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Launching a new business ethic: the environment as a standard operating procedure.

An extension of Aldo Leopold's land ethic to the whole environment -- our air, our water and our land -- might be the following: That we depend on the environment for survival is a fundamental tenet of science. That the environment is to be respected and conserved is an extension of ethics.

Environmental ethics means treating natural resources not just as commodities (and largely undervalued commodities at that), but as parts of the ecological whole. It means building and operating homes and businesses with as little environmental impact as possible and with minimum consumption of materials and natural resources. It means accepting responsibility for the environmental impacts arising from processes and products over their entire life cycle -- from raw materials acquisition to waste management.

A commitment to business ethics demands that ethical considerations be expanded to environment quality. But, the environment is also a strategic issue. A company's environmental ethics, or lack thereof, affect consumer perceptions. Armed with increasing information about companies' environmental track records and the environmental attributes of products and packaging, consumers can influence the corporate bottom line. A Wall Street Journal/NBC poll conducted in July of 1991 reports that 46 percent of those surveyed purchased a product during the past six months because the product or the manufacturer had a good reputation for protecting the environment. Fifty-three percent avoided purchasing a product specifically because of environmental concerns about the product or its manufacturer. Over half of the respondents stated that they bought more expensive products because they were better for the environment.

To meet this challenge, companies need to build environmental ethics into the corporate culture, making such considerations standard operating procedure at every level of the company. While focusing on the McDonald's-Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) waste reduction task force, the following explorations of how to achieve these goals and meet customers' growing demands for environmentally-sound businesses can apply to any company.

The need for environmental thinking

Launching an environmental program, such as a corporate pollution prevention program, is an approach that many companies support in theory. However, few have developed systematic methods for translating the rhetoric of an environmental policy into ingrained practices. A commitment to environmental practices from top management is critical and may even be a necessary prerequisite, but many companies fail to carry out environmental mandates because corporate environmental policies are too vague. Real improvements in environmental quality will emerge from the institutionalization of environmental ethics. Environmental policies need to be backed up by detailed, comprehensive strategies and action plans for implementing such policies. It is critical that environmental considerations be integrated into everyday business decision-making and given equal weight with other business considerations such as cost or product quality.

Environmental criteria should be built into research and development goals, design and performance specifications for products or packages, operational decisions, training manuals and curricula and even salary reviews, to ensure that the reduction of environmental impacts arising from the production, use and disposal of materials will be key considerations. Businesses need to think creatively about developing accountability mechanisms and incentives for environmental performance. Corporate cultures need to send a clear and strong signal throughout a company that environmental innovation is not only encouraged, but expected. Ideally, this process integrates new environmental concepts within existing corporate structures.

For example, in a recent interview with Greenwire, Anita Roddick, founder of The Body Shop, was asked how environmental issues enter her business philosophy/approach. Roddick responded as follows: "Well, it's neither the first nor the last, it just is. It's like breathing. Every decision is made, every new act or every new movement or whatever we do has an environmental consciousness. The most important thing is environmental management. On the company's board, we have a member who is absolutely responsible for the environmental education and management for the company. Then we have an environmental department manned by very strong environmental scientists and workers who have come out of the environmental movement. Then each department within our company has a representative for the environment who is responsible for an environmental audit every six months."

Several entities have already developed general environmental principles such as the Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies' (CERES') Valdez Principles, the Chemical Manufacturers Association's Responsible Care program and the International Chamber of Commerce's Charter for Sustainable Development. The lack of significant visible progress through such existing programs, which do not have concrete goals or public accountability mechanisms, further demonstrates the need to develop implementation plans and tracking and measurement systems.

The Waste Reduction Task Force

In August of 1990, the EDF and McDonald's Corp. joined forces in a unique collaborative project to search for ways to reduce McDonald's solid waste. Recognizing McDonald's role as an industry leader and its early efforts to initiate recycling, EDF approached the company to directly discuss solid waste issues. McDonald's, recognizing EDF's expertise in such issues, agreed to EDF's suggestion to form a joint task force. This historic industry/nonprofit partnership brought together two parties with very different interests. The goal of the task force was to produce the maximum reduction in McDonald's solid waste while maintaining McDonald's business standards in its network of high volume, quick-service restaurants.

What made the experiment bold was not just the virtually unprecedented notion of a partnership between an environmental advocacy organization and a major U.S. corporation seen by many as a symbol of our disposable society, but also the thoroughness of the undertaking: a top-to-bottom examination of materials improvement and waste reduction opportunities throughout the McDonald's system and a comprehensive examination of its network of more than 600 suppliers; its distribution system, including 40 regional centers around the country; and both behind-the-counter and over-the-counter operations at its individual restaurants. McDonald's willingness to commit to an unprecedented level of scrutiny by an outside organization was notable and critical to the project's success.

The results of the task force far exceeded expectations and original goals. After an eight-month study, the task force produced several significant products, all of which have been adopted by McDonald's in their new corporate environmental strategy.

First, the task force produced a strong new corporate-wide environmental policy with a focus on waste reduction that sets forth the commitment and direction of the company. This policy statement is only the fourth corporate policy ever issued by McDonald's, a demonstration of top management's commitment to incorporating new environmental considerations into the business.

Second, the task force developed a waste reduction action plan targeting all levels of the company, with 42 initiatives in the areas of source reduction, reuse, recycling and composting that were implemented during 1991 and 1992. Together, these steps have the potential for cutting the waste at McDonald's 8,500 restaurants by more than 80 percent, representing a major commitment to improved environmental quality.

The waste reduction action plan includes initiatives such as the introduction of reusable shipping containers and other materials, substantial packaging changes to use more recycled content and minimize use of virgin materials, use of unbleached paper products, new and expanded recycling efforts and composting trials. The plan, reported in a 160-page public report, also includes specific timetables for implementation and designates departments responsible for implementing these actions. All of these initiatives were developed with the goal of maximizing waste reduction in a way that was consistent with McDonald's business practices.

Finally, and most importantly, to ensure an ongoing process of waste reduction, the task force also identified a set of mechanisms for incorporating waste reduction criteria into the day-to-day operations of the company to ensure accountability and institutionalize the environmental ethic embodied in the policy and action plan. Here, the task force identified and modified existing management mechanisms to ensure that waste reduction criteria are integrated throughout McDonald's restaurants, distribution centers and suppliers. Thus, the waste reduction policy will continue to guide operations, packaging developments and general long-term activities throughout the McDonald's system, on a day-to-day basis. McDonald's is making waste reduction a standard operating procedure in a business that serves food to 18 million Americans every day.

A model on several fronts

McDonald's waste reduction strategy offers a concrete model for reducing solid wastes directly applicable to other related businesses. The strategy also serves as a broader model for how companies can institutionalize environmental ethics and practices into their everyday business decision-making. What makes McDonald's efforts unique to date is a coupling of a long-term vision and direction with immediate aggressive and accountable actions in-all areas. The McDonald's model is:

* Comprehensive -- The task force examined all aspects of McDonald's system and operations: materials used by McDonald's network of more than 600 suppliers; its distribution system, including 40 regional centers around the country; and both behind-the-counter and over-the-counter operations at its individual restaurants. Consideration was given not only to the solid wastes generated by all parts of McDonald's operations, but also the waste and other environmental impacts arising from producing and distributing the materials used by McDonald's. The task force also examined all waste reduction options including source reduction, reuse, recycling and composting;

* Incremental -- The results are powerful because of the combined impact of 42 different source reduction, reuse, recycling and composting initiatives. The plan is characterized by efforts to make progress on all fronts. Where immediate actions are not yet practicable, McDonald's has initiated tests to assess feasibility and determine the best approach to take in the future. McDonald's has also committed to research and development activities directed toward identifying future waste reduction opportunities.

There is no silver bullet here. Seeking opportunities for improved environmental quality is a learning process that demands dynamic trial and error and experimentation rather than quick technical fixes. McDonald's results are impressive because a series of small, medium and large steps build upon each other to create significant improvements in environmental quality; and,

* Ongoing -- Improved environmental quality is a process as much as it is substance. McDonald's waste reduction plan and accountability mechanisms are intended to ensure that the current two-year action plan is not static, but rather will be continually revised and updated as actions are completed and new opportunities are identified. Thus, it is important to develop institutional mechanisms that will sustain improvements by building upon initial changes. Sweeping changes will rarely occur overnight, but there is an opportunity for enormous progress through an ongoing process of change over the next decade and thereafter. And it is the commitment to a continuous improvement process that is increasingly recognized as the hallmark of progressive corporate environmental management.

Comprehensive, incremental and ongoing describe the general characteristics of an effective environmental program, whether focused on waste reduction or other areas.

Environmental considerations

Many parallelisms exist between an environmental quality management (EQM) process and total quality management (TQM). For example, TQM emphasizes continuous improvements, paradigm and culture shifts, innovative solutions, systems analysis and metrics. The tools used are data-gathering, brainstorming, checklists, cost-benefit evaluations, measuring and monitoring, etc. TQM also emphasizes involving all employees in the process. To develop an EQM program that is integrated with everyday decisions, production departments, marketing staff, etc. need to be part of the process. Some companies still approach the environment as a problem to be addressed by government or public affairs departments.

Perhaps one significant difference between EQM and TQM is that, in responding to environmental quality, there is a need to develop reporting systems that can be used to communicate with the public in a forum that is credible and accurate. The EDF-McDonald's final report presents extensive data on the materials used and solid wastes generated by McDonald's restaurants and the report outlines in detail the 42 initiatives in McDonald's action plan; it is also a document that is available to the public.

The elements of the EDF-McDonald's task force work, a waste reduction management process, are described below. These steps offer insight into McDonald's process and provide general guidance for companies working to develop new mechanisms for addressing a range of environmental issues and opportunities.

Conducting a full materials and waste inventory is a critical first step. In order to identify problem materials or operations and establish priorities among them, one needs to have a thorough understanding of what materials are used -- including their physical and in some cases chemical composition -- and which of those materials end up as waste. Where production processes are being examined, a determination of inputs and outputs, including the source and amount of all pollution generated during the process must be developed. Understanding the inputs and outputs to any system is the starting point for identifying options for change in materials use, waste reduction opportunities and other potential pollution prevention steps. Yet, many businesses do not have such an inventory. An inventory is also essential to provide a baseline for measuring progress toward environmental goals.

In the EDF-McDonald's project, the task force oversaw four major efforts to inventory the materials used and waste generated by McDonald's, as no single measure fully characterized the system. The inventory phase included:

* Summary of all packaging purchased. Here, data on packaging purchases provided information on customer-related packaging, but excluded shipping materials and food purchases. Incoming materials were quantified and described (e.g., bleached or unbleached paper, plastic resin type; single or multi-material);

* On-premise waste characterization study (WCS), based on hand-sorting of waste from two restaurants. This study identified quantities and composition of waste collected behind the counter, in restaurant lobbies and in parking lot receptacles;

* Packaging materials audit, to quantify all secondary and tertiary packaging, e.g., use in shipping, and all packaging materials used to deliver food supplies; and,

* Distribution center audits to characterize waste at distribution centers that serve McDonald's.

These data produced several surprises: for example, McDonald's discovered that 80 percent, by weight, of waste generated on the premises of a typical McDonald's restaurant is from behind the counter. The waste audits also revealed that a third of McDonald's waste is corrugated boxboard, and another third is organic waste such as food scraps, coffee grinds, and the like. Uncovering these facts about a restaurant's waste composition immediately begins to suggest new waste reduction and management possibilities. In a similar vein, a thorough inventory of a manufacturing process offers new insights into opportunities for pollution prevention.

Two elements are important while brainstorming, the second phase. First, a brainstorming phase should not be too constrained or static, but rather should convey to employees that a wide range of ideas can be put on the table and that opportunities for environmental improvements should be continuously generated and explored. The inventory and brainstorming steps offer a chance to examine processes, products and packages with a fresh perspective and may result in any number of suggestions for making the process more efficient, and, hence less polluting.

Second, it is important that individuals with different expertise in the company (including sometimes outside sources) participate in the process of brainstorming, encouraging interaction between production, marketing and operation experts as well as individuals from the environmental affairs department. For example, this seven member task force brought together a diverse set of experts: McDonald's director of operations development, communications and environmental affairs specialists, a representative from the Perseco Co. (McDonald's packaging purchaser) and EDF's solid waste experts with backgrounds in biochemistry, chemical engineering, economics and environmental science. McDonald's task force members were drawn from the core operations of the company.

To begin the brainstorming process, the task force developed a systematic options identification methodology. A matrix was developed in which all materials (e.g., bleached paper napkins, polystyrene cups) and all relevant aspects of McDonald's operations (e.g., take-out vs. eat-in customers) were arranged along one axis, and all possible waste reduction options (e.g., eliminate package, reduce amount of packaging material, increase recycled content, substitute a reusable item, provide take-out and eat-in customers with different packaging) were arranged along the other axis. This systematic approach was important in order to provide a means of at least considering a wide range of options and preclude the ruling out of possibilities based on preconceived ideas or biases, thereby identifying potential actions in many different areas at once.

While the brainstorming process produces a long list of possible options, an evaluation phase is needed to produce a shorter list for in-depth analysis. Developing a set of evaluation criteria early in the process is helpful in that it forces individuals to articulate what factors they believe are most important in evaluating options before options are selected or researched. The process of developing criteria also makes explicit the relationship between traditional business considerations and environmental criteria. For example, at the outset of the project, EDF and McDonald's agreed upon five evaluation criteria: consistency with the waste management hierarchy; magnitude of environmental impact; public health and safety; practicality; and economic costs and benefits.

The task force also identified other guiding principles to use in evaluating waste reduction options. These include the Coalition of Northeastern Governors Source Reduction Council's preferred packaging guidelines, which directly apply the waste management hierarchy to the design, composition and function of packaging materials and to the management of such materials once they become waste.

Recognizing that changes aimed mostly at reducing solid waste may have other positive and negative environmental impacts, the task force also considered broader "cradle-to-grave" impacts where sufficient data were available. The evaluation process also included analysis of trade-offs between different solid waste options, e.g., source reduction versus recyclability. Trade-offs are also critical when analyzing alternatives. Substitute materials, for example, may be more problematic for the environment than the original material. Finally, consistency with existing regulations was another factor considered during the evaluation phase.

The inventory, brainstorming and evaluation phases generate specific candidates for action and provide a baseline for tracking, monitoring and measuring progress. In order to ensure that the process is ongoing, management mechanisms must be modified with the goal of catalyzing a continuous improvement process and modifying the corporate culture. Environmental impact considerations must not only be integrated into existing company practices, but must be given primary consideration on par with other business issues such as cost or product quality. Environmental criteria should be built into standard operating procedures and practices in many areas including:

* Research goals; * Product development goals and specifications; * Design criteria/specifications; * Plant and unit operations; * Distribution systems for products and goods; * Building codes (energy efficiency); * Good housekeeping practices (e.g., reusable items, in-house recycling); * Transport used in the business; * Quality control practices; * Process and office energy use; * Training programs; and * Salary and performance reviews.

Training of management with respect to environmental impacts is an area that has been historically weak. A recent survey by the Management Institute for Environment and Business found that none of 19 major business schools surveyed offer an environmentally-related degree and only 2 of 19 offer an environmentally-focused course. Of 68 responding professors, 88 percent devote little or no class time to the environment. As an example of ways in which environmental criteria can be considered in every aspect of the business, The Body Shop extends its evaluations to the impacts of transport vehicles used in its business -- seeking to identify which companies are doing the best on fuel efficiency, etc., and asking companies for their best trucks.

Being comprehensive also means looking for systematic ways to integrate environmental considerations. Just as TQM emphasizes that, at every stage of manufacturing and distribution, opportunities may exist to improve quality, opportunities for environmental improvements exist at all of these same stages. Enhancing existing tools and mechanisms helps to systemize the review of processes, products and packaging. It also places environmental concerns at the center of business decision-making and enables the decision maker to weigh environmental impacts at the same time cost and other factors are considered.

Incorporating environmental concerns into existing mechanisms also ensures that such concerns will be considered at the outset and will continue to be revisited. The alternative of developing separate procedures to be followed at product completion relegates environmental concerns to become an afterthought. Modifications that could improve environmental quality are more likely to be contentious if all other business decisions about a product and package have already been made. For example, if a package has been selected and the marketing department has conducted focus groups on the package, then a suggestion to alter packaging to improve its recyclability will be perceived as a step that will slow down product introduction.

The EDF-McDonald's task force focused on identifying and enhancing existing mechanisms in several areas. In operations, the task force examined the restaurant company's quality assurance process which ensures consistency in quality throughout the system, to look for opportunities to weave in waste reduction criteria in the area of packaging selection and purchasing, McDonald's has traditionally selected its packaging based on specifications that take into account three factors: availability, functionality and cost.

As a result of the task force's work, a fourth primary consideration -- waste reduction -- has been added and given weight equivalent to the three traditional criteria. To incorporate waste reduction criteria into the packaging selection process, the task force developed a set of detailed packaging waste reduction specifications. These specifications cover the following areas:

* Reduction in materials use; * Reduction in production impacts; * Reusable materials; * Recyclable materials; * Recycled content; and * Compostable materials.

McDonald's has already made two uses of this document. First, its own purchasing department and its allied packaging purchasing company, Perseco, have been instructed to use the specifications in evaluating and selecting new packaging and in reviewing existing packaging. Second, McDonald's has sent the

specifications to all of its packaging suppliers to provide them with a detailed description of the environmental factors McDonald's considers most important. This proactive step is aimed at getting packaging designers and manufacturers explicitly to consider environmental factors as they develop new materials for McDonald's and others. McDonald's has also indicated that these criteria will be used to evaluate performance during the annual business reviews it conducts with each supplier.

The task force also focused on incorporating waste reduction goals and initiatives into the existing array of mechanisms used to analyze, plan and evaluate suppliers, distribution centers, licensees and company operations. For example, McDonald's will incorporate waste reduction criteria into existing annual distribution center audits.

Accountability is the heart and soul of instilling an environmental ethic. Modifying management systems is part of accountability, but accountability cannot be developed without measurement, tracking and information disclosure. Companies need to develop accountability mechanisms and internal incentives for environmental performance, many of which will be industry or company-specific. To put teeth into a stated commitment to environmental improvements, goals must be combined with clear measurement systems and responsibility and authority for these goals must be assigned.

Some of McDonald's new measurement systems are as simple as developing Lotus spreadsheets that track progress on ongoing waste reduction projects and record relevant information on the waste reduction characteristics of each package. Progress in the areas of source reduction, use of recycled products and materials and recycling and composting operations will be measured and reported on quarterly. McDonald's material inventories and waste audits, conducted as a first step, establish a baseline by which progress can be measured using these records. The tracking system also identifies problems and potential or successful solutions. Most significantly, McDonald's will make summaries of this information available to the public on request. Like the waste reduction plan, the tracking reports include not only specific action steps, but clear timetables and designation of responsible departments for each activity. McDonald's will also be submitting a mandatory annual waste reduction progress report to McDonald's board of directors.

Resources must be devoted to research and development budgets, capital improvements and hiring people with relevant expertise in environmental sciences. Capital investment decisions are particularly critical as they shape actions for years to come -- bringing environmental scientists into the decision-making process provides a check on decisions that may be later affected by an emerging environmental trend. Paper companies, for example, made decisions to expand virgin capacity or use chlorine-based bleaching technologies as long as six or ten years ago. Had they anticipated environmental pressures to use recycled newsprint or non-chlorine bleaching agents by having qualified staff on board, this capital could have been put to better use.

Resource commitments may also be simply a decision to redirect investments, to spend money more wisely rather than simply spending more money. McDonald's has committed to purchasing $100 million each year of recycled materials to construct and renovate restaurants; this commitment represents 25 percent of the company's capital budget.

Achieving improved environmental quality more often than not saves money. The primary cost to develop this waste reduction plan was the dedication of highly trained key personnel from each organization. The financial benefits will be substantial over the long-term, accrued from the cost savings of purchasing less packaging and the reduced need for solid waste management.

An institutionalization approach enables environmental improvements to be an ongoing process. Incremental improvements are then viewed more favorably as steps toward further changes rather than an end in themselves. They also become useful as a mechanism for combating corporate inertia. Again, it is critical that McDonald's is moving forward on many fronts simultaneously, for example, by testing reusable items while also looking at recycling and composting of the same sandwich packaging. This approach enables McDonald's to continually build on each environmental improvement, and lends momentum to even tentative steps such as pilot tests.

McDonald's members of the task force identified corporate inertia as a significant barrier facing many businesses. For example, when McDonald's first explored using 35 percent recycled content in corrugated boxes, their large corrugated suppliers told McDonald's that it could not be done. A smaller and more entrepreneurial corrugated company produced the box McDonald's wanted in less than a year, and enabled McDonald's to feel confident that a directive to use corrugated boxes with 35 percent recycled content could be met by all suppliers. Thus, one of the task force's goals in instilling waste reduction within every aspect of McDonald's business was to overcome this inertia at every level of the business, even if emphasizing many simultaneous efforts.

In discussing the role of environmental ethics, Anita Roddick of The Body Shop argues, "What you have to do is ... continue the education process. You do everything you can, and you listen, and you change, and no matter how good you think you are, there's a goal post change every week or every month. You've got to be committed to that. You have to have an environmental department that is taken seriously by the board. You cannot have it as a sort of whitewashing the image of the company, because consumers are so intelligent now that they're saying, 'I feel sympathy for this product, but hang on, what about the company, what are they doing?'"

Strategic considerations

From a broader perspective, McDonald's plan also makes sense strategically and as a cost management measure. The McDonald's waste reduction plan is designed to be an institutionalized, ongoing program to reduce the materials used and solid wastes generated by the restaurant's operations. McDonald's and its suppliers have faced start-up costs for some of the changes and will continue to incur research and development costs. Yet, McDonald's anticipates that most of its waste reduction accomplishments will ultimately prove to be economic winners, providing savings through reductions in the amount of packaging materials purchased and solid waste disposed. For example, in 1990, the company spent an average of $33 million on waste hauling and disposal; without any changes in waste management practices, that figure was projected to increase by $9 million a year for the next several years. Even a 10 percent reduction in solid waste could save the company at least $3 million.

At the restaurant level, examples of the typical economic benefits of corrugated recycling illustrate the potential for cost savings. A McDonald's restaurant in St. Cloud, Minn. paid $845 per month for garbage removal before installing a small compactor and initiating a corrugated recycling program. After recycling began, monthly costs dropped to $576 including the corrugated pick-up charge (the $269 monthly savings paid back the costs of the compactor within a year). A restaurant in Vermont cut its monthly garbage collection costs by 50 percent, from an original cost of $1,250 to $626, after initiating a corrugated and polystyrene recycling program.

As the recession continues, it will be critical to emphasize the potential cost savings from waste reduction and other pollution prevention initiatives. While it may be difficult to assign an exact monetary value to environmental improvements, reducing materials use and waste are cost-saving steps for virtually all companies. Chevron reports that its SMART program -- "Saves Money

And Reduces Toxics" -- has reduced hazardous waste and in the process saved $3.8 million in disposal costs during one year. The 3M Co., perhaps the pioneer of "pollution prevention pays," cites cost savings of $480 million since 1975 through various pollution prevention projects. Similarly, Dow Chemical Co. says its $12 million investment in pollution prevention projects paid for itself within ten months. Du Pont cites a savings of $1 million a year from reducing consumption of raw materials.

Du Pont's Chairman, Edgar Woolard, states that he now views waste reduction as providing a competitive advantage. In a similar vein, the Financial Times quoted British environmental secretary Michael Heseltine as saying that, "companies must raise their environmental standards and deliver more environmental products in order to compete with the Japanese and Germans."

From a strategic standpoint, competitors' activities in the environmental arena may force changes regardless of a company's own plans, and businesses that lag behind miss the benefits of leadership on issues. For example, Burger King announced in August of 1991 that it would be switching all its sandwich packaging from paperboard cartons to paper wraps, following one of McDonald's most publicized actions. While this domino effect is exactly what EDF had hoped would occur, for Burger King, it was a move to follow McDonald's.

Environmental tracking and initiatives can also enhance the ability of companies to find capital. A survey of banks conducted by the Independent Bankers Association of America found that, for 87 percent of the 700 respondents, environmental concerns have affected lending policies or operations during the past five years. Half of the banks surveyed have formal lending policies that take environmental concerns into account. A total of 66 percent of those surveyed require an environmental assessment prior to writing a new loan or refinancing certain properties.


In EDF's view, the McDonald's-EDF partnership produced a unique policy and action plan that offers the potential for significant waste reduction. The changes that the restaurant company's customers will see and those that will go on behind the counter will endure long beyond the task force. The task force also catalyzed a fundamental change in McDonald's corporate culture -- waste reduction criteria will now be considered on par with other business goals. In short, McDonald's has begun the process of institutionalizing environmental ethics.

A close examination of the EDF-McDonald's task force process provides a blueprint for other companies on waste reduction and offers a guide to general stops for an environmental quality management process. The time has come for all companies to integrate environmental considerations with their everyday decision-making, making it a commitment that is at the core of business ethics and long-term strategic planning.

S. Jackie Prince is a staff scientist with the Environmental Defense Fund in Washington, D.C., where she conducts research on solid waste issues and efficient materials use policies. Prince has Master's degrees in Public and Private Management and in Environmental Studies, both from Yale University, and a Bachelor of Science degree in chemical engineering, also from Yale. Richard Denison, Ph.D., is a senior scientist with the Environmental Defense Fund with the toxic chemicals and solid waste programs. Denison received his Bachelor's degree in chemistry from the University of California at Santa Cruz and his Ph.D. from Yale University in molecular biophysics and biochemistry. Both are members of the EDF-McDonald's task force on waste reduction.

For further reading

Chevron Corporation, Save Money and Reduce Toxins, San Francisco: Chevron, 1991.

Council on Environmental Quality, Environmental Quality: The 21st Annual Report of the Council on Environmental Quality, Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, April 1991.

Ember, Lois, "Environment Protection: Global Companies Set New Endeavor," Chemical and Engineering News, April 8, 1991.

Leopold, Aldo, A Sand County Almanac, New York: Oxford University Press, 1949.

"Du Pont Award Winner Takes Honors in Two Categories," Plastics News, March 18, 1991.

"Interview: Body Shop's Roddick and the 'Second Bottom Line'," Greenwire Electronic News Service, October 21, 1991.

McDonald's Corporation/Environmental Defense Fund Waste Reduction Task Force Final Report, McDonald's Corp./EDF, April 1991.

McMurray, Scott, "Chemical Firms Find That It Pays to Reduce Pollution at the Source," Wall Street Journal, June 11, 1991.

"U.K. Companies Need to be Green to Compete, says Heseltine," Greenwire Electronic News Service, November 6, 1991.

Wall Street Journal/NBC Survey, Greenwire Electronic News Service, August 6, 1991.
COPYRIGHT 1992 Institute of Industrial Engineers, Inc. (IIE)
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Title Annotation:Environmental Policies
Author:Prince, S. Jackie; Denison, Richard A.
Publication:Industrial Management
Date:Nov 1, 1992
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