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Lead and zinc levels in Scomberomorus guttatus, Scomberomorus commerson and Otolithes ruber from Hendijan, Iran.

Introduction

The Persian Gulf is located in the south and south east of Iran with average area and depth of 240,000 km2 and 35 m, respectively. The Persian Gulf is characterized by warm and saline water and is a shallow sea such as the Baltic and North Sea. The depth of the Persian Gulf decreases from east to west with maximum depth of 90 m in the strait of Hormoze [15, 2]. Marine organisms, in general, accumulate contaminants from the environment and therefore have been broadly used in marine pollution monitoring studies. Heavy metals discharged into the marine environment can damage both marine species diversity and ecosystems, due to their toxicity and accumulative behaviour [31].

Heavy metal pollution of aquatic environment has become a great concern in recent years. HMs can have toxic effects on organs [17]. Heavy metals have the tendency to accumulate in various organs of marine organisms, especially fish, which in turn may enter into the human metabolism through consumption causing serious health hazards. Iron, copper, zinc and manganese are essential metals while, mercury, lead and cadmium are toxic metals [6]. Heavy metals still play an important role as pollutants affecting aquatic systems [21]. Some of the metals found in the fish might be essential as they play important role in biological system of the fish as well as in human being, some of them may also be toxic as might cause a serious damage in human health even in trace amount at a certain limit. The common heavy metals that are found in fish include copper, iron, copper, zinc and manganese, mercury, lead and cadmium [25, 6, 13, 23]. Toxic elements can be very harmful even at low concentration when ingested over a long time period. The essential metals can also produce toxic effects when the metal intake is excessively elevated [7, 30].

Lead finds its way in waters through the discharge of industrial waste waters, such as from painting, dyeing, battery manufacturing units and oil refineries etc. Pb also enters the rivers both from terrestrial sources and atmosphere and the atmospheric input of Pb aerosols can be substantial [22]. Lead enters into the body with gill cells and especially is accumulated in gills and the later aim organs are liver and muscle [29]. Although, Zinc usually is accumulated in bone, skin, liver, gill and kidney are accumulated the great amount of them [7].

This matter that, importance of the heavy metals measuring relat to two important subjects which are aquatics ecosystem management and human helth, the present study was carried out to determine the level of Lead and zinc in liver and muscle samples of Scomberomorus guttatus, Scomberomorus commerson and Otolithes ruber from Hendijan Port areas, located on the north of Persian Gulf. Both city have direct connection to Persian Gulf. The fish and fish products for the people in those ports are generally catched and carried by local vehicles from the Persian Gulf. It should be noted that fish species are considered to be an heavy metals part of the diet in the region. No data exist on Zinc and Lead levels in this fish from mentioned areas.

Material and Methods

Sampling:

The Scomberomorus guttatus, Scomberomorus commerson and Otolithes ruber in this study were collected 72 samples by local fisherman from the north Persian Gulf (Iran, Hendijan port 30[degrees]14' 14" N, 49[degrees] 28' 37" E). took place twice in 2001 and 2011. After capture, fishes were placed in plastic bags and transported to the laboratory in freezer bags with ice. samples were cut into pieces and labeled, and then all sampling procedures were carried out according to internationally recognized guidelines [35]. Total fish weight and length were measured to the millomete and gram.

Apparatus:

A Perkin-Elmer, model 4100 ZL atomic absorption spectrophotometer, equipped with a GTA Graphite furnace, was used. Pyrolytic-coated graphite tubes with a platform were used and signals were measured as peak areas. The instrument setting and furnace programmes for analysis of Zinc and Lead metals are described in table 2.

Reagents:

All reagents were of analytical reagent grade unless otherwise stated. Double distilled water was used for the preparation of solution. All the plastic and glass ware were soaked in nitric acid for 15 min and rinsed with deionized water before use. The stock solutions of metals (1000 [mgl.sup.-1]) were obtained by dissolving appropriate salts of the corresponding metals (E. merk) and further diluted prior to use. High purity Argon was used as inert gasted prior to use.

Chemical analyses (Wet-ashing):

The samples were solubilized using high-pressure decomposition vessels, commonly known as a digestion bomb. A sample (1gr) was placed in to Teflon container and 5 ml of concentrated HN[O.sub.3] was added. The system was heated to 130[degrees]C for 90 min and finally diluted to 25 ml with deionized water. The sample solution was clear. A blank digest was carried out in the same way. Zinc and Lead metals were determined against aqueous standards.

Statistical analysis:

Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was run for all the collected data for fish samples different using SPSS (16 version) computer programs. Mean values of each parameter were compared using Fisher's protected least tests with significance levels of 5% were conducted on each metal to test for significant differences between sites (Table 3 and 4). All statistical analyses were conducted using the Office Excel 2003 software package.

Results and Discussion

Concentration levels of metals Zn and Pb in muscle and liver of Scomberomorus guttatus, Scomberomorus commerson and Otolithes ruber were measured and presented in table 3. Concentrations of metals are presentedin mg [Kg.sup.-1] dry weight unless otherwise mentioned.The highest concentration of Pb and Zn in tissues was done in liver of Scomberomorus commerson. The lowest concentration of Pb and Zn in tissues was done in muscle of Scomberomorus guttatus and liver of Scomberomorus commerson (table 3). This study concentration of heavy metals Zn and Pb in the liver and muscle of Scomberomorus commerson, Otolithes ruber and Scomberomorus guttatus significant difference between (P<0.05). The distribution patterns of Zn in tissues of Scomberomorus guttatus, Scomberomorus commerson and Otolithes ruber follows the order: liver> muscle. Heavy metal concentrations were higher in the gill and liver, when compared with muscle. livers were chosen as target organs for assessing metal accumulation (Hamilton and Mehrle 1986). The distribution patterns of Pb some of samples in muscle were higher than in liver (table 3).

Estimation of the levels of various elements in different fish species as a measure of environmental pollution has been of great concern over decades. A variable range of different metal concentrations has been observed by various researchers worldwide [3]. The absorption of metals on to the gill surface, as the first target for pollutants in water, could also be an important influence in the total metal levels of the liver [14].

Distribution patterns of metal concentrations in liver and muscle of Scomberomorus guttatus, Scomberomorus commerson and Otolithes ruber from Persian Gulf follows the sequence: Zn>Pb. There are various studies on the heavy metal levels in fish from different waters. Oymak et al. studied the heavy metal levels in kidney, liver, gill and muscle of Tor grypus and Maaboodi et al. studied the concentration of Zn and Pb in liver of Carrassius, Cyprinus carpio, C. aculeate and C. damasciana which concentration of Zn were higher than Pb. Also, Turkmen et al. studied the heavy metal levels in muscle, liver, gonad, and gill of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), and keeled mullet (Liza carinata) which concentration of Zn were higher than Pb. The levels of Zn in all tissues were higher than the Pb levels, as Zn is present in many enzymes throughout the fishes body [24].

It is known that arsenic, mercury, lead and cadmium are the most commonly distributed environmental metal poisons [26]. They are accumulated in human tissues and may be the cause of some diseases [27,39]. In this study minimum Pb levels 0.40 mg[Kg.sup.-1]dw and maximum concentrations of this metals 0.64 mg[Kg.sup.-1]dw. Agah et al. 2009 thet among Pb in five fishes from Persian Gulf, which concentration of Grunt, Flathead, Greasy grouper, Tiger-tooth and Silver pomfret were 2-25, 0.2-17, 2-9, 1-9 and 3-33 [ngg.sup.-1]. In other study concentration of Pb in muscle Indo-Pacific king mackerel and Tigertooth croaker were 0.625 [+ or -] 0.517 and 0.31 [+ or -] 0.258 mg[Kg.sup.-1] [10]. The Pb values in fish species were found to be in range of 0.068-0.874 [mgg.sup.-1]. These values were lower than those reported earlier in fish species of different lakes [4, 20].. Turkish acceptable limits and EU limits were 0.4 [mgg.sup.-1]. The range of international standards for Pb in fish is 0.5-10 [mgg.sup.-1] [11, 32, 38]. The concentrations of Pb in liver higher than muscle. Muscle tissue is the main edible fish part and can directly influence human health. Lead enters into the body with gill cells and especially is accumulated in gills and the later aim organs are liver and muscle [29].

In this study minimum and maximum of Zn 4.66 and 8.39 mg[Kg.sup.-1]dw. Yilmaz et al. (2007) reported that among Zn concentration was 6.350-28.550 mg[Kg.sup.-1] in tissues of Leucis cephalus and 6.540-16.064 mg[Kg.sup.-1] in tissues of Lepomis gibbosus [39]. Level of Zn in muscle and liver of Sciaena umbra were 11.6 and 28.3 mg[Kg.sup.-1] [32]. Also Abu Hilal and Ismail (2008) reported that among Zn concentration was the highest and lowest 1.9-35 mg[Kg.sup.-1] in muscles, livers, gills, gonads, and stomachs of eleven common fish species collected at three sites in the northern Gulf of Aqaba. The concentrations of Zn in liver was higher than muscle of Scomberomorus commerson, Otolithes ruber and Scomberomorus guttatus. In other study such as Sciaena umbra [34], Sparus auratus, Trigla cuculus, Sardina pilchardus, Mugil cephalus, Atherina hepsetus, Scomberesox saurus [6], Serranus scriba, Epinephelus costae, Cephalopholis nigri and Pseudupenaeus prayensis [28] concentrations of Zn in liver was higher than muscle.

The observed variability of heavy metal levels such as Zn and Pb in different species depends on feeding habits [28], ecological needs, metabolism [6], age, size and length of the fish [16] and their habitats [6,35].

The mean estimated concentrations for Zn in the present study were higher than International Standards for these metals as declare by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (UK), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and National Health & Medical Research Council (Australia). Concentrations of Pb in this study were lowest than International Standards World Health Organization (WHO), Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (UK) and National Health & Medical Research Council (Australia), but the Pb higher than Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Conclusions:

The concentrations of Zn in liver was higher than muscle of Scomberomorus commerson, Otolithes ruber and Scomberomorus guttatus (P>0.05). Distribution patterns of metal concentrations in liver and muscle of Scomberomorus guttatus, Scomberomorus commerson and Otolithes ruber from Persian Gulf follows the sequence: Zn>Pb. The mean estimated concentrations for Zn in the present study were higher than International Standards for these metals as declare by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (UK) and National Health & Medical Research Council (Australia), but concentrations of Pb in this study were lowest than International Standards World Health Organization (WHO), Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (UK) and National Health & Medical Research Council (Australia).

References

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(1) Askary Sary, A., (2) Velayatzadeh, M.

(1) Depatment of Fishery, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.

(2) Young Researchers Club, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.

Corresponding Author

Askary Sary, A., Depatment of Fishery, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.

Postal cod: 618491-8411 P.O. Box1915 Fax: 06113348374. Mobile 09122017045

E-mail:askary_sary@yahoo.com
Table 1: Mean length and weight of
the species examined in present study.

                          The number
species                   of samples   Length [+ or -] SD (cm)

Scomberomorus guttatus        12         53.33 [+ or -] 4.5
Scomberomorus commerson       12         49.33 [+ or -] 0.57
Otolithes ruber               12         35.33 [+ or -] 2.08

species                   Weight [+ or -] SD (g)

Scomberomorus guttatus      645 [+ or -] 47.69
Scomberomorus commerson    1033 [+ or -] 61.10
Otolithes ruber             615 [+ or -] 15.04

Table 2: The instrument setting and furnace programmes for
analysis of Zn and Pb by Perkin-Elmer, model 4100 ZL (AAS).

Working conditions       Pb           Zn

Wavelenght (nm)        283.3         307.5
Slit width              0.5           0.7
Lamp current (MA)        8            15
Ar Flow (ml/min)        250           250
Injection Volume         25           20

Heating programme temprture [degrees]C
[ramp time (5), hold time (5)]

Drying 1             125(1.20)     115(1.20)
Drying 2             150(5.30)     150(5.30)
Pyrolysis            900(15.10)   1250(15.10)
Atomization          2150(0.5)     1900(0.5)
Cleaning             2400(1.2)     2400(1.2)

Table 3: The concentrations and comparison of Pb and Zn in muscle
and liver Scomberomorus guttatus, Scomberomorus commerson and
Otolithes ruber from Persian Gulf (mg[Kg.sup.-1])

Sample         Location           Lead                    Zinc

Scomberomorus  muscle    0.40 [+ or -] 0.01 (a)  6.52 [+ or -] 0.28 (a)
guttatus       liver     0.43 [+ or -] 0.01 (a)  7.17 [+ or -] 0.26 (a)

Scomberomorus  muscle    0.52 [+ or -] 0.04 (a)  7.88 [+ or -] 0.20 (a)
commerson      liver     0.64 [+ or -] 0.04 (b)  8.39 [+ or -] 0.20 (b)

Otolithes      muscle    0.47 [+ or -] 0.03 (a)  4.66 [+ or -] 0.36 (a)
ruber          liver     0.55 [+ or -] 0.02 (b)  5.25 [+ or -] 0.25 (b)

(a): non-significant differences at p<0.05
(b): significant differences at p<0.05

Table 4: The tolerable values of some
heavy metals in the fish (mg[kg.sup.-1]).

Standards       Pb          Zn       References

WHO (1)          2          --          [37]
FDA (2)         0.5         --          [9]
UK(MAFF3)        2          50          [19]
NHMRC (4)       1.5         150         [9]
FAO (5)         0.5         30          [12]
This study   0.40-0.64   4.66-8.39

(1)--World Health Organization

(2)--U.S. Food and Drug Administration

(3)--Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food (UK)

(4)--National Health & Medical Research Council (Australia)

(5)--Food and Agriculture Organization
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Askary Sary, A.; Velayatzadeh, M.
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Feb 1, 2012
Words:3527
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