharacteristically vehement lines, "I hate / You lessthan you must hate / Yourselves." Wallace Stevens called her"a moral force in light blue." (35) Moore also sharedRidge's Irish background, and Moore's poem,"Spencer's Ireland," published in 1941, addressedher need to speak on Irish issues. Found amongst Moore andRidge's correspondence are lines from the Moore poem"Sojourn in the Whale," written around 1915, which referto Ireland's political situation, as well as the difficulties ofgaining a literary reputation, and seem in particular to suggestRidge's asceticism.
   You have lived and lived on every kind of shortage.
   You have been compelled by hags to spin
   Gold threads from straw and have heard men say:
         "There is a feminine
   Temperament in direct contrast to
   Ours which makes her do these things ..." (36)

Although Ridge eventually exchanged only a dozenor so letters with Moore and Mary, her mother, they consideredthemselves good friends. Judging from the number of entries inMoore's "Daily Diary" from 1920, Ridge and PadraicColum, another poet, were her main social contacts that year. (37)"They are practically recluses," writes Ridge. (38) LikeRidge's stepfather, Moore's father was institutionalizedfor mental instability. Moore never met him, although she knew hesuffered from religious mania and had chopped off his right hand. (39)Like Ridge, she too considered herself a visual artist and "did alittle painting for fun." (40) According to critic Betsy Erkkila,Moore believed that female identity could transform the world, and she,like Ridge, sought an Americanness in literature that recalled anational, moral, and spritual destiny. (41)

Moore gave acommand performance of her poem "England" at 2 a.m. onenight at Ridge's. (42) It marked the beginning of Moore'sfamous association with Dial. Ridge had encouraged her guests to read from their work, helping torecast its performance from a fireside recitation to a public occasion.(43) "Even Stevens was inspired to try something," writesKreymborg,
   but Wallace waited for conversation to reach a fairly confused height
   before he drew forth a paper that looked like a poem but sounded like
   tete-a-tete with himself. Orrick Johns, Krimmie
[Kreymborg], Williams and
   the rest took their turn and finally Marianne Moore joined them ... A
   beautiful poem few of the guests could hear distinctly, but which the
   mystery man from the Dial
 [Scofield Thayer] heard so well, he stole
   over to her and, after a whispered consultation, induced her to part
   it. (44) 

Scofield Thayer had previouslyrejected the poem, but that didn't squelch his newly kindledenthusiasm. (45) He invited Moore to tea at his office, and walked herhome. (46)

Hart Crane came to many of Ridge's parties,and he may have been in attendance when Thayer"discovered" Moore. "My dear Hart Crane,"Ridge writes the 20-year-old in April 1919: "We will print oneperhaps two of the three poems you submitted though I cannot use themthis month--or even say just when they will appear." (47) Hertone is sternly editorial, but he was a veteran of submitting tomagazines, having had his first poem published at 16. (48) At the time,however, he must have been happy to get even the suggestion ofpublication, since in 1918 Pound did not like his work and had orderedLittle Review never to publish him again. (49) (Crane rented a room over theiroffices in an effort to persuade them otherwise.) (50) Williams, for hispart, had accepted several of Crane's poems forOthers in 1916 but never printed them, possibly out of jealousy. (51) At thetime of Ridge's first parties, Crane was reading all ofSwinburne, making money as a shipping clerk, about to return to Ohio towork in his father's candy factory. (52,53) Ridge's poetryand introductions proved to be very important for his poeticdevelopment. His copy of The Ghetto and Other Poems naturally falls open to her "Brooklyn Bridge," where itis stained at the seam.
   Pythoness body--arching
   Over the night like an ecstasy--
   I feel your coils tightening ...
   And the world's lessening breath. (Ghetto,

One of the very few reviews Crane wrote was ofThe Ghetto and Other Poems. (54) He conveyed much enthusiasm for the book, particularly for itsimagery of the city:
   Over the black bridge
   The line of lighted cars
   Creeps like a monstrous serpent
   Spooring gold ... (Ghetto
, 49) 

He insisted that Ridge's sinceritywas "the essential to all real poetry" and admired thebook because it seemed "so widely and minutely reflective of itstime." He would not forget her work when he went to write his"To Brooklyn Bridge."

Ridge introduced Mina Loyand her wild poetry to traditional poets such as Louise Bogan. (55) Atthis juncture of their lives the two of them had emotional upheaval incommon. The 22-year-old widowed Bogan had recently moved to the city andwas getting over an affair with a Robin Hood who shoplifted fur in orderto call attention to the needs of the poor, and Loy was in New Yorkafter giving birth to the baby of the boxer/artist Arthur Cravan, whohad disappeared mysteriously off the coast of Mexico in a sailboat.(56,57) Two of Bogan's poems, "Betrothed" and"Young Wife," appeared in the 1917Others before Ridge's tenure, when Bogan was living in Panama with thehusband and her own new baby. (58) Both poems are in free verse, a formBogan would later repudiate, and both concern the difficulties ofmarriage. (59) Loy's poems "The Dead" and"The Black Virginity" had been included in theOthers 1919 anthology. Her "Summer Night in a Florentine Slum,"written in 1920--two years after Ridge's first very successfulbook, The Ghetto and Other Poems, appeared--echoed the style and subject of Ridge's title poem.Although only two pages in length, compared with Ridge's 22, itslong prose lines concern watching the neighborhood poor from a window ona hot summer night.
   I leaned out of the window--looking at the summer strewn street
   late in heat--lit with lamps, and mixed my breath with the tired
                           ("Summer Night in a Florentine
Slum" (60)) 

Jean Toomer attended a Ridgeparty in May 1920. (61) Introduced by a mutual friend, (62) Ridge wasnearly the first person to recognize Toomer as a writer, telling him hiswork would be "talked about and studied twenty yearshence." (63) She mentored Toomer for a number of years, and hedid indeed become an important figure, straddling the modernists and theHarlem Renaissance movement. She made her first response to his poetryin 1920:
   Your poems are delicately impressionistic--surfacey so and they show
   whimsical fancy and a sense of form (unity) as well as of
   most of them are weightless.
 They are surface impressions, light as
   petal blown delicately upward by a breeze.... They seem to be to be
   of concealment rather than of revealment--a placing of flowers and
   before closed shutters and drawn blinds rather than the spirit
singing or
   saying aloud its lonely questioning through open windows. (64)

Toomer was poor gentility like Ridge, whosegrandfather traced their Irish roots back to Hemon, king of Ireland.(65) Although Toomer was described by Ridge as "a young Indianboy," (66) Toomer's grandfather had been the firstAfrican-American governor in the country, serving in the state ofLouisiana for a month and a half. (67) Toomer liked to use the phrase"First American" to describe his racial heritage and tosuggest that he represented a new America unhindered by racial polarity.(68) Extremely handsome, he dedicated himself to poetry--and to findinga woman to support him. (69)

Emanuel Carnevali, mentioned asa guest by Kreymborg, was 22. An Italian immigrant who worked at meniallabor in New York, he had won an important prize inPoetry that year. (70) A chapter in his only book, A HurriedMan, chronicled the spirit of a Ridge party, and his angry tirade there thatfinally pulled apart Others. (71) He described Ridge as "a woman suffering--with the snarl ofa lioness, rather. It is a lioness flinging herself madly against thewalls of an ugly city," (72) and her poetry as"flashlights searching a battlefield, slicing a thick foulnight." (73) Perhaps he was referring to her antiwar poem"The Fire," which begins:
   The old men of the world have made a fire
   To warm their trembling hands.
   They poke the young men in.
   The young men burn like withes. 

Or"Lullaby," written in mock dialect about a white womanthrowing a black baby into one of the conflagrations in the 1917 EastSt. Louis Riot.
   An' the singin' flame an' the gleeful crowd
   Circlin' around ... won't mammy be proud!
   With a stone at her hade an' a stone on her
   An' her mouth like a red plum, broken apart ...

Robert McAlmon, who convinced William CarlosWilliams to start Contact at one of Ridge's gatherings in 1920, also immortalized herparties in several chapters of his bookPost-Adolescence. (74) An acidic, misogynistic, anti-Semitic account that usurpsRidge's aesthetics, it describes her as a "poor old thing,pretending to be revolutionary and flaming with passion when a few goodmeals would change all of that perhaps, except that she'd stillbe pathetic." (75) He must not have known of her association withEmma Goldman and Margaret Sanger.

Marianne Moore took vividnotes of the parties verbatim. Her "ConversationNotebooks," little bigger than postage stamps, are filled withtalk caught at the soirees, some of them annotated years later.Moore quotes William Saphier as saying: "MarsdenHartley--He's always so bored. He's so much aboveeverything and some so much below it. I don't see how we are everto meet." Someone answered: "If you don't stopI'll die." (76) Robert McAlmon--or "Piggy,"as Moore liked to call him (77)--insulted Harriet Monroe: "[She]can't read. What she does... I don't know what she triesto read. She's chiefly concerned with the cross and thecrown." (78) The next comments appear to be the critic PaulRosenfeld's: "cummings' poem sounds like him hetalks just that way when he has had a little more to drink so I like itbetter." (79) Moore attributed half of the following dialogue toBryher (the pen name of the English writer Annie WinifredEllerman):
   Isn't Ezra married? Where is Mrs. Pound? She's
   there in the flat usually. People came over from
   America and say poor Mrs. Pound. I assure
   you it's quite the other way. She is one of those
   languid people without a spark of life that you
   couldn't strike fire (then how do they get on?)
   Oh, occasionally Ezra forgets to wash the frying
   pan and she strolls off to her mother's for a
   week and then she comes back. (80) 

Thecamaraderie and community that these quotes reveal about thesepoets-in-action underscore the rivalry as well as the exchange ofenergies--if not always ideas--that went on at the gatherings. Not onlyRidge's own poetry as a proletarian modernist and her editorialwork at Others and later Broom, but her ability to attract and hold the attentions of so manyfirst-rate writers attests to her position as a major influence on themodernist movement.
   But you do not yet see me,
   Who am a torch blown along the wind,
   Flickering to a spark
   But never out. (Ghetto,
 "The Song," 60) 

TERESESVOBODA'S Anything That Barns You: A Portrait of LolaRidge, Radical Poet (Schaffner Press) has just been published. When the Next BigWar Blows Down the Valley: Selected and New Poems was published by Anhinga Press in 2015.


(1.) Ridge to Mitchell Dawson,n.d. [1920]. Mitchell Dawson Collection. Newberry Library,Chicago.

(2.) Williams, Flossie. "William CarlosWilliams, The Art of Poetry No. 6." Interviewed by StanleyKoehler. Paris Review. Summer/Fall 1964.

(3.) Gregory, Horace, and MaryaZaturenska. A History of American Poetry, 1900-1940. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1946, p. 445.

(4.)Williams, William Carlos. Autobiography of William CarlosWilliams. New York: New Directions, 1951, p. 136.

(5.) Kreymborg,Alfred. Troubadour: An Autobiography. New York: Liveright, 1925, p. 240.

(6.) Churchill, Suzanne.The Little Magazine: Others and the Renovation of Modern AmericanPoetry. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2006, p. 56.

(7.) Callard, D. A.Pretty Good for a Woman: The Enigmas of EvelynScott. New York: W.W. Norton, 1985, p. 58.

(8.) Swanson, Cecily.Interview. "Networked NY Q&A: Cecily Swanson."NYU Workshop in Archival Practice. 27 April 2012.

(9.)Kay-Scott, Cyril. Sinbad: A Romance. New York: Thomas Seltzer, 1923, p. 55.

(10.) Ibid., 8.

(11.) Ibid., 235.

(12.) Ibid., 156.

(13.)Sanger, Margaret. Margaret Sanger: AnAutobiography. 1938. Reissued: Whitefish, MT: Kessinger, 2010, p. 70.

(14.)Scott, William B., and Peter M. Rutkoff. New York Modern: TheArts and the City. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 2001, pp. 76, 80.

(15.) Skaggs,Merrill Maguire. Axes: Willa Cather and WilliamFaulkner. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 2007, p. 42.

(16.) Barnet, Andrea.All-Night Party: The Women of Bohemian Greenwich Village andHarlem, 1913-1930. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books, 2004, p. 46..

(17.) Ibid., 106.

(18.) Kondritzer, Jeffry B.Broom: An International Magazine of the Arts. Diss., Indiana University, 1983. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1984, p. 13.

(19.) Kreymborg, 257-258.

(20.) Williams,Autobiography, 135.

(21.) Wagner-Martin, Linda. "Williams, WilliamCarlos." American National Biography Online. Oxford UP, Feb. 2000.

(22.) Williams,Autobiography, 155.

(23.) Ridge, Lola. "American Sagas."Review of In the American Grain, by William Carlos Williams. The New Republic. 24 Mar. 1926, p. 148.

(24.) Williams,Autobiography, 163.

(25.) Ibid., 169.

(26.) Ibid., 146.

(27.) Moore to Ridge. 25 May 1920. Marianne Moore Collection,Rosenbach Museum and Library, Philadelphia, PA.

(28.) Moore,Marianne. Becoming Marianne Moore: Early Poems,1907-1924. Ed. Robin G. Schultze. Oakland: U of California P, 2002, 391.

(29.) Stansell, Christine. American Moderns: Bohemian NewYork and the Creation of a New Century. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2009, p. 99.

(30.) Moore,Marianne. "The Art of Poetry No. 4." The ParisReview. Summer/Fall 1961.

(31.) Schulman, Grace. "WithDearest Love, Marianne." New York Times. 16 November 1997.

(32.) Marianne Moore. Letter from college,1909. Marianne Moore Collection, Rosenbach Museum and Library,Philadelphia, PA.

(33.) Moore, Marianne."Radical." Others. 5 March 1919, p. 15.

(34.) Burt, Stephen."PaperTrail: The True Legacy of Marianne Moore, Modernist Monument."Slate Magazine. 11 Nov. 2003.

(35.) Marianne Moore. "Education of aPoet." Writer's Digest. Oct. 1963, p. 72.

(36.) Moore to Ridge. 19 April (1919?).Marianne Moore Collection, Rosenbach Museum and Library, Philadelphia,PA.

(37.) Stubbs, Tara. "'IrishbyDescent'? Marianne Moore's American-IrishInheritance." Irish Journal of AmericanStudies 1 (Spring 2009).

(38.) Ridge to Louise Adams Floyd, n.d.[subsequent to 1927]. Lola Ridge Papers, Sophia Smith Collection, SmithCollege, Northampton, MA.

(39.) Sehgal, Parul."Less IsMoore." Book Forum. Sept./ Oct./Nov. 2013.

(40.) Holley, Margaret. ThePoetry of Marianne Moore: A Study in Voice and Value. New York: Cambridge UP, 2009, pp. 7-8.

(41.) Erkkila, Betsy.The Wicked Sisters: Women Poets, Literary History, andDiscord. New York: Oxford UP, 1992, p. 120.

(42.) Kreymborg,160.

(43.) The Oxford Critical and Cultural Historyof Modernist Magazines. Ed. Peter Brooker and Andrew Thacker. Vol. 2. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2012,p. 307.

(44.) Kreymborg, 160.

(45.) Page,David, and Marianne Moore. Marianne Moore. Mankato, MN: The Creative Company, 1994.

(46.) Holley, 45;also Moore, Becoming Marianne Moore, 425.

(47.) Ridge to Hart Crane. 5 April 1919. ColumbiaUniversity Archives, Special Collections, New York, NY.

(48.)Lloyd, Virginia." For the Love of Hart Crane and Me."Bookslut. May 2011.

(49.) Pound/The Little Review: TheLetters of Ezra Pound to Margaret Anderson: The Little ReviewCorrespondence. Ed. Melvin J. Friedman. New York: New Directions, 1989, p. 185.

(50.) Kondritzer, 15.

(51.) Mariani, Paul.William Carlos Williams: A New World Naked. New York: Norton, 1990, p. 137.

(52.) Reed, Brian.Hart Crane: After His Lights. Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 2006, p. 31; Unterecker, John.Voyager: A Life of Hart Crane. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1969, p. 137; and "HartCrane: Biography." The Poetry Foundation, bio/hart-crane.

(53.)"Hart Crane: Biography."

(54.) Crane, Hart."Lola Ridge's Ghetto." Review of TheGhetto and Other Poems, by Lola Ridge. The Pagan. Jan. 1919, pp. 55-56.

(55.) Burke, Carolyn.Becoming Modern: The Life of Mina Loy. New York: Macmillan, 1996, p. 288. Also Frank, Elizabeth.Louise Bogan: A Portrait. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986, p. 43.

(56.)Frank, 43.

(57.) Hanscombe, Gillian, and Virginia L. Smyers.Writing for Their Lives: The Modernist Women,1910-1940. Boston: Northeastern UP, 1987, pp. 112-128; and Kouidis, Virginia M."Loy, Mina." American National BiographyOnline. Oxford UP, Feb. 2000.

(58.) Frank, 40.


(60.) Loy, Mina. "Summer Night in a FlorentineSlum." Contact. Dec. 1920[b], pp. 6-7.

(61.) Kerman, Cynthia Earl.The Lives of Jean Toomer: A Hunger for Wholeness. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1989, p. 72.

(62.)The Letters of Jean Toomer, 1919-1924. Ed. Mark Whalan. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 2006, p. 18.

(63.) Kerman, p. 106. Also Toomer, Jean. Cane. 1923. Reissued: New York: Norton, 2011, p. 229.

(64.) Ridgeto Toomer. 12 Oct. 1920. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, YaleUniversity, New Haven, CT.

(65.) According to a documentprovided by Ridge's relative Eliza McLennan in an email to me,June 5, 2013, "Verification can be obtained fromDonovan's Annals of Ireland that gives a complete history from the first of the name Reilly down toMiles Reilly of Lurgan who died in 1735. Records may be depended on andwere accepted by the Biographical Society of Dublin."

(66.) Ridge to Harold Loeb. 1922. Broom Correspondence of Harold Loeb, Princeton University, Princeton,NJ.

(67.) Rampersand, Arnold. "His Own BestDisciple." New York Times. 30 Aug. 1987.

(68.) Turner, Darwin T., ed. TheWayward and the Seeking: A Collection of Writings by JeanToomer. Washington, DC: Howard UP, 1983, p. 121.


(70.) Halio, Marcia Peoples. "The'Beast with a Bone in his Throat': EmanuelCarnevali." Italian Americana 26:1 (Winter 2008), p. 21.

(71.) Carnevali, Emanuel. AHurried Man. Paris: Contact Editions/Three Mountains, 1925. The chapter is"Maxwell Bodenheim, Ale[f|red Kreymborg, Lola Ridge, WilliamCarlos Williams," beginning at page 247.

(72.)The Autobiography of Emanuel Carnevali. Comp. Kay Boyle. New York: Horizon Press, 1967, p. 118.

(73.) Carnevali, A Hurried Man, 247.

(74.) McAlmon, Robert.Post-Adolescence. Paris: Contact Editions, 1923.

(75.) McAlmon, 54-55.

(76.) Moore, Marianne. "Conversation Notebooks." 25Feb. 1920.

(77.) Leavell, Linda. Holding On UpsideDown: The Life and Work of Marianne Moore. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2013, p. 187.

(78.)Moore, "Conversation Notebooks," 1 Mar. 1921.

(79.) Ibid., 7 Oct. 1921.

(80.) Ibid., 8 Feb.1921.
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Author:Svoboda, Terese
Publication:The American Poetry Review
Article Type:Critical essay
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2016
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