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Lemoyne Owen College Memphis, Tennessee. (Western Region).

BINDING INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ARF AND HDM2. April D. Jones, Brian Bothner, and Richard W. Kriwacki, Union University, Jackson, Tennessee (ADJ), and Saint Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (BB, RKW). Hdm2, p53 and Arf form a cell cycle regulatory network that is disrupted in most human cancers. Hdm2 is a negative regulator of p53 mediated cell cycle arrest. In a hyperproliferative cell, Arf acts as a tumor suppressor by binding Hdm2, thus stabilizing p53 leading to cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Understanding the mechanism by which Arf and Hdm2 interact and the role of Hdm2 in the ubiquitination of p53 are important goals of cancer biologists. In this study, we have determined that it is possible to monitor the binding of Arf and Hdm2 using fluorescence spectroscopy. It is known that the Hdm2 RING domain is involved in the degradation of p53. However, its mechanism, as well as the three-dimensional structure, remains unknown. In pursuit of determining the high-resolution structure of the RI NG domain, we developed a method for purifying this domain that retains the native fold.

GENE IDENTIFICATION IN THE LAMINATION OF THE HIPPOCAMPUS OF MICE. Justin Deaton and Dan Goldowitz, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee, and University of Tennessee, Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee. Identifying the gene locus responsible for controlling cell placement and axonal growth in the mouse hippocampus was the focus of this study. Two different strains of mice, one wild-type and one mutant, were used to locate the gene locus. The two species of mice were crossbred to produce recombinant inbreds. These recombinant inbreds were then crossed and the hippocampal tissue of the offspring was studied. The hippocampal tissue of each of these mice was classified as normal, abnormal, or unknown, and the data analyzed through mapping Quantitative Trail Loci and Chi Square analysis. It was found that a gene locus located on Chromosome 14 near marker 185 (l4Mit185) was the likely candidate for controlling cell placement and axonal growth in the mouse hippocampus.

MAPPING THE PURKINJE CELL DEGENERATION (PCD) LOCUS IN MUTANT MICE. Jason Higdon and Jian Zuo, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee, and St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee. Purkinje Cell Degeneration (pcd) is an autosomal recessive mutation in mice that results in degeneration of Purkinje neurons, retinal photoreceptors, mitral cells, and thalamic neurons and also results in male infertility. The region on chromosome 13 where the pcd gene is thought to be located is referred to as the pcd region and is located on chromosome 13. It is approximately 1.5 MB in length and is flanked by two sequence-tagged site (STS) markers, D13MIT157 and D13MITl67. This region was sequenced and found to be syntenic to a region of human chromosome 9. Six known genes are located in this region on human chromosome 9, one of which is likely to be responsible for the pcd mutation. This is a report on the mapping of the pcd region and the comparison of that region to the human genome in order to extr act candidate genes for the pcd mutation. (Supported by NIH Cancer Center Support CORE grant (CA21765), American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities (ALSAC), March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation (#5-FY98-0725 to J.Z.), NIH grants EY12950 and DC-04761 to JZ, and POE-5 R25 CA23944 to JH)

AFFINITY OF HIGH MOBILITY GROUP PROTEIN 1 TO MODIFIED AND NATURAL DNA. Tiffany Baldi, Natalia Krynetskaia, Eugene Krynetski, and W. E. Evans, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee (TB), St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, and University of Tennessee, Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee (NK, EK, WEE). Mercaptopurine treatment leads to the incorporation of thioguanine into DNA ([G.sup.s]-DNA). Specific proteins that trigger apoptosis may recognize this modification. High mobility group I protein (HMGB1) is a non-sequence specific DNA-binding protein, which has a preferential affinity for unusually structured DNA, such as cruciform DNA and cisplatin-modified DNA. The binding of HMGB1 to [G.sup.s]-DNA has been postulated to mediate the antileukemic properties of thiopurines. Using electrophoretic mobility shift analysis, we showed HMGB1-DNA complex formation with cruciform (positive control), normal DNA duplex, mismatched DNA duplexes, and [G.sup.s]-DNA duplexes at steady-state conditions. At low protein c oncentrations (1.67 [micro]M), HMGB1 binds only to [G.sup.s]-DNA giving 1:1 DNA-protein complex (7.24% binding activity). At higher protein concentrations (5-8.33 [micro]M), HMGB1 exists as a multiprotein complex that binds to all DNA types with similar affinity (natural duplex, 66.7-97.42%; mismatched duplex, 52.63--91.17%; [G.sup.s]-duplex, 60.24-97.21% binding activity). (Supported by NIH R37 CA 36401, RO1 CA 78224, and POE-5 R25 CA23944)

CHARACTERIZATION OF TUMOR TISSUES BY ANALYSIS OF DNA CONTENT. Will Brooks, Jerry T. Thornthwaite, and Joe Deweese, Freed-Hardeman University, Henderson, Tennessee. For over 150 years, pathologists have been looking at tumor tissues through microscopes to make subjective decisions about their malignancy. With the use of high resolution Flow Cytometry, a new element of cells may be observed that would otherwise be neglected: DNA content. By simultaneously measuring the nuclear volume of a cell and the mass of DNA present, one can make a quantitative, objective interpretation of a tumor. Tumor samples previously determined to be benign or malignant were studied. A comparison was made between frozen tissue samples and paraffin-embedded samples to determine any adverse effects of a new deparaffination technique on tissue. We report data indicating the usefulness of paraffin-embedded tissues and the importance of DNA content as a prognostic tool in oncology.

THE ROLE OF PKC-[delta] IN CELLULAR RESISTANCE TO AD 445. Shay Carter and Len Lothstein, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee, and University of Tennessee, Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee. N-Benzyladriamycin-14-pivalate (AD 445) is a novel 14-0-acylester anthracycline. The primary mechanism of action does not appear to include damage to DNA or the cytoskeleton. Instead, AD 445 appears to stimulate the apoptotic-signaling pathway through direct activation of PKC-[delta] despite the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. In this study, we determined whether resistance to AD 445 in 32D.3 mouse myeloid cells was due to changes in PKC-[delta]. We found that in resistant cells, the amount of mitochondiral PKC-[delta] decreased, suggesting that AD 445 is less able to trigger mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis by PKC-[delta] activation. (Supported by Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Found.)

MURINE MODEL TO STUDY CISPLATIN (CDDP)-INDUCED OTOTOXICITY. Evgeny Krynetskiy, John Goss, Michael Hood, M. Kirstein, and C. Stewart, Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee (EK, JG), University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee (MH), and St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (MK, CS). CDDP is extensively used in children with brain tumors and solid malignancies because of its antitumor activity. The primary dose-limiting toxicity is ototoxicity, the mechanism of which is poorly understood. To gain a better insight into the mechanism of CDDP-induced ototoxicity we have utilized a murine model. First, we assessed the maximum tolerated CDDP dose in two mice strains: FVB (Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) positive and GFP negative) and NMRI mice. We determined that the [LD.sub.50] was 22 mg/kg for both strains. We established a protocol to analyze murine cochleae after CDDP administration. Utilizing confocal microscopy we have visualized hair cells located in the basal turn of murine cochleae. Cytotoxic effects of CDDP treatment was detected through decrease of fluorescence in hair cells of GFP(+) mice. In GFP(-) mice, hair cell death was evaluated by TUNEL assay. We have established a murine model that allows quantification of CDDP-induced ototoxic effect.

THE ROLE OF POLYAMINES DURING APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN RETINAL PIGMENTED EPLTHELIAL CELL LINES. Patrick D. Briese, Dianna Johnson, and Rajesh Sharma, Christian Brothers University (PDB), Memphis Tennessee, and University of Tennessee, Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee (DJ, RS). The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) overlays the outer segments of photoreceptors in the retina and is required for normal function of retinal neurons. When RPE degenerates due to disease such as age related macular degeneration, the neural retina subsequently dies and visual function is lost. The polyamines, spermidine, spermine, and their precursor putrescine, have been shown to play a role in many cellular functions, including apoptosis. This study examined the effect of polyamines on apoptosis induced by Daunorubicin (DNR), a chemotherapeutic agent that causes DNA fragmentation function and thus induces apoptosis. An immortilized RPE cell line, APRE19, was exposed to different concentrations of DNR in the presence or absence of the polyamine synthesis inhibitor, DL-[alpha]-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). Cells depleted of polyamines by DFMO showed only a slight decrease in apoptosis. However, addition of exogenous polyamines, particularly spermine, both in the presence and absence of DFMO, significantly decreased apoptosis. These results indicate that increased levels of polyamines may protect against apoptotic cell death in RPE. (Supported by the Crane Research Fellowship (PB), NIH RO1-1655, and Research to Prevent Blindness (DJ))

SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF VITAMIN E AND VITAMIN C IN CELL PROLIFERATION. Carrie Coleman, Christie Sexton, and Hao Nguyen, University of Tennessee, Martin, Tennessee. Vitamin E has been shown to be an effective chemopreventive agent against various carcinogens. It scavenges free radicals and active oxygens that may cause many pathophysiological conditions, including inflammation, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer. However, high concentrations of vitamin E also are toxic to the cell. The oxidized form of vitamin E can be regenerated by a variety of agents, including selenium and vitamin C; therefore, vitamin E will still be effective at much lower concentrations when coupled with such agents. We report the synergistic effect of vitamins E and C in mouse fibroblasts that have been mitogenically induced to hyperproliferate by tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Identification of the formation of foci in tissue culture and immunoblots against cyclooxygenase-2 were the methods used to determine the anti-proliferative , thereby chemopreventive, activity of the vitamins.

COMPARISON OF CAMPS HAYO-WENT-HA AND ARBUTUS/HAYO-WENT-HA HEALTH CENTER ACTIVITY Lawrence LeBlond and Elizabeth Tolley, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee, and University of Tennessee, Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee. This study determined Health Center (HC) activity at the boy's, Hayo-Went-Ha, and girl's, Arbutus/Hayo-Went-Ha, YMCA summer camps in Michigan and provide recommendations on areas of concern to improve the camper's summer camp HC experience. Three years' worth of data was examined from camp health records and comparisons made between both camps in: total activity per day and time and type of concerns brought before the HCs. Similar trends in overall times of the day that the HCs were visited and days of the session were discovered. The boy's camp had higher incidences of medication administration and poison ivy while the girl's camp saw higher raters in most other areas examined. Recommendations to the both camps include better education and supervision to prevent contraction and incid ences of medical concerns. Further analysis of the "other medical" category needs to be undertaken. (Supported by YMCA Camps Hayo-Went-Ha and State YMCA of Michigan)

THE RELATIONSHIP OF SMOKING HISTORY WITH HEALTH STATUS OF BLACK AND WHITE NURSING HOME RESIDENTS. Jana Pierini, V. F. Engle, M. J. Graney, and M. E. C. Fitzgerald, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee (JP, MCEF), and University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee (VFE, MJG). This study investigated relationships among smoking history (ever smoked; pack-years), health status, gender, and race in 930 Black and White nursing home residents. Residents were interviewed using the Minimum Data Set during their first 2 weeks following admission to two safety-net nursing homes. Data were analyzed using SPSS co-relational techniques. White or male residents had greater tobacco exposure. For all residents, there was a positive relationship of smoking history with male gender, better mental status and function, COPD, and cancer. Compared to men, women's smoking history was positively related to depression, disruptive behavior, stroke, and self-ratings of being more alert and less tired. Wo men's smoking history was negatively related to dementia. Compared to White residents, Black residents' smoking history was positively related to cancer and chewing problems, and inversely related to Body Mass Index. (Supported by NIH NINR)

STUDENTS' PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS RELATING TO THEIR PERCEPTIONS OF GOOD TEACHERS. Wendy Brown, Tracey Keel, and Lee McBee, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee. For years, people have studied and written about what it takes to be a good teacher. In this study, we sought to determine whether a relationship existed between a student's personality and their perceptions of a good teacher. Scores from 83 students from Christian Brothers University on a survey of the Christian Brothers "Twelve Virtues of a Good Teacher" were correlated with the students' scores on the BFI54 (Big Five) personality inventory. The twelve virtues were printed in a circular as a guide to being a quality teacher. According to the circular, this teacher should be respectful, reflective, honest, understanding, knowledgeable, patient, even-tempered, moral, passionate, optimistic, spiritual, and generous. The Big Five, or extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness, are seen as key chara cteristics used to define one's personality. Seven significant correlations were found between the Big Five personality traits and the twelve virtues.

SOCIAL BEHAVIOR IN AN ALL-MALE GORILLA GROUP AT THE MEMPHIS ZOO AND AQUARIUM. Shanna Wall, Chris Kuhar, Meghan Carr, and John Ouellette, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee (SW), Zoo Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia (CK), and Memphis Zoo and Aquarium, Memphis, Tennessee (MC, JO). The arrangement of family units of captive gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) with one silverback male, several adult females, and their progeny is designed to mimic natural group structures and encourage species-typical behavior. However, current numbers of male and female gorillas in captivity are roughly equal, so many male gorillas cannot be kept in typical family groups. The only acceptable alternative to most zoo officials is the formation of all-male gorilla groups, which have been observed in wild populations of mountain gorillas. As part of a larger study headed by Zoo Atlanta, the behavioral profiles of three western lowland gorillas on display at the Memphis Zoo and Aquarium, Memphis, Tennessee, were examined in the hopes o f providing insight into the longevity of their housing arrangement. Scan data indicate no social affiliative or solitary play behaviors, and the predominant proximity pattern for all three individuals was "far distant," indicating low overall cohesiveness within the group. All-occurrence data show low incidence of contact aggression and displace behavior. However, the most common social interaction was non-contact aggression. This information may be used in future management decisions if it is later decided that this group should be separated. (Supported by Memphis Zoo and Aquarium)

SELF-GROOMING IN PRAIRIE VOLES. Jerry O. Wolff, Matthew H. Watson, and Shawn A. Thomas, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee. Self-grooming by mammals is a form of scent dissemination in which individuals anoint themselves with salivary, anogenital, and other body odors. Self-grooming has been proposed to be a sexually selected trait favored in reproductive competition and sexual attraction. We tested the hypothesis that females would show a mating preference for males that self-groomed more than a reproductive competitor that groomed less. In mate-choice experiments in which females had a choice of two tethered males, non pair-bonded females copulated the most with males that groomed the least. In a second experiment in which pair-bonded females in postpartum oestrus had access to their current mate and two strange males, strange males groomed significantly more than pair-bonded mates, yet attained the fewest copulations. Non pair-bonded females and pair-bonded males and females groomed significantl y less often than did non pair-bonded males and females. Self-grooming behavior was consistent with the sexual attraction hypothesis, but the frequency of self-grooming did not increase a male's mating success. Self-grooming may occur, in part, out of frustration or anxiety of not having access to a prospective mate. We conclude that the frequency and time spent self-grooming are not good predictors of mating success. The frequency of self-grooming, and other forms of scent dissemination, may be used as criteria in mate choice, but are not sufficient to predict male mating success.

CONTRIBUTION OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR RESEARCH TO CONSERVATION BIOLOGY. Kelly B. McIntyre, Guillermo Paz-y-Mino C, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee. Behavioral research encompasses the study of the physiological and sensory mechanisms that control behavior, the development or ontogeny of behavior, and the function and evolution of behavior. Conservation biologists have debated about these paradigms for decades, at times not realizing their discussions have contributed directly or indirectly to the area of animal behavior and conservation. To assess the relevance of behavioral paradigms in conservation studies, we examined 576 articles (n = 1442) published in the journal Conservation Biology from 1987 (when CB was created) to 2001. The majority of these studies were empirical, conducted in the field, and included terrestrial vertebrates. Paradigms most commonly addressed in these studies were: dispersal and settlement, reproductive behavior and social organization, species interactions, foraging/feeding and pollination, genetic variability and behavior cognition, behavioral endocrinology and physiology, communication, and behavioral evolution. These paradigms have helped biologists to understand and alleviate habitat destruction, biodiversity loss, and ecosystem restoration.

THE ROLE OF INTRINSIC/EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION ON RECYCLING BEHAVIOR. Angela Devould, Tracey Mulligan, David Walters, and April Himel, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee. The purpose of our study was to determine if there was a relationship between recycling and intrinsic/extrinsic motivation. Seventy-eight Christian Brothers University undergraduate students participated in our study. The Work Preference Inventory was used to determine the degree to which students perceive themselves to be intrinsically or extrinsically motivated. A recycling survey was used to measure attitudes towards recycling. The results indicated that people who are intrinsically motivated are more likely to recycle if encouraged by family and friends. People who are extrinsically motivated are more likely to recycle if given money or rewards. Most of the participants stated that education plays a vital role in recycling behavior. This suggests that the best way to encourage recycling is to educate the public and give steps on how we can improve recycling behavior.

MECHANICAL RESPONSE OF THE CANINE HEART DURING BLOOD PRESSURE COLLAPSE PRODUCED BY WEAK ELECTRICAL PULSES. Stuart Johnston, Brent Hoffmeister, and Robert Malkin, Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee (SJ, BH), and University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee (RM). Weak AC electrical currents have been shown to produce blood pressure collapse in both human and animal studies. This study tests the hypothesis that such currents produce pressure collapse by disrupting the organized mechanical activity of the heart. Three canine subjects were used for this study. A pacing catheter was placed in the right ventricle of the heart and used to deliver weak electrical pulses ranging between 10-1000 [micro]A. During stimulation two dimensional ultrasound images of the left ventricle were captured and saved to videotape for analysis. The frequency of the mechanical response of the heart was compared to the electrical stimulating frequency. Our results indicated a strong correlation, showing that mechanical responses occurred on ce for every 1, 2, or 4 electrical pulses, depending on pulse frequency. This suggests highly organized mechanical activity during blood pressure collapse episodes.

USE OF MODELING TO EVALUATE CHANGES IN THE CEREBROVASCULAR ACTIVITY. Roberto Young, University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee. Patients with severe head injury tend to develop secondary complications that can result in further brain injury. Therapeutic options used in management are based on assumed functional pressure autoregulation, the brain's capacity to maintain a relatively constant blood flow in spite of changes in blood pressure. However, the application of these therapies to patients with impaired autoregulation could cause further brain injury. The purpose of this work was to explore the development of a method to determine the status of autoregulation by examining the relationship between clinical pressure recordings and a proposed analogue electrical circuit model for brain pressure dynamics.

DEVELOPMENT OF CABLE DE-RATING DATA BASE. Kristin Britt, Sean Whitt, Lisa Thron, and Tomeka Scruggs, University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee. Utility companies utilize many planning tools to provide economical, reliable, and safe electric energy to consumers. As a community grows, its electrical network expands. A major concern for utility companies is cable de-rating. This decrease in conductor capacity is caused by heat generated from current flowing through underground cables. Memphis Light, Gas, and Water uses co-op students to determine the de-rated value of underground cables so that customers are provided with properly sized conductors. A computer program is used to identify overloaded areas. From duct maps, students input information including the spacing between and the number of primary and secondary cables in each duct bank in the downtown Memphis area. Once problem areas are identified, they can be corrected and the integrity of the grid is maintained.

GALOIS FIELDS AND PUBLIC-KEY ENCRYPTION. Chris Meador, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee. The now-commonplace RSA encryption algorithm relies on big prime numbers alone; the next generation in public-key cryptography has basis in finite fields (or "Galois" fields). Attention, computer hackers of tomorrow: Now is the time to study abstract algebra. My discussion introduces the audience to the "state of the art" in Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC), including an overview of the mathematical topics involved (my discussion should be accessible to anyone with basic knowledge of algebra), and debates the merits and drawbacks of ECC with RSA.

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF CHLORINATED PESTICIDE RESIDUES FROM URBAN SOIL. R. L. Aquadro, Richard Redfearn, Charles Stinemetz, and Carol Ekstrom, Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee. The soil along the creek bed of Cypress Creek in North Memphis has been shown to have significant residues of such chlorinated pesticides as aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, chlordane, and heptachlor. The deposition of these pesticides occurred decades ago, yet they still persist in this urban environment. We have isolated these and related compounds from a soil sample taken from a plain adjacent to the creek channel, and attempted to isolate the same compounds from plant sources growing in the same area. Evidence for the degradation and/or metabolism of the pesticide species has been inferred from these studies.

MOLECULAR CHROMATOGRAPHY IN DENSE-PHASE CARBON DIOXIDE. Denis Okumu, Phillip Wells, and Jon Parcher, LeMoyne-Owen College, Memphis, Tennessee (DO), and The University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi (PW, JP). This is a technique that aims to achieve chromatographic separations in chromatographic columns devoid of stationary phases. Normally, no separation would be expected in such a system since all the solutes would spend the same amount of time in the mobile phase and elute at the same time. However, results in our laboratory indicate that under certain conditions of temperature, pressure, and density, it is possible to achieve solute resolutions in such columns. [CO.sub.2] has properties that make it suitable as a mobile phase in this investigation. It has a critical temperature, critical pressure, and critical density that are easily accessible using modern chromatographic equipment. Above its critical point, [CO.sub.2] has density and solvating power approaching that of a liquid, but viscosity si milar to that of a gas, and diffusivity intermediate between those of a gas and liquid. The exact retention mechanisms involved in the separations observed is/are not clear. Certain conditions, however, seem to be necessary, if not always sufficient, for the resolution of mixtures in empty columns.

DUAL ENERGY CONTRAST ENHANCED X-RAY IMAGING USING GADOLINIUM AS AN AGENT. Ben Evans, Gunnar Lovhoiden, and Herbert Zeman, Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee (BE), and University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tennessee (GL, HZ). Heavy elements such as gadolinium are convenient as contrast agents for X-ray imaging because they readily absorb radiation at a particular energy in the X-ray spectrum. Dual energy imaging exploits this property by exposing the object and contrast agent to radiation specifically designed to be of slightly higher and lower energies than the absorption level of the contrast agent. This creates two images: one exhibiting a high absorption and prominence of the contrast agent, and the other with low absorption and low prominence. The images can be digitally subtracted to remove the background and leave only the contrast agent. The goal of this project was to design an apparatus to produce the desired X-ray energies and demonstrate dual energy subtraction with gadolinium in a phantom and a live a nimal.

EFFECT OF A NEURAMINIDASE INHIBITOR ON INFLUENZA AND PNEUMOCOCCAL SYNERGISM. Kimberly Bartmess and Jon McCullers, Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee, and St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee. A lethal synergism exists between influenza virus and pneumococcus, accounting for excess mortality in humans. Utilizing a recently developed mouse model, it was determined that the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir reduces morbidity and mortality from secondary bacterial pneumonia following influenza. Groups of mice were infected with low dose mouse adapted influenza followed pneumococcus. Treatment for 5 days with water or oseltamivir began either 4 h before the onset of influenza (prophylaxis) or 48 h after (treatment). Survival was significantly prolonged in both the prophylaxis and treatment groups compared to controls, despite no significant reduction in viral or bacterial titers in the treatment group compared to controls. These data indicate that oseltamivir can interrupt the lethal synergi sm between influenza virus and pneumococcus by a mechanism independent of total viral titer in the lung. This finding has important implications for the prevention of secondary bacterial infections in humans through treatment of influenza, even in cases where no impact on viral replication or clinical symptoms is expected.

A POPULATION GENETICS STUDY OF ESTERASE-4 AND BODY COLOR IN THE BOLL WEEVIL, ANTHONOMUS GRANDIS. Candice L Johnson, Charles J. Biggers, and Melvin L. Beck, University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee. Allozymic variation at the esterase-4 locus and body color polymorphism were examined in populations of the boll weevil. Changes in gene frequencies in boll weevil populations would indicate the influence of environmental factors such as intensive insecticide treatment. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole body squashes of weevils revealed two codominant alleles, Est-[4.sup.f] and Est-[4.sup.s], at the esterase-4 locus. No significant differences in esterase-4 allelic frequencies occurred between two laboratory populations. Body color polymorphism was examined in seven counties in western Tennessee. Three color morphs (ebony, bronze, and red) were found. Body color showed deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations in some counties.

PRODUCTION OF ESTERASE 4 DURING THE ANTHONOMIS GRANDIS BOH. LIFE CYCLE. Melita Smith, Union University, Jackson, Tennessee. Esterase 4 was surveyed in the various life stages of the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomis grandis Boh. The production of esterase 4 during the life cycle of the cotton boll weevil was examined using 7.5% native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Ten [micro]1 of whole body squashes were run at 100 volts for two h and then stained with various substrates to demonstrate esterase activity. Two codominant alleles occurred at the esterase 4 locus, one of which was labeled Est[4.sup.f] (for fast) and the other Est[4.sup.s] (for slow). Esterase 4 was present during the larval and adult stages, but was absent during the pupal stage.Newly emerged adults did not exhibit esterase 4 activity until they were at least one day old. Thus, polyacrylamide gels analysis revealed a qualitative profile of esterase 4 that varied among the life cycle stages of the cotton boll weevil.

QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP MODEL OF RAT ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTOR AGONISTS. C. B. Duke and A. L. Parrill, University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee. A number of agonists for the rat adenosine A1 G-protein-coupled receptor with previously experimentally measured binding affinities were chosen for their varying affinities and structures to create a quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model which was then tested for accuracy. These agonists make up the training set. The structures were characterized by a series of quantitative descriptors that were then ordered in terms of relationship to binding affinity. The descriptors that were the most correlated to binding were worked into an equation or model that described the binding of the ligand to the receptor. A test of the model on the training set gave an [r.sup.2] = 0.901 and cross validation gave [r.sup.2] = 0.839. The model was then applied to a second, smaller test set of ligands with varying binding affinities and geometries in a ttempt to reproduce their known binding affinities. An accurate and precise model would aid traditional structure activity relationship (SAR) studies by reducing random testing of compounds and giving faster leads to novel selective agonistic ligands.

CREATING AN ANATOMICAL MODEL OF LEVATOR PALPEBRAE PREMOTOR NETWORKS IN THE RAT BRAIN BY DEFINING FIRST, SECOND, AND HIGHER-ORDER LEVATOR PALPEBRAE AFFERENTS WITH TRANSNEURAL TRACERS. Janelle Meeks and Mark LeDoux, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee, and University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tennessee. The purpose of this study was to identify neurons within a projection pathway for the levator palpebrae (LP) muscle of the eye. To identify the neurons, pseudorabies virus (PRV) was injected into the LP muscle of eight SpragueDawley rats (250-350 g) using a 31-gauge needle and micro syringe. The rats were allowed to live for three to five days to allow the virus to be absorbed into the brain. The rats were sacrificed, and the brain and spinal cord were removed and cut on a cryostat. Using immunohistochemistry, the neurons that absorbed the PRV were labeled using an ABC kit and a DAB kit. All slides were then examined under a microscope for the presence of neurons. The data collected suggests the nerve s that innervated the LP muscle of the eye project from the oculomotor nucleus of the midbrain region of the rat brain.

DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER AS A MODEL FOR FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME. Dayan A. Perera and Stan Eisen, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee. Three strains of Drosophila melanogaster were used to test the effects of alcohol on fecundity, adult hatch weight, and alcohol dehydrogenase concentrations. The liquid fraction of the medium had levels of ethanol ranging from 0-8%. The CHPD strain has a genetic mutation that induces increased sensitivity to alcohol among the adults, while its y-control strain (G-22) does not. The third strain was a wild-type control purchased from Carolina Biological Supply Company. Flies hatching from each vial were sexed, counted, and weighed on a periodical basis and tested for alcohol dehydrogenase. The CHPD, G-22, and Carolina wild-type strains showed evidence of alcohol dehydrogenase induction. The CHPD strains also had a smaller number of individuals hatching, and they had a lesser individual mass, compared to the other two strains. All strains showed a steady decline in the number of individuals collected as the concentration of ethanol in the medium was increased.

LEUKOCYTE ADHESION MOLECULES IN WOMEN WITH PREECLAMPSIA. Rebekah K. Meadows, Jeffrey Livingston, and Robert Ahokas, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Roanoke, Virginia, and University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tennessee. A clinical trial was designed to study the relationship between the magnitudes of leukocyte responses to the severity of preeclampsia. Fifty-six consenting patients from the Regional Medical Center at Memphis and the University of Tennessee OBGYN clinic were included in the sample; 19 preeclamptic patients, 17 pregnant controls, and 20 non-pregnant controls. Statistical analysis indicated significant differences, P value < 0.50, between preeclamptic patients and non-pregnant controls as well as between pregnant controls and non-pregnant controls in instances of white blood cell count, % lymphocytes, and % neutrophils. However, there was no significant difference between preeclamptic subjects and pregnant controls with any of the criteria investigated. These results illustrate that an exaggerated inflammatory response does not appear to be either the result of preeclampsia nor its severity. Thus, pregnancy itself results in an exaggerated inflammatory response. Further studies are needed to determine the nature of this pregnancy induced heightened inflammatory response.

HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 70 IN PREGNANCY AND PREECLAMPSIA. Reem Awwad, Robert Ahokas, and Jeff Livingston, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee, University of Tennessee, Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee, and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Roanoke, Virginia. Preeclampsia is a primary cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. There is no test or cure for preeclampsia. A means of early detection of this disease would be beneficial. Heat shock protein 70 (hsp 70) is a marker for cellular stress. Our hypothesis is that since preeclampsia is associated with oxidative stress, then inducible hsp70 may be increased in preeclampsia. Maternal blood was collected from women with severe preeclampsia (n = 47) matched for delivery gestational age to normotensive pregnant controls (n = 51). Hsp70 concentrations were measured by standard ELISA techniques. Data were statistically analyzed by a Student t test and Chi square test. There were no statistical differences in the mean concentrations of hsp70 between wom en with severe preeclampsia and the normotensive pregnant controls (35.4 + 96.7 vs. 30.1 + 11.5, P = 0.80). From our data we conclude that hsp70 concentrations were not elevated in women with severe preeclampsia. Further studies with non-pregnant age-matched individuals might show differences during pregnancy significantly, per se. (Supported by NIH- R07-0124-18-001-01, Memphis McNair Program)

EVALUATION OF MAGNESIUM SULFATE EFFICACY FOR THE PREVENTION OF ECLAMPTIC CONVULSIONS IN MILD PREECLAMPTIC WOMEN. Elizabeth A. Lendermon and Jeffrey C. Livingston, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee, University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tennessee, and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Roanoke, Virginia. A randomized clinical trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of magnesium sulfate prophylaxis for prevention of eclamptic seizure in mild preeclamptic patients and to evaluate the drug's adverse effects associated with uterine relaxation. Consenting patients who met study characteristics were randomized to receive either magnesium sulfate or placebo. A total of 222 patients comprised the sample, 109 of which received magnesium sulfate and 113 of which received placebo. No patient experienced an eclarnptic convulsion, and statistical analysis of outcome revealed no significant difference between groups in terms of progression to severe preeclampsia (P = 0.41) or cesarean section rate (P = 0.35). These results suggest the possibility that seizure prophylaxis may not be needed in the mild preeclamptic patient, and indicate that magnesium sulfate does not alter progression from mild to severe disease. In addition, the results provide evidence against the association of magnesium sulfate with increased cesarean section rate. It is concluded that further investigation seeking to demonstrate the need for seizure prophylaxis in mild preeclamptic patients is needed. In addition, clinical evidence of a reduction in eclamptic convulsions due to magnesium sulfate prophylaxis in a much larger sample size is also necessary if the routine use of the drug is to be justified.

RAPID DECALCIFICATION OF VERTEBRAE AND INTERVERTEBRAL DISKS PROVIDING IMPROVED MORPHOLOGY AND ANTIGENICITY Jennifer Tzefakes and Sharon Frase, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee, and University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee. Multiple types of calcified tissue have created problems for morphological studies due to the length of traditional protocols and the typical acidic environments of decalcifying solutions. In this study, pig vertebrae and intervertebral disks were decalcified in a short period of time in ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), a chelating agent, using a temperature controlled laboratory microwave. The purpose of this study was to determine a technique for rapid decalcification while preserving morphology and antigenicity. Some vertebrae and disks were traditionally decalcified, not exposed to microwave irradiation, to serve as a comparison. The use of the laboratory microwave was the only variable; fixation and processing of the tissue followed routine protocols. Throug h light microscopy observations, the cellular integrity of the tissue exposed in the microwave was equal to or better than the cellular integrity of the tissue exposed to traditional decalcification. The time needed to process tissue was greatly reduced (h as opposed to weeks). Thus, shorter time in the decalcifying solution improves antigenicity. These data provide groundwork for individuals interested in immunocytochemistry of bone and bone matrix. (Supported by IM Center)

EVALUATION OF KORDON BREATHING BAGS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF FISH. Jennifer Hoskinson and Bill Simco, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee, and University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee. Kordon Breathing Bags were evaluated for transportation of fish. Traditional transportation bags contain an oxygen atmosphere with a minimum amount of water. Fish may become stressed and even die as the oxygen levels decrease in transport. Fish also may become stressed due to the "sloshing" movement of water. Kordon Breathing Bags are made of a type of ethylene plastic that allows oxygen to diffuse into and carbon dioxide out of the bag. This should lower fish stress level by preventing oxygen depletion and keeping the fish in an all water environment. Two different sizes of Kordon Breathing Bags containing two different densities of fish were compared with traditional shipping bags for 48 and 72-h intervals. Oxygen concentrations remained high and carbon dioxide low in the Breathing Bags, but only if the amount of fish to surface area ratio was kept low.

LEG GROWTH AND ALLOMETRY IN TARANTULAS. Alan Jaslow and Andi Lynch, Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee. Only a limited amount of research has been done investigating allometry or scaling in spiders. We used tarantulas as a representative model because of their large size range. Their periodic molts enabled us to accurately measure segment lengths without handling the live individuals. We explored the developmental relationship between body parts and body size measured by cephalothorax length across seven species. In most cases, we found no evidence for allometry, and no distinctive pattern was found in the growth rates of leg segments.

EFFECTS OF CHYTRID FUNGUS ON LIFE HISTORY TRAITS IN LARVAL HYLA VERSICOLOR. Tenitia Hobson and Matthew Parris, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee, and University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee. The effects of exposure to a Chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis was observed on tadpole development in Hyla versi-color, a species of frog native to the Memphis, Tennessee area. Larvae obtained from field collected egg masses were raised in artificial ponds, and exposed to the Chytrid via an infected adult frog. Survival, body mass, and larval period length were the responses observed to determine tadpole fitness. Presence of a predator was found to have a negative effect on survival. Density and presence of disease both had a negative effect on survival. Disease X predator combination had a negative effect on larval period length. Overall, density, disease, and disease X predator combination had effects on tadpole development. The presence of disease alone did not have a significant effect o n all aspects of tadpole development, although presence of disease in combination with other factors often did, and was also dependent on the structure of the individual community.

CORRELATIONS BETWEEN LEAF EPIDERMAL FEATURES AND AMPHISTOMATY IN SALIX SPECIES, Jasmine V. Ware and Ranessa L. Cooper, University of Tennessee, Martin, Martin, Tennessee. Amphistomaty is characterized by evenly distributed stomata on both upper (adaxial) and lower (abaxial) leaf surfaces; it has been shown to be an adaptation to high light conditions. Amphistomatic leaves occur in two willows, Salix turnorii and S. planifolia ssp. tyrrellii, from the Athabasca sand dunes in Canada. In this study, the leaf epidermal features, cuticle thickness and overall leaf thickness, were investigated in relation to amphistomatic leaves. These data were gathered from leaf cross-sections using light microscopy. By examining correlations between amphistomaty and leaf thickness, as well as amphistomaty and cuticle thickness, attempts can be made to more clearly understand the functional significance of amphistomatic leaves in Salix.
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Publication:Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science
Geographic Code:1U6TN
Date:Jul 1, 2002
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