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Lichens and allied fungi of Awenda Provincial Park, Ontario: diversity and conservation status.


Comprehensive baseline inventories are fundamental requirements for the conservation of biodiversity (Reid and Miller, 1989; Powell et al, 2000). Knowing what species are present, where they are located, and which are rare or sensitive is essential for developing management strategies (Reid and Miller, 1989; Environment Canada, 1995; Powell el al., 2000). Moreover, the status of a species cannot be determined or monitored without a foundation from which population declines or increases can be measured (Powell el al., 2000; Government of Canada, 2014; Monastersky, 2014). Therefore, effective outcomes in conservation require evidence-based decisions that begin with baseline knowledge (Sutherland et al, 2004).

In southwestern Ontario, large-scale, taxonomically comprehensive, reliable baseline data for lichens has been limited until recent decades. The first lichen collections in this region were made by J. Macoun in the late 1800s (Macoun, 1902). These were from only scattered localities and represented a small number of the total species. Harold Hume, a student at the Ontario Agriculture College in the 1890s, also collected seven lichens in Guelph (McMullin et al, 2014). Several years later J.H. Faull (1913) published a list of common lichens from the Toronto area. Roy Cain also collected lichens in the southwestern region of the province between 1930 and 1970, which are housed at the Canadian Museum of Nature, but the results are not published. Yarranton and Green (1966) published a study that contained a small list of lichens on the calcareous cliffs at Rattlesnake Point Conservation Area. The first detailed lichen list for the region, as part of a study of southern Ontario, was published by Wong and Brodo (1992). Malthes et al. (2000) then published a list of lichens that occurred on cliff faces along the Niagara Escarpment, and Olszewski (2010) published a list from the Niagara region. The first intensive and comprehensive assessments of individual management units in the southwest were only recently completed at the Bruce Peninsula National Park and Fathom Five National Marine Park (Brodo el al, 2013), the Copeland Forest Resources Management Area (McMullin and Lendemer 2013), and the Arboretum at the University of Guelph (McMullin el al, 2014). Considering this small number of studies and scant historical data, large geographic areas hosting diverse ecosystems in southwestern Ontario lack fundamental biodiversity information for lichens. This paucity of data therefore obfuscates understanding of species and their conservation for an ecologically important group of fungi in a region of Canada greatly impacted by human activities (Bates and Sizto, 1989; LandOwner Resource Centre, 1997; Findlay and Houlahan, 2003).

Many lichen species are restricted to broad bioclimatic regions such as arctic and alpine, boreal, temperate, and tropical (Gowan and Brodo, 1988; Brodo et al, 2001; Ovstedal and Lewis Smith, 2001). More specifically, some species are restricted to different mesohabitats such as bogs, intertidal zones, coastal areas, swamps, and forests (Brodo el al., 2001; Nash, 2008). Many of the mesohabitats in southwestern Ontario have not been examined for lichens. Old-growth forests are further mesohabitats that are particularly well known for being colonized by unique lichen communities (Lesica et al, 1991; Selva, 2003; McMullin el al., 2008), but have been relatively unexplored in southwestern Ontario. As such we initiated the present study of Awenda Provincial Park (Awenda), which contains one of the largest continuous old-growth deciduous forests remaining in the region (Henry and Quinby, 2010), in addition to other unique mesohabitats such as a Quercus-Pinus savannah.

The aim of this study was to inventory the lichens and allied fungi at Awenda and thereby contribute to a growing body of knowledge on the lichen biota on southwestern Ontario (McMullin el al., 2015) and make available baseline data for monitoring changes in populations caused by climate change (Aproot, 2009; Will-Wolf, 2015), air pollution (Henderson, 2000; Will-Wolf, 2015), or other disturbances (McMullin and Ure, 2008). Our specific objectives were to survey all of the dominant mesohabitats in the park, examine as many microhabitats as possible, and compare our results with all other localities in southern Ontario where detailed lichen inventories were completed. The results can also help to inform the park's resource management decisions (see Section 8.0, Ministry of Natural Resources, 1990).


Awenda is located in southern Ontario at the northern tip of the Penetanguishene Peninsula on the shores of Georgian Bay (Fig. 1). The park was established in 1975, opened for camping in 1979, occupies 2915 ha, and has been classified a 'Natural Environment Park,' which means all land is protected (Ministry of Natural Resources, 1990; Ontario Parks, 2011). There are 333 campsites and in 2010 there were 143,331 visitors to the park (Ontario Parks, 2011). Awenda lies between 44.922[degrees] and 44.813[degrees] latitude and -79.950[degrees] and -80.032[degrees] longitude, and its maximum elevation is 263.65 m (the Algonquin Bluff) (Carlisle, 1972). Between 1981 and 2010, the mean January temperature was -8.5([+ or -] 3.5) C and the mean precipitation was 109.8 mm (88.3 cm of snow and 21.5 mm of rain); in July, the mean temperature was 20.8([+ or -] 1.1) C and the mean precipitation was 72.7 mm (Environment Canada, 2015). Aside from rock and sand beaches, the terrestrial part of the park is forested.


It is part of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Forest Region (Rowe, 1972). The upland forests are dominated by Acer saccharum, Tagus grandifolia, and Quercus rubra, and the lowland forests are dominated by Abies balsamea, Acer rubrum, Betula spp., Thuja occidentalis, and Tsuga canadensis (Ministry of Natural Resources, 1990). Commercial timber harvests in the park ended in 1939, but harvesting in a few small areas, mostly for Querais rubra, occurred in the 1960s (Culm, 1973). Most of the forest in Awenda is therefore second-growth, but there are 285 ha of continuous old-growth forest dominated by Acer saccharum and Querais rubra (Henry and Quinby, 2010; Friends of Awenda, 2015a). The oldest trees in the old-growth forest range from 220 to 270 years old (Henry and Quinby, 2010; Friends of Awenda, 2015a). In 1985 the majority of Giant's Tomb Island (462 ha) was added to the park (Fig. 1) (Ministry of Natural Resources, 1990). The island is approximately 5 km long and 2 km at its widest point. It contains a section of old-growth coniferous forest dominated by Thuja occidentalis and an open Quercus-Pinus savannah-like ecosystem on sandy soil (Ministry of Natural Resources, 1990).



During the summer and fall of 2013 we inventoried the lichens and allied fungi of Awenda. We selected 24 mesohabitats that covered the range of ecosystems in the park and the six nature reserve zones (Section 7.3, Ministry of Natural Resources, 1990) (Fig. 1, Table 1). Lichens were collected following the sampling methods of Newmaster el al. (2005). Those authors found intensively surveying large areas (referred to as floristic habitat sampling) captures cryptogam diversity more effectively than sampling smaller representative plots. Floristic habitat sampling was used to survey 24 dominant mesohabitats in the park (Fig. 1, Table 1). As many of the restricted mesohabitats (e.g., streams, rock outcrops, bogs) and microhabitats {e.g., snags, tree bases, different tree species and rock types) as possible were examined. Specimens were air dried for 3 d before being transported to the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario Herbarium at the University of Guelph and the New York Botanical Garden for identification.


Lichens were identified with microscopy and standard chemical spot tests following Brodo el al. (2001). Chemistry was also examined using an ultraviolet light chamber. Chemical products were further assessed using thin-layer chromatography following Culberson and Kristinsson (1970) and Orange el al. (2001) in solvents A and C. Specimens have been deposited at the Canadian Museum of Nature (CAN!.), the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario Herbarium (OAC) at the University of Guelph, the New York Botanical Garden (NY), and the personal herbarium of Roman Olszewski.


We used the Sorensen-Dice coefficient of similarity to compare the Awenda lichen community with three other localities in southern Ontario. The coefficient is calculated as:

2A/2A + B + C,

where A represents the total number of species at Awenda and one other locality {e.g., locality 2), B is the number of species at Awenda that are absent from the locality 2, and C represents the number of species at locality 2 that are absent from Awenda (Dice, 1945; Sorensen, 1948).

The three localities compared to Awenda were the Bruce Peninsula National Park and Fathom Five National Marine Park combined (Brodo el al., 2013), the Copeland Forest Resources Management Area (McMullin and Lendemer, 2013), and the Arboretum at the University of Guelph (McMullin el al., 2014).


Provincial conservation status ranks (S-ranks) are nonlegal designations, which in Ontario are set by the Natural History Information Centre, based in turn on guidelines developed by NatureServe (NatureServe, 2015). Accordingly, species with distributions and frequencies that are well understood receive a rank between 1 and 5: 1 = critically imperilled, 2 = imperilled, 3 = vulnerable, 4 = apparently secure, 5 = secure, NR = not ranked, and U = unrankable (due to a lack of information); ? = rank uncertain.


Two hundred and three lichen and allied fungus species in 96 genera were discovered at Awenda (see Appendix 1 for an Annotated Species list). These include 116 (57%) microlichens (crustose species, which includes all allied fungi) and 87 (43%) macrolichens (51 foliose and 36 fruticose). One hundred and seventy-eight (88%) species have green algae as a primary photobiont, eight (4%) species have cyanobacteria as their primary photobiont, and 17 species (8%) are nonlichenized fungi traditionally treated with lichens. Fourteen (7%) species are calicioids (10 are nonlichenized, of which two are lichenicolous). Five species are lichenicolous, which includes the two calicioid species.

Based on the current lichen list for Ontario (Newmaster et al., in press), four species were collected for the first time in the province: Abrolhallus caerulescens, Bacidia kekesiana, Cheiromycina Jlabelliformis, and Lecanora minutella. Bacidia kekesiana was collected for the fifth time worldwide (Lendemer 28091-B, NY) (Harris, 2006, 2009).


The locality in southwestern Ontario with the most similar lichen community to that of Awenda is the Copeland Forest Resources Management Area (Sorensen-Dice coefficient = 0.8490) (Table 2). It is also the closest locality to Awenda (~35 km) and the most similar in size (Awenda = 2915 ha, Copeland = 1780 ha). Bruce Peninsula National Park and Fathom Five National Marine Park combined, and the Arboretum at the University of Guelph have almost the same similarity coefficients, 0.7887 and 0.7882, respectively (Table 2). The parks on the Bruce Peninsula are larger and contain a greater number of species (>15,600 ha and 370 species) than Awenda (2915 ha and 203 species), unlike the Arboretum, which is smaller and contains fewer species (165 ha and 104 species).


Conservation status ranks have been assigned to 162 of the 203 species at Awenda. Thirty-five species are ranked as S1 to S3 (critically imperiled, imperiled, or vulnerable). Five are SI: Acarospora sinopica, Acrocordia cavala, Anisomeridium biforme, Chaenothecopsis savonica, and Leimonis erratica. Seven are S1S2: Arlhonia byssacea, Chaenothecopsis pusiola, Cresponea chloroconia, Dermatocarpon dolomiticum, Psora pseudorussellii, Rinodina efflorescens, and Xanthoparmelia angustiphylla. Two are S1S3: Porpidia cinereoatra and Scylinium lenuissimum. Two are S2: Chamotheca laevigata, Placynthiella uliginosa. Eight are S2S3: Anisomeridium polypori, Bacidia rubella, Calicium parvum, Chaenothecopsis debilis, Flavopunctelia soredica, Pertusaria alpina, Phaeophyscia ciliata, Physciella chloantha. Eleven are S3: Calillaria nigroclavala, Chaenotheca brunneola, Cladonia caespiticia, Coenogonium pineti, Diploschistes muscorum ssp. muscorum, Melanelixia fuliginosa, Phaeocalicium polyporaeum, Physconia enteroxantha, Sphinctrina anglica, Stictis urceolalum, and Tuckermanopsis orbata. The rest of the species are ranked as secure, apparently secure, or are not ranked: S2S4 = 1 species, S4 = 16 species, S4S5 = 30 species, S5 = 80 species, SU = 4 species, and SNR = 37 species.


Awenda Provincial Park contains a rich lichen biota. Its diverse range of mesohabitats provide suitable conditions for a large number of species that require different microhabitats and substrates (Brodo et al., 2001; Nash, 2008; McMullin el al, 2010). The mesohabitats that contributed most to this lichen diversity were the old-growth deciduous forest, the boreal bog habitat at Macey Lake, the Fairlane bog, the transition zone between all beaches and the surrounding forests, the Quercus-Pinus savannah on Giant's Tomb Island, the wetland at Kettle Lake and the Thuja occidentalis swamp that borders it, the moist mixed-wood forest with standing water on Methodist Point, and Stony Point. Stony Point is composed of a wide range of calcareous and non-calcareous rocks and concrete, which allows many substrate specialists to colonize the area. For example Acarospora sinopica requires rocks that are rich with metals such as iron (Fletcher et al, 2009) and many species that are only known to occur on calcareous rocks [i.e., Caloplaca feracissima, Candelariella amella, Lecanora semipallida, Lecidella stigmalea, Placynthium nigrum, Proloblastenia rupestris, and Psora pseudorussellii) were found on concrete and limestone boulders that had washed ashore (Lendemer and Harris, 2008). Most of the rocks at Stony Point were non-calcareous, which is the common rock type found throughout the park.

The results of the pairwise similarity comparisons between the lichen communities at Awenda and the three other localities in southwestern Ontario were not unexpected. The most similar community to that of the study area was at the Copeland Forest, which is the closest locality (~35 km southeast) and the most similar in size (Awenda = 2915 ha, Copeland Forest = 1780 ha). Furthermore, both localities were subject to approximately the same level of search effort (McMullin and Lendemer, 2013). Awenda differed in having a greater number of mesohabits, the most notable were the coastal sand and rock beaches, the old-growth deciduous forest, the Qaercus-Pinus savannah, and the boreal bog. Therefore, the greater number of species discovered (203 instead of 154) was to be expected. The Bruce Peninsula National Park is much larger (15,600 ha plus Flower Pot Island in the Fathom Five National Marine Park instead of 2915 ha), it was examined by 30 lichenologists instead of one (with some assistance from others), it is further away (~ 120 km northwest), and it has a greater number of mesohabitats, such as calcareous cliffs on the coast and in the forests, alvars, and two different coast lines, on Lake Huron and Georgian Bay (Parks Canada, 2010; Brodo et al, 2013). As expected fewer species were reported from Awenda (203 instead of 370). The Arboretum at the University of Guelph had almost the same similarity coefficient as the Bruce Peninsula National Park (Arboretum = 0.7882, Bruce Peninsula National Park = 0.7887). Unlike the Bruce Peninsula National Park, the Arboretum is much smaller (165 ha instead of Awenda's 2915 ha). The Arboretum also differed from Awenda by being in an urban setting, being heavily managed and disturbed, having mostly calcareous rocks, lacking a coastline, and the search effort for species was much greater (McMullin et al, 2014). The Arboretum is also the furthest site from Awenda (~145 km). As a result of these variables, the lower number of species in the Arboretum (104 instead of 203) was to be expected.

Four species were collected at Awenda for the first time in Ontario: Abrothallus caerulescens, Bacidia kekesiana, Cheiromycina flabelliformis, and Lecanora minulella. Abrothallus caerulescens is a lichenicolous fungus that is distinguished by growing on Xanlhoparmelia spp.; black convex apothecia (<0.4 mm broad); a dark green-brown to black epihymenium (KOH+green); and verrucose, brown, two celled, and relatively small (<16 X <7 [micro]m) ascospores (Diederich, 2003, 2004; McMullin et al, 2015). Bacidia kekesiana was first collected in 1999 in Kejimkujik National Park and National Historical Site in Nova Scotia but was only formally described more recently (Harris, 2009), It is known from four previous collections in New Brunswick, New York, Nova Scotia, and Vermont (Lendemer 28091-B, NY) (Harris, 2006, 2009). Bacidia kekesiana is distinguished by the minute birefracting crystals in the exciple, ascospores with 0-4 cells that are 25 (-30) X 1.9(-2.4) [micro]m, and conidia that are bacilliform and <5.5 X <1.2 [micro]m (Harris, 2009). Harris (2009) suggested this species may have a preference for old-growth forests. Our specimens were also found in old-growth portions of Awenda, which supports this hypothesis. Cheiromycina flabelliformis is a lichen-forming hyphomycete with eustromatic sporodochial conidiomata (Sutton and Muhr, 1986). It was first reported in North America by Tonsberg (2002). It is distinguished by a thick-walled and branched conidiogenous system, and holoblastic, flabelliform to palmate, and distoseptate conidia (Hawksworth and Poelt, 1986, 1990; Sutton and Muhr, 1986; Tonsberg, 2002). Lecanora minutella is an inconspicuous species that is typically found growing on the exposed edges of conifer cones (LaGreca and Lumbsch, 2001). It is distinguished by small apothecia (<0.25(-0.35) mm in diameter) with dark brown to red-brown, epruinose disks, ascospores that are <8 X <3.5 [micro]m, and birefracting crystals in the amphithecium (LaGreca and Lumbsch, 2001). Lecanora minutella has likely been overlooked in Ontario as has been the case elsewhere in its range (Harris and Ladd, 2007).

The large number of species (35) with a S1, S2, or S3 conservation rank illustrates the conservation importance of Awenda. Moreover, many species that did not have a rank are known to be uncommon in Ontario; examples include Candelariella lutella (McMullin et al, 2015), Chaenothecopsis nana (McMullin et al., 2015), Strangospora moriformis (McMullin et al., 2014), Sarea difformis (Brodo et al., 2013), and the four species that are new to the province. These findings support the idea lichens and allied fungi should be added to the list of rare or threatened organisms in Ontario that are protected by the park (Ontario Parks, 2011; Friends of Awenda, 2015b).

The lichen data gathered from Awenda not only adds to the number of lichens known from Ontario, but it also provides a better understanding of the distribution and frequency of many species. Intensive lichen studies at particular localities in the province have been limited until recent years (McMullin and Lewis, 2012; McMullin et al., 2015). Therefore, there are still many unexplored areas and habitats, particularly because of the large area of Ontario (land = 907,574 km2) (Statistics Canada, 2007). Continued research is required to develop baseline knowledge for the lichens in the province. Now that a baseline list has been created for Awenda new lichens discovered in the park can be more easily acknowledged, resource management can include lichens, and biomonitoring with lichens is now possible.

Acknowledgments.--We gratefully acknowledge: Timothy Tully for assistance throughout all stages of this project; Frances Anderson, John Sheard, Jose Maloles, and Steven Selva for identification assistance; Roman Oszewski for contributing specimen records; our field companions, Jose Maloles, Katherine Drotos, Kyra Howes, Katharina Holt, Lizbeth Elias, Nancy Ironside, and Roman Oszewski; Briann Dorin, Kaitlin Hamiton, Mya Van Woudenberg, and Sara Hamilton for data entry and curating specimens; Bruce Ward for getting us to Giant's Tomb Island despite bad weather and large waves; Ontario Parks and the park managers at Awenda for granting permission to collect specimens; and support from the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario Herbarium, Friends of Awenda, Nancy Ironside, and Steven Newmaster.


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Submitted 12 June 2015

Accepted 2 February 2016



* The list is arranged alphabetically by genus and species.

* Species authors are generally cited following Brummitt and Powell (1996) or the 19th edition of the North American Lichen Checklist (Esslinger, 2014).

* Nomenclature follows the 19th edition of the North American Lichen Checklist (Esslinger, 2014). Any deviance from Esslinger's list represents the opinion of the authors.

* Collection numbers belong to the First author, unless stated otherwise.

* Specimens are deposited at OAC, unless stated otherwise.

* Roman numerals correspond to collection sites in Table 1 and they are illustrated in Figure 1.

* Provincial conservation status ranks (S-ranks) follow Newmaster et al. (in press).

* [dagger] = nonlichenized fungi traditionally treated with lichens.

* * = new to Ontario.

* ([dagger]) Abrothallus caerulescens Kotte--Lichenicolous (Xanthopannelia). 13388 (VII) (NY). SNR.

Acarospora fuscata (Schrad.) Arnold--Saxicolous (non-calcareous rock). 13078 (III), 13091 (VII), 13271 (XIX). S5.

Acarospora sinopica (Wahlenb.) Korb.--Saxicolous (iron rich rock). 13233 (XXII). S1.

Acrocordia cavata (Ach.) R.C. Harris--Corticolous (Tilia americana). 13383 (X). S1.

Amandinea punctata (Hoffm.) Coppins & Scheid.--Corticolous (Thuja occidenlalis), lignicolous (Thuja occidenlalis snag). 13100 (XX), 13327 (XIV), 13452 (III). S5.

Anisomeridium biforme (Borrer) R.C. Harris--Corticolous (Acer saccharum). 13207 (IX). S1.

Anisomeridium polypori (Ellis & Everh.) M.E. Barr--Corticolous (Belula alleghaniensis) 13039 (IV), 13439 (XX) (NY, OAC). S2S3.

Arthonia byssacea (Weigel) Almq.--Corticolous (Acer). 13259 (IV). S1S2.

Arthonia caesia (Flot.) Korb.--Corticolous (Acer rubrum, A. saccharum). 13117 (XVII), 13276 (XIX). S5.

Arthonia caudata Willey--Corticolous (Pinus strobus). 13099 (XX), 13329 (XIII), 13373 (IX). SNR.

Arthonia helvola (Nyl.) Nyl.--Corticolous (Betula alleghaniensis). 13203 (XX), 13333 (XIII), 13343 (XII). SNR.

Arthonia radiata (Pers.) Ach.--Corticolous (Tilia americana). 13217 & 13382 (X). S5.

Aspicilia cinerea (L.) Korb.--Saxicolous (non-calcareous). 13045 (V), 13247 (XXII), 13262 (XI). S4S5.

* Bacidia kekesiana R.C. Harris--Corticolous (Acer saccharum, Thuja occidentalis). 13401 (XIX) (NY, OAC), 13404 (XX) (NY, OAC). SNR.

Bacidia rubella (Hoffm.) A. Massai.--Corticolous (Acersaccharum, Quercus rubra). 13215 (IX), 13293 (XIX). S2S3.

Bacidia schweinitzii (Fr. ex Tuck.) A. Schneid.--Corticolous (Acer sacchrum, Thuja occidentalis). 13290 (XIX), 13334 (XIV). S5.

Bacidina sp.--Saxicolous. 13392 (XIX) (NY, OAC). SNR.

Biatora vernalis (L.) Fr.--Bryicolous. 13300 (XIX). S5.

Bilimbia sabuletorum (Schreber) Arnold--Lignicolous (stump). 13034 (XII). S5.

Bryoria furcellata (Fr.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.--Corticolous (Pinus sylvestris). 13169 (VI). S4S5.

Bryoria fuscescens (Gyeln.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.--Corticolous (Pinus sylvestris). 13176 (VI). S4S5.

Buellia stillingiana J. Steiner--Corticolous (Acer rubrum, A. saccharum, Quercus rubra). 13298 (XIX), 13318, 13329 (XIII), 13347 (IX). SNR.

Calicium pannim Tibell--Corticolous (Pinus sp.). 13380 (X). S2S3.

Caloplaca arenaria (Pers.) Mull. Arg.--Saxicolous (non-calcareous). 13036 & 13076 (III), 13261 (V), 13193 (II), 13265 (XI). S5.

Caloplaca cerina (Ehrh. ex Hedw.) Th. Fr.--Corticolous (Populus balsamifera, P. grandidentala). 13142 (XVI). 13194 (XXI). S5.

Caloplaca chlorina (Flot.) H. Olivier--On concrete. 13239 (XXII). SNR.

Caloplaca feracissima H. Magn.--On concrete. 13226 (XXII). S5.

Caloplaca holocarpa (Hoffm. ex Ach.) A.E. Wade--Saxicolous (rock embedded in concrete from the foundation of an old house). 13053 (VIII). S5.

Caloplaca pyracea (Ach.) Th. Fr.--Corticolous (Populus grandidentala, P. tremuloides, Quercus rubra). 13138 (XVI), 13143 (XVI). 13367 (IX). S5.

Candelaria concolor (Dicks.) Stein--Corticolous (Acer saccharum, Quercus rubra). 13087 (VII), 13189 (XXIV), 13277 (XIX). S5.

Candelariella aurella (Hoffm.) Zahlbr.--On concrete. 13231 (XXII). S5.

Candelariella efflorescens R.C. Harris & W.R. Buck--Lignicolous (Thuja occidentalis snag). 13244 (XXII). S5.

Candelariella lutella (Vain.) Rasanen--Corticolous (Populus grandidentala, P. tremuloides). 13136 & 13147 (XVI). SNR.

Candelariella vitellina (Hoffm.) Mull. Arg.--Saxicolous. 13047 (V), 13069 (XVIII). S5.

Catillaria nigroclavata (Nyl.) Schuler--Corticolous (Pinus sp., Quercus mbra). 13349 af 13370 (IX). S3.

Cetraria arenaria Kamefelt--Terricolous (sandy soil). 13076 (III), 13345 (IX). S4.

Chaenotheca brunneola (Ach.) Mull. Arg.--Lignicolous (stump). 13238 (XXII). S3.

Chaenotheca femiginea (Turner ex Sm.) Mig.--Corticolous (Thuja occidentalis), lignicolous (stump). 13228 (XXII), 13331 (XIV), 13377 (X). S4.

Chaenotheca laeingata Nadv.--Lignicolous (snag). 13378 (X). S2.

([dagger]) Chaenothecopsis debilis (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Tibell--Lignicolous (snag). 13268 (XIX). S2S3.

([dagger]) Chaenothecopsis nana Tibell--Corticolous (Acer saccharum). 13445 (XIX). SNR.

([dagger]) Chaenothecopsis pusiola (Ach.) Vain.--Lignicolous (snag). 13376 (X). S1S2.

([dagger]) Chaenothecopsis savonica (Rasanen) Tibell--Lignicolous (snag). 13305 (XIII). SI.

* Cheiromycina flabelliformis B. Sutton--Corticolous (Acer saccharum). 13387 (XIII) (NY, OAC). SNR.

Cladonia acuminata (Ach.) Norrl.--Terricolous (sandy soil). 13249 (VI). SNR.

Cladonia caespiticia (Pers.) Florke--Corticolous (mossy tree base). 13060 (IV). S3.

Cladonia chlorophaea (Florke ex Sommerf.) Spreng.--Corticolous (Qxiercus rubra), terricolous (soil). 13056 (VIII), 13245 (XXII), 13361 (IX). S5.

Cladonia crispata (Ach.) Flot.--Lignicolous (log). 13132 (XV). S5.

Cladonia cristatella Tuck.--Lignicolous (log), corticolous (Pinus slrobus cone); terricolous. 13148 (XVI), 13182 (VI), 13352 & 13368 (IX). S5.

Cladonia cryptochlorophaea Asahina--Corticolous (base of Acer saccharum), terricolous (thin layer of soil over rock). 13199 (VII), 13296 (XIX). SU.

Cladonia deformis (L.) Hoffm.--Terricolous (sandy soil). 13137 (XVI). So.

Cladonia digitata (L.) Hoffm.--Terricolous (mossy soil). 13040 (IV). S4S5.

Cladonia fimbriata (L.) Fr.--Lignicolous (log). 13127 (XV), 13175 (VI), 13385 (IX) (NY). S5.

Cladonia gracilis (L.) Willd. ssp. gracilis--Terricolous (sandy soil). 13139 (XVI). S4S5.

Cladonia macilenta Hoffm. var. macilenta--Lignicolous (log). 13097 (XX), 13340 (XII). S5.

Cladonia macilenta var. bacillaris (Genth) Schaer.--Lignicolous (stump). 13158 (XV). S5.

Cladonia mitis Sandst.--Terricolous (sandy soil). 13167 (VI), 13356 (IX). SNR.

Cladonia ochrochlora Florke--Lignicolous (log, stump). 13037 (III), 13059 (IV), 13090 (VII), 13166 (XV). SNR.

Cladonia parasitica (Hoffm.) Hoffm.--Lignicolous (log). 13338 (XII). SNR.

Cladonia phyllophora Hoffm.--Terricolous (soil). 13135 (XVI), 13178 (Vf). S5.

Cladonia pocillum (Ach.) Grognot--Terricolous (sandy soil). 13348 (IX). S4S5.

Cladonia pyxidata (L.) Hoffm.--Terricolous (soil). 13237 (XXII), 13459 (VI). S3.

Cladonia rangiferina (L.) F.H. Wigg.--Terricolous (sandy soil). 13131 (XVI), 13168 (VI), 13211 & 13359 (IX). S5.

Cladonia rei Schaer.--Terricolous (sandy soil). 13041 (IV), 13185 (VI), 13209 (IX), 13385 (IX) (NY, OAC). S5.

Cladonia scabriuscida (Delise) Nyl.--Terricolous (soil). 13055 (VIII). S5.

Cladonia squamosa Hoffm.--Lignicolous (log). 13103 (XVIII), 13342 (XII). S5.

Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar & Vezda--Terricolous (sandy soil). 13210 & 13358 (IX). S5.

Cladonia turgida Hoffm.--Terricolous (sandy soil). 13177 (VI), 13212 & 13360 (IX). S5.

Cladonia uncialis (L.) F.H. Wigg.--Terricolous (sandy soil). 13351 (IX). S5.

Cladonia verticillata (Hoffm.) Schaer.--Terricolous (sandy soil). 13154 (XVI), 13174 (VI), 13372 (IX). S4S5.

Coenogonium pineti (Ach.) Liicking & Lumbsch--Terricolous (base of Betula alleghaniensis & B. papyrifera). 13098 & 13202 (XX), 13344 (XII). S3.

Cresponea chloroconia (Tuck.) Egea & Torrente--Corticolous (Querais rubra, Thuja occidentalis). 13083 (XVIII), 13205 (IX), 13219 (X), 13302 (XIX). S1S2.

Dennatocarpon dolomiticum Am to ft--Saxicolous (calcareous). 13260 (V). S1S2.

Dictyocatenulata alba Finley & E.F. Morris--Corticolous (Be hi la alleghaniensis, Quercus rubra). 13086 (VII), 13320 (XIII), 13313 (XX). SNR.

Dimelaena oreina (Ach.) Norman--Saxicolous (non-calcareous). 13043 (V). S4.

Diploschistes muscoram (Scop.) R. Sant. ssp. muscorum--Bryicolous. 13208 & 13357 (IX). S3.

Evernia mesomorpha Nyl.--Corticolous (Acer saccharum, Pinus sylvestris, Rhus typhina). 13134 (XVI). 13171 (VI), 13224 (XIX). S5.

Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale--Corticolous (Acer saccharum, deciduous snag, Quercus rubra, Thuja occidentalis). 13064 (III), 13112 (I), 13287 (XIX), 13330 (XIV). S5.

Flavopunctelia flaventior (Stirt.) Hale--Corticolous (Quercus rubra). 13257 (III), S5.

Flavopunctelia soredica (Nyl.) Hale--Corticolous (Larix laricina). 13133 (XV). S2S3.

Fuscidea arboricola Coppins & Tonsberg--Lignicolous (stump). 13411 (XV) (NY). SNR.

Graphis scripta (L.) Ach.--Corticolous {Acer saccharum, Betula alleghaniensis, Quercus rubra). 13085 (VII), 13283 (XIX), 13319 (XIII). S5.

Hypocenomyce friesii (Ach.) P. James & Gotth. Schneid.--Lignicolous (stump). 13218 (X). SNR.

Hypocenomyce scalaris (Ach.) M. Choisy--Lignicolous (stump). 13160 (XV). S5.

Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl.--Corticolous {Larix laricina snag, Picea mariana, Pinus sylvestris, Quercus rubra, Rhus typhina snag). 13128 (XVI), 13159 (XV), 13162 (XV), 13172 (VI), 13371 (IX). S5.

([dagger]) Illosporiopsis christiansenii (B.L. Brady & D. Hawksw.) D. Hawksw.--Lichenicolous (Parmelia sulcata, Physcia slellaris). 13204 (IX), 13272 (XIX). SNR.

Imshaugia aleurites (Ach.) S.F. Mey.--Corticolous {Larix laricina snag). 13157 (XV). S4S5.

Ionaspis alba Lutzoni--Saxicolous (non-calcareous). 13431 (XIX) (NY, OAC). SNR.

([dagger]) Julella fallaciosa (Arnold) R.C. Harris--Corticolous {Acer saccharum). 13200 (VII), 13291 (XIX). SNR.

Lecania croatica (Zahlbr.) Kotlov--Corticolous {Acer saccharum, Fraxinus americana). 13093 (VII), 13275 (XIX). SNR.

Lecania naegelii (Hepp) Diederich & van den Boom--Corticolous {Populus grandidentata, Thuja occidentalis). 13146 & 13149 (XVI), 13396 (XIV) (NY, OAC). S2S4.

Lecanora allophana Nyl.--Corticolous {Acer saccharum, Quercus rubra). 13304 (XIX), 1344313444 (IX). S5.

Lecanora caesiorubella Ach. ssp. caesiorubella--Corticolous {Quercus rubra, Thuja occidentalis). 13325-13326 (XIV), 13335 (XII) 13354 (IX). S4S5.

Lecanora hagenii (Ach.) Ach.--Lignicolous (fence rail). 13192 (VIII). S5?

Lecanora hybocarpa (Tuck.) Brodo--Corticolous (Acer saccharum, Quercus rubra). 13252 (III), 13311 (XIII), 13441-13442 (IX). S4S5.

* Lecanora minutella Nyl.--Corticolous (Pinus sylvestris cones). 13440 (XVI) (NY, OAC). SNR.

Lecanora muralis (Schreb.) Rabenh.--Saxicolous (concrete, calcareous and non-calcareous rock). 13044 & 13046 (V), 13075 (III), 13402 (VII) (NY, OAC). S5.

Lecanora polytropa (Hoffm.) Rabenh.--Saxicolous (non-calcareous). 13035 & 13077 (III), 13266 (XI). S5.

Lecanora pulicaris (Pers.) Ach.--Corticolous (conifer snag, Pinus sylvestris). 13121 (XV), 13152 (XVI), 13181 (VI). S5.

Lecanora rugosella Zahlbr.--Corticolous (Thuja occidentalis). 13325 (XIV). S4S5.

Lecanora sambuci (Pers.) Nyl.--Corticolous (Populus tremuloides). 13256 (III). SNR.

Lecanora semipallida H. Magn.--On concrete. 13227 (XXII). SNR.

Lecanora symmicta (Ach.) Ach.--Corticolous (deciduous snag, Pinus strobus, P. sylvestris, Populus balsarnifera). 13049 (VIII), 13123 (XV), 13179 (VI), 13198 (XXI), 13287 (XIX). S5.

Lecanora thysanophora R.C. Harris--Corticolous (Acer saccharum, Thuja occidentalis), lignicolous (Thuja occidentalis snag). 13101 (XX), 13278 (XIX), 13332 (XIII), 13418 (X) (NY, OAC). S5.

Lecidella stigmatea (Ach.) Hertel & Leuckert--On concrete. 13232 (XXII). S5.

Leimonis erratica (Korb.) R.C. Harris & Lendemer--Saxicolous (non-calcareous). 13406 (V) (NY, OAC). SI.

Lepraria caesiella R.C. Harris--Corticolous (Tsuga canadensis). 13424 (XXIV) (NY, OAC), 13426 (XIII) (NY). SNR.

Lepraria elobata T0nsb.--Corticolous (base of Quercus rubra), saxicolous (non-calcareous). 13417 (VIII) (NY, OAC), 13420 (VIII) (NY, OAC), 13423 (VII) (NY), 13427 (XV) (NY), 13433 (VIII) (NY, OAC). SU.

Lepraria finkii (B. de Lesd.) R.C. Harris--Corticolous (Thuja occidentalis, 'Tsuga canadensis), lignicolous (stump). 13414 (XXII) (NY, OAC), 13415 (XXII) (NY, OAC), 13416(X\U) (NY, OAC), 13422 (XXII) (NY, OAC), 13425 (XXII) (NY, OAC), 13428 (XXII) (NY, OAC). S5.

Lepraria neelecta (Nyl.) Erichsen--Saxicolous (non-calcareous). 13421 (VIII) (NY, OAC), 13446-13448 (VIII). S4S5.

Leptogium cyanescens (Rabenh.) Korb.--Lignicolous (log), saxicolous (mossy rock). 13058 af 13061 (XVIII). S5.

([dagger]) Leptorhaphis epidermidis (Ach.) Th. Fr.--Corticolous (Belula papyrifera). 13141 (XVI). S4. Lobaria quercizans Michx.--Corticolous (Acer saccharum, deciduous snag). 13221 (X), 13301 (XIX). S4S5.

Melanelixia glabratula (Lamy) Sandler & Arup .--Corticolous (Acer saccharum, Fraxinus americana, Pinus sylvestris). 13073 (XVIII), 13109 (I), 13110-13111 (XVII), 13122 (XV). S3.

Melanelixia subaurifera (Nyl.) O. Blanco et al.--Corticolous (Acer saccharum, A. rubrum, Pinus strobus). 13051 (VIII), 13065 (III), 13116 (XVII), 13281 (XIX). S5.

Micarea melaena (Nyl.) Hedl.--Lignicolous. Olszewski 7182a, b (XIV). S4S5.

Micarea micrococca (Korb.) Gams ex Coppins--Lignicolous (stump), Thuja occidentalis. 13390 (XIV) (NY, OAC), 13434 (XIV) (NY, OAC). SNR.

Micarea peliocarpa (Anzi) Coppins & R. Sant.--Lignicolous (log, stump). 13230 (XXII), 13316 (XII). S4S5.

([dagger]) Mycocalicium subtile (Pers.) Szatala--Lignicolous (snag). 13315 & 13317 (XIV), 13379 & 13381 (X). S4S5.

Myelochroa aurulenta (Tuck.) Elix & Hale--Corticolous (Acer saccharum). 13089 (VII), 13279 (XIX). S5.

Ochrolechia arborea (Kreyer) Almb.--Corticolous (Acer saccharum, Quercus rubra, snag, Thuja occidentalis). 13071 (IV), 13165 (XV), 13254 (III), 13270 (XIX), 13321 (XIII), 13324 (XIV), 13362 & 13364 (IX). S4S5.

Opegrapha varia Pers.--Corticolous (Populus tremuloides, Quercus rubra, Tilia americana). 13072 (XVIII), 13214 (IX), 13222 (X), 13292 (XIX). S4.

([dagger]) Ovicuculispora parmeliae (Berk. & Curt.) Etayo--Lichenicolous (Physcia stellaris). 13297 (XIX), 13346 (IX). SNR.

Parmelia squarrosa Hale--Corticolous (Acer saccharum). 13280 (XIX). S4S5.

Parmelia sulcata Taylor--Corticolous (Acer rubrum, A. saccharum). 13118 (XVII), 13284 (XIX). S5.

Parmeliopsis ambigua (Wulfen) Nyl.--Corticolous (Quercus rubra). 13366 (IX). S5.

Parmeliopsis capitata R.C. Harris--Corticolous (Picea mariand). 13161 (XV). SNR.

Parmeliopsis hyperopia (Ach.) Arnold--Corticolous (Picea mariand). 13155 (XV). S5.

Peltigera canina (L.) Willd.--Terricolous (sandy soil). 13038 (III), 13054 (VIII), 13070 (IV). S5.

Peltigera didactyla (With.) J.R. Laundon--Terricolous (sandy soil). 13057 (VIII), 13080 (IV), 13095 (XX). S5.

Peltigera evansiana Gyeln.--Saxicolous (mossy rock). 13102 (XVIII). S4.

Peltigera praetextata (Florke ex Soinmerf.) Zopf--Lignicolous (log), terricolous (soil). 13062, 13104, & 13308 (XVIII), 13223 (X), 13353 (IX). S5.

Peltigera rufescens (Weiss) Humb.--Terricolous (sandy soil). 13184 (VI). S5.

Pertusaria alpina Hepp ex Allies--Corticolous (Acer saccharum). 13255 (III). S2S3.

Pertusaria macounii (I.M. Lamb) Dibben--Corticolous (Acer saccharum). 13303 (XIX). S4.

([dagger]) Phaeocalicium curtisii (Tuck.) Tibell--Saprophytic (Rhus typhina). 13250 (VI), 13153 (XVI). S5.

([dagger]) Phaeocalicium polyporaeum (Nyl.) Tibell--Saprophytic (Trichaptum Informe). 13094 (VII), 13130 (XV). S3.

([dagger]) Phaeocalicium populneum (Brond. ex Duby) A.F.W. Schmidt--Saprophytic (Populus balsamifera). 13125 (XVI), 13322 (XIII). SU.

Phaeophyscia adiastola (Essl.) Essl.--Saxicolous (moss covered rock). 13068 (XVIII). S4.

Phaeophyscia ciliata (Hoffm.) Moberg--Corticolous (Populus tremuloides). 13108 (XXIII). S2S3.

Phaeophyscia orbicularis (Neck.) Moberg--Saxicolous (non-calcareous). 13081 (III). S5.

Phaeophyscia pusilloides (Zahlbr.) Essl.--Corticolous (Acer saccharum, Populus balsamifera, P. tremuloides). 13088 (VII), 13151 (XVI), 13195 (XXI), 13267 (XIX). S5.

Phaeophyscia rubropulchra (Degel.) Essl.--Corticolous (Acer saccharum). 13115 (XVII). S5.

Phaeophyscia sciastra (Ach.) Moberg--On cement. 13243 (XXII). S4S5.

Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Olivier--Corticolous (Acer rubrum, A. saccharum, Populus balsamifera). 13066 (III), 13074 (III), 13196 (XXI). S5.

Physcia aipolia (Ehrh. ex Humb.) Fiimr.--Corticolous (Acer saccharum, deciduous snag). 13079 (III), 13282 (XIX). S5.

Physcia dubia (Hoffm.) Lettau--Saxicolous. 13042 (V). S5.

Physcia millegrana Degel.--Corticolous (Acer rubrum, Qxtercus rubra). 13114 (XVII), 13191 (XIII). S5.

Physcia stellaris (L.) Nyl.--Corticolous (Acer rubrum, snag). 13119 (XVII). 13350 (IX). S5.

Physcia subtilis Degel.--Saxicolous (non-calcareous). 13253 (III). S4S5.

Physciella chloantha (Ach.) Essl.--Corticolous (Acer saccharum). 13295 (XIX). S2S3.

Physconia detersa (Nyl.) Poelt--Corticolous (Acer saccharum, Fraxinus americana, Quercus rubra, Populus tremuloides). 13063 (III), 13082 (XVIII), 13084 (VII), 13107 (XXIII). S5.

Physconia enteroxantha (Nyl.) Poelt--Corticolous (Quercus rubra). 13113 (I), 13363 (IX). S3.

Placynthiella uliginosa (Schrad.) Coppins & P. James--Terricolous (sandy soil). 13375 (IX). S2.

Placynthium nigrum (Huds.) Gray--On concrete. 13229 (XXII). S5.

Polysporina simplex (Davies) Vezda--Saxicolous (non-calcareous). 13264 (XI). S4S5.

Porpidia cinereoatra (Ach.) Hertel & Knoph--Saxicolous. 13201 (VII). S1S3.

Porpidia crustulata (Ach.) Hertel & Knoph--Saxicolous. 13187 (VI). S5.

Porpidia macrocarpa (DC.) Hertel & A.J. Schwab--Saxicolous. 13307 (XII). S4.

Protoblastenia rupestris (Scop.) J. Steiner--Saxicolous (concrete, calcareous rock). 13225, 13240, & 13248 (XXII). S5.

Protoparmelia hypolremella Herk, Spier & V. Wirth--Lignicolous (Thuja occidenlalis). 13323 (XIV), SNR.

Psora pseudorussellii Timdal--On cement. 13234 (XXII). S1S2.

Punctelia bolliana (Miill. Arg.) Krog--Corticolous (Quercus rubra). 13355 (IX). S4.

Punctelia rudecta (Ach.) Krog--Corticolous (Fraxinus americana, Quercus rubra), lignicolous (snag). 13092 (VII), 13190 (XXIV), 13242 (XXII) 13365 (IX), Olszewski 7181a, b (XIV). S5.

Pyrenula pseudobufonia (Rehm) R.C. Harris--Corticolous (Acer saccharum). 13285 (XIX). S4.

Ramalina americana Hale--Corticolous (Quercus rubra). 13206 (IX). S5.

Ramalina intermedia (Delise ex Nyl.) Nyl.--Saxicolous. 13106 (XVIII). S5.

Rhizocarpon disporum (Nageli ex Hepp) Miill. Arg.--Saxicolous. 13258 (XVIII). S4S5.

Rhizocarpon reductum Th. Fr.--Saxicolous. 13188 (XVIII). S4S5.

Rinodina ascociscana Tuck.--Saxicolous. 13451 (XIX). S4.

Rinodina efflorescens Malme--Lignicolous (snag). 13437 (XV) (NY). S1S2.

Rinodina freyi H. Magn.--Saxicolous. 13449 (XIX). S4S5.

Rinodina metaboliza Vain.--Saxicolous. 13450 (XXI). SNR.

Rinodina tephraspis (Tuck.) Herre--Saxicolous. 13453 (XIX), 13454 (II). S4.

Ropalospora viridis (Tpnsb.) Tpnsb.--Corticolous (snag), Thuja occidenlalis. 13391 (XIV) (NY, OAC), 13409 (XIX) (NY, OAC), 13419 (XIII) (NY). SNR.

Sarcogyne hypophaea (Nyl.) Arnold--Saxicolous (non-calcareous). 13299 (XIX), 13336 (XVIII). SU.

Sarcogyne regularis Korb--Saxicolous (calcareous). Olszewski 7215 (XI). S5.

([dagger]) Sarea difformis (Fr.) Fr.--Resinicolous (Pinus strobus). 13310 (XIII). SNR.

([dagger]) Sarea resinae (Fr.) Kuntze--Resinicolous (Picea, Pinus strobus). 13306 & 13312 (XIII). SNR.

Scoliciosporum chlorococcum (Stenh.) Vezda--Corticolous (Populus). 13144 (XVI). S5.

Scytinium tenuissimum (Dicks.) Otalora, P.M. Jprg. & Wedin--Lignicolous (mossy log). 13457 (XVIII). SI S3.

([dagger]) Sphinctrina anglica Nyl.--Lichenicolous (Protoj)armelia hypotremella). 13309 (XIV). S3.

([dagger]) Sphinctrina turbinata (Pers.: Fr.) De Not.--Lichenicolous (Pertusaria). 13288 (XIX). S4.

Stereocaulon grande (H. Magn.) H. Magn.--Terricolous (sandy soil). 13217 (IX). S4.

Stereocaulon tomentosum Fr.--Terricolous (sandy soil). 13124 (XVI), 13213 (IX). S4S5.

Stictis urceolatum (Ach.) Gilenstam--Corticolous (Acer saccharum). 13273 (XIX). S3.

Strangospora moriformis (Ach.) Stein--Corticolous (Populus tremuloides). 13120 (XVI). SNR.

Thelidium minutulum (Korb.)--Saxicolous (calcareous). 13438 (XXII) (NY, OAC). SNR.

Trapelia placodioides Coppins & P. James--Saxicolous (non-calcareous). 13105 (XVIII), 13269 (XIX), 13340 (XII). S5.

Tuckermanopsis americana (Spreng.) Hale--Corticolous (Pinus sylvestris, snag). 13048 (VIII), 13156 (XV), 13180 (VI). S5.

Tuckermanopsis orbata (Nyl.) M. J. Lai--Corticolous (Pinus, snag). 13 1 73 & 13183 (VI). S3.

Usnea hirta (L.) F.H. Wigg.--Corticolous (Larix laricina snag, Pinus strobus, Rhus typhina). 13052 (VIII), 13140 (XVI), 13164 (XV), 13170 (VI), 13186 (VI). S4S5.

Usnea subfloridana Stirt.--Corticolous (conifer snag). 13314 (XIII). S4S5.

Usnocetraria oakesiana (Tuck.) M.J. Lai & C.J. Wei--Corticolous (snag). 13220 (X). S4.

Variolaria amara Ach.--Corticolous (Quercus rubra, Thuja occidenlalis snag). 13337 (XX), 13369 (IX), Olsznuski 7202a, b. S4S5.

Vulpicida pinastri (Scop.) J.-E. Mattsson & M.J. Lai--Corticolous (Picea mariana). 13048 (VIII), 13156 & 13163 (XV). S4S5.

Xanthomendoza hasseana (Rasanen) Sochting, Karnefelt & S. Kondr.--Cordcolous (deciduous snag, Populus balsamifera, P. grandidentata). 13145 (XVI), 13197 (XXI), 13294 (XIX). SNR.

Xanthomendoza ulophyllodes (Rasanen) Sochting, Karnefelt & S. Kondr.--Corticolous (Querais rubra). 13374 (IX). SNR.

Xanthoparmelia angustiphylla (Gyeln.) Hale--Saxicolous (non-calcareous). 13236 (XXII). S1S2.

Xanthoparmelia cumberlandia (Gyeln.) Hale--Saxicolous (non-calcareous). 13050 (VIII), 13129 (XVI), 13235, 13246, & 13251 (XXII), 13289 (XIX). S5.

Xanthoparmelia plittii (Gyeln.) Hale--Saxicolous (non-calcareous). 13241 (XXII), 13263 (XI). S4S5.

Xanthoria elegam (Link) Th. Fr.--Saxicolous (non-calcareous). 13067 (III). S5.

Verrucaria calkinsiana Servit--Saxicolous (calcareous). 11398 (VIII) (NY, OAC). S5.


Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, KIP 6P4, Canada



Institute of Systematic Botany, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, 10458-5126

(1) Corresponding author: e-mail:
TABLE 1.--Coordinates, date, and habitat description of the 24
collection sites (mesohabitats). Sites are illustrated in Figure 1

Site       Location            Latitude             Longitude

I       Administration    44.846916[degrees]   -79.998145[degrees]

II      Awenda Entrance   44.817465[degrees]   -79.983446[degrees]
III     1st Beach         44.852188[degrees]   -80.011046[degrees]

IV      3rd Beach         44.850073[degrees]   -80.026238[degrees]

V       4th Beach         44.844536[degrees]   -80.027547[degrees]

VI      Bog (Farlain)     44.825104[degrees]   -79.983076[degrees]

VII     Deer Campground   44.835696[degrees]   -80.016561[degrees]

VIII    Dune Trail        44.921502[degrees]   -79.997669[degrees]

IX      Giant's Tomb 1    44.914614[degrees]   -79.992056[degrees]

X       Giant's Tomb 2    44.889323[degrees]   -80.005832[degrees]

XI      Giant's Tomb 3    44.921502[degrees]   -79.997669[degrees]

XII     Kettle's Lake     44.853193[degrees]   -79.963445[degrees]

XIII    Kettle's Lake 1   44.843881[degrees]   -79.982529[degrees]

XIV     Kettle's Lake 2   44.845281[degrees]   -79.971714[degrees]

XV      Macey Lake 1      44.815089[degrees]   -80.003171[degrees]

XVI     Macey Lake 2      44.810416[degrees]   -80.001508[degrees]

XVII    Main Gate House   44.843585[degrees]   -80.005832[degrees]

XVIII   Methodist Point   44.851397[degrees]   -80.028985[degrees]

XIX     Old-Growth        44.844231[degrees]   -79.96562[degrees]

XX      Shoreline Fen     44.855097[degrees]   -79.991155[degrees]

XXI     Shoreline Park    44.855998[degrees]   -79.988306[degrees]

XXII    Stony Point       44.85666[degrees]    -80.005445[degrees]

XXIII   Trailer Dumping   44.841987[degrees]   -80.006175[degrees]

XXIV    Beaver Pond       44.847959[degrees]   -80.015402[degrees]

Site                         Habitat description

I       Exposed rocks and large exposed deciduous trees. Tree cover
        includes Acer saccharum and Quercus rubra.

II      Large exposed boulders and young mixed-wood deciduous forest.

III     Sandy beach with scattered boulders. Boulders are all
        non-calcareous and many are large and never covered by water.
        Tree cover includes Acer rubrum, A. saccharum, Populus
        tremuloides, Quercus rubra, and Thuja occidentalis.

IV      Sandy beach with a small rise and ledge where the beach meets
        a mixed-wood forest. The rise and ledge have a high abundance
        of lichen. Tree cover includes Acer saccharum and Thuja

V       Sandy beach with large scattered boulders, one of which is

VI      A bog with standing water and scattered trees. Surrounded by
        exposed sandy soil. Tree cover includes Pinus sylvestris and
        Rhus typhina.

VII     A second-growth deciduous forest with a dense canopy cover
        that includes Acer saccharum, Fraxinus americana, and Quercus

VIII    Second-growth, mixed-wood forests with the foundations of old
        houses. Tree cover includes Quercus rubra and Pinus strobus.

IX      Quercus-Pinus savannah. Scattered mature trees on the east
        side of the island. Sandy soil with lichens or tall grass as
        the dominant ground cover. The dominant tree cover is Quercus
        rubra, but other tree species include Acer saccharum and
        Pinus strobus.

X       Interior old-growth Thuja occidentalis dominated forest.
        Tilia americana also occurred throughout.

XI      Exposed coastal boulders and rocks on the west side of the

XII     Small stream through a mixed-wood, conifer-dominated forest
        that includes Betula alleghaniensis and Thuja occidentalis.

XIII    Second-growth, mixed-wood forest that includes Acer
        saccharum, Betula alleghaniensis, Picea, Pinus strobus, and
        Thuja occidentalis.

XIV     Wetland with scattered snags. Bordered by a Thuja
        occiclentalis-dominated swamp with Acer rubrum.

XV      Boreal bog habitat with scattered trees and snags. Tree cover
        is dominated by Larix laricina and Picea manana.

XVI     Sandy soil with scattered and exposed mixed-wood trees. Tree
        cover includes Betula papyrifera, Pinus sylvestris, Populus
        balsamifera, P. grandidentata, P. tremuloides, and Rhus

XVII    Mature and exposed deciduous trees, which include Acer
        rubrum, A. saccharum, and Fraxinus amencana.

XVIII   Forested wetland. Mixed-wood forest with standing water
        throughout. Trees include Acer, Fraxinus amencana, Populus
        tremuloides, and Thuja occidentalis.

XIX     Two hundred and eighty-five hectares of continuous closed
        canopy Acer saccharum-and Quercus rwbra-dominated old-growth
        forest. The oldest trees range from 220 to 270 years old. The
        forest is relatively homogenous throughout.

XX      Conifer dominated shoreline fen with pockets of standing
        water and many snags. Tree cover includes Betula
        alleghaniensis, B. papyrifera, Pinus strolnis, and Thuja

XXI     Manicured shoreline park with a grass ground cover and
        exposed and mature Popular trees.

XXII    Rock beach with many large boulders. Most rocks are
        non-calcareous, small calcareous rocks rarely occur. Concrete
        foundations of old houses are common. The beach is bordered
        by mature mixedwood, conifer-dominated forests with Thuja
        occidentalis and Tsuga canadensis.

XXIII   Partially shaded island in the middle of the dumping station.
        Mature deciduous forest dominated by Populus tremuloides.

XXIV    Mature, humid mixedwood forest. Tree cover includes Thuja
        occidentalis and Tsuga canadensis.

TABLE 2.--A comparison of the lichen community at Awenda Provincial
Park (203 species over 2915 ha) with the other well-researched
localities in southwestern Ontario

                             distance from
Locality                         Awenda         Area (ha)

Bruce Peninsula National    120 km northwest   15,600 (plus
Park and Fathom Five                            Flower Pot
National Marine Park                             Island)

Awenda Provincial Park            0 km             2915

Copeland Forest Resources   35 km southeast        1780
Management Area

The Arboretum at the        145 km southwest        165
University of Guelph

                            Number of   of species   Sorensen-Dice
Locality                     species    in common     coefficient

Bruce Peninsula National       370         133          0.7887
Park and Fathom Five
National Marine Park

Awenda Provincial Park         203         203          1

Copeland Forest Resources      154         115          0.8490
Management Area

The Arboretum at the           104          71          0.7882
University of Guelph
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Article Details
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Author:McMullin, Richard Troy; Lendemer, James C.
Publication:The American Midland Naturalist
Geographic Code:1U2NY
Date:Jul 1, 2016
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