Printer Friendly

Licenidos (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) del noroccidente de Turquia con notas sobre su ecologia y estado actual.

Resumen: Entre 1995 y 2006, se recolectaron un total de 3280 adultos de licenidos pertenecientes a 47 especies, con el fin de estudiar su distribucion y estado actual en Bursa, en el noroeste de Turquia. De estos, Tomares nogelii es una especie recientemente registrada en el noroeste de Turquia. Las siguientes especies de licenidos no se habian visto desde la decada de 1860: Aricia eumedon, Cupido osiris, Kretania eurypilus, Plebeius sephirus, y P. ripartii. La planta endemica de muelle Rumex olympicus fue registrada como un nuevo huesped para las larvas de Lycaena dispar. Tanto Aricia hyacinthus y la endemica Polyommatus ossmar olympicus estan en peligro de extincion. En cambio, la distribucion de algunas especies de Polyommatus ha cambiado de local a general. El mayor numero de especies de licenidos se registro en julio con un total de 40 especies por mes. Especies de licenidos de amplia distribucion fueron capturadas por lo general a alturas superiores a 1000 m. Se discute sobre la distribucion altitudinal y la fenologia de las especies de licenidos asi como de sus nuevas plantas hopederas encontradas.

Palabras clave: Actividad de vuelo. Elevacion. Conservacion. Plantas hospederas.

Abstract: Between 1995 and 2006, a total of 3280 lycaenid adults belonging to 47 species were collected in order to study their distribution and current status in Bursa, northwestern Turkey. Of these, Tomares nogelii is a newly recorded species for northwestern Turkey. The following lycaenid species had not been seen since the 1860s: Aricia eumedon, Cupido osiris, Kretania eurypilus, Plebeius sephirus, and P. ripartii. The endemic water dock plant species Rumex olympicus was recorded asa new host for the larvae of Lycaena dispar. Both Aricia hyacinthus and the endemic Polyommatus ossmar olympicus are under threat of extinction. In contrast, the status of some Polyommatus species changed from local to widespread. The highest number of lycaenid species was recorded in July with a total of 40 species per month. Widespread lycaenid species were generally caught at altitudes higher than 1000 m. Altitudinal distribution and phenology of lycaenid species as well as their new host plants found are discussed.

Key words: Adult flight activity. Elevation. Conservation. Host plants.

Lycaenid butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) of northwestern Turkey with notes on their ecology and current status

Introduction

Lycaenids, also known as gossamer-winged butterflies because of their iridescent wings, are small-sized butterflies (< 5 cm). Lycaenidae comprises more than a third of the world's Papilionoidea with over 6000 different species (Robbins 1982; Ackery et al. 1999). Although both Africa (Ghana) and South America (Colombia) support a rich lycaenid fauna, the distribution of many lycaenid species are limited by their specialised habitat preferences (Legg 1978; Fiedler 1996). This characteristic makes them very vulnerable to habitat loss caused by human disturbance to the environment for agricultural and developmental purposes.

In fact, the loss of suitable habitat can be considered the most imminent threat to butterfly species' persistence (van Swaay and Warren 1999). Because of their habitat loss, many lycaenid species are listed as threatened in Red Data Books in many European countries (van Swaay and Warren 1999). A butterfly habitat includes not only larval hostplants and breeding resources, but also sites for roosting, hibernation and mate location outside the hostplant areas (Dennis 2004). For example, lycaenids such as Plebeius argus (L., 1758) and Polyommatus icarus (Rottemburg, 1775) are known to roost and mate on taller vegetation substrates rather than their host-plants (Emmet and Heath 1990; Dennis 2004). Dennis (2004) also noted the increasing importance of shrubs for lycaenid butterflies as the season progresses.

First reports on the lycaenid fauna of Turkey date back to the 1830s when Albert Kindermann started a comprehensive survey on Turkish Rhopalocera covering the provinces of Istanbul and Bursa (Hesselbarth et al. 1995). Later, many European entomologists carried out seasonal butterfly surveys in different parts of the country (Zeller 1847; Mann 1862, 1864; Oberthur 1872; Staudinger 1878; Fountaine 1904; Graves 1911, 1912; Wagner 1929; De Lattin 1950; Higgins 1966; Betti 1989; Carbonell and Brevignon 1983; Carbonell 1992; Carbonell 2003). Turkish entomologists initiated their work on the local butterfly fauna from the early 1960s (Kansu 1961, 1963; Oktem 1962; Sengun and Guneyi 1968; Guneyi and Kirmiz 1971 ; Guneyi and Uyar 1972; Kocak 1975, 1976, 1989; Avci and Ozbek 1996; Akbulut et al. 2003). However, the Bursa region has been largely neglected in recent decades by collectors and researchers in favour of the central and eastern parts of Turkey where the chance to find undescribed Lycaenid taxa is believed to be greater.

There are 161 lycaenid species in Turkey according to the checklist of Kocak and Kemal (2006), but the total number of lycaenid species has recently inereased to 164 based on the accounts of the Centre for Entomological Studies Ankara (CESA unpublished). Of these species, 54 have been recorded from the Bursa province of northwestern Turkey (Hesselbarth et al. 1995). However, some species were only recorded in 1851 and 1863 by Mann and no specimens were collected after then (Mann 1862, 1864). It has been more than 100 years since some lycaenid species were last seen.

The objectives of this study were: 1) to investigate the changes in the distribution of lycaenid fauna in Bursa province of northwestern Turkey, 2) to assess their current geographical status (widespread or local) in order to identify sites where lycaenid conservation is necessary, and 3) to provide information about the ecological characteristics of the recorded species.

Material and Methods

During 1995-2006, lycaenid adults were collected from March until late October in Bursa province of northwestern Turkey. Using a sweep net, specimens were caught from 81 localities in 16 counties (Fig. 1). Localities were chosen depending on the ecosystem diversity and altitudinal variation. Altitudes, route tracks and directions of localities were measured with Magellan Sportrak Pro GPS (Thales Navigation, CA, USA).

The occurrence of each lycaenid species is determined by recording the total number of localities in which it occurs among all 81 localities visited. Species status was determined according to distribution in Bursa Province and presence in the localities. Species that were found in more than 20% of the examined localities were considered widespread. Subspecies' names, if determined, were also reported.

Each lycaenid specimens was collected from its harboring plant. Living specimens were killed with ethyl acetate after being captured and they were brought back to the laboratory for identification. Adults were mounted according to standard entomological procedures and stored as vouchers in the Plant Protection Department collection at Uludag University. Species were identified by Prof. Bahattin Kovanci according to the descriptions of Carter (1982), Higgins et al. (1991), and Hesselbarth et al. (1995). The scientinc names of lycaenid species used in the annotated checklist was mainly based on the nomenclature of De Prins (2004) and Kocak and Kemal (2006). Both subspecies names and names of species that were not present in Europe were adopted from Hesselbarth et al. (1995).

Results

A total of 3280 lycaenid adults, representing 47 species were caught. Polyommatus icarus and Lycaena phlaeas (L., 1761) were the most widespread species in northwestern Turkey, followed by Phebeius argus, Aricia agestis ( Denis and Schiffermuller, 1775)and A. anteros (Freyer, 1838)(Table 1).

Adults of a few species such as Lycaena dispar (Haworth, 1802) emerged in April while most species appeared in May (Table 1). An increasing amount of adult flight activity during the summer months was observed. The highest number of lycaenid species was recorded in July with a total of 40 species per month. While the capture of some species continued until October, some were caught only in specific times. For example, adults ofLycaena alciphron (Rottemburg, 1775), Lycaena virgaureae (L., 1758) and Satyrium acaciae (Fabricius, 1787) were collected mainly in the summer whereas Callophrys rubi (L., 1758) adults occurred only in the spring.

Plebeius argus appeared to have two generations in northwestern Turkey, the first from May to June and the second from July to August. Aricia agestis had two generations at high altitudes, the first from April to June and the second from July to August but a third generation may occur at low altitudes from August to October. A. anteros may also complete two or three generations from April to September depending on the altitude.

As far as habitat altitude is concerned, P. icarus had the greatest altitudinal range (15-2400 m) among all lycaenid species (Table 1). Widespread lycaenid species were generally distributed at altitudes higher than 1000 m. The species richness increased until 1500 m. Some species such as A. agestis, L. phlaeas, and Polyommatus icarus were eurytopic and found at altitudes ofup to 2000, 2200, and 2400 m above sea level, respectively. Plebeius argus and Polyommatus bellargus (Rottemburg, 1775) varied in their altitudinal range between 300-2000 and 125-2200 m, respectively. Some lycaenids such as Agriades pyrenaica (Boisduval, 1840) and Aricia hyacinthus (Herrich-Schaffer, 1847) were restricted to the subalpine and alpine zones.

Detailed information on the distribution of local lycaenid species according to years and localities, and number of males and females caught at particular dates is presented in Table 2.

Discussion

During the 12-year survey in the Bursa province of northwestern Turkey, a total of 47 lycaenid species were collected of which 12 were widespread and 35 were more restricted species in their distribution (Table 1). The latter include A. hyacinthus, Lycaena candens (Herrich-Schaffer, 1844), Pseudophilotes bavius (Eversmann, 1832), Polyommatus semiargus (Rottemburg, 1775), Polyommatus cornelia (Gerhard, 1851), Polyommatus ossmar olympicus (Gerhard, 1853), Polyommatus iphigenia (Herrich-Schaffer, 1847), Polyommatus menalcas (Freyer, 1837) and Tomates nogelii (Herrich Schaffer, 1851). Aricia eumedon (Esper, 1780), Cupido osiris (Meigen, 1829), Kretania eurypilus Freyer, 1851), Plebeius sephirus (Frivaldzky, 1835), and Polyommatus ripartii (Freyer, 1830) had not been seen since 1860s (Mann 1862, 1864). In addition, the last reported sightings of Chilades trochylus (Freyer, 1845), Polyommatus semiargus (Rottemburg, 1775), P. bellargus, S. acaciae and Satyrium spini (Denis and Schiffermaller, 1775) in the area came from the early 1900s (Hesselbarth et al. 1995). Until this study, all these species were regarded as extinct according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Butterflies because it had been more than 50 years since they were recorded in wild (Wells et al. 1983). These results highlyght the importante of detailed sampling efforts to clear up the risk status of some species

A. hyacinthus is present only in westem Anatolia and was previously recorded at an altitudinal range of 1150-2350 m from eight provinces of Turkey including Bursa (Hesselbarth et al. 1995). In this study, this species was only found at four localities at altitudes in the range of 1900-2400 m. The whole area containing the endemic larval food plant Erodium olympicum was covered with alpine grasslands used for sheep grazing. Likewise, the Ketenlik plateau of Sogukpinar village, which harbours the endemic P. ossmar olympicus, is under moderate to high grazing pressure. The larval host plant of this endemic lycaenid, Coronilla varia subsp, varia L., is grazed by sheep as well. Therefore, both A. hyacinthus and P. ossmar olympicus are believed to be under threat of extinction.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

T. nogelii is found in Armenia, Lebanon, Romania, Syria, Palestine, Turkey, and Ukraine (Tuzov et al. 2000). It is now recorded in northwestern Turkey. The members of this species were caught only in the subalpine zone of Mt. Uludag, which contains dry, stony slopes and hot ravines. The predominant plants in the habitat were Astragalus angustifolius Lam. and Astragalus sibthorpianus Boiss. but no larvae were recovered from these plants. Since this species is monophagous and closely associated with its host plant, further studies can be directed toward potential Astralagus spp. hosts.

L. candens has a limited range which includes the area from the Balkan Peninsula and Turkey to Iran and the Caucasus (Martin and Pullin 2004). It was only caught in the mixed forest zone at an altitude of 1430 m. Unlike L. candens, L. dispar is widely distributed in Europe as far north as southern Finland, and across Asia but its populations are declining in many European countries. It is also a rare species in Turkey and classified in the lower risk, near-threatened status by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Butterflies (Wells et al. 1983). The presence of L. dispar in Turkey has recently been reported by Akbulut et al. (2003). We recorded L. dispar at five localities in small populations. These populations breed in open grassy vegetation where the endemic water dock species, Rumex olympicus Boiss., grows at a high density in sunny areas.

Pseudophilotes bavius is very localised in the Balkans including Greece, Romania, Yugoslavia and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (van Swaay and Warren 1999). The subspecies P. bavius egea is widespread in southern, central and parts of eastem Anatolia (Hesselbarth et al. 1995) but it is restricted locally in northwestern Anatolia based on our observations. Some adults were collected from Salvia argentea L. plants on which larvae of this species develop (Higgins and Riley 1970).

Polyommatus menalcas, also known as Turkish furry blue, is endemic to Turkey (Balint 1999). It is present in all regions, except the southeast. P. cornelia is another endemic species and found in the rocky slopes of the mountains. Similarly, P. iphigenia, which occurs only in Turkey and the Balkans, prefers open subalpine slopes. Unlike the previous Polyommatus species, P semiargus extends over a large atea from Morocco, Europe, Turkey, Middle East, temperate parts of Asia to Kazakhstan, North China, and Korea (Kudma 2002). In northwestern Turkey, it is a local species occurring in the Bursa plain where it is vulnerable due to urbanization. Adults were captured between May and July in meadows where hostplants Trifolium repens L. and Trifolium pratense L. are present.

Aricia anteros anteros is an Irano-Turanian species distributed locally from Lebanon to North Iran, Caucasus, Turkey, and the Balkan Peninsula (Hesselbarth et al. 1995). Although widespread, this subspecies is restricted to a small territory (e.g. a mountain range). Both larvae and adults were seen on Geranium pusillum L.

Plebeius idas baldur was reported from the mountains of the Balkan Peninsula, Turkey and Caucasia. P. i. baldur adults are monophagous on the Chamaecytisus absinthioides (Janka) Kuzm., which is a Balkan endemic plant, in Bulgaria (Kolev 2005) and the geographical ranges of the plant and the lycaenid coincide significantly. This strict regional monophagy differs from the relatively wide polyphagy on the nominotypical Chamaecytisus absinthioides idas, which suggests that the latter may be a separate species as asserted by Kolev (2005). In this case, there must be another host plant, which remains to be identified in Turkey.

According to Pollard and Yates (1993), the presence of a food plant is essential for the presence of a breeding population of a species at any site. In fact, many widespread butterfly species have higher diversity oflarval foodplants than the local and localised butterflies (Hodgson 1993). For example, the plant flora of the study area is rich in Fabaceae, Rhamnaceae and Rosaceae (Rubus spp., Potentilla sp.), which are the common hostplants of many lycaenids such as C. rubi. The main hostplants of S. ilicis larvae are Quercus spp. predominantly found in Mts. Uludag, Katirli and Samanli. In addition, Astragalus spp. is common in Mt. Uludag and provides a suitable habitat for P. daphnis and possibly for T. nogelii. Proactive efforts of growing butterfly food plants near urban areas are recommended to increase their chance of survival in Santiago de Cali, Colombia (Ramirez et al. 2007) but similar actions are also needed for mountain villages in northwestern Turkey to protect the natural habitat of lycaenid butterflies where their food plants thrive.

Both habitat altitude and connectivity are important variables because most lycaenids are small and sedentary species with a small breeding areas (Dennis 1992). Some lycaenids such as Aveexcrenota anna (Druce, 1907) can only be found at hilltopping sites at or near the mountain peak as observed in the Cerro San Antonio (2200 m) near the City of Cali, Co lombia (Balint et al. 2006). Similarly, Agriadespyrenaica and Aricia hyacinthus were only captured in in the hilltop areas of flat terrain covered with shrubs at or near Mt. Uludag's peak (2345 m). A. pyraenica is known to be strictly confined to its barren habitat containing the larval host plant Androsace villosa L. (Tolman and Lewington 1997). The local species are more or less confined to restricted areas, which provide the specific resources that they require. Individual populations may be large, but nevertheless, when a species becomes restricted in this way to a limited number of more or less isolated localities, it must be regarded as endangered (Pollard and Yates 1993). Since A. eumedon, P. cornelia and C. trochylus were found at only one or two localities, they are considered to be endangered. A. eumedon specimens were collected in June from subalpine grasslands near a public pienic area while C. trochlyus occurrred from June to September in a garrigue shrubland around fruit orchards. In contrast to these rare species, some local species expanded their habitat ranges and their status changed from local to widespread. These species include P. semiargus, P. amandus and P. bellargus.

Development and implementation of management plans for existing rare colonies of lycaenid butterflies such as A. hyacinthus and P. ossmar olympicus are necessary. Special importance should be given to the protection of essential habitats of lycaenids from adverse development within and outside mountainous areas. Suitable secure habitats should be established for self-sustaining viable populations of lycaenids feeding on endemic host plants as in the tases of L. dispar and L. candens larvae on Rumex species. Very little information on the host plants of lycaenids, which is needed for both conservation and ecological studies, from the world has been published. The occurrence of some lycaenid species may be limited by their habitat and altitude preferences so some lycaenid species may beeome extinct while others can expand their habitat ranges in response to the occurrence of environmental degradation.

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Dr. Zdravko Kolev (University of Helsinki, Finland) and an anonymous reviewer from the Centre for Entomological Studies Ankara (CESA, Turkey) for the revision of an earlier version of the manuscript. The authors also thank Amy Groome for language editing and proofreading of the final draft.

Received: 29-ene-2009 * Aceptado: 6-ago-2009

Cited literature

ACKERY, P. R., DE JONG, R.; VANE-WRIGHT, R. I. 1999. The Butterflies: Hedyloidea, Hesperoidea, and Papilionoidea, pp. 264-300. In: Kristensen, N. P. (Ed.). Lepidoptera: Moths and Butterflies. 1. Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbook of Zoology 4 (35), Lepidoptera. De Gruyter, Berlin and New York.

AKBULUT, S., YUKSEL, B.; KETEN, A. 2003. The Lepidoptera (Insecta) fauna of Duzce province, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology 27: 257-268.

AVCI, U.; OZBEK, H. 1996. Contribution to the knowledge of Rhopalocera (Lepidoptera) fauna of eastern and northeastern Anatolia of Turkey (Families: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Satyridae and Hesperiidae). Turkish Journal of Zootogy 20: 361-373.

BALINT, Z. 1999. Annotated list of type specimens of Polyommatus sensu Eliot of the Natural History Museum, London (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae). Neue Entomologische Nachrichten 46: 1-89.

BALINT, Z. S.; BOYER, P.; DAHNERS, H. W.; SALAZAR-ESCOBAR, J. A.; KERTESZ, K. 2006. Comments on the systematics and natural history ofAveexcrenota, a genus of tate andean Eumaeine Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera). Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 52 (3): 331-352.

BETTI, G. 1989. Contribution a la connaissance des Pamassius d'Anatolie (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae). Linneana Belgica 12: 67-76.

CARBONELL, F. 1992. Contribution a la connaissance du genre Polyommatus en Turquie orientale (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Linneana Belgica 13: 221-235.

CARBONELL, F. 2003. Agrodiaetus antidolus pertekensis n. ssp., de Turquie orientale, et A. morgani sanandajensis n. ssp., de l'ouest de l'Iran (Lep., Lycaenidae). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France 108: 445-446.

CARBONELL, F.; BREVIGNON, C. 1983. Notes sur les Lepidopteres de la Turquie du sud a Paques. Alexanor 13: 50-53.

CARTER, D. 1982. Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe. Pan, London.

DE LATTIN, G. 1950. Turkiye kelebekleri hakkinda I. Istanbul Universitesi Fen Fakultesi Mecmuasi B 15:301-331.

DE PRINS, W. 2004. Fauna Europaea: Lycaenidae. Fauna Europaea version 1.3. http://www.faunaeur.org. Last review date: [19 April 2007].

DENNIS, R. L. H. 1992. The Ecology of Butterfiies in Britain. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 368 p.

DENNIS, R. L. H. 2004. Just how important are structural elements as habitat components. Indications from a declining lycaenid butterfly with priority conservation status. Journal of Insect Conservation 8: 37-45.

EMMET, A. M.; HEATH J. 1990. The butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. Harley Books, Colchester. 370 p.

FIEDLER, K. 1996. Host-plant relationships of lycaenid butterflies: large-scale patterns, interactions with plant chemistry, and mutualism with ants. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 80: 259-267.

FOUNTAINE, M. E. 1904. A. "Butterfly Summers" in Asia minor. Entomologist 37: 79-84.

GRAVES, P. P. 1911. A season's collecting at Constantinople in 1911. The Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation 23: 315-318.

GRAVES, P. P. 1912. A. season's collecting at Constantinople in 1911. The Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation 24: 10-12.

GUNEYI, N.; KIRMIZ, A. 1971. Preliminary list of the butterflies of Bursa. Turk Biyoloji Dergisi 21: 89-90.

GUNEYI, N.; UYAR, F. 1972. Ordu Gunduz Kelebeklerinin llkel Listesi. Turk Biyoloji Dergisi 22: 83-84.

HESSELBARTH, G.; VAN OORCHOT, H.; WAGENER S. 1995. Die Tagfalter der Turkei. Selbstverlag Sigbert Wagener, Germany.

HIGGINS, L. G. 1966. Check-List of Turkish butterflies. Entomologist 99: 210-222.

HIGGINS, L. G; RILEY, N. D. 1970. A field guide to the butterflies of Britain and Europe. London: Collins. 370 p.

HIGGINS, L.; HARGREAVES, B.; LHONONE J. 1991. Guide Complet des Papillons d' Europe et d'Afrique du Nord. Delachaux et Niestle S.A., Neuchatel-Paris. 270 p.

HODGSON, J. G. 1993. Commonness and rarity in British butterflies. Journal of Applied Ecology 30: 407-427.

KANSU, I. A. 1961. Turkiye Lepidoptera faunasl icin ilkel liste: I. Bitki Koruma Bulteni. 1 : 3-6.

KANSU, I. A. 1963. Turkiye Lepidoptera faunasl icin ilkel liste: II. Bitki Koruma Bulteni 3: 3-7.

KOCAK, A. O. 1975. New Lepidoptera from Turkey-1. Atalanta (Wurzburg) 6 (1): 24-30.

KOCAK, A. O. 1976. New Lepidoptera from Turkey- III. Atalanta (Wurzburg) 7 (1): 42-46.

KOCAK, A. O. 1989. Notes on the Lepidoptera of Erzurum province (East Turkey). Priamus 5: 73-91.

KOCAK, A. O.; KEMAL, M. 2006. Check-list of the butterflies of Turkey. http://www.members.tripod.com/entlep/Tr.htm Last review date: [15 May 2008]

KOLEV, Z. 2005. Notes on the distribution and ecology of Balkan populations of the Plebeius idas - group (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Phegea 33: 13-22.

KUDRNA, O. 2002. The distribution atlas of European Butterflies. Oedippus, Schweinfurt. 343 p.

LEGG, G. 1978. A note on the diversity of World Lepidoptera (Rhopalocera). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 10: 343-347.

MANN, J. 1862. Verzeichnis der im Jahre 1851 bei Brussa in Kleinasion gesammelten Schmetterlinge. Wiener Entomologische Monatsschrift 6: 356-409.

MANN, J. 1864. Nachtrag zur Schmetterling-Fauna von Brussa. Wiener Entomologische Monatsschrift 8:173-190.

MARTIN, L. A.; PULLIN, A. S. 2004. Host-plant specialisation and habitat restriction in an endangered insect, Lycaena dispar batavus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) I. Larval feeding and oviposition preferences. European Journal of Entomology 101 : 51-56.

OBERTHUR, C. 1872. Catalogue raisonne des Lepidopteres rapportes par M. Theophile Deyrolle de son exploration sciantifique en Asie Mineure. Revue et Magasin de Zoologie Pure et Appliquee 23: 480-488.

OKTEM, N. 1962. Bornova (lzmir) civarlnda yakalanan Gunduz Kelebekleri hakkmda I. Turkiye Biyoloji Dergisi 12: 10-12.

POLLARD, E.; YATES, T. J. 1993. Monitoring butterflies for ecology and conservation. Chapman and Hall, London. 292 p.

RAMIREZ, R. L.; DE ULLOA, P. C.; CONSTANTINO, L. M. 2007. Diversity of diurnal butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea) in Santiago de Cali, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Revista Colombiana de Entomologia 33 (1): 54-63.

ROBBINS, R. K. 1982. How many butterfly species? News of the Lepidopterists' Society 40-41.

STAUDINGER, O. 1878. Lepidopteren-Fauna Kleinasien's. Horae Society of Entomology of Ross 14:129-329.

SENGUN, A.; GUNEY|, N. 1968. Istanbul Gunduz Kelebekleri. Fen Fakultesi Doner Sermaye Basimevi. 78 p.

TOLMAN, T.; LEWINGTON R. 1997. Field guide butterflies of Britain and Europe. Harper Collins Publishers, London. 320 p.

TUZOV, V. K.; BOGDANOV, P. V.; CHURKIN, S. V.; DANTCHENKO, A. V.; DEVYATKIN, A. L.; MURZIN, V. S.; SAMODUROV, G. D.; ZHDANKO, A. B. 2000. Guide to the Butterflies of Russia and Adjacent Territories, Pensoft Publishers, Sofia-Moscow. 580 p.

VAN SWAAY, C. A. M.; WARREN, M. S. 1999. Red Data book of European Butterfties (Rhopalocera). Council of Europe Publishing, Strasbourg. 264 p.

WAGNER, F. 1929. Weiterer Beitrag zur Lepidopteren Fauna iner Anatoliens. Mitteilungen der Munchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 19: 1-28, 57-80, 175-206.

WELLS, S. M., PYLE, R. M.; COLLINS, N. M. 1983. The IUCN Invertebrate Red Data Book. IUCN Gland, Switzerland. 632 p.

ZELLER, P. C. 1847. Verzeichni der vom Professor Dr. Loew in der Turkei und Asien gesammelten Lepidoptera. Isis (Von oken) Jena 1847: 3-29.

ORKUN BARIS KOVANC (1), NIMET SEMA GENCER (2) and BAHATTIN KOVANCI (2)

(1) Uludag University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, Gorukle Campus, 16059, Bursa, Turkey. baris@uludag.edu.tr. Corresponding author.

(2) Uludag University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Proteetion, Gorukle Campus, 16059, Bursa, Turkey.
Table 1. Occurrence, current status, altitudinal range, and
flight period of lycaenid species in Bursa province,
northwestern Turkey, between 1995 and 2006.

Species                             Female      Male        Total

Agriades pyrenaica                     2         16          18
  (Boisduval, 1840)
Aricia agestis ( Denis and            42        119         161
  Schiffermuller, 1775)
A. anteros (Freyer, 1838)             48        164         212
A. eumedon (Esper, 1780)              10         19          29
A. hyacinthus                         25         30          55
  (Herrich-Schaffer, 1847)
Callophrys rubi                       25         32          57
  (Linnaeus, 1758)
Celastrina argiolus                   18         18          36
  (Linnaeus, 1758)
Chilades trochylus                     8         11          19
  (Freyer, 1845)
Cupido osiris (Meigen, 1829)                      3           3
Everes alcetas                         6         13          19
E. argiades (Palas, 1771)             15         32          47
Glaucopsyche alexis                   33         55          88
  (Poda, 1761)
Kretania eurypilus                     3          1           4
  (Freyer, 1851)
Lampides boeticus                      8          9          17
  (Linnaeus, 1767)
Leptotes pirithous                    12         47          59
  (Linnaeus 1767)
Lycaena alciphron                      6         13          19
  (Rottemburg, 1775)
L. candens                                        1           1
  (Herrich-Schaffer, 1844)
L. dispar (Haworth, 1802)              3         18          21
L. phlaeas (Linnaeus, 1761)           57        107         164
L. thersamon (Esper, 1784)            12         14          26
L. tityrus (Poda, 1761 )              34         54          88
L. virgaureae                         14         24          38
  (Linnaeus, 1758)
Neozephyrus quercus                    8         15          23
  (Linnaeus, 1758)
Plebeius argus (Linnaeus,            114        182         296
  1758)
P idas (Linnaeus, 1761)                8         15          23
P sephirus (Frivaldzky,                           6           6
  1835)
Polyommatus semiargus                 14         15          29
  (Rottemburg, 1775)
P. amandus (Schneider, 1792)          10         33          43
P cornelia (Gerhard, 1851)                        9           9
P. dorylas (Denis and                  6         33          39
  Schiffermuller, 1775)
P. icarus (Rottemburg, 1775)         378        430         808
P. thersites (Cantener,                8         11          19
  1835)
P. bellargus (Rottemburg,             30        110         140
  1775)
P. daphnis (Denis and                 36         71          97
  Schiffermuller, 1775)
P. ossmar olympicus                  114         88         202
  (Gerhard, 1853)
P. admetus (Esper, 1785)               7         20          27
P. iphigenia                          19         64          83
  (Herrich-Schaiffer, 1847)
P. menalcas (Freyer, 1837)             1                      1
P. ripartii (Freyer, 1830)                        1           1
Pseudophilotes bavius                  8         28          36
  (Eversmann, 1832)
P. vicrama (Moore, 1865)               3          9          12
Satyrium acaciae                       5          1           6
  (Fabricius, 1787)
S. ilicis (Esper, 1779)               37         97         134
S. spini (Denis and                               1           1
  Schiffermaller, 1775)
S. w-albura (Knoch, 1782)                         1           1
Tarucus balkanica                     11         28          39
  (Freyer, 1844)
Tomates nogelii                                  14          14
  (Herrich Schaffer, 1851)

                                  Occurrence            Status
Species                                *                  **

Agriades pyrenaica                     2                   L
  (Boisduval, 1840)
Aricia agestis ( Denis and            33                   W
  Schiffermuller, 1775)
A. anteros (Freyer, 1838)             33                   W
A. eumedon (Esper, 1780)               1                   L
A. hyacinthus                          4                   L
  (Herrich-Schaffer, 1847)
Callophrys rubi                       19                   W
  (Linnaeus, 1758)
Celastrina argiolus                   18                   W
  (Linnaeus, 1758)
Chilades trochylus                     2                   L
  (Freyer, 1845)
Cupido osiris (Meigen, 1829)           2                   L
Everes alcetas                         8                   L
E. argiades (Palas, 1771)             12                   L
Glaucopsyche alexis                   19                   W
  (Poda, 1761)
Kretania eurypilus                     3                   L
  (Freyer, 1851)
Lampides boeticus                      9                   L
  (Linnaeus, 1767)
Leptotes pirithous                    13                   L
  (Linnaeus 1767)
Lycaena alciphron                      7                   L
  (Rottemburg, 1775)
L. candens                             1                   L
  (Herrich-Schaffer, 1844)
L. dispar (Haworth, 1802)              5                   L
L. phlaeas (Linnaeus, 1761)           47                   W
L. thersamon (Esper, 1784)            12                   L
L. tityrus (Poda, 1761 )              24                   W
L. virgaureae                          9                   L
  (Linnaeus, 1758)
Neozephyrus quercus                    8                   L
  (Linnaeus, 1758)
Plebeius argus (Linnaeus,             33                   W
  1758)
P idas (Linnaeus, 1761)                6                   L
P sephirus (Frivaldzky,                3                   L
  1835)
Polyommatus semiargus                 13                   L
  (Rottemburg, 1775)
P. amandus (Schneider, 1792)          10                   L
P cornelia (Gerhard, 1851)             2                   L
P. dorylas (Denis and                  4                   L
  Schiffermuller, 1775)
P. icarus (Rottemburg, 1775)          70                   W
P. thersites (Cantener,               13                   L
  1835)
P. bellargus (Rottemburg,             23                   W
  1775)
P. daphnis (Denis and                 20                   W
  Schiffermuller, 1775)
P. ossmar olympicus                    7                   L
  (Gerhard, 1853)
P. admetus (Esper, 1785)               5                   L
P. iphigenia                           4                   L
  (Herrich-Schaiffer, 1847)
P. menalcas (Freyer, 1837)             1                   L
P. ripartii (Freyer, 1830)             1                   L
Pseudophilotes bavius                  6                   L
  (Eversmann, 1832)
P. vicrama (Moore, 1865)               6                   L
Satyrium acaciae                       6                   L
  (Fabricius, 1787)
S. ilicis (Esper, 1779)               28                   W
S. spini (Denis and                    1                   L
  Schiffermaller, 1775)
S. w-albura (Knoch, 1782)              1                   L
Tarucus balkanica                      4                   L
  (Freyer, 1844)
Tomates nogelii                        1                   L
  (Herrich Schaffer, 1851)

                                  Altitudinal       Range of flying
Species                              range              months

Agriades pyrenaica                 2000-2200          June-July
  (Boisduval, 1840)
Aricia agestis ( Denis and          15-2000         April-October
  Schiffermuller, 1775)
A. anteros (Freyer, 1838)           40-1430        April-September
A. eumedon (Esper, 1780)             1500                June
A. hyacinthus                      1900-2450         July-August
  (Herrich-Schaffer, 1847)
Callophrys rubi                     15-1100          April-June
  (Linnaeus, 1758)
Celastrina argiolus                 15-1300        April-September
  (Linnaeus, 1758)
Chilades trochylus                  220-625        June-September
  (Freyer, 1845)
Cupido osiris (Meigen, 1829)        450-460           May-July
Everes alcetas                      20-875           May-August
E. argiades (Palas, 1771)          250-1200         May-September
Glaucopsyche alexis                 60-1200          April-June
  (Poda, 1761)
Kretania eurypilus                  180-900           June-July
  (Freyer, 1851)
Lampides boeticus                  300-2000        June-September
  (Linnaeus, 1767)
Leptotes pirithous                  15-1430        July-September
  (Linnaeus 1767)
Lycaena alciphron                  390-1430           June-July
  (Rottemburg, 1775)
L. candens                           1430                July
  (Herrich-Schaffer, 1844)
L. dispar (Haworth, 1802)           250-775          May-August
L. phlaeas (Linnaeus, 1761)         15-2200         April-October
L. thersamon (Esper, 1784)          60-1100         May-September
L. tityrus (Poda, 1761 )           250-1430         April-October
L. virgaureae                      875-1510          June-August
  (Linnaeus, 1758)
Neozephyrus quercus                405-1200        June-September
  (Linnaeus, 1758)
Plebeius argus (Linnaeus,          300-2000          May-August
  1758)
P idas (Linnaeus, 1761)            925-2000           May-July
P sephirus (Frivaldzky,               125             May-June
  1835)
Polyommatus semiargus              125-1200           May-July
  (Rottemburg, 1775)
P. amandus (Schneider, 1792)       560-1430           May-July
P cornelia (Gerhard, 1851)         560-1300              July
P. dorylas (Denis and              1430-2200         July-August
  Schiffermuller, 1775)
P. icarus (Rottemburg, 1775)        15-2400        April-September
P. thersites (Cantener,            125-1430         May-September
  1835)
P. bellargus (Rottemburg,          125-2200         May-September
  1775)
P. daphnis (Denis and              515-2000        June-September
  Schiffermuller, 1775)
P. ossmar olympicus                515-1430        July-September
  (Gerhard, 1853)
P. admetus (Esper, 1785)           300-1050          June-August
P. iphigenia                       1430-2400         July-August
  (Herrich-Schaiffer, 1847)
P. menalcas (Freyer, 1837)           1045                July
P. ripartii (Freyer, 1830)           2200               August
Pseudophilotes bavius               60-1005           May-July
  (Eversmann, 1832)
P. vicrama (Moore, 1865)            125-900           May-July
Satyrium acaciae                    15-1045           June-July
  (Fabricius, 1787)
S. ilicis (Esper, 1779)             14-1430           May-July
S. spini (Denis and                   300                June
  Schiffermaller, 1775)
S. w-albura (Knoch, 1782)            1100                July
Tarucus balkanica                   15-300         April-September
  (Freyer, 1844)
Tomates nogelii                      1200                June
  (Herrich Schaffer, 1851)

* The total number of localities in which particular
lycaenid species occurs among all 81 localities visited.
** W = Widespread, L = local.

Table 2. Temporal distribution of local lycaenid species
according to years and localities, and number of males and
females caught at particular dates in Bursa province,
northwestern Turkey between 1995 and 2006.

Local Species     Year, Date, No. of males/females
                  captured and Locality *

Agriades          2001: 23.06, 10 [male], 1 [female] (14); 19.07,
pyrenaica         2 [male] (13), 1 [female] (14); 2003: 19.06,
                  4 [male] (14)

A. eumedon        2003: 7.06, 1 [male] (17); 19.06, 18 [male],
                  10 [female] (17);

A. hyacinthus     1999: 27.07, 2 [male], 2 [female] (13), 2001:
                  19.07, 5 [male], 1 [female] (13), 1 [male], 1
                  [female] (14), 2 [male] (16); 8.08, 1 [male], 5
                  [female] (13), 4 [male], 1 [female] (14); 16.08,
                  1 [male], 1 [female] (15); 2002 : 13.08, 1 [male]
                  (14); 2003: 23.07, 9 [male], 5 [female] (13),
                  1 [female] (14); 13.08. l [male], 5 [female]
                  (13); 2004: 13.08, 3 [male], 3 [female] (13)

Chilades          2002: 6.08, 1 [male] (39); 20.09, 10 [male],
trochylus         7 [female] (39); 2004: 29.07, 1 [male] (40)

Cupido osiris     2004: 10.06, 1 [male] (73); 2006: 22.05,
                  1 [male] (53); 25.07, 1 [male] (53)

Everes alcetas    2001: 5.05, 1 [male] (22); 14.07, 2 [female]
                  (29); 23.08, 1 [male], 1 [female] (30); 28.08,
                  2 [male], 2 [female] (34), 1 [male] (36); 2002:
                  3.06,1 [male] (59); 2003: 26.07, 3 [male] (29);
                  9.08, 1 [female] (29), 3 [female] (33); 2006:
                  28.05, 1 [male] (38)

E. argiades       2001: 23.06, 1 [male] (29); 28.08, 5 [male] (27),
                  2 [male] (28), 8 [male], 2 [female] (29), 2
                  [male], 1 [female] (30), 1 [male] (31); 31.08,
                  2 [male], 1 [female] (35), 2 [male] (36); 6.09,
                  1 [male], 1 [female], (24); 9.09, 1 [male],
                  2 [female] (25); 2003: 17.05, 1 [female] (10);
                  15, 06, 1 [male], 3 [female] (28); 5.07, 1 [male]
                  (20); 26.07, 2 [female] (28), 1 [male] (29), 1
                  [male] (33); 9.08, 1 [male] (28), 1 [male] (33);
                  23.08, 2 [male] (29); 2006: 24.08, 1 [female] (25)

Kretania          2000:27.07.1 [female] (35); 2003:17.07,
eurypilus         1 [female] (68); 2006: 23.06, 1 [male],
                  1 [female] (53)

Lampides          2001: 9.06, 1 [male] (30); 30.06, 1 [male] (22);
boeticus          14.07, 1 [female] (29), 1 [male] (30); 4.08, 1
                  [male] (10); 8.08, 1 [male] (13); 11.08, 1 [male]
                  (12); 23.08, 1 [female] (30); 28.08, 1 [male], 1
                  [female] (30); 6.09, 1 [male] (24); 9.09, 1 [male]
                  (29); 2003: 13.07, 1 [female] (29); 9.08, 1 [male]
                  (29); 23.08, 1 [female] (29); 20.08, 1 [female]
                  (74); 2006: 3.07, 1 [male] (38)

Leptotes          2001: 14.07, 3 [male], 1 [female] (29), 1 [male],
pirithous         1 [female] (30); 2.08, 1 [male] (3); 11.08, 1
                  [male] (4), 1 [male] (12); 23.08, 4 [male], 2
                  [female] (30); 28.08, 4 [male] (27), 5 [male]
                  (28), 10 [male] (29), 2 [male], 1 [female] (31);
                  31.08, 2 [male] (28), 1 [female] (33); 6.09, 2
                  [female] (24); 9.09, 1 [female] (23), 4 [male], 2
                  [female] (29); 29.09, 4 [male], 1 [female] (43);
                  2006: 24.08, 2 [male] (25), 3 [male] (32)

Lycaena           2000: 8.07, 1 [male] (7); 2001: 8.07, 1 [male],
alciphron         1 [female] (12); 2003: 7.06, 1 [male] (8); 21.06,
                  1 [female] (8), 1 [female] (20); 5.07, 1 [male]
                  (7); 2004: 10.06, 1 [male] (73); 19.07, 4 [male],
                  1 [female] (73); 2005: 9.07, 1 (7), 1 [female]
                  (12); 2006: 20.06, 2 [male], 1 [female] (5);
                  29.06, 1 [male] (69)

L. candens        1997: 30.07, 1 [male] (12)

L. dispar         1999: 10.06, 1 [male] (28); 2000: 17.05, 1 [male]
                  (27), 3 [male] (28); 25.07, 1 [male] (27); 3.08,
                  1 [male] (29); 2001: 26.05, 2 [male],1 [female]
                  (27); 23.08, 1 [male] (28); 2003: 1.06, 2 [male],
                  1 [female[ (28), 1 [male] (30); 15.06, 1 [male]
                  (28); 26.07, 1 [male] (28); 03.08, 1 [male] (23);
                  9.08, 1 [male] (30); 23.08, 1 [male], 1 [female]
                  (30)

L. thersamon      1998 : 14.08, 1 [female] (65); 2000: 15.07, 1
                  [female] (7) 2001: 21.07, 1 [male] (7); 23.08, 3
                  [male], 2 [female] (27), 3 [male] (33); 1.09, 1
                  [male] (8); 9.09, 1 [female] (29); 2003: 20.05, 1
                  [male] (61) ; 28.08, 1 [female] (25), 1 [male]
                  (28), l [male], 1 [female] (29); 30.08, 1 [female]
                  (7); 2004: 8.07, 1 [female] (68); 2005: 6.06, 1
                  [male], 2 [female] (80); 2006: 29.06, 1 [male]
                  (66); 5.07, 2 [female] (80)

L. virgaureae     1995: 13.08, 1 [male] (17); 10.07, 1 [female]
                  (12); 17.07, 1 [male] (7), 3 [male] (10); 25.07,
                  1 [male] (7); 1 [male] (12); 2000: 15.07, 1
                  [female] (7); 2001: 8.07, 1 [male] (6), 3 [male]
                  (7); 21.07, 1 [female] (7); 4.08, 1 [female] (12);
                  2003: 30.05, 1 [female] (7); 22.06, 1 [male] (12);
                  5.07, 2 [male] (7), 1 [male] (8); 13.07.2 [male]
                  (17); 19.07, 1 [male] (7), 3 [male] (12); 22.07,
                  1 [male] (7); 2.08, 1 [female] (12); 21.08, 2
                  [female] (12); 25.08, 4 [female] (19); 30.08, 1
                  [male] (8); 2004: 14.08, 1 [female] ( 31); 2005:
                  9.07, 1 [male] (7) 2006: 24.08, 1 [female] (2)

Neozephyrus       1997: 25.07, 1 [male] (6), 1 [male] (7), 1 [male]
quercus           (10); 2.08, 1 [female] (10); 1998: 1.08, 3 [male]
                  (8); 2003: 19.07, 1 [male] (9); 23.07, [female]
                  (9); 2.08, 2 [male] (9); 16.08, 3 [male] (4);
                  2004: 9.07,1 [female] (73); 2005: 6.06, 1 [male]
                  (71); 3.08, 4 [male], 2 [female] (76); 8.09,
                  [male] (73)

Polyommatus       2000: 4.06, 1 [male] (8); 21.06, 1 [male] (23);
semiargus         2001: 17.05, 2 [male] (64); 18.5, 1 [female] (13);
                  22.05, 1 [male] (64); 1.06, 1 [male] (7); 8.07, 1
                  [female] (6); 2003 : 23.05, 1 [male] (68); 29.05,
                  1 [male] (64); 2.06, 1 [female] (64); 16.06, 1
                  [male] (67); 2006: 30.05, 1 [male], 1 [female]
                  (73); 3.06, 1 [male] (4), 1 [male] (10); 6.06, 3
                  [male], 7 [female] (66); 15.06, 2 [male] (66),
                  24.06, 1 [female] (76)

P. amandus        1997: 21.06, 1 [female] (7); 28.06, 4 [male]
                  (10); 3.07, 2 [male], 1 [female] (10); 10.07, 1
                  [male] (10); 1999: 29.05, 1 [male] (12); 2000:
                  31.05, 3 [male] (29); 4.06, 2 [male] (10); 17.06,
                  1 [male], 1 [female] (8); 2001: 26.05, 1 [male]
                  (30); 1.06, 1 [female] (7); 23.06, 1 [male] (10);
                  2003: 7.06, 1 [male] (8); 2004: 5.06, 1 [female]
                  (8); 10.06, 1 [male] (70) 2005: 7.06, 2 [male], 2
                  [female] (10); 10.06, 2 [male] (71); 25.06, 1
                  [male] (8) 2006: 30.05, 3 [male] (71); 3 [male]
                  (73); 3.06, 4 [male], 1 [female] (10); 20.06, 2
                  [male] (5)

P cornelia        2003: 19.07, 5 [male] (11 ); 26.07, 4 [male] (29)

P. dorylas        2001: 19.07, 1 [male] (13), 1 [male] (14); 4.08,
                  1 [female] (12); 8.08, 1 [male] (13), 2 [male]
                  (14); 28.08, 1 [male] (31); 2002: 13.08, 1 [male],
                  l [female], (13); 9 [male], 1 [female] (14); 2003:
                  23.07, 5 [male], 1 [female] (13); 13.08, 1
                  [female] (13), 10 [male], 1 [female] (14); 2004:
                  13.08, 1 [male] (13), 1 [male] (14)

P. thersites      1998: 10.06, 1 [female] (1); 2001: 4.08, 1 [male]
                  (11); 18.08, 2 [male] (12); 25.08, 2 [male] (7);
                  30.08, 1 [male] (20); 9.09, 1 [male] (25); 1
                  [female] (38); 2003: 3.07, 1 [male] (64), 1 [male]
                  (68); 2004: 27.07, 1 [male] (81); 2005: 10.05, 2
                  [female] (80); 2006: 28.05, 1 [female] (38):
                  20.06, 1 [female] (5), 23.06, 2 [male], 1 [female]
                  (53); 5.07, 1 [female] (80)

P. ossmar         1997: 2.08, l [male], 1 [female] (12); 1999: 7.08,
                  3 [male], 1 [female] (12); 2001: 26.07, 1 [male],
                  1 [female] (12); 4.08, 4 [male], 8 [female] (11);
                  4 [male], 4 [female] (12); 11.08, 1 [male], 2
                  [female] (12); 18.08, 3 [male], 5 [female] (11),
                  5 [male], 3 [female] (12); 28.08, 1 [male], 2
                  [female] (31); 30.08, 1 [male], 5 [female] (10);
                  1.09, 1 [female] (9); 2003: 19.07, 1 [male], 1
                  [female] (11), 2 [male], 1 [female] (12); 22.07,
                  6 [male], 6 [female] (11), 1 [male] (12); 2.08,
                  5 [male], 11 [female] (11), 14 [male], 12 [female]
                  (12); 9.08, 1 [female] (25), 3 [male], 1 [female]
                  (31); 16.08, 20 [male], 30 [female] (12); 21.08,
                  7 [male], 9 [female] (12); 23.08, 1 [male], 4
                  [female] (31), 3 [male] (34); 29.08, 5 [female]
                  (23); 2004: 14.08, 1 [male] (31)

P. admetus        2001: 30.06, 1 [male] (22); 18.08, 1 [female]
                  (9); 2003: 13.07, 1 [female] (22); 2006: 23.06, 2
                  [male], 1 [female] (53); 23.07, 11 [male], 1
                  [female] (38); 25.07, 4 [male], 2 [female] (53);
                  27.07, 2 [male], 1 [female] (40)

P. iphigenia      1997: 19.07, 1 [male] (13); 1999: 27.07, 1 [male]
                  (13); 2000: 13.08, 1 [male] (13); 2001:19.07, 1
                  [male] (12), 1 [male], 1 [female] (13), 26.07, 1
                  [male] (12); 8.08, 5 [male], 3 [female] (13), 5
                  [male], 2 [female] (14);16.08, 2 [male], 1
                  [female] (14), 1 [male], 1 [female], (15); 2002:
                  13.08, 1 [male], 1 [female] (13); 8 [male], 1
                  [female] (14); 2003: 23.07, 4 [male] (13); 13.08
                  3 [male], 4 [female] (13); 20 [male], 3 [female]
                  (14); 25.08, 2 [male], 2 [female] (14); 2004:
                  13.08, 5 [male] (13), 2 [female] (14)

P. menalcas       2001: 21.07, 1 [female] (8)

P. ripartii       2001: 8.08, 1 [male] (14)

Pseudophilotes    2001: 22.05, 1 [male] (64); 18.06, 4 [male], 1
bavius            [female] (64); 25.06, 1 [male], 1 [female] (64);
                  28.06, 1 [male] (64); 6.07, 1 [male] (64), 1
                  [male], 1 [female] (65); 2002: 6.08, 1 [female]
                  (44); 2003:11.06, 10 [male] (64); 23.06, 5 [male],
                  1 [female] (64); 2.07, 2 [male], 1 [female] (64);
                  5.07, 1 [male] (20); 2006 : 7.06, 1 [female] (80);
                  23.06, 1 [male], 1 [female] (53)

P. vicrama        2001: 30.05, 1 [male] (64); 2003: 11.05, 2 [male]
                  (22); 15.06, 1 [male] (35); 2004: 9.07.1 [male]
                  (73); 2006: 7.06, 3 [male], 1 [female] (80);
                  23.06, 1 [male], 2 [female] (53)

P. idas           1997 : 17.07, 2 [male] (7), 1 [male] (8); 2000:
                  22.05, 1 [male] (10); 4.06, 2 [male] (10); 2001:
                  23.6, 1 [male] (10); 8.07, 3 [male] (10); 2003:
                  7.06, 1 [male] (4); 19.07, 1 [male] 4 [female]
                  (12); 23.07, 2 [male] (7), 1 [male], 3 [female]
                  (12); 23.07, 1 [female] (13)

P sephirus        2003: 7.05, 1 [male] (64); 2006 : 23.06, 4 [male]
                  (53), 1 [male] (54)

Satyrium          2000: 16.06, 1 [female] (65); 21.06, 1 [female]
acaciae           (29); 1.07, 1 [male] (8); 2001: 1.06, 1 [female]
                  (64); 8.06, 1 [female] (63); 2003: 5.07,
                  1 [female] (20)

S. spini          2003: 15.06, 1 [male] (22)

S. w-albura       2003: 19.07, 1 [male] (7)

Tarucus           2001: 27.04, 2 [male], 1 [female] (64); 22.05, 2
balkanica         [male] (64); 30.05, 2 [male] (64); 8.06, 1 [male]
                  (63); 18.06, 1 [male] (64); 13.07, 2 [male], 3
                  [female] (63); 17.08.2 [male] (64); 2003: 4.06, 6
                  [male] (63); 11.06, 1 [male] (64); 23.06, 4 [male]
                  (64); 28.06, 2 [male] (64); 13.07, 1 [female]
                  (22); 2004: 12.05, 1 [female] (64); 2006: 7.06, 2
                  [male], 4 [female] (80); 5.07, 1 [male], 1
                  [female] (80)

Tomates nogelii   2006: 20.06, 14 [male] (1)

* Locality numbers are noted in parentheses.
COPYRIGHT 2009 Sociedad Colombiana de Entomologia
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2009 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Baris Kovanci, Orkun; Sema Gencer, Nimet; Kovanci, Bahattin
Publication:Revista Colombiana de Entomologia
Date:Jul 1, 2009
Words:7207
Previous Article:Los subgeneros Calhyboma, Hybomidium y Telhyboma (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Deltochilum) en Colombia.
Next Article:La arquitectura de nidos de Euglossa (Euglossa) hemichlora (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini).
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2021 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters