Printer Friendly

Leaf indumentum in some Turkish species of Teucrium (Lamiaceae).


Teucrium L. belong to the Lamiaceae family is a well-known, wide-distributed and also one of the largest genus with more than 260 species distributed all around the world. (Kastner 1989; Abu-Assab and Cantino 1993). Mediterranean region, the center of diversity of the genus, has about 96% of all taxa (Cantino et al. 1992; Navarro and El Oualidi 2000).

Teucrium species have been divided into ten sections all over the world regarding their calyx shapes and the inflorescence structures (McClintock and Epling 1946; Tutin and Wood 1972). These are the sections: sect. Teucriopsis Benth., sect. Teucrium, sect. Chamaedrys Miller Schreber, sect. Polium Miller Schreber, sect. Isotriodon Boissier, sect. Pycnobotrys Bentham, sect. Scorodonia (Hill) Schreber, sect. Stachyobotrys Bentham, sect. Scordium Reichenbach, and sect. Spinularia Boissier. The species of the Teucriopsis and Pycnobotrys sections are not distributed in Turkey. (Ekim 1982). The eight sections of the genus, consist of 49 taxa (36 species) and 18 of them endemic are naturally grown in Turkey (Govaerts 1999; Duman 2000; Donmez 2006; Parolly and Eren 2007; Donmez et al. 2010; Dinc et al. 2011, Dirmenci 2012; Ozcan et al. 2015; Vural et al. 2015; Dinc and Dogu 2016).

Teucrium sirnakense Ozcan and Dirmenci (endemic) and T. scordium L. subsp. scordium (Sect. Scordium), T. Andrusi Post (endemic) and T. chasmophyticum Rech. f. (Sect. Isotriodon and T. spinosum L. (Sect. Spinularia) were examined in this study. Sect. Scordium has toothed leaves, rectangular stems, subgibbous calyces and subequal calyx teeth, and Sect. Isotriodon has dentate or entire leaves, terete stems, gibbous and bilabiate calyces. Sect. Spinularia is quite different than these two sections. T. spinosum is the only annual species in the Turkish Teucrium, and has resupinate corolla according to Flora of Turkey (Ekim 1982).

Teucrium species has traditionally been used in Turkey for abdominal pain, antidiabetic, antipyretic, stomachache, common cold, high fever and rheumatic pain (Aksoy-Sagirli et al. 2015).

Plant trichomes are important to descriptive and experimental botanists and data about them and their indumenta are routinely included in many studies. Many authors, such as Behnke (1984); Navarro and El Oualidi (2000); Beyrouthy et al. (2009); Moon et al. (2009); Kaya et al. 2012; Khalik and Hassan (2012); Osman (2012); Ecevit-Genc et al. (2017); Genc et al. (2017); Zareh et al. (2017) emphasize the importance of trichomes in taxonomy.

In many genera of Lamiaceae, the trichome morphology is very useful for the classification of all taxonomic levels (Marin et al. 1994; Navarro and El Oualidi 2000; Moon et al. 2009; Salmaki et al. 2009; Ecevit-Genc et al. 2015, 2017).

Trichomes are widely distributed over the different parts of the Lamiaceae genus and they are generally distinguished as glandular and non-glandular trichomes. Micromorphological features, especially trichomes, are avaiable taxonomic characters in Teucrium. Trichomes have an important role in the infrageneric classification of the genus. There have been many studies on the trichomes of Teucrium species in recent years (Navarro and El Oualidi 2000; Grubesic et al. 2007; Dinc et al. 2011; Eshratifar et al. 2011; Dogu et al. 2013, Ecevit et al. 2015, 2017).

The main purposes of this paper are to provide a detailed description of the leaf micromorphology of five Teucrium species belonging to three different sections.


The material was collected from different localities in Turkey by the authors. Voucher specimens have been deposited in the ISTE. A list of taxa included in the study was given in Table 1.

For the micromorphological study, the materials were obtained from collected specimens and micromorphological investigations were conducted using scanning electron microscope (SEM). For SEM analysis, leaves parts were mounted on the stubs and coated with gold layer. They were studied with a scanning electron microscope (FEI Quanta 450 FEG-EDS). All leaves were scanned from adaxial and abaxial surfaces. Terminology of the indumenta on leaves were based on Navarro and El Oualidi (2000), (Table 2).


The micromorphological characteristics and distribution of the trichomes on leaves of five Teucrium taxa were examined in this study. Different type of indumentum shows considerable among species (Table 3). SEM micrographs of all indumentum types are presented in Figure 1.

In the sect. Scordium, T. scordium subsp. scordium leaves have sparsely B, C1 and C2 trichome types on both surface, although T. sirnakense leaves have A1, A2, B type glandular trichomes and C2 and C3 non-glandular trichomes on the adaxial and abaxial surface. Dense indumentum appears on the abaxial surface than the adaxial surface of this species leaves (Figure 1).

In the Sect. Isotriodon, T. chasmophyticum has A1, B, D trichome types on both surface of the leaves. The lower surface of the leaf has a much denser indumentum than the upper surface (Figure 1). T. andrusi has A1, A2, B, C2, C3 trichome types adaxial and abaxial surface of the leaves. Dense indumentum appears on both surface of the leaves (Figure 1). Teucrium spinosum belongs the sect. Spinularia, A2, B, C2 trichome types are observed at the abaxial surface of leaves; A2, B, C3 trichome types were found on the adaxial surface of leaves (Figure 1).


Trichome morphology is the useful taxonomic markers in some genera of Lamiaceae. Their absence or presence can be used as taxonomic characters in the infrageneric classification of some genera (Metcalfe and Chalk 1950; Navarro and El Oualidi 2000; Moon et al. 2009). For the classification of trichome in Teucrium, distinction into thin and thick-walled provides taxonomic support to the delimitation of the species, could be regarded as a valid taxonomic character (Navarro and El Oualidi; Eshratifar et al. 2011; Ecevit-Genc et al. 2015, Ecevit-Genc et al. 2017).

As a result of our work, seven trichome types were observed in five species belong to three different section of Teucrium (Table 2). The trichome types located on the adaxial and abaxial sides of leaves are same except T. spinosum. Among them subsessile glandular trichomes are most widespread in all taxa examined. Clavate glandular trichomes are generally found all of the species except T. scordium subsp. scordium. 2-celled thick-wall non-glandular trichomes are common trichome types but only T. chasmophyticum have thin-wall nonglandular trichome. In this work, the leaves trichome micromorphology of T. sirnakense, T. chasmophytum are reported in detail by SEM for the first time.

Many studies have been presented about leaves indumentum of Teucrium species. For example, 56 Teucrium species related to the nine sections were investigated by Navarro and El Oualidi (2000). The authors analyzed five species of the sect. Spinularia including T. spinosum and they found different trichome types between species. According to their results, T. spinosum has flexuose and elongated thin-walled non-glandular trichomes and subsessile glandular trichomes. In addition to this species, long clavate glandular and large thin-walled non-glandular trichome types were identified in this study. The author have investigated four species of sect. Isotriodon. Thick-walled non-glandular and long clavate glandular trichomes are most common trichomes and flexuose and elongated thin-walled trichome types are less frequent in this section according to Navorro and El Oualidi (2000). But elongated 5-7(8)-celled thick-wall non-glandular trichomes was not observed on any taxa of studied in this study. Also long clavate glandular trichomes were not observed on T. chasmophytum.

We have observed subsessile glandular trichomes and large thin-walled non-glandular trichomes on T. scordium subsp. scordium leaves. The other subspecies of T. scordium subsp. scordioides leaves indumentum was investigated many previous studies and long clavate glandular trichomes, subsessile glandular trichomes and flexuose and elongated thin-walled non-glandular trichomes were found by Navorro and El Oualidi (2000) and Ecevit-Genc et al. (2017). Peltate, capitate acicular and flagelliform trichome types were found by Jurisic Grubesic et al. (2007). According to all these findings trichome types are show some differences between two subspecies.

T. scordium investigated morpho-anatomically by Lakusic et al. (2010) from Balkan peninsula and they found glandular (peltate, unicellular capitate, multicellular capitate), and non-glandular (unicellular unbranched, multicellular unbranched) trichomes on the leaves of this species. But the unicellular trichomes were not observed on the leaves of T. scordium subsp. scordium in this study.

Clavate glandular trichomes are ordinarily observed on the leaves of taxa of sect. Isotriodon by our team's previous paper (Ecevit-Genc et al. 2017). The results of this study about the species of the sect. Isotriodon are overlapped with the previous study of our team. T. andrusi leaves were examined by Dinc et al. (2011) and their results are corresponding to our results.

This paper gives detailed information on the micromorphological features of the T. spinosum, T. scordium subsp. scordium, T. sirnakense, T. chasmophytum and T. andrusi species. We concluded that trichome types are useful for specific delimitation of Teucrium species. However, micromorphological features must be supported by other morphological, molecular, biogeographical characters.


This work was supported by the Research Fund of Istanbul University (Project number 31081) and Research Fund of Balikesir University (Project number 2012/8).


* Abu-Assab MS, Cantino PD, (1993). Phylogenetic implications of pollen morphology in tribe Ajugeae (Labiatae). Syst Bot 18: 100-122.

* Aksoy-Sagirli, Ozsoy N, Ecevit-Genc G, Melikoglu G (2015). In vitro antioxidant activity, cyclooxygenase-2, thioredoxin reductase inhibition and DNA protection properties of Teucrium sandrasicum L. Ind Crop Prod 74: 545-550.

* Behnke HD (1984). Plant trichomes, structure and ultrastructure. In: Rodriguez E, Healey PL, Metha I (eds.). Biology and chemistry of plant trichomes. Plenum Press, New York. pp. 1-21.

* Beyrouthy EM, Arnold-Apostolides N, Dupont F (2009). Trichomes morphology of six Lebanese species of Stachys (Lamiaceae). Flora Medit 19: 129-139.

* Cantino PD, Harley RM, Wagstaff SJ (1992). Genera of Labiatae: Status and Classification. In: Harley RM, Reynolds T (eds.). Advances in Labiate Science. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp. 511-522.

* Dinc M, Dogu S, (2016). Teucrium pruinosum var. aksarayense var. nov. (Lamiaceae) from Central Anatolia, Turkey. Modern Phytomorphology 9: 13-17.

* Dinc M, Dogu S, Bagci Y (2011). Taxonomic reinstatement of Teucrium andrusi from T. paederotoides based on morphological and anatomical evidences. Nord J Bot 29: 148-158.

* Dinc M, Dogu S, Bilgili B, Duran A (2009). Comparative anatomical and micromorphological studies on Teucrium creticum and Teucrium orientale var. orientale (Teucrium sect. Teucrium, Lamiaceae). Nord J Bot 27: 251-256.

* Dirmenci T (2012). Teucrium L. In: Guner A, Aslan S, Ekim T, Vural M, Babac MT (eds.). Turkiye Bitkileri Listesi (Damarli Bitkiler). Nezahat Gokyigit Botanik Bahcesi ve Flora Arastirmalari Dernegi Yayini, Istanbul, pp. 595-598.

* Dogu S, Dinc M, Kaya A, Demirci B (2013). Taxonomic status of the subspecies of Teucrium lamiifolium in Turkey: Reevaluation based on macro-and micro-morphology, anatomy and chemistry. Nord J Bot 31: 198-207.

* Donmez AA (2006). Teucrium chasmophyticum Rech. f. (Lamiaceae): A new record for the flora of Turkey. Turk J Bot 30: 317-320.

* Donmez AA, Mutlu B, Ozcelik AD (2010). Teucrium melissoides Boiss. and Hausskn. ex Boiss. (Lamiaceae): A new record for Flora of Turkey. Hacettepe J Biology and Chemistry 38: 291-294.

* Duman H (2000). Teucrium L. In: Guner A, Ozhatay N, Ekim T, Baser KHC (eds.). Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands, Vol 11, Edinburg University Press, Edinburgh, pp. 197-198.

* Ecevit-Genc G, Ozcan T, Dirmenci T (2015). Micromorphological characters on nutlet and leaf indumentum of Teucrium sect. Teucrium (Lamiaceae) in Turkey. Turk J Bot 39: 439-448.

* Ecevit-Genc G, Ozcan T, Dirmenci T (2017). Nutlet and leaf micromorphology in some Turkish species of Teucrium L. (Lamiaceae). Phytotaxa 321: 71-82.

* Ekim T (1982). Teucrium L. In: Davis, PH, (eds.). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands islands, Vol 7, Edinburg University Press, Edinburgh, pp. 53-75.

* Eshratifar M, Attar F, Mahdigholi K (2011). Micromorphological studies on nutlet and leaf indumentum of genus Teucrium L. (Lamiaceae) in Iran. Turk J Bot 35: 25-35.

* Genc I, Kultur S, Ecevit-Genc G (2017). Capsule, leaf and gland morphology of Turkish perennial taxa of Euphorbia L. section Pithyusa (raf.) Lazoro. Trakya J Natural Sciences 19: 11-19. Govaerts R, (1999). World Checklist Seed Plants 3. Continental Publishing, Deurne.

* Grubesic RJ, Vladimir-Knezevic S, Kremer D, Kalodera Z, Vukovic J (2007). Trichome micromorphology in Teucrium (Lamiaceae) species growing in Croatia. Biologia 62: 148-156.

* Jurisic Grubesic RJ, Vladimir-Knezevic S, Kremer D, Kalodera Z, Vukovic J (2007). Trichome micromorphology in Teucrium (Lamiaceae) species growing in Croatia. Biologia 62: 148-156.

* Kastner A (1989). Ubersicht zur systematischen gliederung der gattung Teucrium L. Biocosme Mesogeen 6: 63-77.

* Kaya A, Satil F, Dirmenci T, Selvi S (2012). Trichome micromorphology in Turkish species of Ziziphora (Lamiaceae) Nord J Bot 30: 1-8.

* Khalik KA, Hassan NMS (2012). Seed and trichome morphology of the Egyptian Fagonia (Zygophyllaceae) with emphasis on their systematic implications. Nord J Bot 30: 116-126.

* Lakusic B, Stevanovic B, Jancic R, Lakusic D (2010). Habitat-related adaptations in morphology and anatomy of Teucrium (Lamiaceae) species from the Balkan peninsula. Flora 205: 633-646.

* Marin PD, Petkovic B, Duletic S (1994). Nutlet sculpturing of selected Teucrium species (Lamiaceae): a character of taxonomic significance. Plant Syst Evol 192: 199-214.

* McClintock E, Epling C (1946). A revision of Teucrium in the new world, with observations on its variation, geographical distribution and history. Brittonia 5: 491-510.

* Metcalfe CR, Chalk L (1950). Anatomy of the Dicotyledons, Vol. 2, Oxford Press, UK:

* Moon HK, Hong SP, Smets E, Huysmans S (2009). Phylogenetic significance of leaf micromorphology and anatomy in the tribe Mentheae (Nepetoideae: Lamiaceae). Flora 205: 633-264631.

* Navarro T, El Oualidi J (2000). Trichome morphology in Teucrium L. (Labiatae) a taxonomic review. An Jardin Bot Madrid 57: 277-297.

* Osman AK (2012). Trichome micromorphology of Egyptian Ballota (Lamiaceae) with emphasis on its systematic implication. Pak J Bot 44: 33-46.

* Ozcan T, Dirmenci T, Coskun F, Akcicek E, Guner O (2015). A new species of Teucrium sect. Scordium (Lamiaceae) from SE of Turkey. Turk J Bot 39: 310-317.

* Parolly G, Eren O (eds.) (2007). Contributions to the flora of Turkey, 2. Willdenowia 37: 243-271.

* Salmaki Y, Zarre S, Jamzad Z, Brauchler C (2009). Trichome micromorphology of Iranian Stachys (Lamiaceae) with emphasis on its systematic implication Flora 204: 371-381

* Tutin TG, Wood D (1972). Teucrium L. In: Heywood, VH, Burges, NA, Moore, DM, Valentine, DH, Walters, SM, Webb, DA (eds.). Flora Europaea, Vol. 3, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

* Vural M, Duman H, Dirmenci T, Ozcan T (2015). A new species of Teucrium sect. Stachyobotrys (Lamiaceae) from the south of Turkey. Turk J Bot 30: 318-324.

* Zareh M, Faried A, Farghaly N (2017). Micromorphological studies on the genus Lotus L. (Fabaceae: Loteae) from Egypt. Turk J Bot 41: 273-288.

Gulay Ecevit-Genc (1*) [iD], Taner Ozcan (2) [iD], Tuncay Dirmenci (2) [iD]

(1) Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istanbul University, Beyazit, 34452, Istanbul, Turkey

(2) Department of Biology Education, Faculty of Necatibey Education, Balikesir University, 10145, Balikesir, Turkey

Address for Correspondence: Gulay Ecevit-Genc, e-mail:

Received: 04.01.2018

Accepted: 05.03.2018

ORCID IDs of the authors: G.E.G. 0000-0002-1441-7427, T.O. 0000-0003-1683-7297, T.D. 0000-0003-3038-6904.

Cite this article as: Ecevit-Genc G, Ozcan T, Dirmenci T. Leaf indumentum in some Turkish species of Teucrium (Lamiaceae). Istanbul J Pharm 48 (1): 6-11.

DOI: 10.5152/IstanbulJPharm.2018.374759
Table 1. Collection data of Teucrium taxa studied.

Taxon                        Collection data

T. scordium subsp. scordium  Edirne, Ipsala border gate, 01.viii.2014,
                             T.Dirmenci, ISTE 101 691
T. sirnakense                Sirnak, Tasdelen village, rocky slopes,
                   , T.Dirmenci, E.Akcicek,
                             O.Guner, ISTE 101 694
T. chasmophyticum            Siirt, Between Eruh-Golgelikonak village,
                   , T.Dirmenci, E.Akcicek, O.Guner,
                             ISTE 101 711
T. andrusi                   Mardin, Bakirkiri hill, cliffs,,
                             T.Ozcan, M.Acar, ISTE 101 712
T. spinosum                  Diyarbakir, Diyarbakir-Ergani roadsides,
                   , T.Dirmenci, E.Akcicek, O.Guner,
                             ISTE 101 719

ISTE: Herbarium of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Istanbul University

Table 2. Trichome types (Navarro and El Oualidi 2000)

                Glandular trichomes
A   Clavate glandular trichomes
A1  Short clavate glandular trichomes. Generally with two, large and
    thin stalk cells.
A2  Long clavate glandular trichomes. Generally with long 3-5 stalk
B   Subsessile glandular trichomes, peltate trichomes

              Non-glandular trichomes
C   Thin-walled trichomes
C1  Triangular, large and very thin -walled unicellular hairs.
C2  Large, thin-walled, 2(5)-celled trichomes which are acute apical
    cell. Internodes have ridges or marked.
C3  Flexuose and elongated, 3-7(11)-celled trichomes, with internodes
    distinct, the apical cell acute with micro-papillae.
D   Short and slightly conical, generally 2-celled thick-walled
    trichomes which are pointed short or elongated apical cell, erect or
    sometimes slightly curved.

Table 3. Trichome types and distribution on the adaxial-abaxial leaf
surfaces of studied Teucrium taxa

Section     Taxon              Leaves trichomes
                               (According toNavarro & El Oualidi 2000)
                                Adaxial surface    Abaxial surface

Scordium    T. scordium            B, C1, C2          B, C1, C2
            subsp. scordium
            T. sirnakense      A1, A2, B, C2, C3  A1, A2, B, C2, C3
Isotrion    T. chasmophyticum      A1, B, D           A1, B, D
            T. andrusi         A1, A2, B, C2, C3  A1, A2, B, C2, C3
Spinularia  T. spinosum            A2, B, C2          A2, B, C3
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2018 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Ecevit-Genc, Gulay; Ozcan, Taner; Dirmenci, Tuncay
Publication:Journal of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Istanbul University
Date:Apr 1, 2018
Previous Article:The anatomical properties of Scabiosa atropurpurea L. (Caprifoliaceae).
Next Article:Purification and partial characterization of thioredoxin reductase from the hepatopancreas of the mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2022 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |