Location and the making of identity in The Romance of Horn.
Legge suggests that "Horn has more the flavour of the best kind of "chanson de geste "than any other, and "though it lacks the crusading spirit of the 'Chanson de Roland' and it would be ridiculous to compare the two, it has a spirit of its own and commemorates the desperate courage of men fighting for heart and home" (96).It is a common feature of romance that the hero travels from one place to another in order to prove himself as a "vaillant chevalier". In the Anglo-Norman Boeve de Haumtone, the eponymous hero travels from Egypt to Hampton and from Hampton to Monbrant and each of the courts are different and each has a contribution in constructing Boeve's identity (Der Anglo Normannische Boeve LX). In the Old-French Le Bone Florence of Rome, the hero, Emere travels from Hungary to Rome; from Rome to Constantinople, and from Constantinople to Rome and the details described in each court allow him to forge his identity (The Orient in Chaucer 109). In Cliges, Chretien presents a narrative of exileretum as Cliges' father Alexander goes from Constantinople to England to prove himself in service at Arthur's court (Cliges in the Mediterranean 52). Likewise, Horn's poet's handling of the three courts in Brittany, in Westir and in Suddene seems to invite comparison to one another, each of which seems to have importance in constructing the identity of Horn. The narrative seems to be far from the simple exile-return type. The eponymous hero of Horn begins as less than a man, and throughout the course of the narrative grows up and matures into a hero. Horn ends up as a king and a husband at the end of the romance. His journey and experience allow him to forge his identity and to attain his goals. This article will examine the importance of the actual travel and geographical structure of the narrative as part of the creation of the self of the protagonist, and it will argue that Horn's journeys in Brittany, in Westir and in Suddene seem to be far from the simple exile-return type.
Schofield argues that Horn "was fashioned in the likeness of a common form of a story favored in England, known as the 'exile and return' type" (42). Moreover, Hynes-Berry states that the story "progresses to a happy conclusion through a double climax" (652). However, the structure of the geography and plot elements seem to be more complicated than a simple trip and return or even a repetition pattern. Geography is not merely a reflection of Horn's growth throughout the romance; it also in some ways is the catalyst or even the enabler of his growth, and it is intrinsically related to his progression. Although Oliver has noted that the geography of the plot seems "confusing", Haynes-Berry has claimed that the voyages that Horn take "become a signal of the beginning of another phase of Horn's career", and they seem to indicate another level in his growth (King Horn and Suddene 102; Cohesion in King Horn 661). The voyages seem to enable Horn to link together elements of his past with his goals in a way that respectively allows him to become a knight, a man, a king and a lover.
Horn's narrative begins with Horn as a silent and helpless child, who can do nothing about where he is or his circumstances. At the beginning of the narrative, of course, audience knows nothing about Horn; he has no backstory nor any foreshadowing of what might be in his future. He does not speak, even when he is abducted. As he is removed from this garden, he gradually gains some three-dimensionality; when he is taken to court, he has speech enough to tell the king who he is, but the audience does not actually get to see the narration. When the king's senechal asks, tute s'aventure li ad de chief cunte (l. 172) [he told him everything from the beginning] (48). (3) The audience does not know what the 'tute s'aventure' is, and there is no proof that Horn even knows what his story and past are. Evidently, he also has no future, as we are only seeing him in the present moment-but as soon as the king puts him into a boat to begin the journey, the narrator references the places Horn will travel later in life. Thus, his future begins to be created through the narrator's foreshadowing at the same time that his physical path extends to a new region. Once he has come to a new land, Horn's powers increase slightly. He has gained a voice and is even able to speak first to those who approach him. He is able to ask for grants of peace, instead of waiting passively for something to happen. He also references his father for the first time, which lets the audience know that he is aware of his heritage:
Si fumes arive e tiel est le lignage; N'i ad un de nus tuz ki ne seit de parage, E parmi tut ijoe sur eus oi seignorage E si sui joveignur d[e] els tuz par eage. De mun pere ne sai si vus fist onc damage, Kar il fist en meint liu a muz homes utrage, Pur joe crem ke trop ai descovert mun corage (ll. 308-14) [Thus, we came to this land, and such is our parentage. There is not one of us that is not of high birth; neverthless I, the youngest of them all, am lord over them. I do not know if my father ever did you wrong: he did much injury to many men in many places, so I fear whether I have spoken too openly]. (51)
This time, when Horn speaks to the senechal, the child tells him the whole truth, that he is Aalof's son, the good crowned king, ruler of the realm of Suddene:
E li enfes l'en dit tute la verite, Qu'il fu fiz Aalof, al bon rei corune Ki out a justisier Suddene, le regne; Cum paien l'orent mort e lui ont dechage Tute s'aventure li ad de chief cunte. (ll. 168-72)
Horn now directly references his genealogy and father, which means that the audience now gets a glimpse into his past. After he comes to the shore and speaks to the chamberlain Herland, Horn makes the last leg of his first journey, to the king's court. With this, Horn becomes much more articulate, and he is now capable also of making a quite long speech about his past and his father. Moreover, when he has made it, he comes into the king's presence like a noble knight-not like a child any longer: Herland entre el paleis, e trestuit cummunal/E vint devant le rei cum nobile vassal/Ja li front tiel present k'unc mais ne regut tal. (ll. 208-10). The act of leaving behind Suddene and travelling has created his past for him, or at least allowed the audience to see the past that he has always had. Before the movement, he barely existed as a character, and his past certainly did not, much less his future. However, as he journeys, Horn's future and past take form, beyond what is discussed narrowly in the present moment. This creation of Horn's location and identity within time parallels his growth as a character. His powers of speech and the way he is described grow during the journey; he begins as a child hiding in a garden, and ends entering the king's court like a knight. It is important that Horn's first journey from Suddene to Brittany is a three-legged journey (from the garden to the kingdom of Suddene, from Suddene to the Brittany shore, and from the shore to the king's court in Britanny), as it foreshadows Horn's later trajectory between the three countries of Suddene, Brittany, and Westir. Horn's responsibilities grow throughout this larger journey, as his powers of speech grow in the earlier microcosm. Furthermore, as Horn travels and grows, even in this first journey, he learns to integrate his past more in his identity and presentation of himself, which allows him to reclaim the identity he wishes to have.
Horn's stay in Brittany is where most of his eventual goals in life are outlined or enhanced. The audience already knows that he will eventually take back Suddene to regain his inheritance, but in Brittany, Horn gains the military and knightly training with which to do so. Military progress is one option for Horn to create his identity as a hero and warrior, but he is limited in his effectiveness in Brittany. When the first enemy appears, Horn volunteers loudly to help, but he also has to ask for armour from the king in order to fight, because he is still dependent on the king:
'Qa venez', dist li reis, 'sire cher, dan Moroan. Aportez mes adubs qu'avez garde meint an: Ne crei ke ait meillors de ci qu'al flum Jordan, Il ne fausseront ja pur suffrir nul ahan. Celes dorrai a Horn, sin iert plus seguran; Quant en iert cunree, mar creindra barbaran. (ll. 1408-13) ['Come here', said the king, 'my dear lord Moroan. Bring me my armour that you have guarded many a year. I believe there is no better from here to the river Jordan: no matter how hard the attack it will not give way. Give it to Horn to make him more secure'.] (70)
After Horn wins the first big battle, he gets to be a constable, and after the second battle, Hunlaf gives up the land to Horn as deputy:
E reis Hunlaf l'eime cum l'oust engendre, Kar par li tient s'onur [en si Grant quite.] Ke il n'ad nul veisin par ki seit travaille Kar taunt redutent Horn e sa roiste fierte; E la u veut le mal mut tost s'en est venge Ela u veut le bien mut est d'(e)humilite Pur 50 est el pais partut seingnur clamed Cum cil ki est vaillanz e taunt i ad done Dunt sun los est creu par trestut le regne. (ll. 162-68) [And king Hunlaf loved him as if he had begotten him, because through him he held his kingdom in such great tranquility that there was no neighbour to harass him, for they all feared Horn and his stubborn pride. When he intended harm, he avenged himself very fast, and where he intended good, he behaved soberly: because of this he was called lord throughout the land, like a valiant man, and he was so genereous that his renown grew throughout the realm] (76)
After he has gained deputy powers, Horn has the ability to wage war offensively, but he does not move against Suddene at this time. His first desire is to attack Anjou, which has insulted Brittany. This is an indication that Horn has not yet gained power that is independent of the king of Brittany. Since Horn is avenging someone else, he is still clearly a liege man without the ability to make the armies where he truly desires. Horn then goes on a rampage of killing, but these deeds seem almost more like act of desperation than like actual judicial acts of leadership. Horn also still lacks one of the necessities of good lordship; he is not capable of land distribution or gift-giving, because the land and gifts do not technically belong to him. (4)
Another aspect of Horn's lack of independence in Brittany is his relationship with Rigmel, the princess of Brittany. He obviously does not consider himself ready for Rigmel yet, though he has been put almost in control of the country. As Hill has noticed, Horn needs to fashion his identity as a warrior before he feels comfortable adding to his identity characteristics of a lover (157). He needs to regain his own land in order to feel comfortable taking her, and even after he does, he says he will need fatherly approvel for her. Rigmel asks Horn to be hers for the second time, but he answers very clearly that what he needs is
De purchacier mun renge, dunt chacie sui, mesel, Ke tienent sarazin--burc, cite e chastel Cil culvert reneie, fiz Kaim nun Abel, E par le prant le rei pus ferai vostre avel. (ll. 1809-11)
["to regain my kingdom-every town, city and castle-from which I am an outcast, as it is held by Saracen, those renegade wretches, son of Cain, not Abel. Then if the king permits, I will do as you wish".] (77)
He makes his own kingship a prerequisite for his relationship with Rigmel, as his ideal of manhood is to regain the inheritance he ought to have had. Yet, it takes Horn quite a while to even attempt to regain his country. He first has to travel again, repeating some of the same elements of plot as those he experienced in Brittany. In some ways, the narrative only comes to fruition upon repetition. Rigmel first summons Horn's friend by accident, and only the second time does she succeed in calling Horn to her. As Hynes-Berry notes, the double meeting of the lovers anticipates the double climax of the romance (659). Rigmel meets Horn on the second time and she summons him, and it is at the second time she asks him to be her sweetheart that he agrees; the first time, he tells her he cannot yet. This repetition might be the result of a duplication of the narrative, as Weiss suggests in her article on the sources for the Horn story (2). However, the duplication also emphasises the idea that a trajectory is necessary for progress, and for the trajectory one needs a starting point. Once Rigmel and Horn have met a first time that meeting is a point in time and in situation that acts as the beginning of a journey. The second time they meet acts as a second point giving a line, a trajectory upon which their relationship can progress. Yet, in order to marry Rigmel, more is needed than simply this line; Horn needs to go away from Brittany, finish creating his identity, and regain his country, before he feels comfortable in actually claiming her.
Horn's journey to Westir introduces the last element of the geography. (5) This time when Horn disembarks he is already more powerful, though he still needs to gain independence. Horn does not need to pay attention to those onlookers, unlike when he first arrived in Brittany and needed seneschal's help. In Westir, Horn takes no notice of the spectators other than to ask directions. Yet of course, he still cannot be anything more than a vassal, despite his great military prowess. He still needs the king of the land and his sons, though now he has his own armour and training. He does not have any land or knights of his own in this country, so he is still dependent.
Another key difference between Horn's arrival in Westir and his arrival in Brittany is his presentation of himself. When Horn arrives in Westir, instead of articulately claiming his past, Horn disguises it:
Gudmod fui apelez a mun baptesmement. Or vus ai tut rendu vostre demaundement. Si fiz estes le rei a ki cest renge apent Dunc remendrai od vus, si en faites covent E Egfer quant l'oi Grant merciz li en rent. 'Vus remeindres od mei', dist Egfer, 'beaus amis' ... Dunc respundi si Horn: 'Sire, od vus me sui mis'. (ll. 2266-79) [I was called Gudmod when I was baptized. Now I answered all of your questions. ' If you are the son of the king to whom this realm belongs, then I shall stay with you, if you agree'. And when Egfer heard him, he gave him many thanks. 'You shall stay with me, my fair friend' said Egfer ... Then Horn replied, 'My lord, I have entered your service'.] (85)
When Horn arrived in Brittany, he described his and his family's history in detail, but he does not seem to be appropriate here. Horn wants to fashion his new identity in Westir without relying on the trajectory he had earlier used from Suddene to Brittany. In order to create a new trajectory, Gudmod/Horn erases his past and creates a new one for himself. As the first two locations of the narrative created a line, if Horn wants to modify the trajectory of that line, he has to escape the previous trajectory, at least temporarily. Only by recreating himself in Westir can he provide himself and launch himself upon that new path into a position of power. Yet, he still must wait for the enemies to come to him, because he has not attained his full strenght. Bly Calkin has noted that Bevis' disguised identity can be explained by his moments of assimilation into Saracen culture in Bevis of Hampton (58). Unlikely, Horn's disguised identity in Westir does not seem to be moments of assimilation into a new culture, but moments of providing himself a new position of power. Military progress is the best option for Horn to recreate his identity as a hero and warrior, but he is limited in his effectiveness this time in Westir. When the Saracens appear, Horn volunteers to help the king of Westir and his two sons. This time, he has his own armour to fight and as a knight he kills the Saracens: paiens sunt descunfiz, morze mis a turment/e Gudmod en est lez e li soen sunt joient (ll. 3471-2) [The infidels were defeated, dispatched and slain, and Gudmod was happy and his men rejoiced.](107).
Apart from his military progress, Horn seems to forge his noble identity through social activities at court. Weiss notes that chess is a social activity (94). The account of chess, stone-putting contest and music seem to provide details of social activity in Horn. Horn skilfully plays chess with Lenburc, the princess of Westir:
Or ont joeentr'els par si fete baillie Qu'il n'i out un mot dit qui notast vilanie, Mes quant ke dit i out, turna a curteisie. Quatre gius pres a pres ont joepar mestrie Qu'ele n'out un d'ices le vailliant d'une pie. (ll. 2760-4) [Now they played the game in such a way that not a word was spoken suggesting discourtesy, but whatever was said expressed good manners. They played four games skillfully, one after the other, without her winning a fig's worth in any of them.] (94)
Likewise, he plays stone-putting with the princes and he wins the contest:
Pur la pierre porter i corent plus de trei. E Gudmod la jeta par issi Grant noblei Ke de set piez passa Egglaf demareschei Deu! Quel cri i out fait quant Eggals fu vencuz! ... Des idunc fud Gudmod preisiez e coneuz. Li rei dist a ses fiz: 'bien sui aparceuz Ke mut ad Grant bunte li noveaus retenuz.' (ll. 2657-68) [More than three men ran to lift the Stone. And Gudmod threw it with such force that it overshot Eglaf's cast by some seven feet of level ground. Lord! What a shout went up when Eglaf was defeated ... From that time on, Gudmod was known and prized. The king said to his sons: "I see that the new arrival shows great prowess".] (92)
Moreover, he plays the harp beautifully that attracts his friends deeply at court:
Quant ses notes ot fait si la prent a munter E tut par autres tuns les cordes fait soner: Mut se merveillent tuit qu'il la sout si bailler. (ll. 2836-8) [When he played his notes, he began to raise the pitch and to maket the strings give out completely different notes. Everyone was astonished at his skilful handling of it] (95)
Horn grows in Westir and he learns to integrate his past more in his identity and the presentation of himself. This allows him to reclaim the noble and chivalric identity he wishes to have. Thus, the eponymous hero re-explores his skills and reshapes his identity as a skillful warrior both in social and in military life. McKnight argues that "Horn's return to Suddene and his avengement of his father's death in the existing form of the story is quite secondary in interest to that of the second element, the reunion of the two lovers" (222). However, it seems that this is not the case. The constant references to Horn's need to regain his kingdom create intensity, while he seems to have basically forgotten Rigmel during his stay in Westir until the messenger comes to tell him about her.
When Horn finally returns to Suddene, the very first place of the narrative, he completes the cycle and begins a new one where he has come into his full power. He first defeats Rodmund, the king of Suddene, takes revenge for his father and seizes the land:
Sur le helme le fiert del espee d'acer K'en dous meitez le fent idunc desk'al braer. A cel cop ad vencu sa bataille li ber E rescust Haderrolf, sun ami dreiturrer. Ses homes ad fet pus devant sei amener E si ad fet sa pes par trestut l'ost crier. (ll. 4835-40) [He struck him on the helm with his steel sword and cleft him in two down to the girdle. With this blow the brave knight won his battle and rescued his true friend Haderof. Then he had his men brought before him and his peace proclaimed throughout the army] (130)
Horn reclaims his past and attains the future he had envisioned of himself, and the future the narrator had projected for him. Horn is finally able to kill a king, and therefore can finally become a king himself. Indeed, it is the king that first disrupted the natural progression of inheritance from father to son by killing Aalof and taking over the country. Horn has defeated various other Saracens, but this is the king who originally began Horn's journey by putting him in a boat, so this act brings the narrative back to the beginning. When this has been done, Horn has both the power and the desire to return the country to its Christian state: U furent les musters, par tut les edifie/la u fud l'avesque e u fud l'abbie/par trestut les refet e les bens multiplie (ll. 4857-59) [where the churches had been, he everwhere restored them; there where the bishopric and the abbey had been, he quite rebuilt them and increased their goods] (130). After he kills Rodmund, he goes through the land converting or killing all the heathens, thereby returning the land to its past state under his father, just as he is now returned to his father's status: Qu'en dirreie or avant? La tere ad seisie/E de lunc e de le l'at trestute en baillie/N'i remeint un tout sul de la gent paenie (ll. 4848-50) [What more should I say? He seized the land and completely took possession of it; not a single one of the pagan folk remained](30).Finally Horn has gained the power a land-holder needs-he can give his vassals land as rewards,
Entre ses chevaler l'a pus ben departie Sulunc 50k e il sunt, ke nul ne grusce mie, N'entre bons n'entre mals n'i ad point s'envie (ll. 4852-4) [Then he divided it fittingly amongst his knights, according to their rank, so no one grumbled, no one felt any envy.] (130)
Thematically as well as geographically, this brings the narrative full circle, as it returns to the theme of a lord and his vassals that was raised in the first scene with Horn and his fifteen boys in the garden; but this time, Horn is a true king and can deal with his vassals accordingly.
Yet, the narrative is not complete when Horn returns to remember his origins as an adult. He needs to return to each of the countries as a powerful king to resolve unfinished business, marry the woman, reward his vassals, and delegate land-power. This is another example of the doubled nature of the narrative; the first time is not sufficient for completion. When Horn returns to Brittany to rescue Rigmel from Wikele, he has finally recaptured Suddene, and thus has power enough to protect Rigmel. He still leaves Rigmel with her father though, and goes to Westir to give away the land to Haderof.Horn can finally return to Brittany, marry Rigmel, and father Hadermod. At the very end, he returns to Suddene, bringing the narrative again to the focal location and conclusion.
Horn's narrative seems to go in a circular motion, but it is actually more complex than that. He begins in Suddene, goes next to Brittany, and last to Westir. He goes from one to the next, but then he returns along the same route, so the locations become a line instead of a circle, bisected by Brittany. Horn does not seem able to go from Suddene to Westir or back without passing through Brittany. The result feels circular because of the repetition of elements, but the movementalways passes through Brittany, the country of his training and homeland of his future wife. In a way, the use of three locations parallels the use of time in the narrative. Horn has a past, a present and a future, and the future he desires is in many ways simply a reflection of the past; he wants to regain his inheritance and continue the line of his forbearers. Suddene is where his father ruled, and where his own story began. Brittany is where he discovers the woman he wants, where he gains the training he needs, and his first taste of power. Westir is where he finally attained the knights he needed to claim his inheritance. He needs to travel to all of these and bring them together before he can settle down to his kingship.
Horn is introduced via an exile narrative establishing his identity as the son of the king and queen of Suddene, while his education is explicitly presented as constructing his identity as a knight and gentleman through his superlative mastery of the skills that constitute "the noble customys of jantylmen" in Brittany and in Westir. Thomas, the poet of Hom, has Hom boldly tell his whole history to date, earning the king's admiration for his true knightly conduct and his daughter Rigmel's consent to be his lady, thus constructing Horn's identity for the remainder of the romance, as true knight, king and lover. Horn's exile in Brittany and Westir and his return to Suddene are far from the simple exile-return narrative. Horn unifies his past and future to establish his noble and chivalric identities in these places. The physical travelling that Horn does, parallels the travel through time that he does through the narrative-not only forward along a timeline, but within a more complex framework involving both his past and his family's past, and the future he wants and is destined to attain. The future he desires is intrinsically related to his past, as he desires reclamation of the past situation of his family. To be able to create his own independence, Horn needs briefly to erase his identity and past, to leave room to create a new identity for himself as he does in Westir. However, after he has gained enough power in this new identity, he then needs to tie together this identity with his past. Thus, unifying the past and future is Horn's ultimate goal, and his travels in place allow him to do so.
Hulya Tafli Duzgun has graduated from Universities of Ankara (DTCF), Erciyes, York, UK and University of Wales, UK. Shetaught medieval English literature at undergraduate and graduate levels with expertise of Old-French, Anglo-Norman, Latin, Middle English and Late Medieval Paleography. Her research interests include non-Chaucerian and non-Arthurian romances, manuscript illumination, space in text and image (with particular reference to the East), the practice of fiction, crossing boundaries (of chronology, discipline, genre), palaeography and textual criticism as well as codicology. Her articles discuss the depictions of Saracens in medieval English texts and their relation to ideas of nationalism, chivalry, violence, and crusade. Her book, which is under review by Palgrave Macmillan, will be about "The Perceptions of the East in Anglo-Norman and Middle English Romances", and she is currently working on a book project about "The Representation of Nova Roma in Medieval Romances". Her "Perceptions of the East in Medieval European Writing: A Study in Cultural Transmission" has been ranked the third best postdoctoral project by the University of Cambridge and she hopes to conduct her postdoctoral project next October.E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
Ashe, Laura. Fiction and History in England, 1066-1200. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2007.
Bly Calkin, Siobhain. Saracens and the Making of English Identity: the Auchinleck Manuscript. London: Routledge, 2005.
Hynes-Berry, M. "Cohesion in King Horn and Sir Orfeo".Speculum 50 (1975): 652-670.
Legge, Dominica. Anglo-Norman Literature and Its Background. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1963.
McKnight, G.H. "Germanic Elements in the Story of King Horn", Publications of the Modern Language Association 15 (1900): 221-32.
Oliver, W. "King Horn and Suddene" .Publications of the Modern Language Association 46 (1931): 102-114.
Pope, M.K. Thomas. Ed. The Romance of Horn. Anglo-Norman Texts 9-10, 12-13. 2 vols. Oxford: Basil Blackwell for ANTS, 1955, 1964.
Schofield, W.H. "The Story of Horn and Rimenhild" .Publications of the Modern Language Association 18 (1903): 1-83.
Weiss, J. "Thomas and the Earl: Literary and Historical Contexts for the Romance of Horn" in Tradition and Transformation in Medieval Romance. Ed. R. Field. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1999. 1-14.
--. Ed. The Birth of Romance in England. Arizona: ACMRS, 2009.
(1) The Romance of Horn survives in three manuscripts: Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Douce 132; Cambridge, University Library, MS. Ff.6.17; London, British Library, MS Harleian 527; the other two hold in fragments. There is also the Middle English King Horn which survives in three manuscripts: Oxford, Bodleian Library, Laud Misc. MS 108; Cambridge, University Library, MS Gg.4.27.2 and London, British Library, Harley MS 2253. Horn Childe is a version closer to the Romance of Horn and only survives in the Auchinleck Manuscript.
(2) It is usually assumed that Henry II's arrival to Dublin has connections with the composition of Horn.
(3) All Anglo-Norman references are to Pope's The Romance of Horn (1955) and all English references are to Weiss' The Birth of Romance (2009).
(4) Instead of gift-giving, Horn is the one who receives gifts both from the king of Brittany, from the princess Rigmel and from the prince of Westir; for instance, Hunlaf gives his horse to Horn: Si avra mun destrier Passevent, le helzan (l. 1424) [he will have my sorrel horse, Passevent]. Rigmel gives a ring to Horn: or pernez cest anel ki taun test bon e cler/quant le verrez, de mei vus purra remembrer/m'amur ne se purra ja envers vus fausser/taunt cum savrai de vus ke me voillez amer (ll. 1790-3) [now, take this ring so brilliant and fine. When you see it, you will remember me. My love will never be false to you, so long as I know you love me.] Egfer, the Prince of Ireland gives a mantle to Horn: mes desfuble remist, kar il n'out qu'afubler/quant sis sires le vit, si li fist aporter/a un soen chamberlenc un mantel ki fur chier (ll. 2293-95) [but he remained without a mantle, for he had none to put on. When his lord saw this, he had one of his chamberlains bring him a rich cloak].
(5) The poet of Horn identifies Westir with Ireland: 'Seignours, or est Yrlande, lors fuWestir nomee' (l. 2184) [Lords, now it is Ireland, then it was named Westir](84)
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|Author:||Duzgun, Hulya Tafli|
|Article Type:||Critical essay|
|Date:||Mar 22, 2016|
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