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Letter from the editor.

Welcome to this Special Issue of the International Journal of Entrepreneurship. We are extremely pleased to be able to present this issue to you as a vehicle for those whom we do not ordinarily reach with our communication.

In this Special Issue, the President of Allied Academies asked Dr. Ndubisi to allow us to publish two articles of his, so that we might benefit from his insight. We have also published another paper in this series by the authors, Chandra and Fealey, upon international issues to allow the journal to be published this year.

The theme of this special issue of the International Journal of Entrepreneurship is "Entrepreneurship and Strategy". Entrepreneurial ventures and small and medium businesses in general are gaining more and more prominence in both academic and practitioner literature. This is primarily because of the important contributions of this sector in the world economy and the respective economies of the nations of the world. We also witness the strong impact of these business ventures and their online counterparts on the new global economy. The success of entrepreneurial ventures alone earns them the right of place in the research priorities of academics and the policy makers' development agenda. In this special issue, the authors look at the strategies adopted by entrepreneurial firms in competing in the new global environment. Seven papers are featured in this issue.

The first paper by Perks looks at the factors that influence the choice of international market entry mode by European entrepreneurs. His research addresses the various influences on the internationalization mode of entry strategies of entrepreneurs through in-depth interviews with owner entrepreneurs of medium-sized firms in four European countries. The study found that the most important influences on international market entry mode (IMEM) decisions were the personal preferences and mindset of the entrepreneur, the nature of the product and their priority of being close to and in direct contact with their customers. However, industry globalization, resource limitations and national culture had only a limited influence on the entrepreneur's international market entry mode decision making.

The first paper by Ndubisi and Nair looks at green entrepreneurship and how they add value. They argue that green entrepreneurship is critical for the successful development of green value added because of its flexibility, propensity to take calculated risks, innovative orientation and perseverance while facing challenges. They explain that innovations generally add value, but at the same time they are prone to failure, thus making it risky. It calls for perseverance in seeking acceptance and desired outcomes. It demands an innovative, flexible, risk-taking and persistent entrepreneur to create value adding green innovations. To them, a green value added needs synergic blend of all the above entrepreneurial traits to be effective.

The third paper by Oksanen and Rilla examines how Finish entrepreneurs compete through innovations. Through the use of questionnaire survey and semi-structured interviews Finish entrepreneurial firms were studied. They found that innovation has been crucial factor for existence of business at the first instance. Moreover identification of market niche and customer needs turns out to be the most important source for innovation among companies. Increase in profitability and competitiveness emerge as the most beneficial impacts of innovation in all companies but also new contacts and co-operation that arise in the process of innovative activity are highly valued, especially in micro firms. They noted that despite the importance of innovation, small entrepreneurial firms also face number of challenges hampering commercialisation of a novel idea. These range from obstacles pioneer company encounters in gaining market credibility and acceptance, to lack of business experience in general.

In the fourth article, Sohail and Alashban analyse the product-market strategy and export performance of Saudi's small and medium enterprises. A field survey of 214 SMEs was conducted. The results suggest that product and export market characteristics have an impact on export marketing strategy of SME's in Saudi Arabia. Moreover product characteristics and export market strategy have significant influence on export performance.

In the fifth article, Chandra and Fealey examine the role of government and its impact on incubator strategy in three countries. This paper describes the incubation landscapes of the United States, China and Brazil noting the similarities and differences in incubation approaches between the three countries, with special focus on incubator funding sources and their financial services to their client firms.

The concluding paper for the issue conceptualises how export promotion programmes of governments influence export performance of entrepreneurship directly and indirectly through organisational and management related factors. In the paper, Shamsuddoha, Ali, and Ndubisi adopt the internationalization process theory and resource-based theory to show how EPPs can influence export performance indirectly through organisational and management factors. They submit that the direct (only) linkage between EPPs and export performance commonly observed in extant literature is incomplete and does not show the whole process or full interactions that take place, hence depriving a comprehensive understanding of this process. The new mediated model is considered an advance over the non-mediated model of EPPs-export performance relationship. Enjoy.

Nelson Oly Ndubisi (PhD)

Editor/Director, SME and Entrepreneurship Research Unit
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Author:Ndubisi, Nelson Oly
Publication:International Journal of Entrepreneurship
Article Type:Editorial
Date:Dec 1, 2009
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