Literature on Bhutan in LTWA.
For centuries, monks from the outlying areas of Tibet and neighbouring Buddhist countries and region came to the renowned monasteries of central Tibet for furthering their knowledge of Buddhist philosophy and other traditional sciences. After completion of their studies, they returned and played a crucial role in spreading Tibetan religion and literature in their respective region. However, the literature written or published from their respective places rarely circulated in central Tibet and Khams.
Contrary to this, the movement of scholars across Tibet has made a great impact in spreading literature as well as transmission lineages. For instance during the 12th century, Pha jo 'brug sgom zhig po who was born in Mdo Khams Bkra shis sgang in 1179, introduced the 'Brug pa tradition of Tibetan Buddhism in Bhutan. (1) The first Gnas rnying bla ma Dkon mchog mkhar's descendant Bka' bzhi rin chen bsam gtan visited Bhutan, established many monasteries and helped in settling disputes. His descendent 'Jam dbyangs rin chen rgyal mtshan, the guru of Red mda' ba and Tsong kha pa helped in establishing monasteries such as Rta ra kha, Sa dmar rdzing kha, Na zhing ra ma, Phu gdugs, and Skyabs Khra of Gnas rnying tradition. (2)
'Ba' ra ba Rgyal mtshan dpal bzang (1310-1391) visited Bhutan during the civil war of Dbus and Gtsang. He made great contribution in spreading Buddhism and 'Ba ra Bka' brgyud tradition in Bhutan. Grub chen lcags zam pa Thang stong rgyal po (1385-1464) introduced the Shangs pa bka' brgyud tradition of Tibetan Buddhism in Bhutan.
Phan yul pa Dpal ldan rdo rje, the disciple of Tsong kha pa (1357-1417) established Shing rta monastery and in 15th century Blo bzang bstan pa'i sgron me, the disciple of the First Dalai Lama also established few monasteries in eastern Bhutan. The monasteries mentioned above however belonged to the Dge lugs pa school but they could not flourish for long.
In 15th century, Ka thog sprul sku Bsod nams rgyal mtshan (1466-1540) introduced the Ka thog pa tradition in Bhutan. The famed master of 'Brug pa Bka' brgyud tradition Rgyal dbang kun dga' dpal 'byor (1428-1476) of Rwa lung stag tshang kha was active in spreading Buddhist teaching in Bhutan, spending a number of years in the Bum thang area. (3)
Gtsang mkhan chen 'Jam dbyangs dpal ldan rgya mtsho (1610-1684) a Tibetan prelate who was a close associate of the First Zhabs drung Ngag dbang rnam rgyal (1594-1651) also visited Bhutan. His most famous contribution to Bhutanese studies is the biography of Zhabs drung Ngag dbang rnam rgyal. (4)
Grags pa rgya mtsho alias Sangs rgyas grags pa (1646-1719), the famous disciple of Gtsang mkhan chen was a renowned artist and responsible for the creation of the first great applique thangka of Punakha, the Gos sku mthong ba chen mo (mthong ba rang drol), commissioned between 1689-1692. He founded the great temple of Stag tshang dpal phug and was active at Smad chu'i nang, the seat of Gtsang mkhan chen and Spa gro Rin chen spungs. Later he proceeded to Gdung and Rgya bar nang. He founded the monastery of Rgya bar Gzhan phan byang chub gling. (5)
On the whole, Rgyal ba lha nang pa, Klong chen dri med 'od zer, Lo ras pa dbang phyug brtson 'grus, 'Ba ra ba rgyal mtshan dpal bzang and 'Brug pa kun legs were the founding figures of Bhutan. It is certain that above scholar had played a vital role in spreading the literary transmission. Some of the writings of above scholars must have composed in Bhutan. The number of literature written by them is yet to be examined.
Rwa lung in Central Tibet was well known for the seat of learning for 'Brug pa tradition of Tibetan Buddhism. Bhutanese scholar lamas across the centuries visited and studied in this seat of learning. This subject is yet to be explored but to give few examples: Zhabs drung Ngag dbang rnam rgyal, 9th Rje mkhan po Shakya Rin chen (1710-1759) and 12th Rje mkhan po Kun dga' rgyal mtshan visited Central Tibet for learning. The 13th Rje mkhan po Yon tan mtha' yas (1724-1784) also visited who was a contemporary of Ka thog Rig 'dzin tshe dbang nor bu. He is said to have studied at 'Bras spung monastery. Mkhan chen pad dkar 'byung gnas also visited and studied in Central Tibet.
Literature on Bhutanese Studies
The Library of Tibetan Works and Archive (LTWA) was conceived of and founded by His Holiness the XIV Dalai Lama on 11th June 1970 and is one of the finest examples of His Holiness the Dalai Lama's efforts to preserve and disseminate the Tibetan cultural heritage. LTWA is the most important repository for Tibetan
manuscript and is an international center for the study of Tibetan culture. It has no doubt acquired a worldwide reputation as a centre for Tibetology and Buddhist-Himalayan studies. It houses more than 80,000 manuscript/books (title wise) and more than 10,000 books on Tibetan and Trans-Himalayan studies in English and European languages.
Manuscripts of major and minor works belongings to all four traditions of Tibetan Buddhism, with the pre-Buddhist or Bon constitute the core collection. Five different editions of the Bka' 'gyur and Bstan 'gyur (Buddhist Tripika)--Narthang, Peking, Derge, Lhasa and Cone (in microfilm) are to be found in the Library's collection. Rarest of all, is a handwritten set of Bka' 'gyur from Phugdrak monastery (17th cen) (7) in west Tibet. This is the only Bka' 'gyur of its kind in the world. To name only a few, there are 16 volumes of handwritten manuscript of 'Bum from the monastery of Phugdrak, 16 volumes of handwritten manuscripts of 'Bum commissioned by Tsagtra, chieftain of eastern Kongpo during the 15th century (approximately), and a handwritten manuscript of Gnyal zhing 'jam dpal rdo rje's Mngon rtogs gyi 'grel bshad--a commentary on prajnaparamita teaching, claimed to be written in 13th century and which is listed in Akhu ching Shes rab rgya mtsho's (1803-1875) rare text list. (8) These are just a few examples of numerous rare works of great scholastic value received and preserved by LTWA. Also of interest to historians, anthropologist and scholars of other disciplines, the archival section of the LTWA now holds more than eight hundred documents of a legal and social nature dating back to the 12th centuries A.D. This collection contains government proclamations, official edicts, marriage and land contracts, letters of notable individuals, revenue transactions, court cases and so forth.
Library of Tibetan Works & Archives, although under much financial constraints, not only engage in acquisition of literature on Tibetan studies but also Himalayan and Trans-Himalayan literature which is closely interconnected. The library has made an endeavour to acquire books on Bhutan, Nepal and Indian Himalayan regions. Regarding literature on Bhutanese studies, the library has the following collections: The collected gter ma discoveries of Padma gling pa (1450-1521) in 7 volumes. This is a reproduction of a rare manuscript from Manang that was published by Ngawang Topgyal. (8) The library has not been able to acquire the pothi form of Gter ston Padma ling pa's gter ma texts. The Collected writings of Rje Shakya rin chen (1710-1759), 5th Zhabs drung 'Jigs med nor bu, (9) 13th Rje mkhan po Yon tan mtha' yas (1724-1784) and Dge bshes brag phug Dge 'dun rin chen are also in its possession.
The library also has two photocopies of Gdung rabs nges gsal sgron me, (10) one of the most important sources on the history of Bhutan. One copy was acquired sometime in 1980s and the other one in September 1990. The photocopy was made from northeastern region of India. The manuscript has 50 folios and is in dbu can script. It was authored by Bande Wagindra of the Byar clan, considered the descendent of the nephew of Lha sras gtsang ma known as Kha gling gi rgyal rigs lha btsun Ngag dbang phun tshogs. (11) LTWA also holds the same Gdung rabs which has been reprinted from TAR in 1988 titled as Rje 'bangs rnams kyi rigs rus kyi 'byung khungs gsal ba'i sgron me zhes bya ba. (12) It has 'Brug dkar po by Slob dpon gnag mdog, (13) the History of Bhutan by Slob dpon padma tshe dbang (14) and one of the important lineage account--'Brug gi smyos rabs by Bla ma gsang sngags. (15)
The library has the 'Brug edition of Lho'i chos 'byung (16), the life of Zabs drung Rinpoche Ngag dbang rnam rgyal (1594-1651) along with supplements to the history of 'Brug pa bka' brgyud pa tradition, written in 1731-59, and Sgrub sde nges don zung 'jug grub pa'i dga' tshal edition of Religious History of Bhutan by Dge bshes brag phug pa Dge 'dun rin chen. (17)
The collection of LTWA also includes the Biography of Bstan 'dzin chos rgyal (1700-1767), 10th rje mkhan po of Bhutan (18), biography of first Zhabs drung Rinpoche of Bhutan, Ngag dbang rnam rgyal alias Ngag dbang bdud 'joms rdo rje (1594-1651)20, biography of Zhabs drung written by Gtsang mkhan chen 'jam dbyangs dpal ldan rgya mtsho--c.1800 Punakha blocks preserved in the Beling monastery in Lahual, (20) the gter ma biography of Phajo 'brug sgom zhig po (1162-1251), (21) blockprint, 44 folios, 1580?, and the biography of 18th Rje mkhan po 'Jam dbyangs rgyal mtshan (1743-1802), written by third thugs sprul 'Jigs med grags pa (1791-1830). (22)
The biography of the 7th Rje mkhan po Ngag dbang 'phrin las (1671-1746), the autobiography of the 12th Rje mkhan po Shes rab rgyal mtshan (1772-1847), the biography of the 31st Rje mkhan po Yon tan rgyal mtshan (91804-1870). (23)
The life of 2nd Rje mkhan po Bsod nams 'od zer (1613-1689), the life of 2nd Rgyal sras sprul sku Kun dga' rgyal mtshan (1689-1713) and the life of Bya chu dkar mo bla ma Ngag dbang pad dkar. (24)
The biography of Sgang steng sprul sku Bstan 'dzin legs pa'i don grub (1645-1726?) and the biography of Mtshams brag bla ma Ngag dbang 'brug pa (1682-1748). (25)
Though not born in Bhutan, one of the best known smyon pa tradition 'Brug smyon kun dga' leg pa's (1455-1529) activities are very closely associated with Bhutan. Four copies of his autobiography and spiritual songs of 'Brug pa Kun dga' legs pa, one of 1892 Gnyal dri'u lha'i edition, (26) another reproduced from Varanasi in 2 volumes, (27) and one Tibetan block print edition (28) are preserved in the library.
Miscellaneous literature on Bhutan such as 'Brug gzhung 'cham gyi bshad pa by Drag sho nag 'phel, 'Brug gi glu, 'Brug gi mi rig pa can padma tshe dbang bsri dang sum dar bsri gnyis kyi blo.
There are 78 English titles on Bhutan in the foreign reference section of LTWA and plus has of course acquired Brug--a journal of Bhutan studies.
Old Document related to Bhutan
Prior to 2005, this library has not acquired any document related to Bhutan. In 2005 January 12th, this library acquired photocopies of 8 documents related to the first Bhutanese King O rgyan dbang phyug (regn.1907-1926).
These are not original but photocopies acquired through Prof. Parshotam Mehra, Chandigarh. All documents were sent or issued by the first King of Bhutan, U rgyan dbang phyug to Colonel Younghusband. Eight documents are all in cursive script. Written beautifully by hand in Uchen or Zongkha script, it seems that all the letters were written by a single individual.
Two documents are without date, two were written in 1904, one in 1905, 1912, 1922 and 1924.
Of the two documents with no date, one mentions the King's visit to Tibet with Younghusband apparently in the year before the letter was written. The year of the king's visit to Tibet is not available. However it was most probably in 1905. And because of his help to Younghusband, he was able to have an audience with the Prince and Viceroy of great Britain at Calcutta. (29) One letter seems to be issued in 1908 (?), which mentions Younghusband being granted the same title of the King. (30)
One written in 1912 mention arrival of Captain Nobel to take photograph in Bhutan. (31)
One written in 1922, mentions the king was rewarded with the K.C.S.I. title by Bill Saheb (Sir Charles Bell ?) on behalf of British government. (32)
Among the eight letters, three are selected for my study this time.
I 1904 letter
The letter was send to the holder of five Shri, administrator of southern world, friend British governor/commander Colonel Younghusband by Dharma king of Bhutan, the holder of five Shri from Bumthang Dechen Palace, Bhutan, in the Wood Dragon (1904) Year on the 22nd day of the 2nd month.
This letter mentions the Younghusband's expedition to Tibet. The King received the full account of Younghusband's expedition. Thimphu district appraised the matter clearly to Younghusband. As for negotiation, the Tibetans asked the British to return to Yatung. Instead the expedition marched to Guru where battle was fought and British soldier defeated the Tibetan soldier. He mentions not only having good relations with British but also with Tibet. The king expressed his concern of the suffering of ordinary Tibetans to Younghusband. He suggested that instead of the minor officials, the senior officer would understand the situation much better. In this matter, he had written to the Dalai Lama and was awaiting a response. Regarding this matter, he had written that he would dispatch his man. King's role and sympathy to common Tibetan people is mentioned clearly in this letter. (33) He sends fruits along with this letter. Fruits include oranges, pears, apricots, mangoes, potato, garlic, ginger, egg and one sack of rice.
From the letter we can draw conclusion that the first King of Bhutan U rgyan dbang phyug through his friendly relation with Younghusband has played a key role in diffusing a major tension and casualties during the Younghusband expedition. He has also played a mediator role during the dispute between Tibet and British, and finally he has made his utmost effort in bringing about peaceful solution. On his skilful service, the Tibetan government granted him a hat and shoe equal to his rank. However, he accepted only the hat. (34)
In this connection we must say that Bhutan, Sikkim and Nepal have shown a good neighbourly relation and tried to reach an amicable solution to the dispute between Tibet and British. The account is well documented in Zhwa sgab pa's Srid don rgyal rabs, (35) Slob dpon Nag mdog's Brug dkar po (36) and Slob dpon Padma tse dbang's 'Brug gsal ba'i sgron me. (37)
II 1905 letter
This letter was written in 1905. The letter was sent to friend Sir Francis Younghusband, K.C.S.I., with Salam salutation by the holder of five Shri Thimphu district magistrate, Bhutan in the year Wood Snake, 5th day of 5th month.
After the expedition, Younghusband's visit to Bihar is mentioned. The King requested for field gun (bkrob mda') as was promised to him by the British India. If the same is not possible, he asked for a double-barelled rifle. The visit of Bara Saheb and other senior Saheb to Bhutan is also mentioned. (38)
III 1922 letter
The letter was sent to Colonel Younghusband by U rgyan dbang phyug, the throne holder of Bhutan in 12th day of the 9th month of the Water Dog year, i.e. 1922. In this letter it mentions that returning from Lhasa, that means should be after the expedition in 1904, the King thought of meeting Younghusband but he could not catch him. He heard the news of Younghusband's ill health when he was in Delhi. Although the King was offered many titles in the past, in 1922 he was conferred the title of K.C.S.I. by the British government. Bill (Bell ?) Saheb presented this title to the King on behalf of British India. (39) This was sent from the fort of Thimphu district.
Most of the letter, in the beginning line finds the word 'Saheb' and in the end 'Salam'. The interesting point to note from these letters is that a few colonial words were used frequently. For salutation such as Salam and Saheb, the word originated from Urdu as the time India was under British Raj or rule. Other words like Sa dkar gzhung--mixture of Hindi and Tibetan meaning both government, Ser gzhung rgyal khab chen po for great Britain. The five Shri title used in the letter is a traditional title originated from India and continued during the British rule in India.
In Bhutan, though both Krong sa dpon slob and Chos rtse dpon slob (40) is being used before ascending to the throne of King. However, in some of these eight letters and in Tibetan literature the King is mentioned as Krong sa dpon slob. All these eight letters indicate clearly that the King had a very intimate relation with Colonel Younghusband.
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My friend Colonel Younghusband, who holds five shri, administrator of southern world:
I am very glad to know that you are fine as before by the grace of gods and lamas. I have received your letter and a copy of report on your expedition to Tibet through the Thimphu district officer (thim rdzong). You have written in detail about the cause of the dispute, and the Thimphu delegates also have explained to me the matter in detail. Although you had proposed continuously for negotiation, the minor officials (of Tibet) had told you that the mission should return to Yatung to conduct negotiation, without which it was impossible to hold negotiation. The delegation from Thimpu had no option but to return. Since no fully authorized Tibetan representatives arrived there, you and your officers had to remain on the northern plains for many days. When you advanced to Guru from We, you had to confront a Tibetan force. I was very happy to hear that you had won the battle. Bhutan not only shares amicable relations with the British government but also shares the same border with the Tibetan government. Therefore, I wish that you officers do not have to face difficulties and wastage of resources, and the people of Tibet do not have to undergo sufferings. Regarding the negotiation, although lower officials might not listen, I feel that higher officials would be more receptive. We have sent a letter to His Holiness the Dalai Lama but we have not received a reply. They might send someone to you. Till then do not worry. From our side, we have not been able to do anything except sending our salam (salutation) to you. We are sending oranges, pears, apricots, mangoes, potatoes, garlic, ginger, eggs and one sack of rice to you. Our relationship and commitment is sincere for all time. Hope our correspondence will continue without any break. If there is anything that the government of Bhutan can do, please do inform me. I am sending you a shawl of yas khra cloth and sman pem as a present with the letter.
From Dharma Raja of Bhutan, Bumthang Dechen Palace, Bhutan, on the 22nd day of the 2nd month of the Wood-Dragon Year).
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My friend the great Colonel Younghusband, the holder of five shri:
Thank you very much that you are in good health, like a clear moon and your deeds shining like the moon's rays. Here I am as usual. Previously when I met you on your way to Tibet, you had shown me a great kindness. When you were returning from Lhasa, I thought of meeting you at Gyantse, but unfortunately I was unable to catch you. Thereafter when I planned to meet you, I heard that you were not well. I sent you a letter but it seems you had not received it. After I met you, the great British government has offered me many titles at different times due to your kindness. Here we in Bhutan are very happy thanks mainly to the kindness of British government and yourself. This time British government conferred me the rank of K.C.I.E and this is indeed due to your support. Bell Saheb, who came to present this title, informed me about your good health; I was very happy. I request you to send me letters frequently.
I am sending herewith a scarf as a gift.
Ugyen Wangchuk, the king of Bhutan
12th day of the 9th month of the Water-Dog Year.
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My friend Sir Francis Younghusband, K.C.I.I:
I am happy to know that you are in good health by the grace of the Triple Gem. Here I am also fine as before. I sent two letters to you when you were returning from Lhasa. However, it seems that the letters did not reach you, since you quickly proceeded straight to Bihar. From my friend Sir War I heard that you have been rewarded with promotion and awards. I joyfully congratulate you for this. Last time when we met at Tuna, I was promised to give a good gun by the government. I hope I can get it now. If this is no possible, I request you to give me a double-barrelled rifle like the one you had given to the Trongsa governor. I can remit the payment to you. Presently War Saheb and a senior Saheb have arrived in Bhutan and they are at Hram, and I am accompanying them during their journey.
With a scarf on the 5th day of the 5th month of the Wood-Snake Year). With Salam salutation,
Thimphu district officer, holder of five shris.
Note:--The English translations of all the above letters were done by the Research and Translation Department of LTWA.
Aris, Michael. Sources for the History of Bhuatan, WIEN 1986
Bod kyi lo rgyus rig gnas dpyad gzhi'i rgyu cha bdams bsgrigs, No.10, Mi rigs dpe skrun khang 1988
Chandra, Lokesh. Material for a History of Tibetan Literature, Part, No.11517, New Delhi 1963
Dbang phyug bde ldan, Zhwa sgab pa. Gangs can bod chos srid gnyis ldan gyi rgyal khab chen po'i srid don gyi rgyal rabs gsal bar ston pa zla ba 'bum phrag 'char ba'i rdzing bu'm blo gsar bung ba dga' ba'i rol mtsho zhes bya ba, Vol.II, 1976.
Dge 'dun rin chen, dge bshes brag phug pa. Dpal ldan 'brug pa'i gdul zhing lho phyogs nags mo'i ljongs kyi chos 'byung blo gsar rna ba'i rgyan ces bya ba, Sgrub sde nges don zung 'jug grub pa'i dga' tshal block prints.
LTWA Old document No. 882-889
Padma tshe dbang, Slob dpon. 'Brug gi rgyal rabs: 'Brug gsal ba'i sgron me, Thimphu, Bhutan 1994
Samten, Jampa. A Catalogue of the Phug brag manuscript Kanjur, LTWA 1992 Slob dpon Nag mdog. 'Brug dkar po, Bhutan 1986
Shes rab rgya tsho, Akhu ching. The collected Works of Akhu ching Shes rab rgya mtsho, Vol. 7, New Delhi 1974
Wagindra, Bande. Gangs can bod du rje rgyal gnya' khri btsan/Srong btsan sgam po khri srong lde'u btsan dang/Lho phyogs mon du lha sras gtsang ma zhes/ Rnam par sprul pa'i skye mchog de rnams kyi/Gong ma rje'i gdungs rabs 'byung khungs dang/'og ma 'bangs kyi mi rabs chad tshul sogs/Nges par gsal ba'i sgron ma zhes bya ba bzhugs so (photocopy)
(1.) Pha jo 'brug sgom zhig po'i rnam thar thugs rje'i chu rgyun, f.1, Mkan po Ye she cho dar
(2.) 'Brug gsal ba'i sgron me, 89
(3.) A wa dhu ti pa Rin chen rnam rgyal, Dpal ldan bla ma dam pa'i mdzad pa rmad du byung ba ngo mtshar bdud rtsi'i thigs pa, p. 7-67. In Collected Works of Rgyal dbang kun dga' dpal 'byor, Vol.1, Thimphu 1976
(4.) Dpal 'brug pa rin po che Ngag dbang bstan 'dzin rnam rgyal gyi rnam par thar pa rgyas pa chos kyi spin chen po'i dbyangs zhes bya ba las ring po'i gleng gzhi bzhugs, Delhi 1974
(5.) Autobiographies of Gtsang mkhan chen and Grags pa rgya mtsho, Vol. II, p.357-569, Thimphu 1975
(6.) This set of handwritten Bka' 'gyur was copied sometimes between 1696-1706. For more detail see Jampa Samten, A Catalogue of the Phug brag manuscript Kanjur, LTWA 1992.
(7.) The collected Works of Akhu ching Shes rab rgya tsho, vol. 7, p. 406-525, New Delhi 1974. See also Dr. Lokesh Chandra, Material for a History of Tibetan Literatue, Part 3, No. 11517, New Delhi 1963.
(8.) Published by Ngawang Topgay, New Delhi 1977.
(9.) National Library of Bhutan
(10.) The title reads as Gangs can bod du rje rgyal gnya' khri btsan/Srong btsan sgam po khri srong lde'u btsan dang/Lho phyogs mon du lha sras gtsang ma zhes/Rnam par sprul pa'i skye mchog de rnams kyi/Gong ma rje'i gdungs rabs 'byung khungs dang/'og ma 'bangs kyi mi rabs chad tshul sogs/Nges par gsal ba'i sgron ma zhes bya ba bzhugs so//.The eastern Bhutan copy is titled as Sa skyong rgyal po'i gdung rabs 'byung khungs dang 'bangs kyi mi rabs chad tshul nges par gsal ba'i sgron me (short title: Rgyal rigs 'byung khungs gsal ba'i sgron me). English translation by Michael Aris in Sources for the History of Bhutan published by WIEN 1986. See also Michael Aris, Bhutan: The Early History of a Himalayan Kingdom, England 1979.
(11.) In the colophone of text published from TAR 1988.
(12.) Bod kyi lo rgyus rig gnas dpyad gzhi'i rgyu cha bdams bsgrigs, No. 10, p. 87-130, Mi rigs dpe skrun khang 1988. In the colophon it reads as Ces kha gling gi rgyal rigs bslabs pa 'dzin pa mkyen pa la mi rmongs pa'i lha btsun ngag dbang phun tshogs dang/ phyi tshang mong khar gyi rgyal rigs dpa' mdzangs brtul phod che zhing khungs btsun pa'i rgyal pos brtsams.
(13.) 'Brug rgyal khab kyi cho srid gnas stangs 'Brug dkar po, Bhutan 1986.
(14.) 'Brug gi rgyal rabs gsal ba'i sgron me, Bhutan 1994
(15.) Bla ma gsang sngags, 'Brug gi smyos rabs gsal ba'i me long, 1983.
(16.) Bstan 'dzin chos rgyal 'gro kun dga' ba' bshes gnyen (1700-1764), lho'i chos 'byung bstan pa rin po che'i 'phro mthud 'jam mgon smon mtha'i 'phreng ba zhes bya ba/ gtso bor skyabs mgon rin po che rgyal sras ngag dbang rnam rgyal gyi rnam thar kun gyi go bde gsal bar bkod pa bcas bzhugs so//, 151 folios
(17.) Dpal ldan 'brug pa'i gdul zhing lho phyogs nags mo'i ljongs kyi chos 'byung blo gsar rna ba'i rgyan ces bya ba, p.383, LTWA. No. 2:26-1859.
(18.) Shakya ratna, Shakya rin chen (1710-1759), Pandita bstan 'dzin chos kyi rgyal po'i rtogs pa brjod pa sgyu ma chen po'i gar stabs, Dpal rdo rje gdan edition, 110 folios.
(19.) Shakya rin chen dri med legs pa'i blo gros (1710-1759), Bkar rgyud kyi rnam thar gser gyi phreng ba lta bu las dpal ldan bla ma mthu chen chos kyi rgyal po ngag rnam rgyal ba'i skabs bzhugs so, Xylograhp, 39 folios.
(20.) Dpal 'brug pa rin po che Ngag dbang rnam rgyal gyi rnam that rgyas pa chos kyi sprin chen po'i dbyangs, Topden Tsering, Delhi 1974
(21.) Pha 'brug sgom zhig po'i rnam par thar pa thugs rje chu rgyun
(22.) Skyabs mgon rdo rje 'chang dbang ngag dbang 'jam dbyangs rgyal mtshan gyi rnam par thar pa grub rigs bzhad pa'i rgyud mangs thugs rjes bskul ba'i chu 'dzin 'khrigs pa'i rang sgra, 'brugs dgon mdo sde brag edition, 229 folios.
(23.) Biographies of thee Bhutanese prelates, Thimphu 1976
(24.) The lives of three Bhutanese religious masters, Thimphu 1976
(25.) Biographies of two Bhutanese lamas of the Padma glin pa tradition, Thimphu 1975
(26.) Rnal 'byor gyi min can kun dga' legs pa'i rnam thar byung tshul lhug par smras pa zhib mo'i rtsing ma ha le sna zin spu zin nas bkod pa ces bya ba, Kargyud Sungrab Nyamso Khang, Delhi 1978.
(27.) Rnal 'byor gyi ming can kun dga' legs pa'i nyams la shar ba'i phral gyi chos spyod 'dra dang nyams 'char ci byung ma byung bris pa skyag gtad gang yang med pa 'ga' zhig bzhugs so, Varanasi 1972.
(28.) Rnal 'byor gyi dbang pyug chen po kun dga' legs pa'i rnam thar gsang 'bum rgya mtsho lta bu las dad pa'i ku shas chu thigs tsam blangs pa ngo mtshar bdud rtsi'i zil mngar, block print, 70 folios.
(29.) LTWA old document No.882
(30.) LTWA old document No.888
(31.) LTWA old document No.886
(32.) LTWA old document No.885
(33.) LTWA old document No.883
(34.) Slob dpon padma Tse dbang, 'Brug gsal ba'i sgron me, p. 539. See also 'Brug dkar po of Slob dpon Nag mdog. p. 193-200
(35.) Zhwa sgab pa dbang phyug bde ldan, Bod kyi srid don rgyal rabs, Vol. 2, p. 104, 112,113,126
(36.) Slob dpon Nag mdog, "brug dkar po, p. 193-200
(37.) Slob dpon padma Tse dbang, 'Brug gsal ba'i sgron me, p. 534,539
(38.) LTWA old document No.887
(39.) LTWA old document No. 885
(40.) Slob dpon Padma tshe dbang, 'Brug gyi rgyal rabs 'brug gsal ba'i sgron me, p. 537
* Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, Dharamsala, Kangra. HP. India.
This paper was presented during the international conference on Written Treasures of Bhutan: Mirror of the Past and Bridge to the Future, 27 May-6 June, 2005 organized by the National Library of Bhutan, thimphu, Bhutan.