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Lithuania Minor and Prussia on the old maps (1806-2008).

1. Maps expansion of Prussia, 1806-1871

When Napoleon's Russian campaign ended in disaster 1812 Prussia joined France's enemies again and its status as great power was restored at the Congress of Vienna. Its population and territory were roughly the same size as before 1806, but the territory had shifted to the south-west and a greater proportion of its population was therefore of German nationality in a greater extent. The German Confederation was created at the same time as a replacement for the dissolved Holy Roman Empire, this institution would however with time be more and more regarded as temporary solution only. The issue of Germany's unification would dominate the next half cetury.

201 years ago, on 24 June 1812, started the Russian campaign of Napoleon. With a total of about 475,000 soldiers, all in all, including rear-guard, about 610,000 men and 200,000 horses, Napoleon crossed the Russian border behind Klaipeda (Memel). The Fig. 1 shows Napoleon's additions to France and states under Napoleon's control, 1812.

In Fig. 2 map of Prussia and Poland to illustrate the campaigns of 1806. Publication: "Atlas to Alison's History of Europe", by Alexander. Keith Johnston, published by William Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh Engraver: Anon. An engraving of central and eastern Europe during the Napoleonic era. Places where battles, fought in 1806, have been underlined. The map shows the newly created Duchy of Warsaw which was formely recognised by Prussia by the Treaty of Tilsit in 1807.

Alexander Keith Johnston (1804-1871), Scottish cartographer and geographer royal of Scotland. He issued many notable atlases, maps, and gazetteers, including The National Atlas of Historical, Commercial, and Political Geography (1843), The Physical Atlas of Natural Phenomena (1848), The Dictionary of Geography (1850; known as Johnstons Gazetteer), and The Royal Atlas of Modern Geography (1861). The maps were drawn for Alison's History of Europe by Alexander Johnston and drew high praise from historians and military experts when they were first published in 1850. A son, Alexander Keith Johnston, 1844-79, carried on the work of the map-publishing house founded by his father. He assisted (1873-75) in a survey of Paraguay and died in Africa. while leading an expedition of the Royal Geographical Society to Lake Nyasa.

Fascinating hand colored 1815 map by Edinburgh cartographer John Thomson (Fig. 3) depicts Prussia (central and northern Europe). In 1815 Prussia emerged from the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna as the dominant Germanic power. Its new borders included much of the Kingdom of Saxony, Rhineland, and Poland. In subsequent years Prussia would take a leading role in governing the German Confederation. The whole is beautifully engraved in the minimalist English style pioneered in the early part of the 19th century. Thomson maps are known for their stunning color, awe inspiring size, and magnificent detail. Thomson's work, including this map, represents some of the finest cartographic art of the 19th century. Relief is shown by hachure with towns, cities, and major topographical features identified. Engraved in 1815 and issued as plate no. 22 in the 1817 edition of Edinburgh cartographer John Thomson's New General Atlas.

Cartographer John Thomson was one of the leading masters of the Edinburgh school of cartography which flourished from roughly 1800 to 1830. Thomson and his contemporaries (Pinkerton and Cary) redefined European cartography by abandoning typical 18th century decorative elements such as elaborate title cartouches and fantastic beasts in favor of detail and accuracy. Thomson's principle works include the "Thomson's New General Atlas" published from 1814 to 1827 and his "Atlas of Scotland". The "Atlas of Scotland", a work of groundbreaking detail and dedication would eventually bankrupt the Thomson firm in 1830. Today Thomson maps are becoming increasingly rare as they are highly admired for their monumental size, vivid hand coloration, and superb detail.

In Fig. 4 detailled map of Prussia by Mollo Tranquillo, 1817 with its neighboring countries and the Baltic sea, divided up in its various provinces. With many engraved names of cities, villages and smaller places. A good map of Prussia after the newest cartographic scources in Vienna published. In the lower corner a small mileage scale and a table of explanations, as well a listing of Prussia's provinces. Prussia is divided up in political regions with outline and body colors. Moreover the various kingdoms are additional equipped with information of the various counties. Streets, rivers, mountains and many small cities and villages are engraved.

Mollo Tranquillo (1767-1837) was an Italian, engraver, printer and publisher. Collaborated with several French and English map makers and published Dirwaldt's atlas, but his works rarely appear on the market.

In Fig. 5 an attractive map of modern-day Germany and Poland, then called Prussia, published by Anthony Finley in his New General Atlas in 1832. The Finley maps from this atlas are renowned for the crispness and clarity of the engraving, and the delicate pastel hand-coloring. The map depicts cities, towns, and other topographical features with remarkable detail and clarity.

Anthony Finley (1790-1840) was an American map publisher based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His most prominent works, A New American Atlas and the New General Atlas ... were published from 1824 to 1834. While little is known of Finley's personal life, he seems to have worked in the same publishing and engraving circles as Tanner. Though most of Finley's cartographic material was borrowed from European sources, his atlases were favorably reviewed at the time of their publishing. His works are known for being attractively sparse and minimalist, focusing primarily on clarity and only the most important facts.

In Fig. 6 nice and detailed map of Prussia with engraved place names, rivers and political borders. Drawn and engraved by Alexander Findley in London 1843. Map, hand colored in wash and outline, when published.

Alexander George Findlay (1812-1875), was an English geographer and hydrographer. He early devoted himself to the compilation of geographical and hydrographical works, and his atlases of "Ancient and Comparative Geography" are known all over the world.

In 1851 he completed the revision of Brookes's "Gazetteer", and the same year published his earliest important work, on the "Coasts and Islands of the Pacific Ocean", in 2 vols. of 1,400 pages. As a cartographer Findlay exhibited a wide practical knowledge of the sailor's requirements which even the hydrographic department of the admiralty was not able to surpass, and he executed a series of charts universally known and appreciated by the mercantile marine. In 1844 Findlay was elected a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. In 1870 the Societa Geografica Italiana elected him one of its foreign honorary members. Findlay's various publications embrace a total of no less than ten thousand pages, all of which are in active use.

In Fig. 7 a delightfully whimsical 1846 map of Prussia, from a German kinderatlas or children's atlas. The map details the Kingdom of Prussia from Memel to Opplen as far as Aachen in the west with divisions shown by color coding. The whole is surrounded by a wide border featuring charming vignettes meant to illustrate the peoples and cultures of the region. These include the names of the various Prussian provinces at the bottom, two Prussian soldiers at each side, illustrations of important buildings on the top left and right corners, etc.

The map is accompanied by its adjacent page, which includes a poetic history of the Kingdom of Prussia in German gothic type. The wonderful and rare map was drawn by Anst. V. A. Boeden of Berlin in the 1846 issue of Julius Loewenberg's Geographische Landerfibel.

Cartographer Julius Loewenberg (1800-1893) was a German Jewish printer, geographer, and author active in Berlin during the middle part of the 19th century. Loewenberg was born in the Duchy of Posen. He attended Yeshiva in Kleczewo (Poland) and graduated to the Protestant Gymnasium of Thorn before moving on to study Christian theology and geography at the University of Berlin. His works include various atlases, histories, and several translations of the works of Alexander von Humboldt, with whom he was apparently close.

In Fig. 8 general map of Prussia and Switzerland drawn by Major C. Radefeld. Map steel engraving, hand colored in outline when published. Relief shown by hachures. Full title: General-Karte von Preussen, 1847. Entw. u. gez.v. Hauptm. C. Radefeld. The table in lower bottom gives a statistic overview over the different provinces, as well an inset map of the duchy of Neuchatel.

Radefeld, Carl Christian Franz (1788-1874) Austrian cartographer, creator, 413 works. Main of them "Atlas der Erdbeschreibung" in 1841 and atlas "Neuester Universal Atlas" in 1846.

In Fig. 9 map of Prussia by John Tallis, 1851. Map was drawn and engraved by John Rapkin for the "Illustrated Atlas", one of the last decorative atlases. The five vignettes include a portrait of Frederick the Great and prospect of Berlin and a view of the Branderburg Gate.

John Tallis is considered among the renowned cartographers of the 19th century. John Tallis was born in the year 1838. Not only he was an expert cartographer, John Tallis was a renowned publisher too. John Tallis established the Tallis and Company and produced some of the best maps under that banner. One of the famous maps published by John's company was the Illustrated Atlas of World in the year of 1851. It was published in 1849 and the illustrations were done by J. Rapkin. Wide usage of vignettes and ornamented engravings were the specialties of John's works.

In Fig. 10 is presented atlas map from Adolf Stielers Hand-Atlas, Stockholm, J. L. Brudin, 1852. In the map Prussia, Posen, Poland, Krakow. Relief shown by hachures. All text in German.

Adolf Stieler (1775-1836) was a German cartographer who worked most of his life in the Justus Perthes Geographical Institute in Gotha. His atlases are deservedly held in high esteem for their excellence. His Handatlas was the leading German world atlas until the middle of the 20th century, parts of which were printed until 1944. 352 works in 639 publications in 12 languages.

In Fig. 11 fascinating 1862 map by Justus Perthes and A. Stieler depicts Prussia and the states of northeastern Germany. Unlike other cartographic publishers of the period, the Justus Perthes firm, did not transition to lithographic printing techniques. Instead, all of his maps are copper plate engravings and hence offer a level of character and depth of detail that was impossible to find in lithography or wax-process engraving. All text in German. Issued in the 1862 edition of Stieler's Schul-Atlas.

Cartographer Justus Perthes (1749-1812) was one of the most important German cartographic engravers of the 19th century. Perthes began his publishing empire with the 1784 issue of the famed survey of European nobility known as the Almanac de Gotha. In 1817 Perthes switched his focus to cartographic publishing. From 1817 to 1890 the Perthes firm would issue thousands of maps for more than 20 different atlases. Along with the visionary editors Stieler, Peterman, Meyer and Spruner, the Perthes firm pioneered the Hand Atlas. He also produced a number of important wall maps and case maps. From 1817 to 1890 the Perthes firm would issue thousands of maps for more than 20 different atlases.

In Fig. 12 is presented map of Prussia by Alvin J. Johnson. This beautiful map shows Germanic nation as it was form a brief period in mid 19th century. It shows the areas geographic features, railroads, roads, cities and towns. Political divisions are delineated in hand applied pastel colors. Each is slightly different as the colors were applied by hand. Map is extraordinary examples of the 19th century printing and engraving arts.

Alvin Jewett Johnson (1827-1884) was a prolific American map publisher active from 1856 to the mid-1880s. Johnson was born into a poor family in Wallingford, Vermont where he received only a based public education. He is known to have worked as school teacher for several years before moving to Richmond, Virginia. Johnson got his first taste of the map business and a salesman and book canvasser for J. H. Colton and company. Alvin J. Johnson was not the most famous of American atlas publishers of the 19th Century, in fact in most cartography texts he is merely an afterthought. However, family reference book. The fact Johnson most likely played a role in financially saving the failing Colton firm is probably as an important, if not greater, than his contribution to cartography.his atlases were extremely popular, as evidenced by their current availability relative to those of his competitors, and his success as a salesman and publisher helped establish the atlas as vital.

In Fig. 13 map Gemany and Prussia by Mitchel, Samuel Augustus, 1865. This is one of the finest maps of Gemany and Prussia ever created. It was made to the unification of Prussia and the various Germanic States. The border is striking and the colors more vibrant than most other 19th century maps of this region. The original hand-painted map, from which this replica was made, was created by the second generation one of America's finest mapmaking families, Samuel Mitchell, Jr. of Philadelphia. This map was the one of the first created under son's watch, so he spared no expense to create one of the finest maps ever made. With the coming war, the borders (particularly in the West) would be changing often and this view of the U.S. is fascinating.

2. Caricature and comic maps of Prussia

In Fig. 14 caricature map of Prussia, published in "Geographical Fun. Humorous Outlines of Various Countries", priced five shillings. The map was supposedly drawn by a fifteen year old girl, with the verse underneath by "Aleph", a pseudonym for William Harvey 1796-1873).

He was a popular journalist and author of "London Scenes and London People ...", published in 1863. After the Battle of Sadowa, in which the Prussians destroyed the Austrian army with a new needle gun, Count Bismark of Prussia is approached by the other German states to head the North German Confederation.

In Fig. 15 comic map of Europe by Federic Rose, also called "Novel Carte de Europe designed for 1870"; England enraged forgets Ireland but still keeps it in her power; Spain and Portugal smoke away lazily; France tries to overthrow Prussia who advances one hand on Holland and knee over Austria; Italy advises Bismark to keep off; Corsica and Sardinia laugh on at all; Denmark hopes to recover Holstein; Turkey is drowsily awaking from smoke; Sweden crouchng like a panther; Russia as a beggar trying for anything to fill his basket. Whether imperial, soviet or post-communist, Russia is a favourite subject of octopodal cartography. So was its near-namesake, Prussia. A CLO map of the German Empire's core state dated 1915 (Fig. 16). The rather comical head of this Prussian Octopus is centred on Berlin, and its tentacles are scraping together extra territory from the general neighbourhood.

The pictorial map shows how Prussia has stolen one province after another from her neighbours and, like a baleful octopus, is still stretching out her tentacles to grasp further acquisitions. The territories included in the original Kingdom of Prussia are marked [dark grey]. The territories since absorbed to negotiation, force, or fraud are marked [light grey].

The list of provinces acquired by Prussia, each draped with a tentacle, reads:

--Silesia, seized by Prussia from Austria in 1740

--Polish territory, stolen by Prussia in 1772, 1793 and 1795

--[the Rhine Province], acquired by Prussia in 1813

--Schleswig-Holstein and Lauenburg, wrested from Denmark in 1864

--[Hesse], annexed by Prussia in 1866

--[Bavaria], federated with Prussia since 1870

--Alsace-Lorraine, torn from France in 1871

--Belgium, invaded and occupied by Germany in defiance of her treaty obligations, in 1914.

Publisher Kalimedia Verlag for Dummy Magazin offered a fantastic image of modern Europe (Fig. 17), where Middle Europe without Germany. Leave the reader comments.

3. Maps of Prussia within the Kaiserreich, 1871-1919

Before unification, German territory was made up of 27 constituent states. These states consisted of kingdoms, grand duchies, duchies, principalities, free Hanseatic cities and one imperial territory. The Kingdom of Prussia was the largest of the constituent states, covering some 60% of the territory of the German Empire (Figs 18 and 19).

In Fig. 20 Nord-Ostliches Deutschland bearbeitet von C. Vogel. Extremely detailed 1873 map Prussia with relief shown by exquisite hachuring. Covers from Jutland south to Frankfort, and esat as far as Poland Plate 22 in Stieler's Hand Atlas 1875, published by Justus Perthes. Source: Stieler, A., Hand-Atlas, (Gotha) 1873.

4. Ethnic and Linguistic maps of Lithuania Minor

Determining ethnic-historical boundaries of countries is a very significant problem not only in case of Lithuania but in other countries too. The basic criterion in determine lands, inhibited by Lithuanians is to use historically documented resources. In this case the boundaries appear to be well-known. Historical land of Lithuania Minor is very

well-known from German documents (Lietuvininku zodis 1995; Peteraitis et al. 2003; Garsva 2008; Mazoji Lietuva 2010).

Our research considers it both interesting and important to dispute both Ethnic and Linguistic maps (Figs 21, 22) as they reveal the extent of the Lithuanian language area, however, there are very few such maps preserved.

Two main factors helped Lithuanians perceive themselves nationally as a separate community, i.e. native tongue and ethnic culture. "Prussian Lithuanians were not a nation, only an ethnic group, that fulfilled criteria required to ethnos (ethnie) by Anthony D. Smith: common selfname or ethnonym, faith in common ancestry, common history, existence in historically stable territory, one or some signs of culture, solidarity feeling of a group" (Strakauskaite 2001). Limited data regarding the Lithuanian language only moderately reveal its usage extent and users in Lithuania Minor. The rare data are found to be highly informative.

In 1584 K. Hennenberger in his work "Kurcze und wahrhaftige Beschreibung des Landes czu Preussen" (Koenigsberg 1584) pointed the boundaries of the Lithuanian language in Prussia. According to K. Hennenberger, Insterburg county is settled mainly by Lithuanians: "fast eitel Litau-er", however, the southern border of the Lithuanian language in Prussia goes along the Prieglius river, in the east it reaches the Great Lakes of Mozurija. If to take this border line into accout, the following areas are left outside: Piliava together with Karaliaucius, Girduva, Ungura and Galdape. The Lithuanian-speaking area at that time in Prussia covered approximately 15,000 [km.sup.2]. In the 16th century the ethnographic area of Lithuania together with language area was divided into four provinces: Palatinate of Vilnius, Palatinate of Trakai, Duchy of Samogitia, Prussian Lithuania (Pakstas 1939).

At the beginning of the 17 c. Lithuanian ethnographic area covered 114,000 [km.sup.2], i.e. as many as at the start of the state in the 13th c. (Fig. 22).

In Fig. 23 the language situation in Lithuania Minor in 1876 as described by professor Konigsberg i. Pr. Friedrich Kurschat. The blue line indicates the extent of the Lithuanian language area in 1876.

Richard Boeckh in his book "German Population Census and Language Area in European Countries" using the official data about the population census in Prussia in 1861 created colourful ethnic map, called "Language Map of the State of Prussia". This is the first map to indicate settlements, inhabited by Lithuanians, Germans, the Polish, the Polish of Mozurai and Kursininkai. Its reproduction was used by Vincas Vileisis in his book: "National Relations in Lithuania Minor" (Vileisis 1935).

German statistic treated as Lithuanians such Lithuania Minor residents who claimed the Lithuanian language to be their mother-tongue. The residents, who were Lithuanians and had Prussian citizenship, in German sourcebooks were officially called Litauer (in the same way the present-day Lithuanian are called). In 1858 in Prussia were registered 139 780 Lithuanians, in 1861-139 428, in 1864-152 000, in 1867-146 000, in 1890-117 637, in 1900-106 230 (Garsva 2008). In Tetzner's map of 1902 Lithuanian language area includes Klaipeda region, and circuits of Labguva, Pakalne, Tilze, Ragaine, Pilkalnis, Stalupenai and Isrutis.

The culture of Lithuania Minor was basically destroyed during the eight decades (1862-1944). If due to plague in 1709-1711 in Lithuania Minor approximately of the the population died (150 000), so after the ban of Lithuanian schools in 1864-1925 the official number of Lithuanians reduced over a half (78 000) (Kushner 1951).

Figs 24, 25 shows major Lithuanian linguistic arial in 1876-1880.

In Fig. 26 nationalities map of the Province of East Prussia on the basis of official data made by Paul Langhans. The data on the languages are based on reports of the Royal Prussian Statistical State Office. The municipality units according to their mother tongue on 1 December 1905.

Fig. 27--the Map of the Lithuanian language area with Defined Boundaries of its Usage, published by Petras Vileisis in 1905. The general number of geographic names is 192.

In 1905 after the adoption of resolution for the autonomy of Vilnius in the Great Seimas in Vilnius there arouse a necessity to announce the world that Lithuania existed, is existing and will exist. A year later the first Lithuania map" Map of Lithuania and its Peripheries" was published. In 1918 in Lousana Juozas Gabrys published "Ethnographical Map of Europe". About 1918 in Geneva Antanas Viskanta created "Lithuania's Ethnographical Map", which shows the spread of the Lithuanian language in the part, belonging to Russia according to the data of 1897, as well as to Prussia according to the data of 1900 (Signataru namai 2012).

Fig. 28--on the initiative of Lithuanian Information Bureau in Lousana, in Berrn Geography Institute Kummerly published Carte de La LITUANIAE in 1918. The map was prepared by Vladas Daumantas. With its scale is 1:1500 000 it is an ethnographical map with Lithuanian placenames. Its three publications took place Switzerland, one--in the US.

The map also includes seven insertions, depicting historical periods of Lithuania: Lithuania before its division (1772-1795); Lithuania as a European state; Lithuania in prehistoric times; the Duchy of Lithuania, reigned by Mindaugas (1242-1263); the Duchy of Lithuania, reigned by Gediminas (1316-1341); Lithuanian lands during the reign of Algirdas and Kestutis (1345-1377); Lithuanian lands during the reign of Vytautas Magnus (1392-1439). Full description of this map is performed by R. Girkus (Girkus 1999).

Vladas Daumantas (Vladislovas Dzimidavicius) (1885-1977) was a diplomat of Lithuania, a political character and collector. Since 1919 January 10 he was a plenipotentiary of the Republic of Lithuania in Switzerland; in 1944 he moved west and since 1951 lived in the USA.

Prussian partition lands, based on the census of 1910 Jozef Kostrzewski and Ireneusz Rajewski. Iliustrate in ethnic map (Fig. 29).

Fig. 30 presents Lithuania map with ethnographic border. It was created by V. Verbickas in 1911 and published by "Lietuvos ukininko bendrove?" in St Petersburg, A. Iljin cartography enterprise.

Fig. 31 shows Lithuanian land in 1928 as desccri bed by Kazys Pakstas (1939).

5. Maps of East Prussia, 1878-1937

A major event in German history was the defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian War in 1871, making Germany a world power. It was during this war that, in 1870, Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck orchestrated the unification of the German states. The united Province of Prussia was split into separate East (Fig. 32) and West Prussian provinces in 1878.

The German Empire was established under Prussian leadership with Bismarck as Chancellor. Wilhelm II, the last of the Hohenzollern dynasty, became Emperor of Germany (Kaiser) in 1888 and ruled until Germany's defeat in World War I (Figs 32, 33).

After defeat in World War I, Germany was forced to give up the Danzig Corridor to Poland and Danzig once again became a free city. This caused the province of East Prussia to be separated from the rest of Germany. The Rosenberg District was at this time contained in East Prussia. Klaipeda (Ger., Memel) and its surrounding district were severed from Prussia by the Treaty of Versailles. In 1923 Klaipeda region was returned to the Lithuania. Active members of Lithuanian government and active citizens of Lithuania Minor tried to join both parts of the country into one, independant state within ethnographic boundaries. Their efforts failed to succeed. Only a small part of Lithuania Minor, Karaliaucius region, could be attached to Lithuania (Stikliorius 1980). Even nowadays there are opinions that this area should be passed on to Lithuania; such passing would be unlawful revision of Potsdam agreements, i.e. "lawful act" (Brakas 1976; Peteraitis et al. 2003; Iskauskas 2011). The pass of Karaliaucius region to Lithuania could be a compensation for the damage made during the ocupation period.

The larger southern part of East Prussia is now Polish territory, the northern portion around Konigsberg came to Russia. Such way the former Soviet Union has secured an access to the Baltic Sea, together with the adherent port. However, this area has become an exclave since Lithuania came away from Russia and turned to the West.

Fig. 34 present wood engraving antique colour map Konigsberg's city plan, 1894. Under its original German name of Konigsberg, it was the capital of the German province of East Prussia, the earlier Ducal Prussia, and before that of the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights. Map has a seperate index page identifying streets and sites.

Fig. 35 presents A. Macijauskas' created in 1900, the scale 1: 840 000, Lithuanian Latvian map. This is the first original Lithuanian map. As it was published during the Lithuanian press banning period (1864-1904), its place-names and the legend are printed in Latin. The greater part of its editon was confiscated by the zcarist regime and the author of the map was sued. In 1904, after the cancel of press banning, the author of the map won his case in court. The map was published in St. Petersburg, A. Iljin cartography enterprise.

Figs 36-38 shows maps of Prussia in the period 1900-1920.

In Fig. 39 fragment from Deutschland Continetal Road map (1930-1936) in very clear scale 1:300 000, the area around Konigsberg and Danzing shown.

6. Old Lithuania Minor on the maps nowdays cartographers

Treasuring great respect for their own historical memory and referring to the criteria of truth and patriotism, cartography researchers of Old Lithuania strted resoring and presenting for the public the maps of historical lands. A few of them are presented here (Figs 40-48).

Romas Batura map (Fig. 41), made after Petras Dusburgietis "Chronical of Prussian Land" introduces regions of Prussian land, settlements, castles by crusaders, Prussians, Jotvingiai, Lithuanians, battle or fighting spots near the castles and other events until 1330.

Romas Batura (born in 1937 in Taurage) is a Lithuanian historian and Doctor of Arts. Since 1972-1990 he was a lecturer at Vilnius University, since 1978 senior lecturer; since 1990 Chairman of Lithuanian history Department. Since 2006 he has been a senior lecturer in Military Academy. He prepared (1985) for publishing "Chronical of Prussian Lands" by Petras Dusburgietis.

Fig. 42 presents a Lithiuania map "LITHUANIA IN REALITY" made by Algirdas Gustaitis, 1982 including 14 coats of arms of Lithuanian towns.

Algirdas Gustaitis (1916-2002) is a well-known writer, historian, journalist, cartographer and researcher of Lithuanian and Prussian cultures. While working for Vilnius University library he accumulated knowledge in history and cartography, which later used to preapare the map of Lithuania. (Fig. 42). He used to write commentaries to historical maps in order to show the real lands of Lithuania. In 1945 he moved to Germany, later to the USA.

Due to A. Gustaitis' efforts 8 maps including explanations and notes were published, among them a map of Lithuania with target borders (Gustaitis 1983), Lithuania map by C. Ptolemy, Lithuanian-Swedish battle near Sandomiras in 1656, Pilypavas in 1956, Salaspilis in 1605, by G. Mercator "Litvania" and others.

Fig. 43 presents a map of historic Lithuanian lands. It was prepared by Juozas Andrius in 1979 in the USA and later published by J. Kapocius. The map is chraracteristic of ethnographical markings of regional borders in Lithuania and Lithuania Minor in different periods between 1918-1945. The map has also got "Potsdam line"; Potsdam agreement meant the split of Lithuania Minor.

Juozas Andrius (Andzejauskas) (1900-1988) Lithuanian army colonel worked in War topography department: he taught topography in 1930-34 in Military School and also made maps. During German occupation he lived in Lithuania but in 1944 moved to Germany. Later he emigrated to the USA and lived in Boston and Los Angeles. He succeessfully compiled the following maps: Political map of Lithuania, Geographical map of Lithuania (together with A. Salys, 1956), Ethnographical borders of Lithuania (1968), School map of Lithuania's map for schools (1973), Lithuania (in English, 1978), Map of Lithuania with ethnographical borders of regions (1979).

Historic map of Lithuania Minor (Fig. 44) was made by Algirdas Matulevicius in 1989. It shows borders of Lithuania Minor, Lithuanian province, Lithuanian (Gumbines) department, East Prussia (Karalaiaucius) department borders until plague and German colonization (20th c. beginning). The map is nicely decorated with the coats of arms of Lithuania Minor towns.

Algirdas Matulevicius (born in 1939 January 9 in Giedraiciai) is Lithuania's historian, ecyclopedist, researcher of Lithuania Minor history as well as Lithuanian national press renaissance.

Jurate Bucmyte and Albertas Krajinskas 1995 created a typical trade map of the Northen part of Lithuania Minor (Fig. 45).

In Fig. 47 Konigsberg in historical views and plans: With a foreword by Marion Donhoff of the Berlin State Library, and Barbara Schneider-Kempf of Koehler and Amelang (Hardcover--July 19, 2007).

In Fig. 48 Lithuania Minor (Karaliaucius region) map, with marked borders of administrative-territorial laying and more places of significance for Lithuanian culture. The map used double naming of towns, villages and settlements: real or original and russified. The map was created by V. Silas and A. Scepkauskaite in 2002 and issued by Council for Lithuania Minor Affairs.

In order to make East Prussia look more Russian, place names were changed. Cities, towns, and villages were often renamed after Bolshevik leaders and military men, even czarist generals. Lithuanian place names, which had been Germanized (at first partially and only in 1938 completely), were now russified. For example: Karaliaucius--[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Tilze--COBETCK, Isrutis--[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Piliava--[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Darkiemis--[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Ragaine--HEMAH, Gumbine--[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ect. Even the names of hydronyms were changed (a rare case in the world history). So Aismares became [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Alna--[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Ameta--[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Gilija--MATPOCOBKA, Nemunynas--[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Rominta--[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Skirvyte--[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], ect. Traces of people who used lived in these areas for hundreds of years were also eliminated (Zinkevicius 1995).

Conclusions

An encouraging factor to prepare this publication was the respect towards the history of Lithuania Minor and its cultural heritage, bearing a special historical value and also the hope that this everlasting Baltic land will never be forgotten. The history and the presence of Lithuania are inseparable parts. The separated culture of Lithuania Minor had a great impact on the development of the nation of Lithuania, so Lithuania does feel the moral obligation to actively take part in developing the future of Lithuania Minor.

The researchers of old cartoraphy in many foreign countries stick to the belief that the history of their countries can hardly be viewed without the assessment of the information found in the old maps and used. This very true attitude can be fully applied in history of Lithuania Minor and Prussia. Prussia's and Lithuania Minor place in European history has been subject to widely differing interpretations. So far historians, cartographers and linguists of Lithuania Minor have been approaching the country from different aspects, especially if Lithuanians, Germans and the Polish came together. There will never be the same attitude but the research of old maps opens additional and valuable sources of information, helping depolarize divergent views and opposing assessments. The maps of these countries and their analysis can give more light on the historical development of "lietuvininkai" nation, determine the historical-geographical spatial awareness of this region, and describe the subsequence of historical destiny of Lithuania Minor and its addition to Lithuanian nation.

Old maps, picturing Lithuania Minor, with an exception of very few, have not been thoroughly assessed and studied yet. The history of Lithuania will never be complete without thorough assessment of information found in old maps of Lithuania Minor.

It is quite difficult to differentiate ethnic lands in Lithuanian and Prussian maps, especially in early historical periods. This publication presents over 80 maps of Lithuania Minor, Prussia, East Prussia and neighboring countries, where Lithuania Minor was treated as a neighboring land. We found it interesting to show Lithuania Minor in existing linguistic maps, and also in settlements, inhabited by lietuvininkai. We hope that the publication will encourage researchers to study the history of Lithuania Minor using maps in more depth. This is what the authors of the publication or other mentioned authors have done. Our article provides links that are helpful for the readers interested in more detailed studies of specific maps.

The attempts to mark Lithuania Minor or Prussian Lithuania territory were noticed in the maps of the 18th c. They had different names, like: Small Lithuania, Lithuania Minor, Prussian Lithuania, Little Lithuania, Land Litauen, Lithuavie Prussiene, Lithuania Borussica, Litthauischer CREIS, Lithvania, Lithuania and other. The administrative terms "Lithuanian province" (Provinz Litthauen), "Lithuanian districts" (Littauischen Amtern), "Lithuanian county" (Littauische Kreis) or simply "Prussian Lithuania" (Preuszisch Litauen), "Lithuania" (Litauen) were used to refer to the Lithuanian inhabited administrative units (Nadruvia and Scalovia) in the legal documentation of Prussian state since 1618. The Lithuanian Province was named Klein Litau, Klein Litauen, Preussisch Litthauen, Little Lithuania, Lithvania in the maps of Prussia since 1738. The official use of the concept Prussian Lithuania decreased considerably after administrative reform of 1815-18. In German maps of 18th-19th c. Prussia was called in such ways: Karte von ostpreussen und Litthauen, Carte Litthauen Ost und West preussen and so on. Such Prussian names were noticed by other authors, researching Prussian maps (Jeger 1982; Matulevicius 1989; Gliozaitis 2008).

Following the maps it is not complicated to trace back the periods of renaming the place-names of Lithuania Minor: antinational (1920-1934), national (1935-1944) and soviet (1955-199?). However, the dominating ones are brought from Russia completely exchanged the original Lithuanian ones. The issue was widely analysed by V. Peteraitis and J. Zinkevicius (Zinkevicius 1995; Peteraitis 1976). Lithuania Minor place-names and hydronyms having existed for centuries are valuable cultural heritage worldwise. Taking this into account Russia should initiate and start the restoration of toponyms in Karaliaucius region.

The maps of these countries and their analysis urge the contemporary historians to try and give more light on the historical development of Lithuanian nation. The opponents of historians sometimes cannot avoid hot disputes for a good reason: the latter ones are unable to answer the questions, because the problem is really complex and a number of historians limited.

The research of early cartography in order to understand long and complicated formation of Lithuania Minor is highly important; however, alone it is unable to fully reveal the prehistory of the nation. The problem of the state prehistory can be solved only by united efforts of cartographers, linguists and historians. This publication is also oriented towards the problem solution.

Summarizing we can state that the above mentioned Lithuania Minor and Prussia maps by Lithuanian and foreign authors lack thorough historical analysis and attention to become scientific discussions, so Lithuanian society are hardly aware of them.

Caption: Fig. 1. Napoleon's Empire; by 1812 Napoleon directly ruled or controlled most of Europe

Source: http://teacherweb.ftl.pinecrest.edu/snyderd/MWH/ Projects/cov/Maps.htm

Caption: Fig. 2. Map of Prussia and Poland by Alexander Keith Johnston, 1806

Source: http://www.napoleonguide.com/maps_hmprpol06.htm

Caption: Fig. 3. Map of Prussia and its Dominions by John Tomson, 1815.

Source: http://www.geographicus.com

Caption: Fig. 4. Map of Prussia by Mollo Tranquillo, 1817

Source: http://www.bergbook.com/htdocs/woda/data/demo/ descriptions/17544.htm

Caption: Fig. 5. Map of Germany and Poland, then called Prussia by Anthony Finley, Philadelphia,1832

Source: http://www.vintagemaps.com/Prussia-p-16664.html

Caption: Fig. 6. Map of Prussia by Alexander Findley, 1843

Source: http://www.bergbook.com/images/24301-01.jpg

Caption: Fig. 7. Map of Prussia by Julius Loewenberg, 1846

Source: http://www.geographicus.com/P/AntiqueMap/ Prussia-lowenberg-1846

Caption: Fig. 8. Map of Prussia by C. Radefeld, scale 1:3 200 000, 1847

Source: http://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/servlet/detail/ RUMSEY~8~1~21879~680035:General-Karte-von-Preussen,-1847

Caption: Fig. 9. Map of Prussia by John Tallis, 1851

Source: http://stores.ebay.co.uk/londonmapgallery/MAPS-OFJOHN-TALLIS-/_i.html?_fsub=189666619

Caption: Fig. 10. Map of Prussia and Poland by Adolf Stieler, 1852

Source: http://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/servlet/s/66xe2f

Caption: Fig. 11. Map by Justus Perthes and Stieler depicts Prussia and the states of northeastern Germany, 1862

Source: http://www.geographicus.com/P/AntiqueMap/ DeutschlendNE-perthes-1862

Caption: Fig. 12. Map of Prussia by Alvin J. Johnson, 1865

Source: http://www.pastpresent.com/joh18hancola10.html

Caption: Fig. 13. Map of Prussia and German States by Mitchel, Samuel Augustus, 1865

Source: http://cartweb.geography.ua.edu:9001/StyleServer/ calcrgn?cat=Europe&item=Germany%20and%20Prussia/ Europe1861v. sid&wid=500&hei=400&props=item(Name,Desc ription),cat(Name,Description)&style=simple/view-dhtml.xsl

Caption: Fig. 14. Caricature map of Prussia by William Harvey, London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1869

Source: http://www.tooleys.co.uk/m03/f012.jpg

Caption: Fig. 15. Comic Map of Europe by Federic Rose, c. 1870

Source: http://www.art.com/asp/ sp.asp?frameSku=4035546_8880731-141979&ui=1BC31EDED 00E42839073E9165E2D8806

Caption: Fig. 16. The Prussian Octopus (1915)

Source: http://bigthink.com/strange-maps/521-cartographys-favourite-map-monster-the-land-octopus

Caption: Fig. 17. Middle Europe without Germany-Contract work for Dummy Magazine

Source: http://www.kalimedia.com/Cartography.html

Caption: Fig. 18. Map of states German Empire 1871-1919.

Source: http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/map.cfm?map_ id=2196

Caption: Fig. 19. Map of Prussia, 1871.

Source: http://www.genealogy.com/users/s/u/m/James-D-Summers/PHOTO/0024photo.html

Caption: Fig. 20. Map of Prussia and Germany by Justus Perthes, 1873

Source: http://www.geographicus.com/P/AntiqueMap/ GermanyPol-stieler-1873

Caption: Fig. 21. The language situation in Lithuania Minor in the outset 17c.

Source: http://www.mazojilietuva.lt/article.php?article=2907

Caption: Fig. 22. Lithuanian ethnic land at the outset 18 c.

Source: http://pirmojiknyga.mch.mii.lt/Leidiniai/Prusijoszem. lt.htm

Caption: Fig. 23. The language situation in Lithuania Minor in 1876.

Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lithuania_ Minor.png

Caption: Fig. 24. The language situation in Lithuania Minor in 1876.

Source: http://lietuvai.lt/w/images/thumb/0/08/Litauisches_ Sprachgebiet_(1876).JPG/120px-Litauisches_Sprachgebiet_ (1876).JPG

Caption: Fig. 25. Fragment of German language map, from Andrees World Atlas. Yelow indicates the extent of the Lithuanian language area in 1880, green-areas dominated by Polish.

Source: "Sprachenkarte von Deutschland" Andrees Weltatlas 1880

Caption: Fig. 26. The language situation in East Prussia. The green colour indicates the extent of the Lithuanian language area in 1905 as described by Paul Langhans.

Source: map by Paul Langhans: "Das litauische Sprachgebiet in Ostpreussen", verlegt bei Justus Perties from (Jonaitis 1936)

Caption: Fig. 27. Lithuanian language area map with defined Lithuanian language prevalence area boundaries. Creator of the map-Petras. Vileisis, 1905.

Source: http://www.maps4u.lt/lt/maps.php?cat=99

Caption: Fig. 28. Map of Lithuania, 1918. The red colour indicates the extent of the Lithuanian language area.

Source: http://www.maps4u.lt/lt/maps.php?cat=99

Caption: Fig. 29. Fragment of the ethnic map of the former Prussian partition lands, based on the census of 1910 by Jozef Kostrzewski, Ireneusz Rajewski. Legend note: Poles, Lithuanians and others. Source: http://www.polishroots.org/ LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=uzVy2LYV62A=&tabid=56

Caption: Fig. 30. Map of Lithuania with ethnic land boundaries, 1911

Source: http://www.maps4u.lt/lt/maps.php?cat=99

Caption: Fig. 31. Boundaries of Lithuania. Thin strokes and dots labeled ethnographic Lithuanian land in 1928 as described by Kazys Pakstas (Pakstas 1939). Source: http://www.aidai.us/ index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5216:mi&c atid=332:1-sausis&Itemid=361

Caption: Fig. 32. Map of East Prussia in 1881 from Andreee's Handatlas. Source: http://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/servlet/detail/RUM SEY~8~1~30768~1150714:Provinzen-Ost--und-Westpreussen

Caption: Fig. 33. German Empire, East Prussia map, 1882. From Blackie & Sons Atlas (Edinburgh, 1882), Scale: 1:1 800 000. Source: http://www.feefhs.org/maplibrary/german/ge-eprus.html

Caption: Fig. 34. Antique map of Konigsberg, 1894. Source: http://www.vintage-views.com/1890s-antique-colourmap-kaliningrad_pregel-konigsberg.html

Caption: Fig. 35. Lithuanian and Latvian land on the map. Map by A. Macijauskas, 1900. Scale 1:840 000

Source: http://www.ziemgala.lt/saugykla/pdf/5_girkus.pdf

Caption: Fig. 36. Kingdom of Prussia and its provinces around 1900

Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Prussia_ (political_map_before_1905).jpg

Caption: Fig. 37. Map of East Prussia, 1914

Source: http://www.deutsche-schutzgebiete.de/webpages/ Karte_Ostpreussen_1914.jpg

Caption: Fig. 38. Map of Prussia, 1920. Source: http://pirmojiknyga. mch.mii.lt/Leidiniai/Prusijos20zem.en.htm

Caption: Fig. 39. Continental Road map 8-Konigsberg (1930-1936) Scale 1:300 000 from Deutschland-Strassenkarten (1918-1945) Source: http:/www.landkartenarchiv.de/conti8_193036.php

Caption: Fig. 40. Map of East Prussia, 1919-1945

Source: http://www.deutsche-schutzgebiete.de/webpages/ Ostpreussen_1919-45_.jpg

Caption: Fig. 41. Prussian, Lithuanians, Jotvingiai lands until 1330. Romas Batura after Petras Dusburgietis "Chronical of Prussian Land". Source: http://lndp.lt/diskusijos/viewtopic.php?t=5416

Caption: Fig. 42. Map Tikroji Lietuva/ Lithuania in reality/ by Algirdas Gustaitis, 1982. Source: http://www.lietuvos.org/istorija/ vasario_16/vasario-16_images/tikroji_lietuva.gif

Caption: Fig. 43. Map of the historic lands of Lithuania by J. Andrius USA, 1979. Source: http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=AL GIRDAS+GUSTAITIS&view=detail&id=545FBE68F35D9A50 26AD1CCB3CAFE587C3AA1DF8&qpvt=ALGIRDAS+GUST AITIS&FORM=IDFRIR

Caption: Fig. 44. Lithuanian territory in East Prussia until fever and German colonization (begining XVIII c.) map. By A. Matulevicius, 1989 (text in Lithuanian)

Source: http://www.mazoji-lietuva.lt/article.php?article=2907

Caption: Fig. 45. A map ofthe Northen part of Lithuania Minor created by: Jurate Bucmyte and Albertas Krajinskas. Vilnius, 1995. Source: http://pirmojiknyga.mch.mii.lt/Leidiniai/Amatuzem.en.htm

Caption: Fig. 46. Lithuania Minor in German Empire 1871-1914, from "Lietuvos istorijos atlasas" [Atlas history of Lithuania, Vilnius, 2001] (text in Lithuanian). Source: http://lietuvos.istorija.net/kleinlitauen/mazojilietuva19.htm

Caption: Fig. 47. Map of the acient capital of East Prussia created by Marion Donhoff and Barbara Schneider-Kempf, 2007

Source: http://www.paperbackswap.com/K-Nigsberg-Historischen-Ansichten-Und/book/3733803566

Caption: Fig. 48. Lithuania Minor Today--the Kaliningrad Region of Russia (text in Lithuanian and Russian), (Gliozaitis 2008)

10.3846/20296991.2013.806245:

References

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Viktoras Lukosevicius

Faculty of Technology, Siauliai University, Vilniaus g. 141, LT-76353 Siauliai, Lithuania E-mail: vikluko@kava.lt

Received 03 December 2012; accepted 16 May 2013

Viktoras LUKOSEVICIUS. Doctor, Prof. Dept of Civil Engineering Technology, Siauliai University, Vilniaus g. 141, LT-76353 Siauliai, Lithuania. Ph +370 45 435819, fax +37045 516 161, e-mail: vikluko@kava.lt.

A graduate of Kaunas Politechnic Institute (now Kaunas University of Technology), geodetic engineer, 1962. Doctor's degree at Institute of Surveying, Aerial Photography and Cartography, Moscow, 1966. Publications: 2 books, over 70 research articles; participant of conferences in USA, Brasil, Sweden, Norwey, Russia. Fellowship Winner, NATO and Italy National Science Competition, 1996. Member of Association for the Advancement of Baltic Studies.

Research interests: history of geodesy and cartography.

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Date:Jun 1, 2013
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